The Marketing Mix:
What you need to know:
METHODS OF PROMOTION:
Above-the-line v. Below-the-line promotion
The cost effectiveness of different methods
What is promotion?
Communicating with customers and
potential customers about the business,
its products and services.
Categories of promotion
1. Above the line 2. Below the line
Rely on a branch of Do not rely on the
the media, media, business is
independent of the able to control
business. these directly.
Examples: Personal selling,
Advertising on TV, sales promotion,
in newspapers, sponsorship etc.
Raise awareness of a product or service
Reach a target audience
Remind customers of an existing
Create an overall corporate image
The ‘AIDA’ model
Devised by E.K. Strong, it outlines the
process through which successful
promotion should take customers:
1. Attention must be attracted
2. Interest must be maintained
3. Desire must be aroused
4. Action must be taken (purchase made)
Most advertising is designed to be one
or both of the following:
What influences the
choice of advertising
For your media, assess the following:
What are the advantages?
What are the disadvantages?
Which products or services tend to be
advertised on this media and why?
Are there any examples of businesses or
products that successfully used your media?
Advertising of competitors
Presentation of information
Involved in promoting the business as a
whole, rather than individual products or
Usually focused on developing a
focused brand, associated with products
and services that may be very different
Controls on advertising
Trade descriptions BODIES
Act 1968 Advertising
Monopolies and (ASA)
restrictive practices Independent
Act 1948 Television