VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 21 POSTED ON: 4/28/2010
SONAR Process New Audio CHECKLIST 1 Turn off Record Button 2 Set all Inputs to NONE 3 Remove DC Offset EDIT>SELECT>ALL or Ctrl+A PROCESS>AUDIO>REMOVE DC OFFSET To have SONAR automatically detect and remove DC Offset in audio data leave the DC Offset Threshold parameter deactivated. AUDITION OK 4 Volume Adjust Select Audio Data PROCESS>AUDIO>GAIN Adjust how muck original audio data to the processed audio data. If hollow sounding try activating Invert Left Channel Phase AUDITION OK 5 Normalize Select Audio Data PROCESS>AUDIO>NORMALIZE If you going to do add ional editing or processing to data Set the Normalize level parameter to a lower level than 100% more like 50% [-6dB] AUDITION OK 6 Remove Silence Select Audio Data PROCESS>AUDIO>REMOVE SILENCE Reserch Settings ad add here 7 Save As Bundle 8 Copy to CD using WINDOWS WIZARD SONAR Notes SONAR EQ EQ The EQ plug-in included with Cakewalk software products has several presets. Low Shelf – functions like a bass control knob on a stereo. Low Shelf EQ‟s adjust the level of signal at the set frequency and all frequencies below it. High Shelf – functions like a treble control knob on a stereo. High Shelf EQ‟s adjust the level of signal at the set frequency and all frequencies above it. Peak – Adjusts the level of signal at the set frequency, and some surrounding frequencies. The Q setting determines how many surrounding frequencies are affected. Q – Also called Resonance or Bandwidth. Sets the amount of surrounding frequencies that will be affected. The width of the Q is usually expressed in terms of octaves. Here is a useful reference chart: Q Setting Width 0.7 2 Octaves 1 1 1/3 Octaves 1.4 1 Octave 2.8 ½ Octave General Guidelines: Don‟t boost when you can cut instead! It sounds more natural when you reduce unwanted sounds, rather than boosting the desired frequencies. EQ can be used to enhance a recording, but it cannot fix a poor recording. Sometimes it‟s best to rerecord using different microphone placement or using another microphone with different tonal characteristics. Human hearing is most sensitive to midrange and upper midrange frequencies. Because of this sensitivity, large boosts in this range can make your project sound harsh or shrill. Harmonics Boosting an instrument‟s harmonic frequencies will add what many engineers call presence, clarity or brightness. Here are some specific settings we‟ve gathered. Use these as a starting point and adjust accordingly. Use the lower frequency for punch or presence; use the higher frequency to accentuate clarity or brightness. Lower Harmonic Upper Harmonic Bass 400 Hz 1500 Hz Guitar 3 kHz 5 kHz Kick 400 Hz 5 kHz Drum Snare 7 kHz 100 kHz Drum Vocals 5 kHz 10 kHz Example: Because many instruments use overlapping frequency ranges, experiment with complimentary EQ settings. Try this little trick: Use a –4 db cut between 3 kHz and 5 kHz on backing vocals. Add a 4 db boost at the same frequency to your lead vocal to fill in the sonic space. Remember that the numbers above are general guidelines that should give you a head start. The only way to know what works for your project is to experiment with gradual EQ changes, and let your ears be the judge. 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes VOCALS STEREO "a super nice, stereo effect for vocals." 1. Record your first vocal track. 2. Then record the vocalist singing the same line on another track. 3. Take that second track and copy it to a third track. You should now have three tracks of vocals. 4. Keep Vocal Track 1 panned to the center (Pan=64). 5. Pan vocal track 2 all the way left (Pan=0). 6. Pan track 3 all the way to the right (Pan=127). 7. Select vocal track 2 and side it back, 1 or 2 ticks by selecting the clip, and then choosing Edit | Slide. 8. Select track 3. Slide it forward 1 tick by following the instruction above. By doing this you should get a wide vocal sound. Experiment with the time amounts on vocal phrases for which you‟d like to make the sound especially HUGE. Slide these parts forward and backward by 3 or 4 ticks. it can "really make the hook super-wide." EQ To add clarity or brighten a vocal part use a moderate boost at 10 kHz. Try +2 db, or possibly +4 db boost. EQ Boosting frequencies between 200-300 Hz will make almost any vocal thicker. Delay A short delay of up to 50 ms (milliseconds) can boost the "size" of your lead vocals and make them sound a bit "fatter." COMP Controls The parameters: Compressors have five basic controls - 1) Attack – represents how long it takes for the effect to reach its maximum level. This control is measured in milliseconds (ms). A fast attack is useful for catching percussive peaks, to tame them so the overall track level can be increased, useful for adding punch to a track. 2) Release – represents after the effect is activated, how long it takes to let go of a signal after it has gone below the specified threshold. This control is measured in milliseconds (ms). A long release is useful for adding sustain to a signal, good for guitar solos. 3) Threshold – this is the point at which the level is set for the compressor to begin working. This control is measured in decibels (db). 4) Ratio – this control governs the amount of compression applied to a signal once the threshold has been exceeded. This control is measured in decibels (db). In simple terms, for example a 4:1 ratio means for every 4 decibel of input that exceed the threshold, 1 decibel of output will be passed. If we set a 10:1 ratio, 10 decibels above out threshold would only out put 1 decibel in level. 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes 5) Output – This governs the overall output level of the effect. This can be useful to „make-up‟ the output level that will be reduced from applying compression to a signal. This control is measured in decibels (db). 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes SONAR COMP Controls The parameters: Compressors have five basic controls - 1) Attack – represents how long it takes for the effect to reach its maximum level. This control is measured in milliseconds (ms). A fast attack is useful for catching percussive peaks, to tame them so the overall track level can be increased, useful for adding punch to a track. 2) Release – represents after the effect is activated, how long it takes to let go of a signal after it has gone below the specified threshold. This control is measured in milliseconds (ms). A long release is useful for adding sustain to a signal, good for guitar solos. 3) Threshold – this is the point at which the level is set for the compressor to begin working. This control is measured in decibels (db). 4) Ratio – this control governs the amount of compression applied to a signal once the threshold has been exceeded. This control is measured in decibels (db). In simple terms, for example a 4:1 ratio means for every 4 decibel of input that exceed the threshold, 1 decibel of output will be passed. If we set a 10:1 ratio, 10 decibels above out threshold would only out put 1 decibel in level. 5) Output – This governs the overall output level of the effect. This can be useful to „make-up‟ the output level that will be reduced from applying compression to a signal. This control is measured in decibels (db). Usage: The above waveform depicts a typical waveform 1 and ½ measures long, or six beats. If we normalized the above item, only the 2, 4, and 6th beat would be maximized, but the overall level would not change much. But if we applied compression, assuming the peaks were at zero db (maximum volume), and we were to set a threshold of –10 db, with say a ratio of 10:1 and increase the output level to +5 - 10 db, we would reduce the peaks and bring the overall average volume level up to make that track more present or louder in the mix. Let's use some real examples. Ex.1 In Sonar, bring up a track with a drum loop or beat. Insert the Cakewalk FX Compressor plug in into that track. Select preset “Radio Compression”, set the attack time to 0.1 and the output to 3.4. This will increase the punchyness and overall level or your track. This preset works well for bass as well. Ex.2 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes Let's bring up a track with a guitar solo on it and insert the Cakewalk FX Compressor plug in into that track. If you have a clean guitar track (without distortion on it), you may insert the “Cakewalk Amp Sim” plug in after the compressor to add distortion to your signal. Select compressor preset “Guitar Sustain”, set the release parameter to 3000.0, adjust the Compressor threshold and out level to taste, and you should find a substantial increase in sustain to your signal. Ex.3 For the final example, bring up a vocal track, insert the Cakewalk FX Compressor plug in, and select the “Light Vocal Compression” preset. Start by using a fast attack time, adjust the threshold and ratio as the track plays back to affect more or less of the track as desired. You can finally adjust the output level to get an acceptable volume level. You should find that this will help balance the difference between loud and soft passages within a track and give a „balanced‟ sound to the track. Compressors are important not only on individual tracks, but also in sub-mixes and final mixes, try inserting a compressor in a main output and compressing an entire mix to give it a more polished sound, before burning it onto a CD. DELAY Many professional musicians use delay to synchronize echoes with their music. For instance, you can have the echoes play in time with each quarter note, eighth note, sixteenth note, and so on. All that's required for this cool trick is a little simple math. Begin by figuring the Delay Time needed to synchronize the echoes to each quarter note. To do so, just divide 60,000 (the number of milliseconds in one minute) by the current Tempo (measured in beats per minute) of your project. So for a Tempo of 120 bpm, you get 500 milliseconds. If you set the delay time to 500, the resulting echoes will sound with a quarter note pulse. To figure out the Delay Time for other note values, you just need to divide or multiply. Because an eighth note is half the value of a quarter note, you simply divide 500 by two to get 250 milliseconds. A sixteenth note is half the value of an eighth note, so 250 divided by 2 is 125. See how that works? If you want to find out larger note values, just multiply by two. Because a half note is twice as long as a quarter note, you multiply 500 by 2 to get 1000 milliseconds, and so on. TAPE SIM Processor Focus: Tape Sim Sonar includes several plug-ins which, while not the most spectacular in the world, are generally quite usable. One of my favourites, though — and certainly one of the most underrated — is Tape Sim . You can find this effect by right- clicking on an audio track's FX field and browsing through the Cakewalk Audio Effects. Here are a few tips on using this beast. It may seem like tape simulation is something you'd want to use only for final mixes, so that the master has a 'crunched' tape sound, but I find it eminently suited to individual tracks. Kick drums can become really punchy, drum loops gain level by a sort of 'hard' compression, and effete basses can become aggressive and rude. 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes I find that it's best to keep the output gain low as you tweak your sound. The key control is Rec Level, which sets the level and 'hardness', while the Warmth control adds the 'crunch'. For a really crunchy sound, set Rec Level and Warmth to maximum, and pull back Input Gain until the degree of nastiness is just right. Finally, adjust the Output Gain to avoid clipping the track. Experiment with the Tape Speed and EQ Curve controls; they affect the overall tonality. One of the best uses of the Tape Sim is with a kick-drum track, and the LF Boost switch is Cakewalk's gift to dance-music kick drums. Dial up the right amount of distortion, then add LF Boost. The end result is a kick drum that can move mountains. Click the bypass switch from time to time to get a dose of reality. You might be shocked at how much you can raise the overall level without hearing objectionable levels of clipping. Sonar 's Secret White Noise Generator Before we get off the topic of tape simulation entirely, here's one last trick. It's time to unlock Sonar 's secret white noise generator. Select an audio track for the white noise, and call up Tape Sim in the FX field. Sonar won't let you process an empty track, so place some audio on the track. I usually copy a little piece of audio from another track, then paste it after the end of the song so it's out of the way. You generally don't want to hear anything playing while the noise is going. Now press Play. On the Tape Sim , turn up the Hiss and Output Gain controls. Note that you will not hear hiss if Tape Speed is set to flat; I prefer the 7.5ips setting, but that's a matter of taste. Try 15 and 30 as well. You should now hear the hiss. I like to follow the noise with something like FXpansion's Autopole , and play with the LFOs and amplitude controls to create cool effects. Enable the track being 'processed' for recording, go into record, and you'll record the results. Amazingly enough, with a little filtering and reverb, you can generate some very useful sounds. Render Successful Bouncing/Rendering To WAV Here's something I've seen on bulletin boards: someone complains that when they're playing back a tune, everything sounds great. But when they then 'render' the tracks to a single track using Edit / Bounce to Track(s) or render to a WAV file on hard disk with the Edit / Export Audio function and play back the mixed track, the sound is too soft (or in some cases, so loud that it distorts). There are many reason why this could be happening, but here's a likely scenario that also reviews the basics of successful bouncing in Sonar . 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes When you bounce tracks down to, say, the A buss, all track Out assignments are to that buss. Unless the tracks were cut or mixed at fairly low levels, adding them all together will probably overload the output buss. Whenever you're in the mix phase, periodically check the output buss meter and make sure that clipping hasn't occurred (as indicated by a lit clip indicator to the right of the buss meter). You have to do this while the tune is playing, because hitting Stop resets the clip indicator. Ideally, you want the buss output level to be as hot as possible, short of clipping. Although you can just adjust the level on a trial-and-error basis until it seems right, there's a much more reliable method. This involves setting the buss meters to their highest resolution, and using the peak hold/lock feature. To do th is, click on the Meter Options arrow (to the right of the Show/Hide All Meters icon) and select Output Bus Meter Options. Make sure the following are checked: Peak, Post Fader, -12dB, Show Labels, Hold Peaks and Lock Peaks. When you play the song through, you should notice that output buss peaks 'push' light green vertical marks on the meter further to the right, where they hold their position. This position indicates the value of the highest peak, as shown on the meter scale. Using the -12dB setting gives the highest resolution. Play through the entire song, and before pressing Stop (which resets the peak hold markers), note the peak values. For example, if the peak values for both channels fall somewhere between 2 and 4 dB, you know that you are not taking advantage of at least 2dB of headroom, and can increase the output buss level control by +2dB. If it had been set at -5.0dB, for example, change it to -3.0dB. Play the song through once more to verify that clipping doesn't occur in the output buss, and now that you have the highest possible level, you can go ahead and bounce or render to disk. At this point, another complaint often arises: when I bounce to a track, it still plays back more quietly than the original mix! This is something that can happen when premixing a bunch of tracks down to a single track: as mentioned above, when bouncing down multiple tracks, you want the hottest level possible. But summing all those tracks together may overload the output buss, so you bring its level down until it peaks as close to 0 as possible without going over. Then you bounce. At that point, you solo the bounced track, and find that it's softer than the sum of the original tracks. This is because the bounced track hits close to 0 without going over, as it should -- but the output buss it's feeding still has its level set as if it was being fed by multiple tracks! Set the buss level to 0.0 with the bounced track still soloed, and it will play back at the same level as it did when you were premixing the individual tracks. OPTIMIZING Low Latency 2 or 4 ms Recording High Latency 20ms for Mixing 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes This article is an excerpt from the following book: Sonar 5 Power! - The Comprehensive Guide V-VOCAL AUTO ADUJUST VOCAL PITICH V-Vocal is a vocal processing effect that adjusts the pitch, timing, loudness, and timbre of monophonic vocal audio recordings. Automatically Adjusting Vocal Pitch When adjusting the pitch of a vocal part, the first thing you'll want to do is let V-Vocal try to make the corrections automatically. The results can be very accurate if the vocal part isn't too far off pitch to begin with. Here are the steps for using V-Vocal's automatic pitch correction features: 1. With the V-Vocal clip created and the window open, click the Pitch Edit Mode button. 2. To have the audio waveform shown under the V-Vocal waveform markings, right-click the Waveform display and choose View > Waveform from the pop-up menu. This will give you a better idea of the vocal part section you are editing. 3. Make sure that the Pitch Follow parameter in the Forman Control section is set to 0. This ensures that the timbral characteristics of your vocal will not change when you change the pitch. If you set the Pitch Follow parameter above zero, it will give you a munchkin-sounding type of vocal. If you set the Pitch Follow parameter below zero, it will give you a strange low-voice type of vocal. 4. To only correct the pitch of one section of the clip, choose the Arrow tool and make a data selection. Otherwise, V-Vocal will pitch correct the entire clip. 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes 5. In the Pitch Correction section, adjust the Note, Vibrato, and Sense parameters. The Note parameter controls how close the notes in your audio will be moved to the correct pitches. You would think you'd want them moved all the way, but depending on how far off your notes are to begin with, moving them too much can cause artifacts to be introduced into the audio. I've found the best setting for the Note parameter is between 70 and 90, but if your original audio isn't too far off, a setting of 100 could work. The Vibrato parameter controls how much of the original vibrato you want to keep. Most of the time, I keep this set to 100 because when I start lowering it too much to try to remove vibrato, the vocal ends up sounding artificial. The Sense parameter controls the amount of pitch correction applied. The higher the value, the closer your audio is changed to fit an exact pitch. I've found the default value of 30 to work nicely most of the time. If you set the Sense parameter too high, it will make the vocal sound very artificial. 6. Click the Correct button to apply the pitch correction. If you don't like the results, undo them and try again. TIP: Artificial Vocals Effect Remember that Cher song called 'Believe' where you she had those strange-sounding vocals? Well, you can get the same effect with V- Vocal. Just set the Note parameter to 100, the Vibrato parameter to 0, and the Sense parameter to 100. Click the Correct button. Voila! Instant artificial vocals. Isn't technology fun? 7. V-Vocal can also automatically conform your audio to a musical scale. Click the Scale button to activate the Scale feature. Choose either Maj or Min option to choose a major or minor musical scale. Then click a key on the tiny keyboard display to choose the root note for the scale. If you want to define your own scale, you can click the notes to include (blue color), exclude (gray color), or bypass them (red color). Click the Correct button. To set the scale feature back to its default values, double-click the Maj or Min option. TIP: Note Selection Click the note names in the Pitch Correction Key (shown on the left of the Waveform display) to include, exclude, or bypass notes. 8. Close the V-Vocal window when you're finished. For more information: * Sonar 5 Power! - The Comprehensive Guide * Other Sonar Power! Books 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes Better Vocals Here's a quick tip for thickening/doubling vocals: Select the vocal track you oose Track / Clone. Tick the Events, Properties, and FX (if the track uses any effects) boxes, but do Now, right-click on the copied track's FX field, and choose Audio Effects / Cakewalk / Pitch Shifter. Set Pitch Shift: -0.24 Dry Mix: 0 Wet Mix: 100 Feedback Mix: 0 Delay Time: 2.61 Mod Depth: 12.16 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR Notes ffects) boxes, but do walk / Pitch Shifter. Set 21 4/28/201010:49 AM SONAR WEBSITES: CAKEWALK Products http://www.cakewalk.com/Products/default.asp SEARCH http://www.cakewalk.com/Search/default.asp Desktop Music Handbook http://www.cakewalk.com/Tips/Desktop.asp Open Audio Hardware Guide http://www.cakewalk.com/Tips/audiohw.asp Tips Archive - New Tips http://www.cakewalk.com/tips/ SONAR 3 - Owner's Page http://www.cakewalk.com/Owners/SONAR3/ SONAR 5 - Owner's Page http://www.cakewalk.com/Owners/SONAR5/ MAGAZINE WEBSITES RECORDING MAGAZINE http://www.recordingmag.com/ HOME RECORDI NG http://homerecording.about.com/ HOME RECORDI NG EUIPMENT FORUMS http://www.homerecording.com/bbs/ GOOGLE GROUPS http://groups.google.com/group/recordingstudio?lnk=gschg&hl=en GOOGLE GROUPS - CAKEWALK http://groups.google.com/groups?q=cakewalk THE RECORDING WEBSITE http://recordingwebsite.com/ SOUND ON SOUND RECORDING MAGAZINE search http://www.soundonsound.com/search?PageSize=80&page=1§ion=/&Keyword=sonar%20notes SOUND ON SOUND RECORDING MAGAZINE search http://www.soundonsound.com/index.php?section=%2F&url=%2Fsearch&Keyword=sonar HOME http://www.soundonsound.com/ COMPUTER MUSIC MAGAZINE http://www.computermusic.co.uk/tutorial/features.asp HOME http://www.computermusic.co.uk/issue/issue.asp ELECTRONIC MUSCIAN http://emusician.com/ HIT SQUAD MUSICIAN NETWORK http://www.sharewaremusicmachine.com/ DIGI FREQ NEWSLETTER Scott Garrigus http://www.digifreq.com/digifreq/ DIGI FREQ NEWSLETTER Scott Garrigus articles http://www.digifreq.com/digifreq/articles.asp VST PLUGINS http://www.madtracker.org/plugins.php?category=Instrument&subcategory=Sample+player MADTRACKER.ORG http://www.madtracker.org/plugins.php?category=Instrument&subcategory=Sample+player SOUND EFFECTS ON THE WEB FREE SOUNDS - FREE WAVs http://www.thefreesite.com/Free_Sounds/Free_WAVs/ WAVSOURCE.COM http://www.wavsource.com/sfx/sfx2.htm FREE SOUND EFFECTS - GOOGLE http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=free+sound+effects SONAR BLANK blank
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