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SOLIDWASTE - Welcome to Modern R

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SOLIDWASTE - Welcome to Modern R Powered By Docstoc
					1. introduction:

   Jordan is a developing country with an average
    income of about 1650USD per capita per year.
   Jordan has a population of 5.0 millions and it is
    growing rapidly at a rate of alomost 5% annually,
    which is caused by high birth rate of 3.0 – 3.5 %
    and around 40% are living in Amman.
   The daily generation rate of municipal wastes in
    greater amman is approximatly 0.86 kg/capita.
   The waste is collected through the normal
    channels with no segregation efforts.


2. distribution of domestic wastes in Jordan:

  the proportional distribution of waste types in Jordan
  is similar to most arabian countries. Diagram (1)
  shows the proportional distribution of domestic waste
  in Jordan.
                 proportional distribution of dom es tic w as te in Jordan




                                    m etal
                                     8%
                            glass
                             10%


                       plastic
                        12%                               organic
                                                            53%



                  cardboard/pape
                        r
                       17%




     diagram(1): the proportional distribution of domestic
     wastes in Jordan.


  3. Environmental problems:

Jordan is a country with meager natural resources and a
high population growth rate. This combination renders
Jordan vulnerable to a broad spectrum of environmental
challenges, chief among them the problem of water
scarcity. Progress in formulating environmental policy has
been slow so far, but the government acknowledges the
importance of reconciling environmental concerns and
developmental needs. Environmental issues are handled
through various ministries, often with competing interests,
although nominally they continue to be coordinated by the
Ministry of Municipalities, Rural Affairs and Environment.
In 1995 the General Corporation for Environmental
Protection was granted quasi-independent status in a
sweeping new environmental protection law. However,
many of the implementing regulations have not been
drafted and enforcement remains lax. Outside the
government, NGOs are increasingly active in enhancing
environmental awareness in the public at large.

Solid waste :

Solid waste management is a growing concern in Jordan.
The collection system is adequate in urban centers, but
services tend to be poor or nonexistent in rural areas and
small towns. Collected waste is not separated, and
Jordan lacks a hazardous waste site. Current estimates
suggest there are 13,000 tons of untreated hazardous
wastes, a figure expected to reach 22,000 by the year
2004. Some hospitals have their own incinerators, but
most medical wastes are still collected and disposed of
with municipal waste. With NGO leadership, modest
recycling programs for aluminum cans and paper have
been launched in Amman.

  4. Environmental business apportunities:

  Jordan lacks resources for major environmental
  projects and generally seeks donor funding for these,
  particularly in the critical water and wastewater sector
  where it has considerable unmet needs. Recognizing
  the extent of this problem, the donor community has
  been generous. USAID, for example, currently
  contributes some $50 million per year in development
  assistance to this sector. These donor-funded projects,
  particularly in water collection, storage and transport,
  municipal waste water treatment, industrial waste water
  treatment, water purification, and conservation,
  represent the greatest potential market in Jordan.
  Other environmental business opportunities in Jordan
  include: municipal and hazardous waste collection and
  disposal, waste recycling, pollution control and
  remediation, and environmental consulting.
Solid waste:

While some donors have worked in this field, much
remains to be done. In particular, Jordan will need
appropriate technology and management techniques for
proper sorting, treatment and disposal of hazardous
and medical wastes in the near future. Privatization of
this sector is possible, with concurrent opportunities in
composting technology as well as recycling of plastics
and other reusable wastes. Opportunities may also
exist for the management and rehabilitation of existing
waste disposal sites.


5. Waste management in Jordan:

   waste management in Jordan is handled exclusivly
    by the government bodies of city municipilities and
    townships.

   The total generation of waste in Jordan is
    estimated at 10000 tons per day of which around
    4000 tons per day is estimated as being houshold
    wastes.

   The major part of the population live in Amman
    (the capital), which has nearly two million
    inhabitans and a neighbouring city,Zarqa which
    has the second largest population of 750000.

   These cities share the same landfill sites; from
    1987 until 2003 it was Russiefeh landfill and now it
    is Al Gabawi landfill.

   Russiefeh landfill used to receive approximately
    1500 to 2200 tonnes of waste per day, and the
      new landfill is designed to receive 2500 tonnes of
      waste per day.

5.1. waste collection and disposal system:

       the city municipallities are the sole entities
        responsible for waste management.
       No system for discrimination between different
        sources and industrial wastes are in place
        withinin the same collection system.
       Hazardous,chemical            and       industrial
        wastes,however, are handled in a separate
        system by a specified procedures related to the
        nature of this type of waste.
       Liquid wastes generated by industry and food
        processing entities are pretreated to meet the
        health regulations and then disposed into the
        wastewater sewage system.
       All waste without distinction goes into the
        container. No policy or practice exists in waste
        segregation. Containers normally contain a mix
        of waste even at industrial sites.

 6.     Recycling :

6.1. Overview :

Recycling is a series of activities that includes collecting
recyclable materials that would otherwise be considered
waste, sorting and processing recyclables into raw
materials such as fibers, and manufacturing raw
materials into new products.
  6.2. Recycling Process :

Collecting   and     processing   secondary      materials,
manufacturing recycled-content products, and then
purchasing recycled products creates a circle or loop that
ensures the overall success and value of recycling.
     Step      1.     Collection   and     Processing
     Collecting recyclables varies from community to
     community, but there are four primary methods:
     curbside, drop-off centers, buy-back centers, and
     deposit/refund programs.
     Regardless of the method used to collect the
     recyclables, the next leg of their journey is usually the
     same. Recyclables are sent to a materials recovery
     facility to be sorted and prepared into marketable
     commodities for manufacturing. Recyclables are
     bought and sold just like any other commodity, and
     prices for the materials change and fluctuate with the
     market.
     Step2.Manufacturing
     Once cleaned and separated, the recyclables are
     ready to undergo the second part of the recycling
     loop. More and more of today's products are being
     manufactured with total or partial recycled content.
     Common household items that contain recycled
     materials include newspapers and paper towels;
     aluminum, plastic, and glass soft drink containers;
     steel cans; and plastic laundry detergent bottles.
     Recycled materials also are used in innovative
     applications such as recovered glass in roadway
     asphalt (glassphalt) or recovered plastic in carpeting,
     park benches, and pedestrian bridges.
     Step    3.    Purchasing     Recycled     Products
     Purchasing recycled products completes the recycling
     loop. By "buying recycled," governments, as well as
      businesses and individual consumers, each play an
      important role in making the recycling process a
      success.      As     consumers   demand      more
      environmentally sound products, manufacturers will
      continue to meet that demand by producing high
      quality recycled products.




7. materials to be recycled:

7.1 Paper, Cardboard and Paper Fibers:
All materials should be clean and dry.
     Books: The paper fiber in books is difficult to recycle
      due to the binding material. Books that are in good
      condition may be taken to a used bookstore or thrift
      shop. Many used bookstores will pay or offer store
      credit for used books in good condition. Large
      volumes of used books, such as out-of-date
      textbooks, can be recycled with a bulk recycling firm.
     Cardboard - Corrugated Boxes: Includes shipping
      and packing boxes and clean pizza boxes. Remove
      all non-paper packing material.
     Chipboard or Paperboard: Includes cracker boxes,
      cereal boxes, shoe boxes, and the cores of paper
      towel and toilet paper tubes.
     Computer Paper: Includes used office and computer
      paper.
     Magazines or Catalogs: Includes slick magazines
      and catalogs.
     Mixed Paper: Includes office paper, computer paper,
      magazines, catalogs, junk mail (including envelopes
      with windows), newspaper, construction paper,
      posters, and slick paper. Paper with a waxy coating
      such as frozen food containers, milk cartons, juice
      boxes, or pet food bags are not included in this
      category. Paper-like materials that cannot be torn,
      such as Tyvek, are also not included in this category.
     Newspaper: Includes newspaper, advertising inserts,
      and coupon sections. Materials must be clean and
      dry.
     Office Paper: Includes white copy paper, computer
      paper, fax paper, stationary, legal pads, etc.
     Paper Bags: Clean, uncoated, non-plastic bags can
      be recycled with mixed paper.
     Phone Books: Both yellow and white phone books
      can be recycled. Phone books must be recycled
      separately from other mixed paper due to the glues
      used to accommodate the thickness of the spines.
7.2 Plastic:
Plastic bottles and containers will usually display a
recycling code stamped on the bottom consisting of an
abbreviation for the type of plastic along with a triangular
recycling logo with a number (1 - 7) inside. Plastic bags
will sometimes display a recycling code somewhere on the
side of the bag. Standard codes for recyclable plastic are:
      PET #1 or PETE #1 - Polyethylene
      Teraphthalate
      HDPE #2 - High Density Polyethylene
      PVC       #3      -       Polyvinyl     Chloride
      LDPE #4 - Low Density Polyethylene
      PP          #5          -          Polypropylene
      PS           #6           -          Polystyrene
      Other #7 - Other Plastics
Refer to the materials list below for more information about
recycling a particular type of plastic.
     PET #1: Many transparent plastic bottles are made
      from this kind of plastic including soda, water, and
      large clear juice bottles, and some shampoo,
      ketchup, liquid dishwashing soap, peanut butter and
      cosmetic bottles.
     HDPE #2: Used for opaque plastics such as milk
      jugs, some water bottles, detergent bottles, buckets,
      and some toys. HDPE #2 containers with screw-on
      lids are recyclable. Wide mouth containers with snap-
      on lids, such as yogurt and butter tubs, may not be.
      Note that the lids of plastic containers are often made
      of a type of plastic different from the container itself.
      When in doubt, assume that the plastic type is Other
      #7.
     Other Plastics (#3 - 7): Plastic labeled with codes #3
      through #7 include, fishing line, and all other plastics.
     Packaging Peanuts or Bubble Wrap: Most
      packaging service stores will accept clean, dry,
      bagged peanuts and bubble wrap.
     Plant Pots: Plastic plant pots and trays may be
      recycled at the Missouri Botanical Garden's collection
      event held annually in the late spring.
     Plastic Bags, Dry Cleaning: These bags are made
      of LDPE #4. Certain dry-cleaning establishments in
      the area will accept these bags for recycling as will
      many area grocery stores.
     Plastic Bags, HDPE Shopping: Plastic grocery
      bags and shopping bags made of HDPE #2 can be
      recycled at many area grocery stores.
     Plastic Bags, Other: Includes shopping bags made
      of an undetermined type of plastic and newspaper
      sleeves. These items are accepted at many grocery
      stores for recycling.
     Six Pack Rings: The plastic rings that hold canned
      products and bottles of water can be recycled.
     Vinyl & PVC: Includes vinyl siding and PVC #3
      plumbing pipes. Other types of PVC #3 are included
      under "Other Plastics".




7.3. Metals:
     Aluminum Cans: Aluminum beverage cans are
      accepted by numerous recycling service providers
      and drop-off centers throughout the area.
     Aluminum Scrap: Includes window frames, screen
      doors, chair and lawn furniture frames, and die-cast
      pieces from the automotive industry.
     Brass: Items that may be made of brass include
      plumbing pipes and fixtures, screws, hinges,
      doorknobs, fireplace tools, and other decorative
      household items. Brass is valuable, and should be
      kept separate from other metals.
     Copper: Copper is found in plumbing pipes and
      fixtures, telephone and utility wiring, and car
      radiators. Copper is valuable, and should be kept
      separate from other metals.
     Lead: Includes automotive parts, old fishing sinkers,
      and other industrial byproducts of lead.
     Scrap Metal, (Ferrous): Includes autos and auto
      parts, household appliances, cans and other iron and
      steel products which contain iron.
     Scrap Metal, (Nonferrous): Includes scrap metal
      made of aluminum, copper, lead, precious metals,
      and alloys containing no iron.
     Stainless Steel: Stainless steel is 100% recyclable
      and is accepted by many recycling service providers
      throughout the area.
     Steel "Tin" Cans: Includes food and pet food cans.




7.4. Automotive:
     Antifreeze: Antifreeze made of Ethylene Glycol is a
      poisonous substance that many animals find
      appealing. Please keep this and all hazardous
      materials in tightly closed containers. This is listed
      under the Hazardous Waste heading and is also
      often handled by Hazardous Household Waste
      Collection events.
      Auto Batteries: Includes auto, truck, van, SUV,
      boat, and tractor batteries. These batteries contain a
      highly toxic sulfuric acid electrolyte and should be
      disposed of properly. Numerous service stations and
      auto parts stores accept these batteries for recycling.
     Autos or Auto Parts: Certain charitable
      organizations will accept donations of functioning
      automobiles which they resell to raise funds. Vehicles
      that are not operational can be towed to a junkyard,
      where they will be broken down for usable parts.
     Motor Oil: Used motor oil should never be placed in
      the trash or disposed of in sewers, drains, or on the
      ground. Used motor oil is accepted for recycling by
      numerous service stations. It can also be recycled at
      a Hazardous Household Waste Collection event.
     Oil Filters: Used engine oil filters should never be
      placed in the trash or disposed of in sewers, drains,
      or on the ground. Used filters are accepted for
      recycling by numerous service stations. They can
      also be recycled at a Hazardous Household Waste
      Collection event.
     Tires: Car tires, bicycle tires, "4-wheelers," and other
      rubber tires are prohibited in landfills because they
      can ignite. Several businesses and agencies in the
      area accept used tires for recycling.

8. The importance of recycling:

       1. preserve the natural resources.
       2. reducing the amount of waste.
       3. reducing the pressure on the landfills.
       4. encourag people to reserve the environment.
       5. spread the awarness of waste segragation
          among people.
       6. openning a new tunnel for investment and
          producing recycled materials.
       7. reduce the rate of importing raw materials.


9. The role of private sector in recycling:

It is abundantly clear that global environmental problems
like climate change and biodiversity loss will be solved
only if the private sector also weighs in with its vast
technical, managerial and financial resources and
expertise. The private sector's perspective is shifting as
the long-term cost savings of environmentally benign
processes become clear, and as consumers demand
environmental products and services, which result in
global benefits.


The private sector is recognized as an important
stakeholder in waste management activities and has a
critical role to play in recycling. The modern recycling
center encourages the private sector to seek opportunities
to collaboratively engage in the identification of project
concepts and objectives as well as in the financing.


10. Conclusions and Recommendations:
   For recycling to work, everyone has to participate in
    each phase of the loop. From government and
    industry, to organizations, small businesses, and
    people at home, every Jordanian can make recycling
    a part of their daily routine.
   We should consider solid wastes a resource for a raw
    material to be used in the production of energy and
    new materials.
   If these wastes were left without treatment, it will
    cause serious environmental and economical
    problems. Especially in our region where we have
    shortage in natural resources.
   Solid waste treatment needs the cooperation of all
    sectors in the society and we must start with sorting
    wastes from houses and concentrating on reducing
    the production of wastes.
   Solid waste management is a good investment where
    raw materials are available and cheep, which means
    shorter payback period and higher income.

				
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