A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY WHY WATERBORNE

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					        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.

WHY WATERBORNE?
The Montreal Protocol has spawned a range of environmentally compliant coatings. The trend has
been to add more extenders to organic coatings; known as high solid coatings. Whereas this has
reduced VOCs, failure rate in service has increased.
External primers were the first to get a reprieve from the protocol when US EPA 40 CFR Part
63.745(c) (1) & (2) was amended. This enabled the VOC content MACT (Maximum Achievable
Control Technology), to be rolled back from 350g/l, to pre Montreal, 650g/l.
The amendment applied to large commercial aircraft components (parts and assemblies) and fully
assembled, large commercial aircraft at existing affected sources that produce fully assembled, large
commercial aircraft. General aviation rework facilities had the MACT relaxed to just 540g/l.
Reports from operators would suggest that high solid topcoats are next in line. This paper introduces
an overview of a responsible alternative: An advanced waterborne technology.
The requirement was to develop a range of aerospace and defence coatings, with performance
transcending all other systems. This is now a mature reality: A 2 pack system based on acrylic
modified polyurethane combined with oxygen activated polyurethane resins (Component ‘A’) and 6%
activator and performance improver, (Component ‘B’), that improves overall performance.
Component ‘A’ can be applied without component ‘B’, for less demanding requirements.
These coatings include significant commercial advantages involving environmentally aware, low
VOC technologies, weight and time saving initiatives.
They can be applied as a corrosion resistant primer containing molybdenum lakes, a topcoat or a self-
priming topcoat with specific end-uses. The variants include a conductive inter coat, low infrared and
solar reflecting coatings, thermo chromic and walkway coatings.
One of the early objectives was to rationalise the number of different coatings required, without the
use of toxic chemicals, Isocyanurates and chromates. Versatility without compromise was achieved to
enable simplification of choice and safe application.
The standard system is hydrophilic, antimicrobial, easy to clean, antistatic with continuous high, up
+392°F (+200°C) and low -148°F (-100°C) temperature variation, chemical agent, fire, UV, rain
erosion and now Skydrol® resistant for both internal and external application.
Today these advantages are particularly relevant. Some 60% of onboard electronic failures, leading to
control and navigational instability, are attributed to static, while the threat of NBC warfare is
prevalent. Airlines could restore passenger confidence, lost, by the threat of S.A.R.S. (Severe acute
respiratory syndrome); by using an antimicrobial coating, of the type used in high-risk infection areas,
becoming a standard in aircraft cabins and other public areas. UV damage is increasing in proportion
to a weakening ozone layer and whereas fire hardening saves lives, it is not legislated for outside of
the cockpit and cabin areas.
ESTABLISHING A TRACK RECORD - ANTISTATIC COATING TRIALS AND
ACCEPTANCE
Demand for this material in the aerospace industry was initially sought by the missile and rocket
assembly industry in 1994. Here Roketsan A.S. had a requirement to coat the external steel and
aluminium assemblies of rockets, and more recently the composite frames, as part of the ‘Safer
Materials Development Project’ with an antistatic coating. Roketsan A.S. has never looked back.




2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                               1
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


Likewise the Turkish Scientific and Research Council – Defence Industries Research Institute
(Tübitak-SAGE), a state owned research institute, involved with the development of guided missile
and inertial navigation system (INS) technology.
The risk of explosion through electro static discharge, during the fuelling and explosive packing
process is a recognised danger. Both Elroksan A.S. and FNNS coat sensitive areas with this anti static
system. Accident rates have been reduced to zero. While Baris Elektrik A.S., a major supplier to the
defence industry, use these coatings extensively on composite products. Safety, during the handling
and storage of static free munitions, speaks for itself.
Significant potential lies when applied to guided munitions including Joint Direct Attack Munitions
(JDAM) and others, where accuracy is paramount. During and after the launch phase, a number of
electronic and mechanical operations take place that ensure the ordnance reaches the target. Corrupted
signals and power failures can cause navigational problems and fins to lock up: Some 60% of
electronic system failures on board guided munitions and civil aircraft are now attributed to static
build up inherited both during and after construction.
The waterborne technology, now known as D45-AMS is anti static, with a natural electrical
resistivity. This resistance was first determined when repairing semi-trailer curtains. Curtains
normally have a patch electrically bonded over the tear. Curtains coated with this system resisted the
electric current. The coating had to be removed, before the repair could be made.
Static can be imparted, and more significantly retained, on the substrate by impacting fluid during
spraying operations. This occurs when spraying, at the higher pressures required to apply, heavier
coatings. Conversely, it is dissipated as fast as it arrives on the substrate, during the very low-pressure
applications of lighter coatings such as D45-AMS.
D45-AMS technology requires very low-pressure spraying to achieve the best and most productive
results. It is recommended these coatings be applied at circa 3psi at the gun tip. This does not interfere
with productivity. On the contrary, additional benefits are derived by optimal transfer efficiency,
discussed later.
AEROSPACE AIRFRAME COATING TRIALS AND ACCEPTANCE
The first complete external airframes of a Northrop Grumman T-38A were spray coated in February
1996, February 1998 a Transal C-160. While a Field Master crop duster was roller coated (outside this
time, also in 1998). The exercises were a success. Regular performance monitoring assured those
concerned of the viability of the project and its potential.
RADOME COATING TRIALS AND ACCEPTANCE
In 1997 a Radome coating for a NATO partner was developed. At that time McDonnel Douglas F-4E
Phantom II aircraft had 12 coats applied to their composite radomes. Each coat had to be baked on for
an hour; a lengthy process, an alternative was sought.
14 aircraft were trailed. Just 400 grams dry film weight of waterborne coating replaced 5kgs of the
more traditional radomes coating. It took just one hour to complete each Radome. They passed both
transmission and reception tests.
Operations in a sand laden atmosphere at over Mach 1 to evaluate the effect of erosion and thermal
shock by transiting from up to +40°C to -56°C were conducted. This confirmed over a period of
months, that this coating is tough, flexible and erosion resistant. No cracks or blisters were observed.
This product was awarded a NATO Stock Number (NSN).
With no further modification, this coating became the standard Radome protection for all aircraft
radomes in this, the second largest NATO air force in the world. The aircraft include many Northrop
Grumman F-5A/F-5B and T-38As, F-4E/RF-4E Phantom IIs, Lockheed Martin F-16C/Ds and C-130




2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                                  2
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


B/Es Hercules, Casa TCN 235Ms and Bell UH-1H Iroquois. The coating is approved as part of both
OEM and refurbishment programs.
Today, Aselsan A.S., incorporating D45-AMS technology, are recognised for their development of
the world’s lightest radomes while all Turkish Navy warship radars, are now coated with this system.
Two terrestrial radar coating contractors have completed our training programme
These trials, approvals and repeat orders led to evaluating the wider commercial advantages. Some of
the more significant are dealt with. Environmental, Weight Saving and Performance.
THE COMMERCIAL ADVANTAGES – ENVIRONMENTAL.
The principal advantages of reducing HAPS and VOCs in this range of aerospace and defence
coatings to below 150g/l* and the elimination of toxic and carcinogenic substances including
Isocyanurates, Fluorine and Chromates are:
    •   Dispenses with the need to develop and implement environmental strategies.
    •   Eliminates much of the cost of maintaining related environmental permits.
    •   Eliminates the creation and the expense of processing hazardous waste.
    •   Fewer waste handling, storage and disposal costs.
    •   Eliminates the requirement to use hazardous materials.
    •   Lower employer liability insurance premiums due enhanced worker safety.
    •   Significantly reduces the use of ozone depleting substances.
    •   Reduced dependence on non-renewable natural resources.
    •   Eliminates the difficulty of budgeting for the variable costs of organic, (crude oil), derived
        products.
    •   Ecologically sound water transfer medium does not pollute the atmosphere or damage the
        ozone layer.
    •   Reduces the need to develop and administer safety programs.
    •   Products are odourless and do not cause public offence.
    •   Fewer man-hours lost through labour sickness.
    •   Eliminates organic solvents from clean up operations.
    •   Dispenses with the need for dedicated paint shops and their associated operating costs.
    •   Eliminates the need to construct additional paint shops located at aerospace manufacturing
        and rework facilities, due to faster turnarounds.
    •   Eliminates the need to transfer aircraft from ‘green’ states for (re) painting with the associated
        non-productive positioning costs, ‘down’ time and loss of revenue incurred.
    •   Designed for maximum ‘slip’ resulting in less drag, lower NOx emissions and associated
        proposed tax penalties.
    •   Efficiently cleaned with mild detergent and warm water reduces energy costs.
    •   Constructors and owners can promote the implementation of environmentally friendly
        solutions incorporated in their products.
    •   Free of any components listed under EPA-17.



2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                                 3
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


    •   All products comply by at least a 50% margin below the lowest MACT for Californian
        SCAQMD Rule 1124 VOC emission limitations for Aerospace Assembly and Component
        Manufacturing operations in anticipation of future environmental legislation.
    •   The elimination of solvents for degreasing, preparation and painting operations reduces the
        likelihood of reaching the reporting thresholds defined by SARA III.
    •   These products are not reportable under: California Proposition 65; Community Right to
        Know List; EPA Genetic Toxicology Program; ACGIH TVL; EPA TSCA; OSHA PEL;
        SARA Sections 302 & 313.
    * Clear coat is the exception where the VOC content is still below 190g/l. (see below)
Table 1. illustrates one of the elements of the % reduction in VOCs emitted by Kimetsan Aerospace
D45-AMS coatings when compared with those listed in Aerospace Assembly and Component
Manufacturing Operations Rule 1124, January 2002 limitations.
Table 1.
Coating                                         1-1-02                D45 AMS           % VOC
Chemical Agent Resistant                        220gm/litre           <150gm/litre      46% less
Non Slip Walkway                                220gm/litre           <150gm/litre      126% less
Low Anti Infrared Reflectant                    340gm/litre           <150gm/litre      126% less
Primer – Internal / External                    340gm/litre*          <150gm/litre      126% less
Top Coat                                        420gm/litre           <150gm/litre      180% less
Impact Resistant                                420gm/litre           <150gm/litre      180% less
Clear Top Coat                                  520gm/litre           <190gm/litre      247% less
Fire Resistant - Civilian                       650gm/litre           <150gm/litre      333% less
Wing Coating                                    700gm/litre           <150gm/litre      366% less
Touch up Coating                                750gm/litre           <150gm/litre      400% less
Erosion Resistant                               800gm/litre           <150gm/litre      433% less
Missiles or Single Use Target Craft             840gm/litre           <150gm/litre      460% less
Primer Compatible with Rain                     850gm/litre           <150gm/litre      467% less
Erosion Resistant Coating Fire Resistant -      970gm/litre           <150gm/litre      546% less
Military
Electrostatic Discharge Protection              1000gm/litre          <150gm/litre      566% less
* Amended (See page one: 40 CFR part 63)
Additional VOC emission savings can be realised during application.
For example the total recommended external dry film thickness (60µ/2.36mil) is on average nearly
50% thinner, when compared with the recommended dry film of alternative coatings 114µ (4.5mil).
See: Table 2.
And transfer efficiency is greater than 95%, through low-pressure application technology.
Combined, these three features significantly reduce VOCs emissions.
THE COMMERCIAL ADVANTAGES – WEIGHT SAVING.
The tinted dry film weight (DFW), 31.5gm/sq.m on internal and external coatings is some 25% lighter
than equivalent products for every 25.4µ (1mil.) dry film thickness.
Airframe: The recommended dry film thickness (DFT) on external coatings: 60µ (2.36mil). [Leading
edges 80µ (3.15mil).]
By comparison the recommended DFT of alternative products ranges from: 89µ (3.5mils) to 140µ
(5.5mils), average 114µ (4.5mil). See: Table 2. and leading edges up to 355µ (14mils).



2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                             4
          A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


Radome: DFW saved on radomes much over 100%. (5kgs sb. is replaced with 400gms wb. on
McDonnel Douglas F-4s).  Performance is not compromised and longevity is assured.




 Table 2. External Dry Film Weight (DFW) increasing with Dry Film Thickness (DFT).



Mils                2.36                3.5            4       4.5          5       5.5

Microns                60                 89         102       114       127        140



            Kimetsan                           Recommended range for commercial



Gms/sq.m    85.4                        164        187.3     208.7       232        255



            D45 AMS                            application of High Solid Coatings



Wt saved      24%           …………    48%         54.50%     59%        63%       66.50%



 Aircraft     Type



B 737 400     50.55                   97.08 110.881         123.55 137.344       150.96

Additional Weight kgs        >        46.53      60.331          73   86.794     100.41

B 757 200    92.733                178.104 203.407 226.648 251.952               276.93

Additional Weight kgs        >       85.371 110.674 133.915 159.219 184.197

B 767 300    123.388                 236.98 270.645 301.571           335.24 368.475

Additional Weight kgs        >     113.592 147.257 178.183 211.852 245.087

B 777 200    194.603               373.756 426.856 475.627 528.728 581.145

Additional Weight kgs        >     179.153 232.253 277.024 334.125 386.542

B 747 400    229.272                 440.34        502.9 560.359      622.92 684.675




2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                   5
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.



Additional Weight kgs         >       211.068 273.628 331.087 393.648 455.403

  A 320       64.554                  123.984 141.598 157.777 175.392            192.78

Additional Weight kgs         >          59.43    77.044    93.223 110.838 128.226



OVERALL WEIGHT SAVINGS ENABLE:
    •   The ability to realise more profitable returns on investment.
    •   The development and application of alternative weight saving systems and solutions.
    •   The ability to offer previously weight constraining features.
    •   The ability to market a more competitive product.
    •   Enhanced performance from existing and planned projects.
    •   The ability to offer better payloads when restricted by high ambient temperature, pressure
        altitude, wind direction, runway length and condition, noise abatement departure profile,
        power plant, and other performance restricting limitations.
    •   Lower fuel burn and associated costs.
    •   Greater flexibility planning routes with longer sectors and choice of alternates.
    •   Departures during the warmer hours of the day without compromising load factors enable
        better commercial utilisation, payloads and more flexible scheduling..
    •   Potential productivity to be realised on every sector and more viable operations.


  Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd is a member of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers
                              (S.A.W.E.) Inc, Glastonbury, CT. USA.


THE COMMERCIAL ADVANTAGES – PERFORMANCE.
The confidence to consider this true waterborne technology began over 22 years ago. This same
system had been applied to aluminium, composite, magnesium alloy, steel and titanium substrates
around the world. The situations vary from substrates on high-rise buildings, ocean going vessels to
industrial plants. They provide durable protection and reduced fire and maintenance liabilities. Many
other uses for this material have been employed over the years. They are too numerous to mention in
this paper. How this coating weathers diverse elements, is still being evaluated, for there has not been
a single breakdown.
Worldwide locations include the coast of Florida and Scotland for salt and UV breakdown; the Middle
East and Arizona for sand and UV breakdown; Canada and New Zealand for ice and or hail storms
and UV breakdown. North Atlantic, immersion in two tides a day for 12 months. Sea going vessels
exposed to high UV. Northern Europe for acid rain resistance conservatively put at in excess of 50
years. The exception being in the S.W African coastal diamond mines on steel subject to (sharp) sand
erosion / salt corrosion with a daily temperature variation of some 104°F (40°C). The system outlasts
competing products by 3:1.
These points illustrate how performance can promote the investment.
    •   Paint drying and dry to tape times is measured in minutes – not hours.


2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                               6
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


    •   Better returns on investment both in labour, equipment and material.
    •   Significantly increased production and throughput. Turnaround times less halved.
    •   Downtime incurred changing livery more than halved.
    •   Spray application down to 1½psi reduces bounce back and over spray to less than 5%.
    •   Low-pressure AccuSpray® technology closes the gap between theoretical and actual coverage
        to less than 5%. Eliminates the need for water walls.
    •   Antistatic and hydrophilic properties reduce maintenance, parasitic drag and retain corporate
        image fresher longer.
    •   Antistatic properties have significantly reduced static related explosions in missile assembly
        plants.
    •   Antistatic properties could significantly reduce static build up responsible for up to 60% of
        onboard electronic malfunctions.
    •   Antistatic properties deny dust build up on internal panels. Dust can constitute a combustible
        fire hazard acting as fuel in the ‘fire triangle’ (Heat, Fuel and Oxygen)
    •   Exceptional flexibility enables coatings to resist mechanical and thermal shock, distortion,
        expansion and contraction.
    •   Hydrophylic properties eliminate moisture being leached after curing. (Moisture can mist up
        satellite camera lenses).
    •   Excellent acid rain and hydrolytic stability that enables enhanced longevity.
    •   Wide range of thermal shock tolerance, continuous expansion and contraction from      -130°C
        to + 200°C (-202°F to + 392°F).
    •   Products resistant to Skydrol® 5, LD-4, 500B-4 and mixed combinations.
    •   Clear coats that do not ‘yellow’ with age.
    •   Adhesion characteristics and additives protect substrates from corroding without the use of
        chromates.
    •   Corrosion inhibitors incorporated.
Whereas this background provided an exposure to weather and an adhesion in service track record,
additional aerospace and military parameters were reviewed.
These were derived from specifications used by the major aerospace manufactures in The USA,
Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
The requirements also included in MIL–C-85322B, MIL-PRF-85582D, MIL-PRF-85285D, MIL-
DTL-64159 (Type II)*, DEF STAN 80-208 and STANAG 4360, A-A-59166, AMS-C-83231 and the
ASTM / ISO references therein.
* See notes on ‘Flattening agents’ below.
Other requirements were drawn from reports and recommendations submitted by government
agencies, civil and military operators, manufacturers, maintenance and safely organisations, military
and civil research institutes.
It should be noted that technology based on D45-AMS has yet to be published and a standard
established. Meanwhile, cherry picking and raising the bar on the more onerous tests, derived from
established standards and specifications, has been the objective.



2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                             7
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


Some examples of these requirements called for (and have already been listed, for ready reference,
against bullet points) included:
FIRE (HARDENING) RESISTANCE OF THE EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR HULL
COATINGS.
Statistically some 85% of survivors in an aircraft crash do not survive the subsequent smoke and fire
that engulfs the wreckage.
An illustration of how fire hardening could enhance safety is contained in this report*. It concerns an
accident during the take off roll (before V1) in 1985 of a Boeing 737. The No 9 combustor can
separated from the port engine. The ejected dome and a small section of the fan case struck an under-
wing fuel access panel creating a 42” square hole. The fire ignited when fuel from the punctured wing
tank access panel came into contact with the combustion gases escaping from the damaged engine. In
this case, of 137 on board, 82 were fortunate to survive. It should be borne in mind that the fuselage
had no impact damage and the exits were serviceable.
The report noted:
‘Historically, the aircraft industry has adopted a some what fatalistic attitude to the problems of
aircraft fires and it is quite apparent that the hull has received scant attention, when it comes to fire at
the design stage’.
‘It is understood that manufacturers and airworthiness authorities have devoted time and effort to the
effects of fire on the fuselage. There is little evidence that fuselage penetration by an external fire has
been addressed. The effort cannot be compared with the vigour applied to the fire hardening of
interior materials. It is essential that increased effort be made to seek improvements in the fire
hardening of fuselage structures – backed by the appropriate legislation. There has been an imbalance
of effort between the amount of research undertaken into the fire hardening of interior materials and
that directed towards fire hardening the hull itself’.
More recently the Canadian Transport Safety Board’s (TSB) report into fire onboard flight SR 111
has endorsed these views, for the pressurized portion of the aircraft. (Recommendation A01-02.
http://www.tsb.gc.ca/)
*UK Air Accidents Investigation Board (AAIB) Report Number: 8/88 (EW/C929).
We commend fire hardening by aerospace coatings becoming the standard. They will contribute to the
elimination of combustible elements. These waterborne coatings are proven to provide fire resistance
hardening for both external, internal, cabin and cockpit situations.
Whereas the flame duration*, once the burner has been removed is acceptable for up to 15 seconds,
for these coatings, the flame extinguishes after 3 seconds; burn length 2.68" against an acceptable
standard 8" and no dripping was recorded.
*(Ref: CAA Specification No: 8 Issue 2. This is the UK equivalent to FAR 25-853 & JAR 25-853
annex F).
A CHEMICAL AGENT RESISTANT COATING (CARC), WITHOUT ISOCYANTE.
(MILITARY LOW IRR, & CIVIL CLEAR COAT)
The objective was to develop a CARC that is safe to apply by soldiers in the field, with only
rudimentary facilities available. A CARC with significantly reduced organic solvents and particularly
no hexamethylene-1, 6-diisocyanate (HDI) in component ‘B’, the second part of the two-pack system.
Moreover a CARC that will exceed the safety and performance requirements of MIL-DTL-64159
Type II, DEF STAN 80-208 and STANAG 4360.




2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                                   8
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


The outstanding performance requirements included adhesion of low IRR CARC on those substrates
that have traditionally proven difficult to coat, such as welded aluminium armour, magnesium alloy
and titanium, along with improved marring, UV resistance and flexibility.
CARC is invariably applied under duress, in the field, by ill equipped troops. They can be exposed to
hazardous components both during the mixing process and in the paint spray. The Gulf War in 1991
exposed many shortfalls both in the supply (still no change here at the time of writing in April 2003!)
and application of CARC. Combined, these issues lead to mistakes being made. Recommendations
published in 2000 merely addressed how to improve overall command and control of the application
of CARC, and not the root cause, isocyante. CARC, based on D45-AMS, can be applied by troops in
the most primitive circumstances, SAFELY.
Why stop at military applications? Both civil and military aircraft coatings are exposed when
operating in and through NBC polluted atmosphere. This has become particularly relevant (again at
the time of writing). Civil aircraft are being selected for ‘white tail’ casualty evacuation. Why not go a
stage further. Coat all civil aircraft with a chemical agent resistant high gloss coating, in both ‘white
tail’ and corporate liveries? And save expensive war damage refurbishment.
Whether camouflage, low IRR, solar reflecting or corporate coatings, this waterborne system provides
mar resistance and CARC protection for both civil and military applications with proven longevity.
Above all they have very low VOCs, and do not contain HDI, HAPS, chromates, toxic chemicals or
yellow with age. They do contain siliceous type flattening agents.
Here the question whether polymeric beads are better flattening agents then siliceous types is
debateable. There is a strong case for polymeric beads, as advocated in MIL-DTL-64159 Type II,
where the resin systems are sourced from propriety origins. This should not imply that the siliceous
type agents, referred to in Type I, are not capable of superior results. It’s merely a matter of matching
the flattening agents to the appropriate resin system.
This resin system has been specifically designed ‘in house’ to incorporate siliceous type flattening
agents. Results demonstrate exceptional flexibility, no chalking or marring and over 20 years of
weathering resistance in many climate zones without breakdown, already referred to. Maybe this
particular version will be known as Type III?
AEROSPACE & DEFENCE MODIFICATIONS & VARIATIONS.
These included immersion in water, type I & II de-icing fluid, jet fuel, oils and Skydrol®.
Skydrol® hydraulic oils 5, LD-4, 500B-4 and mixed combinations gave the following results. Each
test lasted 40 days at 75°C (167°F). Every sample had a scribe to the substrate cut, prior to immersion,
to evaluate creep. The test results gave crosshatch adhesion factor 5, no creep and slight
discolouration. Pencil hardness prior to immersion was 3H and immediately after removal B. The
samples returned to 3H after cleaning with the company’s zero VOC Surface Preparation Solution
(SPS) and having been allowed to dry out.
A conductive inter coat for composite fuselage panels. Designed as an inter-coat, its conductivity
trans-locates lightning strikes to static wicks located on the trailing edges of the airframe.
This conductive coating can also be used as a primer in the powder coating industry. Trials have
determined that its conductive properties provide an ideal interface for these coatings on non-
conductive substrates.
A rain erosion and high resistance non-conductive (2 mega ohm –100 mega ohm electrical
resistance at 500 volts) coating that does not interfere with electronic wing de-icing equipment and
successfully trialled on Transal C-160T Transports.
Low Infrared and Solar reflectance coatings. Superior adhesion performance on substrates difficult
to coat are attracting repeat orders. Low IRR coatings that mimic the chlorophyll in living plants and



2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                                 9
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


Solar reflecting coatings have been developed with a gloss reading below 1% at 60° without
compromising on mar resistance.
The most recent development has been a rain erosion resistant wing de-icing failure detecting
coating, trialled and approved on KC-135R Tankers and C-160 Transal Transports.
This waterborne material is based on thermo chromic technology. Excessively high temperatures
invariably identify de-icing failures. These coatings locate the failure by a change in the original
colour. For example a green thermo chromic coating over a black leading edge will change to opaque
during a high temperature runaway. In this case the black leading edge will be exposed at the location
of the de-icing failure. The thermo chromic coating reverts to green when the fault is cleared and the
de-icing equipment stabilises back to its operating temperature. Alternative colours and temperature
change trigger points can be used, depending on the customer’s requirements, for quickly diagnosing
and locating system faults.
Pending systems include an environmentally friendly paint stripper, currently on trial.
MAINTENANCE.
Organic solvent-based coatings are hydrophobic and repel water. They can be differentiated from
hydrophilic coatings when it rains. Raindrops are visually prevalent when they settle like beads on
hydrophobic surfaces. When the raindrops evaporate on these coatings they deposit a ‘foot print’ ring
of dirt picked up in the atmosphere. This dirt attracts more dirt such as jet soot. The result detracts
from the corporate image and involves additional maintenance, drag and corresponding higher fuel
burn. Conversely with D45-AMS hydrophilic coatings, rainwater does not bead. The rain runs off
conveying the dirt and pollution it has picked up in the atmosphere with it. Additional advantages
have been determined by the ease that exhaust soot, both paraffin and diesel, can be removed, with
only mild solutions of detergent.
While hydrophilic coatings are low maintenance, they also have an important part to play in satellite
camera bays. They do not leach moisture when cured, unlike hydrophobic coatings that can emit
moisture and cause camera lenses to mist up. Moreover, D45-AMS being antistatic does not attract
dust, which in turn turns to dirt when moistened and can clog airframe drains. And blocked drains can
pool moisture leading to accelerated corrosion.
MEK REPLACEMENT.
The requirement arose to develop a surface preparation solution (SPS) that complemented this coating
technology. (This initiative, coincidently, pre-empted the phasing out of MEK). Moreover solvent-
based cleaning solutions are incompatible with waterborne technology. Once the coating has cured
however, solvent cleaners can be used with impunity.
Waterborne coatings are widely known to require a cleaner substrate for adhesion than organic based
products. Unless this is accepted, failures will occur.
The system developed for aerospace is a dilutable, low alkaline solution. Its versatility and
effectiveness in preparing substrates, for this coating technology, has ensured success.
20 years ago global warming, melting ice caps and an environmental conscience were not topical
issues. Today we either comply or confront environmental protocols. We enable our children a
brighter future, or not as the case may be. Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings chose the
former, a British company with the ability to translate visions into technology. The people behind it
are leading the aerospace and defence coating industry into a responsible new era with compliant,
commercially advantageous, independently trialled, proven and tested, high performance products.
APPENDICES
Approvals and or NATO NSNs for the following coatings were awarded in 1994 by:



2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                            10
       A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


Roketsan:                           Missile coatings.
Turkish Air Force, Kayseri:         Radome coatings for fast jet & cargo aircraft.
During 1997 by:
Turkish Research Council – SAGE:    Missile coatings.
Turkish Navy:                       Coating for aluminium window frames (Taskizak Navy Base
                                    – Istanbul)
Turkish Ministry of Defence:        Antimicrobial coatings for operating theatres and intensive
                                    care units. (Gulhane Military Hospital - Ankara)
Turkish Ministry of Defence:        Antimicrobial coatings for operating theatres and intensive
                                    care units. (Gölcuk Military Hospital - Izmit)
During 1998 by:
Turkish Ministry of Health:         Antimicrobial coatings for premature baby care wards.
                                    (Women’s Hospital – Ankara)
Prokar Inc:                         Coatings for application on PVC-U manufactured by Prokar
                                    Inc. (Ankara)
Merkez Pharmaceutical Plant:        Antistatic and antimicrobial protective coatings. (Istanbul)
Turkish Aviation Foundation:        Field Master Crop Duster (Ankara). Chemical, pesticide, and
                                    solvent resistant civil aircraft coating.
During 1999 by:
Aselsan Inc:                        Aircraft Radome coatings.
Baris Inc:                          Fire resistant military cockpit coating.
Hurmoglu Ltd:                       Antimicrobial coatings for operating theatres and intensive
                                    care units. (American Hospital – Istanbul)
Kimpa Pharmaceutical Plant:         Antistatic and antimicrobial protective coatings. (Istanbul)
Turkish Navy:                       Warship Radar coatings.
Turkish Research Council:           Missile coatings.
Turkish Army:                       Artillery and camouflage coatings.
Turkish Aerospace Industries Inc:   Aluminium primer.
Turkish Land Forces HQ:             Anodised aluminium coatings
During 2000 by:
Sifa Pharmaceutical Plant:          Antistatic and antimicrobial coatings.
FNSS Inc:                           High temperature resistant coatings.
Turkish Air Force:                  Concrete airfield runway coatings.
Rocketsan:                          High Temperature resistant coatings.
During 2001 by:
Turkish Air Force:                  Terrestrial Radome C.A.R.C. coating.
Elroksan:                           High temperature coating for aluminium.
Turkish Research Council:           Missile coatings.
Name Ltd:                           Composite coatings.
During 2002 by:
Turkish Air Force:                  Rain erosion resistant non-conductive coating with high
                                    electrical resistance (2–100 mega ohms @ 500v)
Best Ltd:                           Aluminium and composite panel coatings.

During 2003 by:
Nurol/FNSS:                         Low IRR and solar reflecting C.A.R.C. coatings.
Roketsan:                           Antistatic coating for composite components.
Turkish Air Force:                  Low infrared and solar reflectance C.A.R.C. coatings.



2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                        11
        A PROVEN AEROSPACE WATERBORNE COATING TECHNOLOGY
         Captain Andrew Oxenford, Kimetsan Aerospace and Defence Coatings Ltd.
Dr. Erol Özensoy. Chem. Eng. (M.Sc.) Metal. Eng. (M.Sc.) DIC, Ph. D., Kimetsan Aerospace
                               and Defence Coatings Ltd.


Turkish Air Force:                       Rain erosion resistant, thermo chromic coating.


Quick data reference
    •   D45-AMS not contain Chromates, Isocyanurates, or other Toxic Chemicals
    •   The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are less than150g/l.
    •   Is resistant to Skydrol®, Hydraulic fluids, De-icing fluids, Fuels, Oils and Solvents
        traditionally used in the aerospace industry.
    •   Is Antistatic, Anti microbial, Hydrophilic, Chemical Agent Resistant (C.A.R.C.), Fire, Rain
        erosion and UV resistant with a High Temperature capability up to 200°C (392°F) and down
        to -100°C (-148°F) for continuous performance.
    •   Provides superior Flexibility (very high linear expansion co-efficient), Resistance to Cracking
        and Adhesion to substrates traditionally considered difficult to coat including, Titanium,
        Composites, U- PVC, Aluminium, Galvanise and Magnesium alloys for both Internal and
        External use.
    •   Available in an extensive colour range from 1% Matt to over 95% Gloss when measured at
        60° with both Primer / Self-priming and Topcoat capabilities.
Specialist coatings based on D45-AMS include:
    •   Conductive inter coat to translocate lightening strikes from composites.
    •   Non-conductive / high electrical resistance coating.
    •   Aerospace non-slip Walkway coatings.
    •   Thermo chromic coating to detect embedded electrical heating failures.
    •   Low Infrared reflecting coatings that mimic the chlorophyll in living plants.
    •   Solar reflecting coatings that deny heat seeking returns.
Applications:
Civil / Military Aircraft, Rockets, Missiles, Ordnance, Satellites, Radomes and Radars,
Other applications based on D45-AMS technology:
Terrestrial and Offshore Installations, Vehicles, Vessels and Assets including Runway markings and
concrete Hanger floors.




         Lifetime professional applicators have independently observed they have witnessed
                                        ‘History in the making’




2003 Aerospace Coatings Removal and Coatings Conference                                            12

				
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