Background for Effective Business
Effective Communication in Business
Communication is the process of transmitting and receiving of verbal
and nonverbal messages.
Or Communication can be defined as the sending and /or receiving
of massages (verbal and nonverbal massages).
Communication is a SKILL and an Advantage!!!
Communication skill was considered essential in ancient Greece
Medieval Period: middle centuries
Renaissance: دوره تجدد ادب و فرهنگ یا رنسانس
At the Fourth Century Chinese Theorists advised for smooth flow of
The process of effective communication can be defined as “sending a
massage (verbal or nonverbal) and receiving a feedback or response
(negative or positive response)”.
Effective communication is a cycle and it cannot be
completed without response or feedback from the receiver
of the massage. If a massage is sent and we do not receive
a feedback or answer (either positive or negative) it cannot
be called effective communication
Verbal communication is the use of words to convey a
massage, so it can be both speaking and writing.
Nonverbal communication is sending a message without the use of
words. Therefore, to be clearer, nonverbal communication is a message
through gestures, postures, space and facial expression, sometimes-
nonverbal communication is more important than the use of words and
Communication in an Organization
Communication is an important function in all organization
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Types of Communication
Communication can be divided into three categories
according to the audience as;
1- Intra-communication: When someone communicate or exchange
idea with himself/herself it is called intra-communication, e.g. talking
with one’ self.
2- Inter-communication: Communicating with an
individual or a number of individuals is called inter-
communication for example, a person talking to a group of
3- Mass-communication: Exchanging information with a
large number of people is called mass-communication, for
instance. The president addressing the nation
As Communication is very important aspect in the
organizations and its importance can be seen by
When different individuals or groups in the same organization
exchange ideas and information, is called internal communication. Or
communication inside the company is called internal communication.
So, it’s the flow of information between different department and
different levels in the organization. Internal communication can be
downward and upward too. For instance, when a manager gives an
order to his subordinates to fulfill it is called downward communication
while the feedback from a worker is upward communication.
In organization, internal communication has many means like
telephone, E-mails, Face to face meetings and memorandum.
Communication inside the organization (INTERNAL)
Ways of Communications:
• Conferences Ward
• Face to face Down
• TeleconferencesUpwar Horizont
• E-mail d al
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• Downward communication:
For better motivation, clear job direction, orientation, benefits, wages,
and job conditions.
When employees receive appropriate downward communication from
management, they be letter of motivation and more efficient. They
need not only clear job direction, safely rules but also facts about
organizational strategy, products, viewpoints, on important
controversial issues. They are concerned about employee benefits-
health care, insurance, promotion, pension, training, work environment
and retirement. In all the many pressures from employees force
employers to be accountable for their decision through effective
downward communication. Employers who communicate effectively
have employees that are more productive.
• Upward communication:
Frank comments, complains, problems and suggestions,
Many executives sincerely seek frank comments from employees, ion
addition to the usual periodic reports. Successful managers listen
closely to opinions, complaints, problems, and suggestions of
especially when these are clearly and effectively stated.
• Horizontal communication:
Between peers and colleagues for better performance and team work
and connected activities.
Effective horizontal communication betweens peers is also essential in
organization in order to solve problems, performs jobs duties, prepare
for meetings, and cooperate on important projects. for example, if you
think about the time spent listening to and making requests, writing
notes, and memos, and discussing and writing about projects, you
soon realize that communication is the medium through which an
organization accomplishes its role.
(Among various ways of communication within companies are memos,
reports, meetings, face-to-face discussions, teleconference, video
conferences, and electronic mails.)
The give and take of information with the external environment is called
external communication. It is much more important than the internal
communication and good communication with environment can
contribute greatly to the success of an organization. For example, a
company’s spokesman talks about the strategy of the company for the
upcoming year and or a public relation’‡ department gather’‡
information about the choice of the customers about some particular
product produced by the company.
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Communicating outside the organization (External) Helps to:
• Create desire for company products
• Negotiate a sale
• Improving business
• Get a Contract
• Win a bid
• Enhance the public image
• Have a good interview with a journalist
• An annual financial report
Poor communication can cost an organization time and
money. Poor communication mean have no the ability to
understand some one and lack knowledge of
The group of people associated for business,
political, Professional, religious, athletic,
social and other purposes.
Communication is the life blood of the organization
Slowly by passage of time Books appeared on written
People in organizations change ideas and plans and that needs
for proper communication.
*They also believe that writing was developed actually for
business matters, it is known from the archeological evidences.
But some believe that writing was first initiated by priests.
Costs of Communication are:
e r Stationar
• 29-50% of time is used in communication in an organization based
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• 90% for management positions
Effective Communication in your career
Good communication skills can make an ordinary career a brilliant one,
it provides so many chances for promotion and a better career, and
anyone working at any position requires communication skills.
• In mental jobs, communication is critical
• STRONG communication skills is indicated in most of job
• Communication has a critical role among the parliament members
• Among the government employees
Job Titles Skills
Finance Associate: Must able to communicate clearly to client
and another finance Profession
Fiscal Officer: Superior writing and presentation skills
Product Manager: Develop and communicate product
objectives and strategies.
Senior salesman: Excellent communication and follow-up
skills, ability to write proposals and
Contract Administration: General knowledge of proposal preparation:
good oral /written communication.
Product Manager: must be able to develop and communicate
Translator: Properly communicate the idea
Admin Assistant: To communicate the Admin issues to the
staff of the organization
Communication is Essential for Promotion
Ability to Communicate
Ambition ()بلند همتی آرزو
Ability to get things done through and with
Capacity for hard work
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• Bear in mind that who do you represent when communicating?
Element of your organization
• Write personalized and considerate message, meant for
goodwill between you and your receiver
• A message may be routine for you but it is not routine for the
receiver, for example when you are sending messages to
customers as an H.R clerk.
Important in Communicating
• To choose the proper idea
• Patience even with insulting person
• Good English language knowledge
• Knowledge of message writing methods
• Knowledge of your audience conditions
• Be flexible- for the reason of diversity in organizations
Components of Communication
Communication is a process of transmitting and receiving verbal and
nonverbal messages. Communication is considered effective when it
achieves the desired reaction or response from receiver. Simply stated
communication is a two way process of exchanging ideas of
Sender Medium Receiver Feedback
Every message whether oral or written, begins with context. Context is
a broad field that includes country, culture, organization and external
and internal stimuli. Every country every culture and every company or
organization has its own conventions for processing and
communicating information. This aspect is the playing field on which
you must plan, design, and communicate your message successfully.
Another aspect of context is the external stimulus that prompts you to
send a message. The source of this prompt may be a letter, memo,
note, electronic mail, fax, telex, telephone call, a meeting or even a
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casual conversation. Your response to this prompt may be oral or
When you encode, your own view of the world affects the choices you
make in language. Your attitudes opinions, emotions, past experience,
likes and dislikes, education, job status and confidence in your
communications skills all influence the way you communicate your
ideas. Especially important is; your ability to analyze your receiver’
culture, viewpoint, needs, skills, status, mental ability, experience and
expectations. You must consider all these aspect of context in order to
communicate a message effectively.
Conventions and rules of
On the message writing
• External and internal Stimulation
Your point of view, attitudes, education, job status
And confidence in your communication also
Your ability to analyze your audience
• Conventions of country, culture and organizations for messages
• Context; playing field for message
When you send a message, you are the “encoder” the writer or
speaker depending on whether your message is written or oral . You
try to choose symbols –usually words( and sometimes also graphics or
pictures) that express your message so that the receiver(s) will
understand it and react with the response you desire.
• You choose the best and suitable symbols-usually words- to
Design your message.
• The sender will decide about the content, medium,
The sender will finalize the symbols which can better transmit the idea.
The message is the core idea you wish to communicate, it consists of
both verbal (written or spoken) symbols and nonverbal (Unspoken).
Your first task is to decide exactly what your message is and what
content to include. You must consider your context and especially the
receiver of your message –how the receiver will interpret it and how it
may affect your relationship.
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The core idea that you want to communicate, includes verbal & non-
• How might be interpreted by the receiver
• A proposal is much difficult than a simple answer to RFI
Your message channel depends on all he contextual factors discussed
above and nature pf the message itself. Your choices include electronic
mail the printed word or sound, briefly should you write or speak?
Like message content the choice of medium is influenced by
relationship between the sender and the receiver. If the message goes
to international audience you must also consider which medium is
preferred in receiver.
Depending on the relationship with receiver and level of urgency, the
medium can be
• Printed Media
• Electronic Media
Spoken or Written
It is influenced by the relationship of the parties.
Characteristics found in oral and written Media
Oral Delayed feedback
Immediate feedback Longer sentence
Shorter sentence More formal
Less formal Focus on Content
Focus on relationship More details
Less details Useful for permanent Records
Exclamatory sentences Complex construction
Simple construction more imperative,
Written media: for long, formal, documented and technical
Media of Communication
1. Memo 1. Staff meeting
2. Reports 2. Discussion
3. Bulletins 3. Presentation
4. Poster 4. Audio tapes
5. Notes 5. Telephone chat
6. Employee manual 6. Telephone conference
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• News release or press release
5- Receiver or Decoder
The message receiver is your reader or listener also unknown as the
decoder. Many of your messages of you messages may have more
than one decoder. The receiver as well as the sender is influenced by
the context and by the external and internal stimuli. Both receive
message through the eyes and ears but are also influenced by
nonverbal factors such touch, taste, and smell. All factors of a message
are filtered through the receiver(s) view of and experiences in the
world. But the problem is that we don’t all undergo identical experience
with the subject or the symbols that the sender has chosen. Even
within the United State attitudes, abilities, opinions, communication
skills and cultural customs vary.
S/he or they are influenced by their mental filter, and context (Country,
Culture, and Organization) of the message.
Be aware of Misinterpretations
Ability, attitude, skills, customs, and opinions vary within a
6- Feed back
• A message
• An action
• Or silence
Ultimately the receiver reacts with either the desired response based
on a clear understanding of the symbols or an undesired response
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because of miscommunication. Feedback can be oral or written. It can
also be an action, such as receiving in the mail an item you ordered.
Sometimes silence is used as feedback though it is almost always
ineffective. Sender needs feedback in order to determine the success
or failure of the communication.
Concepts & Problems of Communication
Sender’s meaning and receiver’s response are affected by following:
1. Conventions (customs, rules) of meaning
2. رسوم و اختلف معانی از پیامها و مکاتیب
2. Perception of reality ((درک حقیقت
3. Values, attitudes, And opinions
France: too polite
East: No time consideration
Germany: Thorough reporting
Japan: Slow decision making process
Conventions of Meaning
As effective business communication is the lifeblood of every
organization, a key to success in your career and help in your personal
life. The volume and costs of business communication are great; so
are challenges and opportunities for those with the right attitude and
perpetration. When you combine the principles of effective business
communication with common sense, you excel in your dealings with
Effective communication depends to a large extent on insights into
human nature and on the ability to get desirable responses by meeting
expectations. It is a complex process that involves context, sender,
message, medium, receiver, and feedback.
To be an effective communicator, realize that human beings mental
filters and experience differ, each brings different attitudes, abilities,
skills and cultural customs to the meanings of the words we use. Your
message may not always be understood.
The symbols should have the same meaning to sender and receiver-
but it doesn’t mean the same in some cases
USA- is a popular and common acronym
But FIFO- is meaningful only for accountants
• Our knowledge about a subject affects the meaning (Semantic)
When the sender and receiver attribute different meaning to the same
word or sentence, it is called miscommunication.
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Miscommunication occurs when the sender and receiver have different
meanings for the symbol, expression and quotes used. When the
message sender and receiver attribute different meanings to the same
worlds or use different words though intending the same meanings
1. Bimonthly report can interpreted in a wrong perception, it has
two meanings; one twice a month and other after on month
2. The tenement has two meanings: هر چیز قابل تصرف- اپارتمان یا تعمیر
3. To table a proposal means 2 things: put off, and to act on it
Perceptions of Reality:
Complex infinite and continuously changing the material world
provides a special reality to each individual. Also human beings
sensory perceptions-touch, sight, hearing, smell, taste are limited and
each person’s mental filter is unique. We make various abstractions,
inference and evaluation of the world around us.
Abstracting: focusing on some details and omitting others.
Inferring: Conclusion made by reasoning from evidence
Value, Attitude, and Opinions:
(A receiver’s attitude toward a message can determine whether it is
accepted or rejected)
Communication effectiveness is influenced also by the value, attitudes
and opinions the communicators have in their mental filters. People
react favorable when the message they receive agrees with their views
toward the information. The facts and the sender
Denotations معنی صریح
Dictionary definition of a word such as: Book, Wall, roof…
In addition to denotative meanings some words have connotative
meanings as well; this will arouse reactions.
Home: 1. house 2. Homeland
Sucker: has two meanings candy, and customer
Make also has connotation: “can do”
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You must be aware that some people will interpret the connotative
meaning of the word and results in miscommunication.
Perceptions of reality درک حقیقت
Different perceptions of Realities in different people
Each person has a different mental filter.
The Obstruction, inferences and evaluations of the world affects
PERCEPTIONS of REALITY.
Focusing on some details and omitting others is called obstructing.
Necessary Obstructing Slanted Statements
Because of the time The reason is not limitation of
And purpose limitations, you Time, but the sentences are not
Obstruct or ignore some organized properly
Information which makes the And the facts are not collected in
Messages useless e.g. obstruction a manner to have a complete
In an application letter meaning to the reader.
Or a text book For example: writing a report
Inference ))استنباط، نتیجه گیری
Conclusions made by receiver
Necessary Inference Risk of Inference
Business people should Inference may be incorrect or
Get the required data first, and unreliable.
then infer about the idea
For example: you might think
Example: that Ahmad is not attending his
After dropping a letter in mailbox, job. But he has already informed
we assume it will be delivered you about his sick leave.
Different Values, Attitudes, Opinions of people,
some time Create problems
1. Unfavorable information feedback is rejecting or avoiding
2. Closed minds: you can’t communicate easily with closed mind
3. Sender’s Credibility: A strong democrat can pleasantly accept
information from another democrat
4. Mood of the receiver, you can’t deal easily with a government
employee on a day he has too much personal problems
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Receivers’ views of the information presented will affect their response,
which could be what the sender desires or just the opposite.
Favorable or Unfavorable Information;
The effective communicator considers the receivers and whenever
possible, emphasizes the points the receivers will regard as favorable
or beneficial. Receivers often react to unfavorable information by
rejecting, distorting or avoiding it.
Occasionally people react according to their attitude toward a situation
rather than to the facts.
Some people hold rigid views on certain subjects. These people do not
consider facts or additional information and maintain their rigid views
regardless of the circumstance.
Sender's trustworthiness or credibility;
Often people react more according to their attitude toward the source
of information than to the information itself.
Difference of women and men in communication
Women think that language
Men think activities create
Men think communication is
communication is the basis
an instrument for business
Nonverbal Communications without
The preceding sections about the communication process focused on
verbal communication—written or spoken syllables, usually worlds. We
also communicate nonverbally-without words. Sometimes nonverbal
messages contradict the verbal; often they express feelings more
accurately than the spoken or written language.
مفاهمه بدون کلمات
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Appearance Body Language
Interested listener leans forward
Appearance وضع ظاهری
► Personal appearance
Clothing, hairstyles, neatness, jewelry, cosmetics, posture, stature are
part of personal appearance. They convey impressions regarding
occupation, age, nationality, social and economic level, job status and
good or poor judgment, depending on circumstance.
► Appearance of surroundings
Aspects of surroundings include room size, location, furnishings.
Machines, architecture, decorations where ever people communicate
Appearance conveys nonverbal impressions that affect receivers’
attitudes toward the verbal message even before they read or hear
• Appearance affects receiver’s
attitudes toward the verbal message.
• The format, neatness, size and
weight of a business message
(or an envelope), sends a
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► Effect on Written Messages;
The format, neatness and language of a written message send a
nonverbal message to the reader.
► Effect on Oral Messages;
Whether you are having inter communication or mass communication
personal appearance and the appearance of your surroundings convey
nonverbal stimuli that affect attitudes toward your spoken words.
Personal Appearance Surroundings
clothes Room size
Jewelry Wall decoration
1- Facial Expressions
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Eyes and face is too important in nonverbal expression; they reveal
hidden emotions including anger, confusion, enthusiasm, joy…
The eyes and face are especially helpful means of communicating
nonverbally they reveal hidden emotions. Including anger, confusion
enthusiasm, fear, joy, surprise, uncertainty and others. They can also
contradict verbal statement.
2- Gesture, posture and movement
Posture, gestures and body movement convey a message and add to
or subtract from your oral message.
• Traffic police uses his hand for communicating
• Gesture and movements depend to the culture- For example: In
Asia pounding a fist on the table is unacceptable
• Nervousness: walking back and forth,
• Confident: relaxed posture
Direct eye contact is desirable in US. If some one avoids it, considers
to be shy, dishonest
3- Smell and Touch
Various odors and fragrances sometimes convey the emotions of the
sender and sometimes affect the reactions of the receiver. Touching
people can communicate friendship, love, anger or other feelings.
• Touching people may indicate both anger, friendship and many
4- Voice and Sounds (Paralanguage)
Your voice quality the extra sounds you make while speaking are also
a part of nonverbal communication call paralanguage. Paralanguage
includes voice, volume rate, articulation, pitch and other sounds you
may make such as throat clearing and sighing.
A laud voice often communicates urgency while a soft one is
sometimes calming. Speaking fast may suggest nervousness haste.
• Volume- pitch-articulation
• (You’re always on time)
• has both positive and negative aspects
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• Emphasize on a specific word shows your special feelings about it
• I wanted you to be at the class at 06:30
Silence, Time, Space
Silence, time and space can communicate more than you may think
even causing hard feelings, loss of business and profits. It pays to
know these differences across cultures.
When you don’t receive a reply for your request for a travel allowance
from your company, what will you think????
Or think about the confusion you feel when your written message generates
Suppose you wrote a request to your supervisor for additional funds for a
project you are developing. If you receive no answer for several weeks,
what is your reaction? Do you assume that the answer is negative? Do you
wonder if your supervisor is merely very busy at the moment and hasn’t
been able to answer your request? Do you think your supervisor is rude or
consider your request unworthy of an answer?
Concepts of time however vary across cultures and even in the USA.
American and Germans, for example, are quite punctual (on time).
Middle Eastern business people think little of arriving after an agreed-
upon time, not out of discourtesy, but rather a feeling that the task will
be accomplished regardless of time.
• Time communicates- Americans and Germans are quite on time.
• If you come to a meeting on time in Portugal, you will be
considered to early.
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If you step into an empty elevator, where do you stand? If the elevator
then fills up with people, where do you move? The need for personal
space decreases as the number of people increases.
In the US, normally they consider space around 18 inches as personal
space. , in Middle Eastern countries, it is less. Arabs stay too close
Consider the common “dance of the diplomats” in which an American
and a Saudi Arabian fall into conversation. The Saudi takes a step forward;
the American edges backward; the Saudi advances; the American retreats.
By the end of the conversation, the American feels bullied, and the Saudi
Effective communicators must learn to adapt to both senders’ and
receivers’ expectations regarding space. The key to success is to be
aware of the differences.
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The 7 Cs
To compose effective written or oral messages you must apply certain
These principles provide guidelines for choice of content and style of
presentation adapted to the purpose and receiver of your message.
Called the “seven Cs” they are Completeness, Conciseness,
Consideration, Concreteness, Clarity, Courtesy, and Correctness.
All Seven C’s can apply to both oral and written communication
Although we deal with here with these principles on the sentence level ,
they are applicable to all forms of communication, from mere utterances and
sentences to complete documents or presentation
To include all facts that the reader of the message may need in order to
show desired reaction.
(Message receivers-either listeners or readers—desire complete information
to their questions)
Your business message is complete when it contains all facts the
reader or listener needs for the reaction you desire. Remember that
communicators –senders-receivers differ in their mental filters; they are
influenced by their background, viewpoints, needs, experience,
attitudes, status and emotions.
Because of these differences, communication senders need to assess
their message through the eyes of receivers to be sure they have
included all relevant information.
Completeness offers numerous benefits. First complete messages are
more likely to bring the desire results without the expense of additional
messages. Second, they can do a better job of building goodwill.
Messages that contain information that receiver needs show concern
for others. Third complete messages can help avert costly lawsuits that
may result if important information is missing.
As you strive for completeness, keep the following guidelines in mind.
1. Provide all necessary information
2. Answer All questions asked
3. Give some extra information
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A. Provide all necessary information
When you initiate a message check to make sure you have provided all
the information the reader needs for thorough, accurate understanding.
One-way to help make your message complete is to answer the fie W
question- who, what, when, where, why –and any other essentials suck
as how. The five –question method is especially useful when you write
request, announcement, or other informative message.
Answer all Five Ws (RFQ)
Especially in writing requests, announcements
For example: in ordering a merchandise, state completely what you want
when you want it, and how ….
B. Answer All questions asked
(Stated and implied (طرح شده و ضمنی
Whenever you reply to an inquiry, try to answer all question—stated
and implied. A colleague or prospective customer’s reaction to an
incomplete reply is likely to be unfavorable. The customer may think
the respondent is careless or is purposely trying to conceal a weak
In replying an inquiry- e.g. procurement
Omissions cast suspicions
In case you find additional informational to state in replying an
inquiry, Better to send back a reply form to be filled by the sender
C. Give some extra information
The words “hen desirable” in the above heading are essential.
Sometimes you must do more than answer the customers’ specific
questions. They may not know what they need or their question may be
– Thank you for your confidence you’ve shown as selection of our
company to provide you with this service.
This is some extra information in a letter of a supplier:
We will be honored if you accept our representative to give you detailed
information about our potential services at your own office….
And then you can include the List of other services that your company
After Robert opens a saving account in your bank, you send him a letter that
1. Thanks for his business
2. State other services of your bank: such as, paying bills by phone,
mortgage loans, free parking area…
3. Also write to him that he is most welcome to visit the departments of the
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To Say it in possible fewest words
Conciseness is saying what you have to say in the fewest possible
words without sacrificing the other C qualities. A concise message is
complete without being wordy.
Conciseness is a prerequisite to effective business communication. A
concise message saves time and expense for both sender and
receiver. Conciseness contributes to emphasis; by eliminating
unnecessary words, you let important ideas stand out.
To achieve conciseness, observe the following suggestions
1. Eliminate wordy expressions
2. Include only relevant Materials
3. Avoid Unnecessary Repetition
A. Eliminate wordy expressions
The following are some concrete suggestions you can use to reduce
wordiness in your communication
1. Use single-word substitutes instead of phrases whenever
possible whit out changing meanings.
Wordy: At this time
Wordy: Due to the fact that
Wordy: In due course
2. Omit trite, unnecessary expressions.
Wordy: Please be advised that you admission statement was
Concise: Your admission statement has been received.
Wordy: Allow me to say how helpful your response was.
Concise: Your last response was helpful.
3. Replace wordy conventional statement with concise versions.
Wordy: Please find the attachment the list you requested.
Concise: The list you requested is attached.
Wordy: such refreshing comments are few and far between.
Concise: Such refreshing comments are scarce.
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4. Avoid overusing empty phrases.
Wordy: It was known by Mr. Roeen that we must reduce inventory.
Concise: Mr. Roeen knew we must reduce inventory.
Wordy: There are four rules that should be observed.
Concise: Four rules should be observed.
5. Limit use of the passive voice.
Wordy: The total balance due will be found on page 2 of this report.
Concise: The balance due is on page 2 of this report.
Wordy: The reports are to be submitted by employers prior to 5:00
at which time Mr. Roeen will receive them.
Concise: Please submit your reports to Mr. Roeen by 5:00.
Single word instead of phrase:
• At this time instead Now
• Due to the fact instead because
Omit unnecessary expressions- that, which:
• The salaries which are not paid
• The unpaid salaries
Avoid empty phrases:
• Please be advised just omit it
• Allow me to say just omit it
Limit unnecessary prepositions:
• impacts of this program program impacts
• The policy of the company company policy
Limit the use of passive voice
• The reports will be submitted by employees
• The employees submit the report
B. Include only relevant Materials
1. Stick to the purpose of the message.
2. Delete irrelevant words and rambling sentences.
3. Omit information obvious to the receiver; do not repeat.
4. Avoid long introductions, unnecessary explanations, excessive
adjective and prepositions, pompous words and gushy
5. Get to the important point tactfully and concisely
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• Do not repeat any concept which has already been said.
For example: repeating the importance of a workshop to which you are
invited (when you confirm your participation in the seminar).
• Avoid long descriptions, gushy politeness
For example: (your majesty, we will be very much honored if you…, very
respectful and honorable…)
– Hereby we want to present our appreciation about your great and
distinguished services and ultimate confidence….this is an example of
the gushy politeness
– We appreciate your excellent service.
• Avoid Tautology: It means that you express more than two words to
explain a simple concept.
For example: half way agenda, draft agenda, uncompleted agenda
Big vehicle which takes more than 30 people: bus
C. Avoid Unnecessary Repetition
Sometimes repetition is necessary for emphasis. But when the same
thing is said two or three times without reason, the message gets
boring and wordy.
Ex. Afghan Wireless Communication Company (AWCC)
Afghan National Army (Ana)
United state of America (US)
Use shorter names after their first use,
For example: KARDAN University instead of (KARDAN university of BA and
Use Pronouns or initials- WHO instead of (World Health Organization)
Combine two or more sentences.
This is to inform you, that you’ve been selected for the position which you
had applied. We will try to send you the job offer by electronic mail. You
may also be required to sign a copy of that offer physically in our HR
We are pleased to announce your selection for the position of ICT specialist,
so please come and sign the job offer any time before 7th March.
3-Consideration رعایت طرف مقابل
Consideration means preparing every message with the message
receiver in mind; try to put your self in their place. You are considerate,
you do not lose your temper, you do not accuse, and you do not charge
them without facts. You are foremost, aware of their desires, problems,
circumstance, emotions, and probable reactions to your request. Then
handle the matter from their point of view.
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Means to prepare the message with the message receiver in mind; their
situation, problems and emotions
1. Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we”-This is called You attitude
2. Show audience benefit or interest
3. Emphasize on positive and pleasant facts
A. Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we”-(This is called
To create considerate, audience-oriented message, focus on how
message receiver will benefit. What they will receive and what they
need to know.
We-Attitude: I am delighted to announce that we will be extending
our hours to make shopping more convenient.
You- Attitude: you will be able to shop evenings with extended
Showing consideration for the audience involves more than just using
“you” instead of “I” or “we.”
Messages that use “we” can be receiver-oriented if “we” includes the
recipient of message.
Massages that use “you” can insensitive in negative situations. In fact
sometimes avoiding “you” can reduce potential defensiveness or allow
the recipient to save face.
The use of “you” in negative situation can be avoided by employing the
passive voice, making the receiver part of a group or depersonalizing
Insensitive: you failed to enclose your check in the envelope.
Consideration: The check was not enclosed (passive)
Consideration: the envelope we received did not have a check in it.
I am delighted to inform you you are selected as
We will deliver the generator you will receive it in your company
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Don’t use (You) in negative situations and sarcastic,
negative, or insulting sentences or phrases
• You failed to enclose your letter of interest
• The form was not enclosed
• You are totally off base in your proposal
• We had deferent interpretations from the concept of the
B. Show audience benefit or interest
Whenever possible and true, show how your receivers will be benefit
from what every the message asks or announces. Benefit must meet
recipients’ needs, address their concerns, or offer them rewards. Most
important, the receivers must perceive them as benefits. This means
that you must identify the legitimate benefits of your position, policy or
products and the put yourself in the place of the receivers to assess
– Show how he will benefit:
You can save $500 for each week in our hotel
You will feel comfortable using our vehicle for transportation.
– Personalize your message:
You will have the chance to get included in our vendors list.
– Show interest and additional consideration when you find no
direct benefit :
You will have a pleasant morning by watching the sunshine through
your room window
C. Emphasize on positive and pleasant facts
A third way to show consideration for your receivers is to accent the
positive. This means stressing what can be done instead of what
cannot be done and focusing on words your recipient can consider
Negative –Unpleasant Positive—Pleasant
It is impossible to open an account for you today As soon as your
signature card reaches
us; we will gladly open
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► Stress on what can be done
It is impossible to open an account...
As soon you return the filled form we will open an account for you…
► Don’t use negative words:
Failed, fault, regret, reject, can’t…
► Use positive words:
Happy, help, pleasure, benefit …
Communicating concretely means, being specific, definite and vivid
rather than vague and general.
The following guidelines should help you compose concrete,
1. Use specific facts and figures
2. Put actions in your verbs,
3. Choose vivid, image-building words
(We are waiting for your green light to start the work).
► Often use Denotative: dictionary based words
► Try to minimize using Connotative words:
For example the word “Concern” has the following meanings
» Relating to
A. Use specific facts and figures
Whenever possible, use an exact precise statement or a figure in place
of a general word to make your message more concrete.
Vague, General, Indefinite Concrete, Precise
Eastern Europe is making progress in In 1990 investment in Eastern
Obtaining investment. Europe were about US 30m $;
today that figure has increased by
► Use exact and precise statement or figure
He is an outstanding sales person
He sells 15-20 refrigerators every day
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► Try your best to minimize using opinion words such as:
Slightly, a few, many, several
► Be general when:
1. When no figures on hand
2. When you want to be diplomatic, You have missed 4 invitation to
I am going to send you another gentle reminder…
► When no importance of figures, half of the class…
B. Put action in the verbs
Verbs can activate other words and help make your sentences alive,
more vigorous. That is to have dynamic sentences (1) use active rather
than passive verbs and (2) put action in your verbs rather than in nouns
The tests were administrated by the professors.
Professors administrated the tests.
Put Action in Verbs not in Nouns
Action in Noun:
The function of this office is the collection of payments and the
compilation of Statements.
Action in Verbs:
This office collects payments and compiles statements
► Use active rather than passive verbs
The request was approved by the project manager….
Project manager approved the request
► Active verbs makes the sentence more Specific, personal,
concise and Emphatic
► When is it better to use passive voice?
1- When you want to conceal the doer, (you were not hired)
2- To stress on the object.. (the job offer was rejected)
3- When the doer is not important… (the account was closed)
► Use active verbs not active nouns
There is requirement for more resources in the office
We require (need) more people in the office
My intention is to achieve the goals
I intend to achieve the goals
The secretary duty is to check the incoming messages
The secretary checks all the incoming messages
I will have concentration on my job
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I will concentrate on my job
C. Choose Vivid, image-building Words
1. Business style use less image building words than fiction style
2. sensory appeal
• He felt like his feet were nailed down
• His arrival to the party, was like a hummer on my head
• Too many simple sentences, like the writing of a 1st year
• He angry like an injured lion
4. Figurative language ()تصویری یا تمثیلی
• He was called the spark plug of the group
• You will face a glass ceiling
Getting the meaning from you head into the head of your reader –
accurately—is the purpose of clarity.
Of course you know this is not simple. We all carry around our own
unique interpretations, ideas, experience associated with words.
1. Choose Precise, Concrete and familiar words
2. Construct effective sentences and paragraphs
A. Choose Precise, Concrete and familiar words
Clarity is achieved in part through a balance between precise language
and familiar language.
When you use precise or concrete language, you select exactly the
right word to convey your meaning.
Precise words need not be pretentious.
Use familiar, conversational words
Charge to your principle Increase the balance of your loan
Don’t use Latin terms, use their synonyms
Cardiac arrest heart attack
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Minimize your E-mail abbreviations
IMO in my opinion
FAQ frequently asked questions
FYI for your information
MOTOS member of the opposite sex
The following unclear answer was written in response to a plumber’s
(The efficacy of the HCL is indisputable but the corrosive residue is
incompatible with permanence of metal)
Do you think it will be understandable for a plumber (??)نل دوان
If answer is no, then use simple and clear language when
communicating to a non educated person.
B. Construct effective sentences and paragraphs
At the core of clarity is the sentence. This grammatical statement when
clearly expressed, move thoughts within a paragraph. Important
characteristics to consider are length, unity, coherence and emphasis.
Average length for a sentence: 17-20 words, Max 40 words,
A sentence must explain one main idea and other ideas must be
related to the main idea.
The Secretary has sent the agenda, the weather is nice today.
The secretary has sent the agenda, to inform the members of the
Coherence- ارتباط و تسلسل
I am a BBA graduate; I am familiar with the marketing principles
I am familiar with the marketing issues, because I am a BBA graduate.
Put main ideas upfront in the sentence,
The writer must decide what needs emphasize
We want to conduct an entry test for the BBA program, we need to
know the students educational background
We will conduct a BBA entry test to find out the students’ writing and
(Some times can reach 40 words, but if it needs more than 40 words,
than split it up.)
The airplane finally approached the speed of sound, and it became
very difficult to control.
The airplane became difficult to control when it
reached the speed of sound.
All of them supported the decision, in order to avoid excessive
waste of time.
Less important idea
Main Idea in Main Subordinate clause
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True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of
others, but also their feelings.
Courtesy stems from a sincere you attitude. It is not merely politeness
with mechanical insertions of “please” and “thank you” although
applying socially accepted manners is a form of courtesy.
Rather it is politeness that grows out of respect and concern for others.
Being aware not only about others situation, but also their feelings,
1. Be sincerely tactful ,بانزاکتthoughtful and appreciative
2. Use expressions that show respect
3. Choose nondiscriminatory expressions
Reasons of Discourtesy
Misuse of Conciseness
Not knowing the Discourtesy in Negative
Culture Message writing Personal attitude
A. Be sincerely tactful ( ,)بانزاکتThoughtful,
and appreciative-حق شناس
Stupid questions, I don’t know what you mean by asking them
I think some parts of your questionnaire may need more clarification.
You didn’t send your comments on the interview report
This is to kindly remind you, should you have comments on the
interview report which was sent to you on 12 April, 2006.
Internal messages are shorter and more direct, than outside
Asians tend to be treated with more courtesy rather then
Build Goodwill by sending a message with full courtesy.
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B. Use Expressions that show respect
Omit irritating expressions
» Contrary to your inference- برخلف نتیجه گیری تان
» I don’t agree
» We have you ignored
» We expect you to
Omit Questionable ( )سوال برانگیزhumor ( (-شوخ طبعی
(Laughter to one person is disgust to other)
(Offensive) What you’ve done is a quick action without thinking about
your close friends. I knew your reality from the beginning. Anyway,
don’t mind it and wish you happy new life.
(Courteous) Warm Congratulations on your wedding!
Actually that was a real surprise for us, because few of us might have
expected such a prompt action from you. Give my warm regards to
your new life partner. I wish you a happy life.
C. Choose nondiscriminatory expressions
Equal treatment of people regardless of gender, race, ethnic
origin, and physical features
Don’t use he, his, or him when addressing a
Instead use gender sensitive language, Say
s/he/ or his/her
Freshman First year student
The best man the best person
Each manager has an assigned parking place. He shouldn’t park his
Better to say: Each manager has an assigned parking place. He/she
shouldn’t park his vehicle in front of the …
Or: Every manager has been assigned a parking place. Each car
should be parked...
We need you to register your licenses by Wednesday, because the one
who ignores the notice may lose his contract next time.
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Better to say: We would like you to register your licenses by
Wednesday because you will be eligible to receive request for
How to write Names
At the core of correctness is proper grammar, punctuation and spelling.
Means, to use proper grammar punctuation, and spelling
1. Use the right level of language (Three level of language)
2. Check Accuracy of Figures, facts and words
3. Maintain acceptable writing mechanism
A. Use the right level of language
Three level of language
We suggest that there are three levels of language: formal, informal,
and substandard. Take a quick guess what kind of writing is associated
with each level? What is the style of each?
Formal writing is often associated with scholarly writing: doctoral
dissertations, scholarly articles, legal documents. Top-level
government agreements and other materials where formality in style is
Informal writing is more characteristic of business writing. Here you use
words that are short, well known and conversational, as in this
» Formal: scholarly articles, legal docs, governmental docs
» Informal or less formal: Business Writings- especially E-mail
Formal Less formal
In-kind contributions goods donated
» Substandard: Avoid this kind of language in business
Avoid substandard language: Using incorrect words, incorrect
grammar, faulty punctuation all suggest on inability to use good
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Aint isn’t. aren’t
Should of should have
B. Check accuracy of figures, facts
It is impossible to convey meaning precisely, through words, from the
head of the sender to a receiver.. our goal is to be as precise as
possible which means checking and double-checking to ensure that the
figures, facts and words you use are correct.
Fact and figures
• Verify your statistical data.
• Double-check your totals.
• Avoid guessing at laws that have an impact on you,
the sender and your message receiver.
• Have someone else read your message if the topic
• Determine whether a “fact” has changed over time.
► Verify your statistical data, such as number of people, amount of
► Avoid guessing: Don’t say if you don’t know it exactly
► Be vigilant about confusing words
» Accept except
» Between()میان دو چیز among()میان بیشتراز دو
» Continual((بعد از یک وقفه continuous-دوامدار
» Effect affect
» Farther( in place) further (in time)
» Council (advisory group) Counsel (verb)
C. Maintain acceptable writing
A relating to mechanics, word processing and appearance of business
messages is relevant here. With the various packages available for
computers both grammar-check and spell-check have made your
editing tasks easier. Yet we recommended careful attention to the
mechanical part of every well-writing document.
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The Process of Preparing Effective
Five Planning Steps:
To communicate effectively, consider the following steps before you
write your Message;
1. Identify your purpose
2. Analyze your audience
3. Choose your ideas
4. Collect data to support ideas
5. Organize your message
1-Identify your purpose
Every message has two purposes
ً Creating Goodwill
To inform In Every message
To ask or to persuade
The object of your message is almost always dual; the reason for the
message itself and the creation of goodwill. Your first step when
planning your communication is to determine your specific purpose. Is
your message mainly informational, such as announcing your firm’s
new location? it is mainly persuasive, such as asking customers to buy
your product? Are you trying to negotiate a contract with a parts
supplier in South America?
2-Analyze your Audience
See your message from your receivers’ point of view; their needs,
interests, attitudes, even their culture. After reading about the
communication process and principles is both national and
international contexts you realize how important it is to adapt your
messages to your receivers’ views, mental filter, needs and culture.
Your message from your receiver’s point of view
• Proper placement of their first and last name
• Their situation, culture
• Education, position, experience
• Mental Filter
• Their information on the subject of the letter
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 34
Choose your ideas-3
The ideas you include depend on the type of message you are
sending, the situation, and the cultural context.
With your purpose and receiver in mind, the next step is to choose the
ideas for your message. If you are answering a letter, underline the
main points to discuss and jot your ideas in the margin. If you are
writing an unsolicited or a complex message, begin by listing ideas as
they come to you-brainstorming- and the choosing the best ideas for
1. List the ideas you want to include in the message
2. Ideas depend on the type of message
3. If a person is asking for rates of your hotel, you should
Include following ideas in your letter to him:
a. Thanks the reader for the letter asking about rates.
b. Mention other services and facilities the hotel provides.
c. Include information regarding the Place of the hotel
d. Describe the facilities.
e. And the rates which are asked
4- Collect your Data
Be sure to collect enough data to support your ideas; check
names, dates, addresses and statistics for accuracy. After you
have decided what ideas to include, you must determine whether
you need specific facts, figures, quotations or other forms of
evidence to support your points. Be sure you know your company
polices, procedures and product details if your message requires
4. Facts and figures
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6. Enclose a brochure, table….
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5-Organize your message
Organizing your material before writing your first draft can prevent
confused and unclear message.
Before you write your first draft, outline your message ( mentally or on
paper) . the order in which you present your ideas is as important as
the ideas themselves. Disorganized, rambling messages often seem
careless, confusing and unimportant.
1. Organize the outline of the message before writing the
2. How do you want to sort your headings and main parts
3. What approach do you choose for your message
Direct Approach Indirect Approach
In USA Latin America & Asia
Let’s Apply 5 planning steps
This is to remind you for the working group meeting on Wednesday
April 05, 2006 at 3:00pm and to enclose the minutes from working
group meeting held on March 29, 2006.
The meeting will be held at British Embassy conference house number
21, Wazir Akbar Khan main road, opposite of Bulgarian Embassies.
The proposed agenda for the meeting will be updated by UNDP,
USAID and UNIFEM.
If you like to add an item to the agenda, please send it to
Or call 070 278 998.
Basic Methods (approaches) for organizing a message
Direct or Deductive Inductive
Neutral News Good News Bad News Persuasive
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Basic Organizational Plans
Your choice of organizational plan depends on a number of factors: how
you expect your reader or listener to react to your message, how much
this person knows about the topic or situation.
We have two type of organizational plan.
Direct (Deductive) approach
Use the directive approach when the audience is pleasant to your
When you think your reader or listener will have a favorable or neutral
reaction to your message, you can use the direct approach. You begin
with the main idea or best news. After the opening, you include all
necessary explanatory details in one or several paragraphs and end with
an appropriate, friendly closing.
Use this approach when you think that the reader will have favorable
(or neutral reaction to your message. When (+) or (0
Friendly close Details Main Idea First
Sending of neutral or good news .1
Exchange daily information .2
Direct Approach Example
I am pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Jakob Simonsen as
Director of the UNDP Nordic Office in Copenhagen.
Many of you know Jakob, who joins BRSP after a long history of
excellent performance in leadership positions with UNDP in Latin America
and the Caribbean and, most recently, in Europe & the CIS. He has a
proven track record in constituency-building in the countries he has served
and has been highly successful in ensuring effective support in developing
regional resource mobilization strategies.
Amongst his many achievements, I would like to highlight the re-alignment
of the UN program in Turkey to support the EU accession process and the
successful partnership and network building with multinational and
domestic private sector entities. This has led to the expansion and
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 38
application of concepts such as the Global Compact, Corporate Social
Responsibility and Corporate Governance.
Jakob began his UNDP career as a Junior Professional Officer in
Honduras (3/1980 to 12/1982) and later served as Program Officer,
UNFPA, New York (1/1983 to 6/1986). He served as Deputy Resident
Representative in Panama, UNDP (7/1986 to 11/1988) and Nicaragua,
UNDP (12/1988 to 6/1991) before returning to Headquarters as Deputy
Chief, Division I, RBLAC, UNDP (7/1991 to 7/1994). He returned to the
field as Resident Coordinator/Resident Representative in Peru (8/1994 to
6/1997). Jakob became the Deputy Regional Director, RBLAC (6/1997 to
10/2000) and later the Deputy Regional Director, RBEC (10/2000 to
3/2003) before returning once again to the field as Resident
Coordinator/Resident Representative in Turkey April 2003.
Jakob holds an M.A in Political Science, University of Aarhus,.Please join
me in warmly welcoming Jakob as he assumes his duties on 6 March
Another Example of Direct Approach
Thank you very much for your support to the organization of the last
International Conference. We would like you to participate in the working
group meetings for the International conference of Wolesi Jirga as well.
I’m pleased to extend the mandate of the Conference Organising
Committee initially until 10 June 2006 to ensure the smooth arrangement
of the International Conference on Effective Legislative-Executive
Relations (6-8 June 2006) for the Wolesi Jirga. The next meeting of the
said committee will be held on Sunday, 23 April 2006 at 3.15 PM at SEAL
Conference Room. The meeting will also review the follow-up of the
Your presence to the meeting will definitely enhance its effectiveness.
With best wishes-
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Indirect (Inductive) Approach
When you resistance to your message, choose the in-directive
approach, such as in bad news message or a persuasive request.
If you think your readers or listeners might react negatively to your
message, generally you should not present the main idea in the first
paragraph. Instead consider beginning with a buffer-a relevant pleasant,
neutral or receiver-benefit statement; then give an explanation before you
introduce your idea.
When you think that the reader will resist to your message, choose
.indirect approach. When (-) negative reaction
For example: in Persuasive request
Attention Interest Desire Action
Buffer The bad news
Explanation Friendly close
or the Decision
Attention line: Now you will be able to do online business using the
Now You will not need to print your high quality materials (including the
.Banners) outside the organization
The information and Public Relations Department of your company will
achieve all of the public awareness goals, if they have an in-house four
color printing machine plus a cutting machine including 30 days of training
.to the technical and maintenance personnel
Enclosed there is the requisite Quotation for a DX-550 Printing machine
with a total price of $165000. This machine is made in Germany and has
supplemented by a cutting instrument. The machine will be delivered in
.one week after your notice. And it has one year limited warranty
Please read the enclosed attachment about the specifications and price of
the machine, and don’t hesitate to ask, should you have any question by
.calling 070345678 or sending a mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
Closing John Stephen
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Beginnings and Endings
Two of the most important position in any business message are the
opening and closing paragraphs. You have probably heard the old saying
“First impressions are lasting” and “We remember best what we read last”.
Whenever possible, place the main favorable ideas at the beginning and
ending of a message. This advice also applies to paragraphs.
Often the opening of a written message
determines whether the reader continues
reading, puts the message aside, or discards it.
In direct approach: main idea first
Please find attached your certificate of appreciation which points to your
successful participation in the seminar…
In Indirect approach: buffering first
Because of the large number of applications for our BBA program, we
have to turn away many persons. We obviously underestimated the
interest in our current subject. A new program is being planned….
1. Choose appropriate opening
Main Idea or Good-News subject First. Begin with the main idea or
good-news subject when you are sure the reader will consider the
information favorable or neutral. It is also easier for the reader to
understand the main idea if it is in the first paragraph. These openings are
desirable in direct-request, neutral, and good-news messages.
Request: So that your funds, which have matured, can be
transferred to your account as you have requested,
please return to us the following:
Good news; Enclosed is a cash refund for the defective
wristwatch that you sent to us recently.
Announcement: As a representative of KARDAN, you are invited to
attend a free seminar on Negotiating Environmental
Issues in the International Marketplace to be geld in
the Intercontinental Hotel, on May 1st. The purpose
of this seminar is to explain the new national
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 41
environmental laws affecting international business.
Buffer First, when you have bad news for the reader, begin with a buffer
a statement that you can agree on which sets a neutral manner.
Poor: Your application to the Executive Skills program has been rejected
due to the following reasons:
Good: Because of the large number of applications we receiver for our
Executive Skills Program, we have had to turn away many
persons. We obviously underestimated the interest in our
current subject. A new program is already being planned, and
we will send you information as soon as it is available.
Attention-Getting Statements First. When you write a persuasive
request begin with relevant statements that will induce the recipient to
read further, as in this opening.
Did you know that up to half of all lower back pain is caused
by sleeping on a too-soft mattress? In addition, back pain
due to other causes can be made worse by sleeping on a
poor mattress. We remedy that. Our company has
developed a new mattress and foundation that provides the
kind of support you back needs!
So we blew it! That happens. But our wish is to meet your
concerns immediately. Like within the next two weeks.
Please read the enclosed flyer; we hope it responds to all
In both examples above, the sentences are varied. Some are even
incomplete. Attention-getting marketing statements seek first to get
attention of the reader and then worry about the precision of the language.
2. Make the opening Considerate, and concise
Immediately get your reader into the opening thought whether your
message is good or bad news, a direct or a persuasive request.
Emphasize the reader, and focus on the positive aspects of your
message. Use courteous language, and avoid anything that might anger
Keep the first paragraph relatively short, five typewritten lines or
less. As in all the paragraphs, use conversational language in clear and
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 42
concise sentences. Avoid unnecessary repetition of what the reader has
3. Make it complete with 5 W
Avoid opening with an incomplete sentence like:
Reference your letter of May 9.concerning Helen Smith’s request for
a transfer of funds.
Usually you should subordinate the date of the letter you are answering
unless including it is beneficial to the reader or to you or unless you need
it for record keeping.
Poor: As per your recent letter, we have shipped your order today by
Good: Three bolts of Thai silk, which you ordered on July 6, were shipped
to you today by DHL.
Your closing is more likely to motivate the reader to act as requested if it is
appropriately strong, clear and polite. Here you have the opportunity to
bring final focus on the desired action and leave a sense of goodwill with
the reader. What you say in the closing should reinforce the central
purpose of your message.
Closing must motivate the reader to act upon the message.
Motivate your audience by strong, polite, clear ending including a
focus on desired action. And also try to reinforce the main idea in the
1. Make Action Request Clear and Complete with the Five Ws and
2. End on a Positive, Courteous Thought
3. Keep Last Paragraph Concise and Correct
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Appearance and Design of Business
1. Business Letters
3. Special Timesaving Message Media
The appearance and design of your letter communicates a non-verbal
The medium used most for written messages to persons outside your
organization is the business letter. Your letter’s appearance conveys
nonverbal impression that affects a reader’s attitude even before that
person reads the letter. The many type styles and formats of modern word
processing system and printers can enhance the appearance of your
message and create a positive impression.
Try to make a neat and elegant:
• Cover letter
Stationary and Envelop
Keep the following guidelines in mind if you
have an opportunity to suggest or change
your organization’s stationary.
1. Quality, Size, Color of the paper
• 25% Cotton content
• 20 pound
• 8.5 X 11 inches
• White or light gray
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2. Letterhead (2 inches at the top) Includes:
Letterhead information should include the name, address, ZIP, and
telephone number. Sometime fax number, nature of business and name of
department are also included
• The firms Name
• Fax number
Envelop (according to US postal guidelines)
• Return Address (sender’s address) upper lift corner
• Receiver's address: middle of the envelop
– Contents of an address:
» Name and title of receiver
» Name of department
» Name of organization
» Name of Building
» Street address and suite number or post office box number
» Country, City, state, and ZIP code country (if letter is being
sent out not the country).
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– Mail notations such as Registered, special delivery needs to be
below the postal area
– On arrival notations: confidential, please forward: shall be all in
capital letters below the return address
WHO, Afghanistan Mail
Box 345 Notation
On arrival Notation
PLEASE FORWARD Registered
inch 1 Marketing officer, Care Int inch 1
Shahr-e-naw, Kabul, Afghanistan
Address inch 0.6
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Standard Parts of a Letter
Most business letters have the following parts:
1. Heading (letter head and date)
2. Inside address
5. Complimentary close
7. Reference section
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1. Letterhead & date
Letterhead shows where the letter comes from
If you don’t use letter head write your address above the (date)
Headings either letterhead or your own address should be at the top of the
letter before the date and before the name and address of the receiver of
Date: to right corner below the letterhead
US style: March 5, 2006
Europe style: 3/5/06
Asian & Latin style: 5 March, 2006
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2. inside Address
The inside address should begin with the addressee’s name preceded by
a courtesy and/or professional title.
1. Courtesy title (Dr.) or (Mr.)
3. 3. Executive or Professional Title ( better to be in the same line)
4. Department name
5. Organization Name
6. City and country
Salutations are typed on the second line below the inside address and two
lines above the body of the letter.
Dear Mr. John,
Dear Dr. Rahman,
Dear Ms. Shazia
Dear Ms/ Mr.
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Most letters are typed single-spaced, with two spaces between
paragraphs, before and after the salutation and before the complementary
• Single space between lines
• Double space between paragraphs
4. Complementary Closing
• Formal Closing
Sincerely yours, yours sincerely
Very truly yours, yours very truly
• Informal closing
You can include your typewritten name and your business title.
D. Company- don’t write company name, if printed in the letterhead
2nd Deputy Speaker, (Wolesi Jirga)
Sign by a pen
Write only your first name in signature, if you have not written your
reader’s second name in the salutation
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6. Reference Section
The reference section may include information about the message
composer, the typist and sometimes word processing data.
The initials of the composer/typist of the message
» means that Ahmad Fawad composer and Sayed Burhan typist
2. AF <5>: SB
» Ahmad Fawad composer of the message
» Saved in Disk 5
» Sayed Burhan typist
3. Another method JH:AF:sb
» Jamila Paiman signer
» Ahmad Fawad composer
» Sayed Burhan typist
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Optional parts of the letter
When appropriate any of these optional parts can be included:
1. Attention line
2. Subject line
4. Copy notation
5. File or account number and mailing notation
1. Attention line
An attention line is useful when you want your message to go to certain
departments or when someone other than the addressee will take care of
► When you want your message to go to a certain department
► When you want to send it to a particular position, but don’t know his
► When the writer thinks that the receiver often travels.
Place the attention line between inside address and salutation.
To the attention of Marketing Officer,
To the attention of Sales Manager
2. Subject Line
The subject will help your tell readers at
a glance what is your letter is about.
► To show what the message is about
► Place it below the salutation
Subject: Invitation to the Workshop
3. Enclosure Notation
An enclosure notation or attachment notation is included to remind your
reader to check for additional pages of information.
• It says about the attachments of the letter
• Below the reference section
For example enclosing a resume with a cover letter
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4. Copy Notation
When persons other than the addressee will receive a copy of your
message you note by writing “c,” “pc,” “copy,” “cc” the name of these
persons just below the reference initials or the enclosure notation
CC: Mr. Shir Ahmad: Means that a carbon copy has been sent to Mr. Shir
Ahmad as well
C, PC or copy: Mr. Shir Ahmad: means that a photocopy of the letter
has been sent also to Shir Ahmad
BC, BCC, or BPC (Blind copy): Means that you have sent a copy or
copies to people whom you don’t want to name.
5. File or Account Number and Mailing
Special account number or file number of the addressee in an
organization, mailing notation words such as special delivery, certified or
Account Number is a combination of (serial Number & date) typed above
the body of the letter.
Mailing Notations: Words such as (Special Delivery), (Certified) or
(Registered) which, are placed below the date line, or below the
T110o emphasize a point already in your message or include a brief
personal message unrelated to the letter a postscript typed or handwritten
with “p.s,” “ps, or ps:” .
To emphasize an idea of your letter, or insert a personal message, just
writes “PS”, or “P.S.” or “PS:” and then your personal message.
PS: Would you please come to my house this weekend?
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:Optional Parts of Latter
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American Punctuation styles
No punctuation After any part of the
letter Colon after Salutation & Comma
Except the body after Complementary close
Asian put a comma instead of colon after the salutation; they say colon
.is too formal
Although layout or format of the letter is primarily the typist’s responsibility,
it is covered briefly here to give you a basis for choosing the styles you
Most American business letters use mixed punctuation, with a colon
following the salutation and comma after the complimentary closing.
1. punctuation style (comma, full stop etc )
2. letter style (the format of the letter )
3. tips for the letter placements (spacing, size of the paper, indents or
1. Full Block:
Every line starts at the left margin
easy and quick
2. Modified Block:
Date, com close, and signature sections begin at the horizontal
centre of the page.
Attention and subject lines may be indented, or begin at the left
All other parts begin at the very left margin.
3. Modified block with Paragraph Indented
all the first lines of the paragraphs indented
Signature and com close start at the center
right corner date
4. AMS (Administrative Management Society)
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It is not used widely any more Use specific software package, if
available, for composing a letter.
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The memo goes inside the organization from one department to another.
Mostly sent by E-mail.
No Inside Address, no salutation no complimentary close
British people sign the memo by hand
There are Message-Reply forms in some companies
مانند فورم های از قبل چاپ شده در ادارات حكومتي افغانستان
Headings of the memo
► Courtesy title such as (Mr.) depending on your relationship
► Don’t write your title in the heading
► To a close colleague, just write initials of you and him
► You should sign at the bottom
► In case of sending to many persons type all names
Is a memo which you often send to a specific colleague; it has printed
name of the receiver on it
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A subject line must make the contents of the memo clear.
Layout of Memorandum Body:
Same as letter, but the body is not centered.
Sign your name a few spaces below the body.
Give page number if more than one page.
Envelopes and E-mail:
Some times you we use Preprinted Envelops, with the name person and
address of organization on it
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Special Time Saving Message Media
E-mails’ formats are generally a less formal combination of letter and
1. Their salutations and closing, are like letters
2. But their headings, are like memos (To: Subject:)
► Auto Signature
► Auto headings
Uses a phone #
Telegrams, Telexes or Teletypes
Mailgrams: when you want to reach a number of people simultaneously
Telexes or teletype: Electronic messages that
use telegraph lines, by using a key board.
The communication among those people who live in distant areas.
There are 3 ways for this communication:
Audio: People use telephone lines
Video: People use close circuit TVs. They
can see each other and talk to each other
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Computer: The Personal computers link people to each other
Busy executives like the short reports because they are short, but
they don’t like their numbers
President Lincoln asked members of cabinet to give him
Please make short reports really short.
Outline of a Short Report means:
To organize the headings and subheadings of the report
Types of Headings of a Report
1. Topic headings
2. Complete Sentence headings
– The result of investigation on the problem
– The tasks that are achieved so far
3. Imperative sentence headings
– Please confirm participation
– Take the final examination
4. Variant headings
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1. Introducing of a new staff
2. Taking time to write letter
Parallelism ((یکسان بودن عناوین
(All headings are “Topic”)
(Or all headings are “complete sentence”)
No Parallelism ((تفاوت در نوع عناوین
(Topic + Imperative + sentence Headings found in the same report)
Stay connected with your format
Numeral-Letter 1.1 Letter-Numeral
Combination 1.1.1 Combination
I. 1.1.2 .A
A. 184.108.40.206 .1
A. Used in scientific .(1)
(1). And technical
US Style Reports
First Degree ORGANIZATION
Second Degree Organization
Third Degree _ Organization:
Fourth Degree _ Organization: The….
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Fifth degree _ Organization: the…
Subject Lines in a short report
1. Brief subject line
– Recent changes
2. More complete subject line
– Retirement age changes in Brazil
– Decision made
– Decision of the committee about the draft law
– Committee decided about the draft law
0 st Qtr
Charts and visuals 0 nd Qtr
0 rd Qtr
0 th Qtr
• You can use any type of Charts: bar, pie, line 00
• Pictures 00
• Use visuals either in the body or as supplementary 00
• Use visuals sparingly ( ) صرفه جویانهin short reports 00
N o rt h
0 st Q t r0 n d 0 rd 0t h
Q tr Q t r Qtr
Prefatory and Supplemental Parts
If the report is more than 5-6 pages, you can use
a title page and transmittal letter. 000
Some times appendix
N o rth
000 W es t
E as t
0s t Q t r 0n d Q t r 0rd Q t r 0t h Q t r
Types of Short Reports
Analytical Letter Reports Reports
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1- Informational Report or
To inform or to summarize information
Conferenc Reports Periodic
e Progress Reports
It has three kinds:
1- Conference Reports
2- Progress Reports
3- Periodic Reports
Conference Reports (Minutes of the meeting)
Simple: Varies from simple dialogue between two parties (report of
discussion between the marketing officer and a supplier about providing
Complex and big: write-ups of a conference consisting 200 participants.
– Arranged By chronological (time by time) or according to topics
– Some companies use preprinted papers containing standard
headings for often-written reports to insure the same
information is sent
Shows progress or accomplishment over time.
Try to make your progress reports collaboratively or by team work.
Every member of the team must revise the report.
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1. Introduction-nature of work
3. Unanticipated problems
4. Plans for next stage
• Too Numerous
• Weekly - annually (mostly annual)
• Try to make it short- even one page or half a page
• Some companies use preprinted formats for these reports
• Write the periodic report collaboratively
• Remember: Is it necessary to include a recommendation
• or just a summary or conclusion
2- Analytical Reports
It seeks to analyze a situation
It may or may not have a conclusion
Also a recommendation at the end of the analytical report may or may not
For example evaluation of job applicants
Body may have
Sample of Introduction
On July 25 you asked me to prepare an evaluation report of candidates for
the position of your retiring teller. That analysis is complete, and the
following report is the response. On the basis of four criteria (company test
scores, screening of initial applications, personal interview with each
applicant, and recommendations form references) , 3 candidates have
been chosen form the 15 who applied. In evaluating the candidates, I have
placed major emphasis on (1) education and skills, (2) personal
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qualifications, and (3) probable permanency. In view of my analysis, Ms.
True ranks high for consideration.
Plan for presentation
1. Recommends the change
2. Remains with the status
3. It may be in reply to a request or voluntary
• Support the idea that some thing new is desirable
• Or defend the accuracy of some existing system or method
Place the Negative
Recommendation Holding attention
At the end, and the positive one Foundation
At the front Current state of the
Effects of the problem
Options to remove it
Short summary or
In summary: Informational memorandum reports seek to inform; but
recommendation or an analytical reports intend to either recommend or
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3- Letter Reports
It is simply a report in letter format.
It has two types: Informational and Analytical
For example a field worker sends a report, in letter format, to the central
office about a specific problem or he sends his periodic report in letter
Contents of a letter report:
- Inside address
- Body (1st paragraph, 2nd paragraph, and 3rd)
- Complementary close
- Reference section
Informational Letter reports
For example a staff report sent to the Chief financial officer regarding
issues concerning personnel turnover in one of the sub offices
Analytical Letter Reports
Short analytical reports from overseas are frequently in the form of a letter
report (hard copy or Email)
For example an outside consultant sends you a report on an issue.
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Long report is simply the extension of short report.
• Greater length (some reports have more than 300 pages)
• Deeper discussion of more complex problems
• More visuals
• Also it is called formal report,
• It has more details
Contents of Long report
• Prefatory Sections
• Body (report)
• Supplementary sections
Request to make a long report
• Oral Request
• Written Request (MOR) Memorandum of Request
• Then you do the preliminary work
• After that you write the report
I. Prefatory Section
1. Cover and External Title
• You can purchase covers in US
• Some very formal covers are made from leather
• Write a complete report title on the cover
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For example: Recommendations for Increasing LG products’ Sales in
– Keep the title short- try to omit “the”, “a”, and an
– Some times use a subtitle:
Main Title: Drug Use in the Workplace
Subtitle: Options for decreasing the problem
Recommendation for establishing a joint Venture
()سرمایه گذاری مشترک
Prepared for Board of Directors
Prepared by the International Strategic Review Committee
January 25, 2005
2. Title Fly and Internal Title
It is a simple sheet of paper between the cover and the internal title page.
3. Letter or Memorandum Transmittal
Also called cover letter or cover memorandum:
• Write this part in a manner as if you are writing a letter to the receiver
of the report
• Has 5 parts (usually)
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2. Transmittal Details
3. Background, Methodology
5. Courteous Ending
a. Authorization: you don’t have to write authorization in self initiated
Some times the actual request is attached to the report
b. Transmittal Details: is combined with authorization. “here is the
report you requested …”
c. Background Methodology: research methods.
d. Highlights: the important recommendation or idea.
e. Courteous Ending: Acknowledge, later report will be forthcoming,
say that you can reply questions, your contact address or E-mail
Dear Mr. David
Attached is the report you requested on April 10, 2005 on the
issue of Drugs
In the Workplace. We have tried to meet your requests as
stated in your
Letter of that date and hope the report is useful to you and
Our approach to the issue involved work in three areas:
meeting with local health personnel; interviews with
persons who have publicity indicated a problem with
drugs; and meeting with other companies in the area.
Three months of effort were devoted to the above
Three recommended solutions are supported by the
committee. Consensus also appeared for the three
criteria we used for evaluation: fairness, workability, and
We hope the report is acceptable to the committee. As a
group we found the investigation interesting, challenging,
and most of all, hopefully rewarding in decreasing and
eventually solving the problem of drugs in the workplace.
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Typed name, title or position
4. Table of contents فهرست مندرجات
Show 1st, 2nd and rarely 3rd degree
of headings in the Table of Contents.
Table of Tables
Special table of contents is to list all
statistical data tables and charts, and
other visuals with their page numbers.
5. Executive Summary, Abstract ,خلصه یا مقدمهSynopsis
► It is often the most read piece of the report.
► May be inductive or deductive
► Other headings of this part= purpose, scope results, conclusion…
► Some time only the Executive Summary portion is circulated to the
managers and then it is up to them if they want the complete report or
► Should be fewer than 500 words,
II. Supplementary Sections
Long reports have more Visuals, evidences and collaborative documents
1. Bibliography ماخذ
Bibliography is a list of sources you cited as documentation.
Also called: sources, references…
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In this format
You list books, periodicals,
ُn the form of
Single alphabetical list
In different groups
2. Footnotes and Endnotes (Citation) حاشیه
They are two types:
1. That explain content:تشریح در حاشیه
2. That Identify sources (citation) نقل قول
For example you want to put your own idea in the report. You have to
indicate in the endnote that the idea is yours.
To link up the endnotes with its relevant text use superscript numerals
3. Appendix ضمایم
They are materials that are not essential in developing any part of the text,
but you need to include them somewhere in your report.
For example: copy of questionnaires, big organizational charts, tables,
maps, graphic representations…
• In formal reports there must be a sheet of a paper between the
body and the appendix
• You should always refer the reader to the appendix
4. Glossary لغت نامه
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►- When your reports have confusing or too technical
terms, you have to explain them in the glossary.
►- Always mention in the introduction that your
report has a glossary.
The index lists the topics alphabetically.
III. Presentation of the Long Report
1. Define the problem
2. Collect data
3. Sort data
4. Organize the outline
5. Prepare visual aids
Now you draft, revise and edit
• Try to overwrite in the beginning.
Because deleting of unnecessary things
will be easy afterwards.
• First: write the easiest part.
• The body of the report may have
chapters and sections
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• Some time a report may not have chapters
or sections, Conclusion, summary
Editing and Revising
After finishing the first draft,
lay it aside for at least one day.
Because after some time, you
look at the report more objectively.
Finally Type the final document
• Single spaced reports are
popular double space between
paragraphs, before the footnotes.
• Double spaced are easy to read
• Add more half inch for binding
Cover and title fly: don’t count and don’t number
Title page: count (i) but don’t insert number
Table of contents: count and number each page
Table of tables: count and number
Executive summary: count and number
In a left bound report the page numbers should be
inserted near the upper-right corner
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If bound at the top; page numbers should be
inserted at the bottom and center of the page
Persuasion lies at the heart of Proposals
• You seek to persuade your reader to do something
• Foreign Companies submit proposals to Afghan Government for
• Professors submit proposals to companies that they can help to
investigate and solve problems
• Advertising agencies submit proposals that to be selected as
“agency of record”
Two kinds of proposal:
• Inter Office Proposals
• External Proposals
Request for Proposal (RFP)
• US government is one of the foremost requester for proposals
The Request for Proposal (RFP) appears in:
• Trade publication نشریات تجارتی
1. Directed RFP; toward specific companies
2. General RFP any interested company may apply
• University Offices devoted for Proposals in US
Purposes of Proposals…
• To construct big structures, buildings
• To survey water areas for possible oil
• To clean up the ground soil at military airport
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1. Implementing a short term capacity building program
2. Preparing international managers for work
3. Basic research before developing an
automobile factory in Mexico
4. Wiring of a newly built building
Kinds of Proposals
1. Research Proposals
2. Business Proposals
1. Research Proposals
When Professors or their schools apply to provide research service to a
company or government
Sample Request for a Research Proposal
Higher Education Ministry of Afghanistan seeks proposals to the
University Development Program in Agriculture for Laghman University.
. . . The purpose of the exchange program is to develop curricula and
teaching methodologies for َ griculture faculty of Laghman University.
Please submit your proposals to….
2. Business Proposals
Proposals for implementing business projects are called Business
Proposals may be solicited or unsolicited
Solicited proposals are sent based on an RFP
Unsolicited are not sent based on an RFP
How do you submit an RFP (Request For Proposal)?
• Post, and Email (mostly private businesses)
• Published in Newspapers (Governmental and large companies)
• While writing a proposal use the same words, outline and literature
that the requester agency has used in RFP
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Parts of Proposals
Only long, comprehensive proposals have all parts
1. Title Page
2. Executive Summary, Abstract, Synopsis
3. Draft Contract
4. Table of Content
8. Equipment and Facilities
1. Title Page
Similar to long report’s title page
b. Name of the person to whom submitted
c. The person who has written the proposal
2. Executive summary
• Most important part of the project
• Even some short proposals have this part
• Budget figures omitted here
• Some executives read this part only
3. Draft Contract
• Draft contract only in long descriptive proposals
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• When the reader is agreeable
4. Table of Contents
Only in long proposals
• To recommend a format for board of Director Reports
• To construct a 200 beds hospital for Shakardara People
(Never assume that your reader will be the same person who wrote the
• Show that you understand the problem
• State all problems you will face and how you propose to overcome
• Define the boundaries of your proposed project
• Will you study or research one area or a severe problem…
d. Project Team:
• Both in short and long proposals here include the team (people)
that will work in the project
• In long projects write vita of the team members
• State the overall concept
• State all Previous projects completed
• Showing how your proposals will build
on previous works
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• How will you meet the requirements
of the reader-methods
8. Equipment and Facilities:
• State that you have every thing you need
• If team information was not included in Introduction,
state all personnel information here- but sometime
you need to put personnel information in both places
• Every person’s role
• Every person’s devoted time (percentage) to the project
• Budget is mostly in tabular format
• Justification column: a column for showing reason of spending the
• In the last part of the proposal
• Including graphs, endorsement letters, letters of recommendation,
license of the company
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A proposal was sent to a company to complete their two remaining units of
power, the proposal had the following parts;
1. Letter of transmittal
2. Executive summary
• Project team
• Construction contract package
• Computerized engineering system
Long Formal Proposals
• Large projects require long proposals
• They are elaborated
• Long Projects need more money
• Some time more than millions of dollars
Request for Proposals
A government, company or an individual may send the RFP to outside
Department of Defense Gun supplier
Jet airplane suppliers
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UN long-term development projects
Foreign government Engineering firms from Japan to
build Kabul-Kandahar road
Chronology for major solicited proposals
Preliminary received Evaluation of
request (Conceptual Preliminary
In newspapers, package) Proposals
The vendor after Asking for
months or year more details
Project Written Detailed From short
Proposals & listed vendors
The government gives a brief advertisement in the newspaper about the
project, and then any interested vendor seeks information from the
contact person mentioned in the advertisement
Vendor may also ask the contact person if he is willing to send him a
successful proposal (as a sample) from the past…
Headings found in a formal Longer Construction Proposal
1. Prefatory parts
• Cover with title
• Inside title page
• Table of contents
• Request for Proposal letter
• Response to proposal letter
• Description of owner’s requirements
• Scope of services
• Description of facilities
• Working relationship
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• Schedule for selecting architect or engineer
1. Phase 1: qualifying firms
2. Phase 2: interviews
3. phase 3: negotiations of fees and notice to proceed
2. Body of Proposal
Approach to delivery of services
Capabilities of firm
Demonstration of management system
Personnel in delivery of services
Contact terms and conditions
3. Supplementary parts
Master project schedule
Table defining direct costs, overhead fees
Writing Style and Appearance
• Apply all business communication principles
• The first impression is critical
• Proposal Appraisal criteria:
– General appearance
– Specific appearance of visuals
– Consistency of style
– Title: does it properly describe the project
• Revise it many times
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STEP 1: Decide on the Topic
Must be relevant to local context
STEP 2: List Objectives
Concise and focused
STEP 3: Do your research
Integrate social and natural environmental issues
Speak the right language
Do needs assessment
KISS (Keep It Simple Stupid)
STEP 4: Develop Action Plans
Phase your actions
Consider funding modules
Connect actions to time frames
STEP 5: Re-evaluate and review
Consider independent evaluation
Consider evaluation after each phase
STEP 6: Summary
Write summary at the end and then put it at the beginning
Be aware of deadlines!!
Develop relationship with funder
Reference your work
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Check on your funding policy
EFFECTIVE PROPOSAL WRITING
Five Crucial Steps
Step 1 – Present a Good Plan
Step 2 – Beware of Overburden
Step 3 – Tie Needs to Objectives and Evaluation
Step 4 – The “E” Factor
Step 5 – Presentation is KEY
Present a Good Plan
Follow, FOLLOW, FOLLOW instructions
Engage the reader
Table of Contents
Objectives/ Plan of Operation
Know your need.
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Know what’s going on nationally regarding your “need.”
Prove your strategy addresses need and “stops, changes, or
remedies” the problem: objectives/ evaluation.
Objective / PLAN OF OPERATION
Goals and Objectives
A GOAL is a general direction, a long-term plan.
An OBJECTIVE is a “specific result measured in a specific amount of
Need reveals the problem
Objectives reveal under what conditions you
will stop, change, or remedy situation (what,
for whom, with what results expected, by when)
Evaluation reveals if objectives HIT THEIR TARGET
When you use “by” in an objective, you are describing a “method.”
Methods tell HOW.
Methods tell you “HOW you will achieve your objectives. They are
Methods are NOT OBJECTIVES. They are means to reach objectives.
Methods Resume of cont’d.
Implementation John Jones
% Time on Project
“Say, you must be quite a guy,
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Who (responsible people)…
Conceptualize the Task
Develop the Plan
Work the Plan
Analyze the Data
Write the Report
Act on the Findings
Avoid it for the
“In order to arrive at paydirt, the valuable
ore they are seeking, miners must sift through
and discard a great deal of worthless material
known as “the overburden.”
Too much “rambling”
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Too “hard to read”
Too “easy to eliminate”
Too Much Information…
Not Enough Information…
Readers have one main function with three main parts:
Eliminate (what’s not there and should be)
Eliminate (what’s there and shouldn’t be)
Eliminate (poor plan)
Their real function, however, is to FUND projects.
Tie NEEDS to OBJECTIVES and EVALUATION
What are you stopping, changing, or remedying? (Need)
Who, what, where, when, and how will you stop, change or remedy?
How will you know you stopped, changed, or remedied? (Evaluation)
How much will it cost to stop, change or remedy? (Budget)
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THE “E” FACTOR
Presentation is KEY
White space on page
Header or footer
Create a document that the reader/funder
will WANT to delve into and FUND.
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EASY ON THE EYEBALLS
The clearer the type on the page
is, the easier it is to read.
Less clutter on the page,
makes it easier to understand.
THE PERFECT PROPOSAL
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Your Importance Must Shine Through
Do Your Homework
Target Your Proposal
Follow the Guidelines
Get a Second Opinion
Sell the Project
Try, Try AGAIN
Methods do not fit
PI lacks experience
Rule of Thumb
“If it is not in the application, it is not
part of the plan and probably was
never even considered by the planners
of the project.” Reader’s Mandate
It’s In the Approach…
Be positive not problem-oriented
Be factual not emotional
Be specific…save the shopping list for the grocery store
Be respectful…don’t beg, don’t grovel
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 93
Use lay language
Do your research
Don’t “entomb” the work
DEMONSTRATE strong support
CREATE partnership linkages
DEVELOP research-based models
BUILD and MAINTAIN accountability
Getting funded is a CONTRACT!
You MUST do what you said you would do.
Your Contract is a DELIVERABLE commitment!
If you are “thin-skinned” – find another person to write the
It is NOT personal…don’t let your ego get involved.
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Program 1) Will the project meet the need?
Developer 2) Is it realistic?
s 3) Is the capacity there?
And 4) Can it be funded?
THINK LIKE A FUNDER!
“Process of Criteria Evaluation”
Is the issue important to me?
Is it realistic?
Is the timing appropriate?
Is this the best group to undertake the project?
Does the group really need the money?
Write the way you speak.
Write to ONE reader.
The reader is probably tired…keep the reader awake!
Think of the reader as an interested friend.
80% of the proposal process is planning;
20% is writing.
To use your intuition.
“Who says so?”
“Save flag waving for parades.”
“Keep the shovel in the barn.”
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YOU CAN DO IT!
Painting a picture,
one stroke at a time
Completing a puzzle, one piece
at a time.
ROME WAS NOT BUILT IN A DAY!
Give yourself time.
Give yourself room to grow.
Give yourself encouragement.
Give yourself a BREAK…
The BEST Antidote
from your FAILURE
End of Proposal Writting
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Keep your right hand free
Meet the other person’s hand “web to web”
Keep hand in a vertical position
Shake from the elbow, not the wrist
Two to three smooth pumps
Purpose of the Interview
Preparing for the Interview
Typical Structure of the Interview
After the Interview
Purpose of the Interview
Clarify responsibilities of the position
Determine if you can/will do the job
Evaluate candidate based on qualifications and employer needs
Preparing for the Interview
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Questions When Scheduling
How long will the interview last?
How many candidates will be interviewing?
With whom will I be interviewing?
Is there anything I should bring with me?
Know the Employer
Product or Service
Chain of Command
Resources for Researching the Employer
Planning Job Choices: How to Research Companies
Florida Business Directory
Hoover’s Handbook of American Business
Career Information Library - Employer Files
Internet, www.workinoptics.com, etc
Trade publications & journals (OSA, SPIE, IEEE)
Why do you want to work for the firm?
What can you do for the company?
Your initiative, goals and attitudes
Your responses should be unique and specific
What to Bring to the Interview
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Copies of your resume
List of Professional References
Two quality pens
Comb or brush
Dress for Success
Suit with knee-length skirt and tailored blouse
Keep accessories and makeup simple
Pantsuits are more acceptable now but
save them for after you obtain the job
Solid colors vs. prints or patterns
Tie pattern should be simple
Wear polished shoes with dark socks long
enough so no skin shows when you are seated
Arrive on time
Introduce yourself in a courteous manner
Read company literature while you wait
Use body language to show interest
Smile, nod, give nonverbal feedback
Ask about the next step in the process
Thank the interviewer
Obtain a business card
Write a thank-you letter to anyone you have spoken to
Typical Structure of an Interview
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“Tell me about yourself!”
Discussion of your background and how it relates to the position
Your opportunity to ask questions
Five Tough Interview Questions
The tell-all question: “Tell me about yourself.”
The surprise question: “What’s your passion?”
Strengths and weaknesses questions
Questions about the future: “What are your long-term goals?”
Scenario questions: “What if…?”
Questions to Ask in an Interview
What will my duties entail?
What kind of work can I expect to be doing? Can you describe a typical
Where does this job fit into the organizational structure of the company?
Who would I report to? Who would I be working with?
What is the size of the department I would be working in? What is its
structure? How is it organized? May I see it?
More Questions to Ask
Does the company offer any training opportunities?
How would you describe the ideal candidate for this position? What
qualities do you want in the person who fills this job?
What do you feel would be the greatest challenge for me?
What is the selection process/timeline from here?
May I contact you if I have any further questions?
After the Interview
Write a thank-you letter to anyone with whom you have spoken
Use standard business letter format
Thank the interviewer
Reference a point of conversation which was of mutual interest
Recap how your skills and qualifications fit the position based on your
Communicate your continued interest in the position
Practice, Practice, Practice!
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 100
Ten Interview Questions
TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION
Understanding the Process
The Negotiation Process
UNDERSTANDING THE PROCESS
What It Is Not
Saying “I want more money”
What It Is
Meeting and discussing a subject
Mutual agreement of issues
When does negotiation begin
Telling about yourself
With the initial interview
Answer these questions:
What is the Salary range?
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What is the lowest salary that I will consider?
What makes me worth a higher salary?
Where to Get Salary Information
National Association of Colleges and Employers
Career Resource Center
Trade associations and trade publications
People working in the industry
Some Employer Objections to Your Request for More Money
You don’t have enough experience
Other employees aren’t making more
The budget won’t permit
That’s what we are paying new hires
Your Positive Response to an Objection to Pay You More
In response to the “other employees aren’t making more” statement, you
might give a response such as:
“I see. (Short pause) What is the range for this position? What would
it take to get to that higher level within that range?
Some Ideas to Help You during the Interview Process As It
Pertains To the Salary Issue
Good listening skills
Try not to be the first to mention money
If asked what salary you are looking for, say you have a range but that it
really will depend on the total package
If pushed, have a range in mind
If asked what your current pay is, tell the truth
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Give answer in 24 hours unless you are considering other options. Or
ask for a window of time.
Ask about other important fringe benefits before accepting the job
Avoid telephone negotiations
THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS
Here Are Some Examples of How a Salary Discussion Might Go
Company: “We would like to offer you a salary of $55,000/year.”
You: Alternative answer #1: “I’m delighted that you are interested in
me. Based upon my experience and also because of a variety of
expenses associated with the cost of living in (this city), I would like to
make around $60,000. How do you feel about that?
Alternative answer #2: “I like the opportunity, and I know that I could
contribute, but I have several other opportunities that are in the $60,000
range. Is there a way we could work this out?”
Alternative answer #3: “I’ve completed a very valuable education and
anticipated $60,000 as a minimum. Is there a way we can work that
out? I love the opportunity and would like to work here if I can get that
amount. What do you think?”
Ask if you can get periodic reviews to let your future employer know
that you are concerned with providing the highest level of service.
Before asking for more money, mention positive statement that
reflects your skills and why you are qualified for the job.
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• Some people fell asleep
• Some say they never went to the school they indicated in resume
• Some just leave the room and fly
• Some will ask that what is the panel opinion about this job
The Selection Process
Completing the application form
Failed to meet minimum qualifications
Failed to complete application
Permanent Job Offer
Passed Comprehensive Interview
Conditional Job Offer Failed in test
Medical/ Physical Background Investigation
Examination if required If needed
…Also some other things such as drug testing, reference check
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The first stage of selection process whereby, job inquiries are sorted.
It is two step procedure
1. Screening inquiries (exploration): If we have great number of
potential candidates we will screen them based on:
c) To see if they had too many jobs in short time
d) Numerous courses and short seminars instead of proper of
2. Screening interviews: HRM will arrange a preliminary interview to
describe the job in details so that to find out that the applicants who
really want the
a) The unqualified will withdraw
b) To tell the applicant his salary range
Completing the application Form
After screening applicants are asked to fill the organizations’ special
» Phone no
» Skills, accomplishments and other things
» Any other information,
What is Legal to Ask in an Application Form?
• Don’t ask about foreign address that shows the nationality of
• Don’t ask for photos before hiring
• You can ask about religion only after hiring, to know about the R.
• Citizenship: You can ask to know if he is legally entitled to work in a
• Education: Don’t ask about racial or religious affiliation of the
• Relatives: ask for a contact name in case of emergency
• Age: Ok to ask to know if the applicant is within the limits of legal age
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• Disability: Do you have any disability that will affect your performance
of the job.
• Height and weight: if not essential to performance of the job, don’t
• Sexual orientation; don’t ask
• No drug test: unless very desperately needed and approved
Weighted Application Forms
When different levels of importance is given to the data of job application
to find out successful and unsuccessful job applicants
We give weights to items of job application through analyzing the results
of hired employees.
– Distribute them to two groups,
» stayed for long time,
» and stayed for short term
– We give weight according to percentage of long time employees
• Intelligence test
• Aptitude test: standard test given to check up on an individual's
knowledge or level of skill in comparison to the average knowledge or
level of skill in a particular group
• Interest test
• Graphology test (handwriting)
• More than 60% organizations use tests for selection
Performance Simulation Tests
Work sampling and assessment centers
The job applicant is asked to engage in specific
behavior necessary for doing the job successfully.
It avoids of any criticism on non-job related tests.
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Selection device requiring the job applicant to actually perform a small
segment of the job
For example: translating a text for the position of translator
• This technique is identical to job content,
• Also is a better predictor of short-term performance.
• Difficulty in developing good work samples for each job.
• Work sampling is not applicable to all levels of organization (for
example managerial job)
A facility where performance simulation tests are
administered. (Include a series of exercises used for
selection, development, and performance appraisals)
Individuals go through a series of exercises and they
are appraised by executives, psychologists, and
Testing in Global Arena
• France: graphology tests used frequently in France
• In UK: psychology tests such as graphology, and
honesty tests are rarely used but other work related
tests are used frequently
The panel members of the comprehensive interview:
1. HRM interviewers
2. Senior managers
3. Potential colleagues
4. Potential supervisors
What is assessed in the interview?
3. Ability to work under pressure
4. The interview will determine how much
the employee may fit in organization
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Types of Interview
1. Traditional Interview: One to one
2. Panel Interview: one applicant is interviewed by several
3. Situational Interview: Any interview in which the questions are
identified and the predetermined answers are expected.
4. Stress Interview: a difficult situation is created for
the applicant to evaluate how he reacts.
Negative Points of the Interviews
1. Impression Management: influencing performance evaluation by
portraying an image desired by the appraiser
2. Seeing the test result and application forms will make the interviewer
biased against applicant.
3. (He already has an image of the applicant in mind)
4. If he says some thing positive which is expected he will be very credited
5. The interviewer always remembers only half of the interview information
6. Note taking is a good technique to remember things
Positive Points in an Interview
1. It clarifies the level of interest, and motivation of the applicant to the job
2. It shows the communication skills of the employees
3. Collaborative decision about hiring of the applicant is made
4. Interviews are more effective for middle and higher managerial
5. Very high position candidates are interviewed more than once by many
executives even by general director
Situation Interview or behavioral Interview: in this interview the
candidate is appraised not only for his wordings but also for his behavior.
• A situation is presented to him, and he is asked how he will react
under stress and how he will behave
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• Research says that behavioral interviews are 8 times more effective
Realistic Job Previews
It is a selection device that allows job candidates to learn both positive and
negative information about the job through brochures, films, work
sampling, plant tours…
• it reduces voluntarily turnover rate
• They will have lower and realistic expectations
Background Investigation or Reference Check
The process of investigating about the information that the job candidates
– Contacting his previous managers
– Contacting his studied schools
– Contacting his own references
Negligence hiring liability: When a wrong person is hired because of
negligence about his past background.
Qualified Privilege: the ability of organizations to speak frankly about
Conditional Job Offer
A special job offer which is given to selected employee,
and becomes a permanent job offer if the employee
passes all the physical tests, medical test,
Medical Examination/Physical Examination
To see if the employee can do the job or not.
• Especially designed for physical jobs
such as firefighters, guards, drivers…
• The medical test must be job related
• To prevent future false claim of injury or disability
The selection is done by actual manager
the offer is given by HRM
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The Comprehensive Approach or Discrete Approach
Comprehensive ( )فراگیرندهapproach: Applying all steps in the selection
process before rendering a decision about a job candidate.
• Each employee will stay in the process until the end of all steps
• Positive factors counterbalance negative factors
• Comprehensive selection is better than discrete selection
• But comprehensive interview takes more time and effort
Accepting the job offer
• Personnel orientation is important & his
perception of the company
• Salary and benefits
• The rejection must be communicated properly
Key Elements for Successful Predictors
1. Reliability: ( )اعتبارconsistency of measure means that the selection
devices such as tests should be reliable.
2. Validity: the relationship of the selection device to the relevant
criterion (job performance)
A- Content Validity (that the content of the test (questions) represents all
job situations, such as typing test for a clerk
B- Construct Validity: the test measures a particular trait (quality or
attitude) which is related to successful job performance. Such as an IQ
C- Criterion Validity: means that the test accurately predicts the job
For example: the test score is accurately set.
How We Establish Criterion Related Validity-I
How to bring Predictive Validity in a test:
They are hired, but not base
Applicants are tested
On the test
Cut scores are determined After one year or 6 months
The results of evaluation is
The test either may be revised Then compared with the result
Or kept as it is for further use Of the taken test
Cut Score: a scoring point below which applicants are rejected
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How We Establish Criterion Related Validity-II
How to bring Concurrent Validity in a test: using the current employees to
validate a test.
Determine cut score Scores are analyzed
And utilize the test for new
Comparing the test results with
The results of their
Revise the test or keep it performance appraisal
as It is
Predictive validity is preferred
Cut Scores and Their Impact on Hiring
Cut Score: a scoring point below which applicants are rejected.
► We change the cut score parallel to supply of the workers
► The higher the cut score the more selective and picky the organization is
► The higher the cut score the lower selection ratio
A test valid for screening of applicant for a variety of jobs
For example department of labor had a General Aptitude Test (GATB)
which was valid for 500 jobs.
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 111
Companies are restructuring and reengineering therefore most of the jobs
are not permanent.
Turnover rate is increasing
Companies market themselves and you have to find a proper job for
To be aware of your interests, qualifications, achievements and even
Being aware of these qualities enable you to better sell your
Know Your Skills
I enjoyed negotiating a sale.
I helped in preparing the evaluation documents.
I created three new products from my initial idea
I planned effectively for my classes
I understood the idea from a technical report
I drafted and revised a letter in a short time.
After survey from 40 firms’ recruiting persons it was found that
graduating MBAs sought the following attributes…
Communication skills: 85%
Interpersonal skills: 69%
Self motivation/initiative: 67%
Professional presence: 62%
Problem solving skills: 54%
Academic achievement: 51%
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 112
Know Your Accomplishment
Winning a scholarship award allowed me to travel to Europe
Obtaining the combat infantry Badge resulted in a promotion to Master
Processing the paperwork for three contracts in 2 weeks resulted in my
Speaking Hindi language allowed me to head a student study group to
Knowing Your Interests:
I most enjoy…
I least enjoy…
Which jobs have I enjoyed the most? Why?
Do I prefer to do a technical work and be less responsible and less
For how many hours can I work in a day?
Know Your Personal Values
I want to have control over people
An ambition for getting higher position
I need to learn more and more
Oh, I need a salary over $1500.
A desire to help people
$ is the most important symbol for me.
I want to do every thing on my own.
Altruism, prestige, adventure, association, power, variety, physical
activity and money
Career enrichment or own assessment programs
Which employers need what I offer?
In which business market would I like to work?
You can find job vacancy announcements in Trade Publications, libraries,
and other special places such as a bulletin in front of an organization.
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Who can help you to find a job
Network (to remain in contact with individuals or groups)
Your university alumni (graduates)
Relatives, acquaintances ((آشنایان
Resume, Vitae, Qualification brief
A resume is summary of your qualifications and intended career path.
There are many formats for making a resume
Write phrases instead of full sentences
Push the positive-but the honest
Order of Resume Items
Preparation is essential
Identification of self and company interest
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Heading (this parts shows how you will be contacted)
432 North Street, Kabul
Phone, 070 345898
Job or Career Objective:
For example: An entry-level sales position
A senior position in accounting in a bank
A brief statement of your qualifications or a mini resume at this point
Some people include brief qualifications in the cover letter
People tend to select first things therefore write your important and good
qualifications just after the heading
Name of school, location, degree, don’t include high schools unless you
have received an award in it.
Write abbreviations for your degree, BBA
Don’t include specific subjects you studied when
you are sure that the employer knows them.
Note honors, awards and scholarships
List your jobs in reverse chronological order
Name, location, and dates of each employment
Your position and title
Use verbs that show your major activities in that job
Follow the rules of parallelism
Achievements, Awards, Service Activities
Mention all awards you received
Fluency in a language
Working with people
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Use the following words to describe yourself:
I accomplished, I achieved, I implemented,
I obtained, I headed, I supervised, I created,
I justified, I won, I recommended……
Personal Data (Optional)
Civil Rights Law prohibits any kind of discrimination in hiring.
You don’t have to include your personal information such as marital
status, sex, tribe, language…
You can also write in this part about your military service, physical skills,
travels and many other things
List of 3 persons with their contact details
List name of those persons who will have a positive reply about you
Better not to list more than 3
Take permission from those people first
Cover Letter= single bullet rifle ()تفنگ گلوله سربی
Resume= shotgun ()چره یی
It has three parts
State the main idea first; this is a direct request
News item opening style
Summary Style Opening
You write the summary of your two or three outstanding qualifications
related to the job,
Example: I have worked with UNAMA and ISA organizations as
administrative associate for overall 5 years…
Name Opening ( in case of networking)
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Professor Sayedajan, our teacher in Kabul University
told me of a possibility opening in your area. Based
on my two year experience in this field, I will be a
good candidate to fill this position…
Do you need some one to effectively manage
your company’s financial affairs…I have
7 year work experience and a degree in finance…
News Item Opening
Killid magazine summarized your vacant position
for French Translation. Since I am a graduate
of Istiqlal high school as well as 4 year
experienced in teaching French language,
find myself eligible to fill this position…
Middle Paragraph or Body
Ask your self after each statement; so what?
Put strongest argument first
A degree is not important all the time
Take your time to link your education with the current job
Last paragraph for easy action
Include phone number, E-mail
Suggest that you can come to the employer’s office
Ask for a local representative name if the central
office is extremely distant
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 117
Sample Letter of
application or cover letter
1247 John Bitar
Middleburg VA 22117
May 33, 2006
Dr. John Hallowell, Superintendent
NY. High School Employment Services
Dear Dr. Hallowell,
In September, will one of you your gradce schoold need a physical
education instructor who can make learning realistic and interesting for
students? If so, plesae consider me for the position. My qualificatoins
include a degree in phusical education and a minor in buisness
On June 10 this yesar I shall graduage form (School), whrer I did several
things: played on the varsity baketball team, marored in physical
education, and minored in business subjecgts. Several students and I
also haeaded a three-week workshop on drug abuse; during that time
we had outside speakers and two all-school convocations. If you ar
ethinking about adding a special program on drug abuse, I will gladly
give you my ideas about settting up such a program.
Threeyears of summer work have give me insights into the growing need
for the kind of education needed by young people. My work with
Opportunity Inc., Freedom Toys, and Mershon aded to my course workr
in physical education.
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 118
432 N. Streets, Kabul
Phone, 070 345898
Professional Objective: A position in financial management in one of the
international organizations in Kabul.
EDUCATION FOR FINANCE MANAGEMENT
Kabul University, Kabul Afghanistan, March 1992 to September 1996
Major: Business education, secondary school emphasis
Courses in accounting, business communication, business law,
computer programming, data processing, graphic arts, marketing,
and office practice….
Minor: Economics courses in European and American economic history,
international ECONOMICS, macroeconomics, microeconomics….
Grade Point Average: 3.8 (out of 5)
KARDAN University of Business Administration and Information
Technology, Kabul Afghanistan, September 1991-1992
Grade Point Average: 4 (out of 5)
Finance Assistant CARE Int. Main Office Kabul, since July 2003
Accountant CARE International, Logar sub office, Feb 1999 to
Supervisor: Shir Alam Rangin
Responsibility: Carried out all the accounting affairs of the
Submitted quarterly report to the finance officer
Student Teacher Istiqlal High School, Jan 1997 to Jan 1999
Supervisor: Mr. Qurban Ali
Subjects taught: Math, Economics
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Responsibility: Planned and taught 3 classes in 3 different grades
and reported to the principle of the school every 3 months
Lang Speakin Readin Writing Understan
g g ding
Pashto Fluent Good Good Good
Dari Fluent Good Good Good
English Good Good Good Good
Urdu Fair Fair Fair Fair
Arabic Fair Fair Bad Bad
HONORARIES, ACTIVITIES, CLUBS
Gold medal winner in KARDAN Institute of Business Administration and
Certificate of Outstanding Service from CARE Int. Logar Sub Office
SKILLS AND HOBBIES
Write and speak French language
Hobbies include swimming, studying and lifting weights in the club.
PC KNOWLEDGE (Computer Skills)
Windows XP, Office XP, Atlas software
Suraya Ranjbar, Deputy Project Manger, SFRD project, UNHCR,
At least two more references….
NAME: Adam Khan
ADDRESS: 432 N. Streets, Kabul
DATE of BIRTH: 17 March, 1975
MARITAL STATUS: Married
Prepared By: Habibullah Qayumi 120