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					BORRTI

Category   Sub-category          Topic
AXIS I


           ABUSE AND TRAUMA




           Abuse and Trauma      Childhood abuse




           Abuse and Trauma and
           Parent-Child         Object Relations and
           Relationships        chilhood traumas




                                Object Relations and
           Abuse and Trauma     chilhood maltreatment
                                Childhood Sexual
           Abuse and Trauma and Trauma, Substance
           Substance Abuse      Abuse
                     Chilhodd Sexual and
                     Physical Abuse,
Abuse and Trauma and Repression, Reality
Psychoanalysis       Testing




                     PTSD and Childhood
Abuse and Trauma     sexual abuse




Abuse and Trauma     PTSD




Abuse and Trauma     Childhood Abuse
Abuse and Trauma      PTSD and MHS




Abuse and Trauma      PTSD




Abuse and Trauma      PTSD




Abuse and Trauma and
Depression           Traumatic reactions
Abuse and Trauma      PTSD, Sexual Assault




Abuse and Trauma and
Attachment           Child Sexual Abuse




Abuse and Trauma     Childhood Abuse
                     PTSD and Eye
                     Movement
Abuse and Trauma and Desensitization and
attachment           Reprocessing
                   Childhood
Abuse and Trauma   Maltreatment


                   Partner-Assaultive
Abuse and Trauma   men

DEPRESSION




Depression and
Personality        Narcissism




Depression         Depression
Depression and         Depressed
Personality            Personality



Depression, Measures
and Inventories,       Depressive
Personality Disorder   Personality disorders




Abuse and Trauma and
Depression           Traumatic reactions


                       Borderline Personality
Depression and         Disorder and Major
Personality Disorder   Depression
Depression

Depression and Parent-
child relationships    Single-Parent

EATING DISORDER




Eating Disorder        Bulimia




Eating Disorder        Bulimia
Eating Disorder and
Attachment            Obesity



                      Social Anxiety,
Eating Disorder       Anorexia and Bulimia




Eating Disorder       Social Cognition


Eating Disorder       Bulimia
Eating Disorder and
Personality           Gender Differences

Eating Disorder amd
Attachment            Bulimia




Eating Disorder       Binge Eating




Eating Disorder       Bulimia
Eating Disorder   Symptomatic eating




Eating Disorder   Anorexia and Bulimia

KETAMINE


ketamine          ketamine




ketamine and
substance abuse   ketamine


ketamine          ketamine


ketamine          ketamine

METHADONE
STUDIES
Methadone and
Measures and      Methadone
Inventories       Maintenancy
       Methadone,
       Criminology, and        Antisocial Personality
       Personality Disorders   Disorder




       Methadone and
       Personality Disorders   Methadone Patients




>>>>   Methadone               Methadone Patients




       Methadone               Methadone Patients



       Methadone and
       Alexithymia             Methadone patients
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
                      Parenting stress in
                      adult daughters of
Substance Abuse       alcoholics


Substance Abuse      Binge Drinking
                     Childhood Sexual
Abuse and Trauma and Trauma, Substance
Substance Abuse      Abuse



Substance Abuse       Cocaine-dependecy




Substance Abuse and
Parent-Child
Relationships         Children of alcoholics




                      Alcohol and cocaine-
Substance Abuse       dependency
Alexithynia and
Substance Abuse   Alexithymia




ketamine and
substance abuse   ketamine



Substance Abuse   Alcohol dependency




                  degree of substance
Substance Abuse   use
                        ego development,
Substance Abuse         affect regulation




Substance Abuse and
Personality Disorders   Psycopathy




Substance Abuse         Alcohol dependency

SCHIZOPHRENIA
Schizophrenia




Schizophrenia




Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia and
Personality         Object relations




Schizophrenia       ego functioning

                    Personality
Schizophrenia       Configuration




Schizophrenia
                         mental
                         representations,
                         premorbid
                         adjustment, and
Schizophrenia            symptom patterns

Miscellaneous Axis I
studies




Axis I: Miscellaneous,
Parent-child
relationships            Asperger's Syndrome




ADD
          Gamblers


          Social Skills

AXIS II

          ALEXITHYMIA




          Substance Abuse and
          Alexithynia           Alexithymia




          Alexithymia           Chronic Pain

          Methadone and
          Alexithymia           Methadone patients

          CRIMINOLOGY
Methadone,
Criminology, and       Antisocial Personality
Personality Disorder   Disorder




Criminology and
Personality Disorder   Severe Psychopathy




                       Incarceration
Criminology            Pograms
Criminology            Sex Offenders


Criminology            Sex Offenders

PERSONALITY
DISORDER




                       Multiple Personality
Personality Disorder   Disorder




                       Multiple Personality
Personality Disorder   Disorder
                       Splitting and
Personality Disorder   Borderline Personality
and Psychoanalysis     Disorder




                       Borderline Personality
Personality Disorder   Disorder




Methadone,
Criminology, and       Antisocial Personality
Personality Disorder   Disorder
Criminology and
Personality Disorder   Severe Psychopathy


Personality Disorder   Borderline Personality
ane Measures and       Disorder and
Inventories            Inventory




Depression and         Depressed
Personality Disorder   Personality


Depression Measures
and Inventories        Depressive
Personality Disorder   Personality disorders
Personality Disorder
and Measures and       Borderline Personality
Inventories            Disorder




                       Borderline Personality
Personality Disorder   Disorder




                       Borderline Personality
Personality Disorder   Disorder
Personality Disorder    Borderline Personality
and Personality         Disorder




Personality Disorder
and Attachment          Personality Disorder




Methadone and
Personality Disorders   Methadone Patients




Personality Disorder
and Attachment          BPD


                        Borderline Personality
Depression and          Disorder and Major
Personality Disorder    Depression
              Substance Abuse and
              Personality Disorder   Psycopathy




              Personality Disorder   Incest, Dissociative
              and Family Studies     Identity Disorder




                                     Borderline Personality
              Personality Disorder   Disorder

Non-
Psychiatric
              ATTACHMENT

              Attachment and Parent- Parent Child
              Child Relationships    attachment
Eating Disorder and
Attachment             Obesity




                      Family Organization,
                      interpersonal
Attachment and Family attachment, and
Studies               identity


                      Family Organization,
                      interpersonal
Attachment and Family attachment, and
Studies               identity




Attachment             Therapeutic Alliance



Attachment             Therapeutic Alliance
Attachment              Adult Relatedness




Attachment, Parent-
Child Relationships, and
Measures and             Parent Child
Inventories              attachment




Attachment and Family
Studies               family studies

Eating Disorder and
Attachment              Bulimia
Attachment       Client Attachment




Attachment and
Religion         emotional attachment




Attachment       Sleep Research


Attachment       Relationships




Attachment and
Measures and
Inventories      Attachment
Personality Disorder
and Attachment         Personality Disorder




Abuse and Trauma and
Attachment           Child Sexual Abuse


Personality Disorder
and Attachment       BPD
                     PTSD and Eye
                     Movement
Abuse and Trauma and Desensitization and
attachment           Reprocessing




Attachment             False Self Behavior
                       Inpatients and
Attachment             hopelessness

FAMILY STUDIES




                      Family Organization,
                      interpersonal
Attachment and Family attachment, and
Studies               identity


                      Family Organization,
                      interpersonal
Attachment and Family attachment, and
Studies               identity




Family Studies         Incest
                        Dysfunctional
Family Studies          Families




Family Studies          Incest, erotophobia




Attachment and Family Sibling relationship
Studies               and divorce




Family Studies          Adoption
Family Studies         Parenting


Family Studies         Divorce

Family Studies and     Family cohesion,
Parent-Child           parent-child
relationships          separation




Personality Disorder   Incest, Dissociative
and Family Studies     Identity Disorder

PARENT CHILD
RELATIONSHIPS
Parent-child
relationships            Breast Feeding




Axis I: Miscellaneous,
Parent-child
relationships            Asperger's Syndrome

Attachment and Parent-
child relationships    Mother and Infant




Abuse and Trauma and
Parent-child
relationships        Childhood traumas

Parent-child
relationships            Holocaust
Parent-child
relationships          Single-Parent

Parent-child
relationships          Loss of Parent




Parent-child           Separation-
relationships          individuation




Substance Abuse and
Parent-Child
Relationships          Children of alcoholics




Attachment and Parent-
child relationships    College students
Parent-child
relationships        Paternal suicide




Parent-child
relationships        Holocaust


Family Studies and   Family cohesion,
Parent-child         parent-child
relationships        separation


Parent-child         Separation-
relationships        individuation




Parent-child         Life-sustaining
relationships        treatment
Depression and Parent-
child relationships    Single-Parent

PERSONALITY




Depression and
Personality             Narcissism




Schizophrenia and
Personality             Object relations



Personality, Measures
and Inventories         Personality




Personality and
Psychoanalysis          Pathology
                      Cramer Defense
Personality           Mechanism




Eating Disorder and
Personality           Gender Differences




Personality           Coping
Personality Disorder   Borderline Personality
and Personality        Disorder



Personality and
Measures and
Inventories            BORRTI




Personality            Psychosocial distress




Personality and
Measures and           Interpersonal
Inventories            Behavior

PSYCHOANALYSIS
                       Splitting and
Personality Disorder   Borderline Personality
and Psychoanalysis     Disorder




Psychoanalysis         Ego function


Psychoanalysis and
Measures and           Anxiety and ego
Inventories            functioning
Psychoanalysis and
Measures and
Inventories            Rorschach

                       Defensive
Psychoanalysis         Configuration
                     Chilhodd Sexual and
                     Physical Abuse,
Abuse and Trauma and Repression, Reality
Psychoanalysis       Testing




Psychoanalysis and
Spiritual Studies    Psychoanalysis




Psychoanalysis and
Measures and
Inventories          Rorschach
Personality and
Psychoanalytic    Pathology


Psychoanalysis    Psychoanalysts

SEXUALITY




Sexuality         Lesbian women




Sexuality         Psychologists
                    Sexual Decision
Sexuality           Making




Sexuality           Celibacy

SPIRITUAL AND
RELIGIOUS STUDIES


Spiritual           Mental Health




Spiritual           Spiritual Well-being




Religion            Prayer
Spiritual              God image




Psychoanalysis and
Spiritual              Spiritual maturity


Spiritual and Measures Spiritual Assessment
and Inventories        Inventory




Spiritual and Measures
and Inventories        Spiritual development



Spiritual              God image
Attachment and
Religion         God image




                 Birth Order, Religious
Spiritual        Experience




                 God Representations
Spiritual        and Intimacy




Spiritual        Spiritual Well-being
                     Experience of God
Spiritual            and self

Miscellaneous Non-
psychiatric



AIDS self-care



AIDS self-care




Interpersonal
relationships




Deafness
Time Anxiety



Cross-dressing




Death Anxiety




Delusion Formation




Coping, Somatic
Tension
Acculturation




Interpersonal
relationships


Migranous Headaches


Creativity




Creativity
Stress and Somatic
Reactions


MEASURES AND
INVENTORIES
Methadone and
Measures and         Methadone
Inventories          Maintenancy




Measures and
Inventories          Reality Testing




Measures and
Inventories          BORI
Measures and
Inventories             BORI


Psychoanalysis and
Measures and            Anxiety and ego
Inventories             functioning


Personality and
Measures and
Inventories             Personality



Measures and
Inventories             BORRTI
Psychoanalysis and
Measures and
Inventories             Rorschach




Personality Disorders   Borderline Personality
and Measures and        Disorder and
Inventories             Inventory
Spiritual Studies and
Measures and            Spiritual Assessment
Inventories             Inventory
Spiritual Studies and
Measures and            Spiritual Assessment
Inventories             Inventory




Psychoanalysis and
Measures and
Inventories             Rorschach




Attachment, Parent-
child Relationships,
Measures and            Parent Child
Inventories             attachment

Depression, Personality
Disorder, Measures and Depressive
Inventories             Personality disorders
Personality Disorders
and Measures and        Borderline Personality
Inventories             Disorder
Measures and            Object Relations
Inventories             Measures




Attachment and
Measures and
Inventories             Attachment

Personality and
Measures and
Inventories             BORRTI




Personality and
Measures and            Interpersonal
Inventories             Behavior


MISCELLANEOUS


AIDS self-care
AIDS self-care




Interpersonal
relationships




ADD




Deafness




Time Anxiety
Cross-dressing




Gamblers



Death Anxiety




Delusion Formation




Coping, Somatic
Tension




Social Skills
Acculturation




Interpersonal
relationships



Migranous Headaches


Creativity




Creativity
Stress and Somatic
Reactions

REVIEW

Review               Psychoanalysis
                     Trauma symptoms,
Review               eating disorders


Review               Criminology

                     Object Relations and
Review               Attachment

Review               Object Relations


Review               Attachment


Review               Object Relations

Review               ketamine studies

Review               Social Cognition
                     Early Trauma,
Review               Trauma Assessment
Citation                                                                                      Citation Type   Number of Subjects




Augusto , K. W. (1995). Factors contributing to the long-term adjustment of college women
abused as children . Virginia Polytechnic Inst and State University, US.                      Dissertation                   320




Barlev , A. (2005). Object relations as a mediator between childhood traumas, parental
caregiving and young adult adjustment . Michigan State University, East Lansing.              Dissertation                   320




Centeno, L. K. (2001). Object relations of a young adult nonclinical sample with self-
reported histories of childhood maltreatment. Long Island University, The Brooklyn Center,
New York.                                                                                     Dissertation                    55
Como Kepler, D. (1998). Childhood sexual trauma in men and subsequent substance
abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering , 58(11-
B).                                                                                           Dissertation                    20
Farber , B. A., & Sacco, M. (1999). The relationship of repression to reality testing in adult
women who report childhood sexual and physical abuse. Journal of American Academy or
Psychoanalysis , 27, 205-220.                                                                          Journal     259




Haviland, M. G., Sonne, J. L., & Woods, L. R. (1995). Beyond posttraumatic stress disorder: object
relations and reality testing disturbances in physically and sexually abused adolescents. Journal of the
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry , 34(8), 1054-1059.                                    Journal   37




Kishon -Barash, R., Midlarsky, E., & Johnson, D. R. (1999). Altruism and the Vietnam War
veteran: the relationship of helping to symptomatology. Journal of Traumatic Stress , 12(4),
655-662.                                                                                               Journal     100



Morrell, B., Mendel, M. P., & Fischer, L. (2001). Object relations disturbances in sexually
abused males. Journal of Interpersonal Violence , 16(9), 851-864.                                      Journal     120
Regehr , C., Goldberg, G., Glancy, G. D., & Knott, T. (2002). Posttraumatic symptoms and
disability in paramedics. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry-Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie ,
47(10), 953-958.                                                                           Journal         86




Regehr , C., Hemsworth, D., & Hill, J. (2001). Individual predictors of posttraumatic distress:
A structural equation model. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry-Revue Canadienne De
Psychiatrie, 46(2), 156-161.                                                                    Journal    164




Regehr , C., Hemsworth, D., Leslie, B., Howe, P., & Chau, S. (2004). Predictors of post-
traumatic distress in child welfare workers: a linear structural equation model. Children and
Youth Services Review , 26(4), 331-346.                                                          Journal   156




Regehr , C., Hill, J., & Clancy, G. D. (2000). Individual predictors of traumatic reactions in
firefighters. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease , 188(6), 333-339.                           Journal   164
Regher, C., & Marziali, E. (1999). Responses to sexual assault: a relational perspective. The
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease , 187(10), 618-623.                                     Journal       71




Roche, D. N. (2000). Attachment and object relations: Mediators between child sexual
abuse and women's adjustment . University of Victoria, Canada.                               Dissertation   122




Sacco , M. L., & Farber, B. A. (1999). Reality testing in adult women who report childhood
sexual and physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect , 23(11), 1193-1203.                        Journal        259

Sayer , P. C. (2002). Responses of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder to eye
movement desensitization and reprocessing or a cognitive-behavioral treatment as mediated
by attachment status . Alliant International University, Fresno.                          Dissertation       6
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women . Miami University, Miami.                                                               Dissertation   159


Williams, B. A. (1997). Effects of object relations and psychological defenses in partner-
assaultive men: A controlled empirical study . Ohio University, Athens.                        Dissertation   96




Balestri, M. (1999). Overt and covert narcissism and their relationship to object relations,
depression, Machiavellianism, and the five factor model of personality. Boston University,
Massimo.                                                                                       Dissertation   149




Gibbs, P. L. (1989). Object relations capacity and reported childhood background in adult
depressed patients . Graduate School of Wayne State University, Detroit.                       Dissertation   60
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Nervous & Mental Disease , 191(2), 73-79.                                                    Journal            80




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firefighters. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease , 188(6), 333-339.                           Journal        164


Sharifha, S. (1995). The quality of object relations in borderline and major depressed
patients as displayed on psychological tests . California School of Professional Psychology,
Los Angeles.                                                                                     Dissertation   40
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function of their sons’ second separation in adolescence . Alliant International University,
Fresno.                                                                                           Dissertation   90




Appledorn, K. (2000). Object relations and identity disturbances in bulimic women. Andrews
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women . University of Utah, Salt Lake City.                                                               Dissertation   90


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Higgins, B. D. (1997). Situational confidence, affect intensity and object relations in alcohol
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aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior , 85(1), 228-242               Journal      40


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St John'S University, New York.                                                                           Dissertation   97
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addicted substance abusers . Columbia University , New York.                                     Dissertation                    100




Snyder, J. B. (1999). The relationship of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder to                     151 (experimental
the object relations and reality testing of alcoholic men . Temple University, Philadelphia.     Dissertation    group only)




Vieten, C. (1999). Revisiting the alcoholic personality: Object relations, affect regulation, and
defense styles in alcoholic sibling pairs . California Inst Integral Studies, San Francisco.      Dissertation                       92
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190(2), 73-79.                                                                                        Journal     61




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Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.                                                   Journal
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Engineering , 59(6-B).                                                                             Dissertation   49




Greig, T. C., Bell, M. D., Kaplan, E., & Bryson, G. (2000). Object relations and reality testing
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Kimhy, D. (2003). The relationship between mental representations, premorbid adjustment,
and symptom patterns in schizophrenia . Long Island U, The Brooklyn Center, New York.       Dissertation   61




Angus , J. M. (2007). Parents of children with Asperger Syndrome: Relationships between
early attachment, ego functioning, and parenting behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts
International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering , 68(4-B).                           Dissertation   262




Crawford, M. E. (2007). Object relations and self-representations in women with attention
deficit disorders. Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara.                             Dissertation   136
Lear, S. A. S. (2002). Pathological stock market gamblers: An object relations measure.
California Inst Integral Studies, San Francisco.                                                Dissertation   51
Ostroth, A. C. (1995). The influence of object relations and social skills on compliance with
outpatient mental health treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The
Sciences and Engineering , 56(5-B).                                                             Dissertation   112




Inkeles, P. M. (1996). The role of alexithymia in substance abuse and substance abuse
relapse. Miami Institute of Psychology of the Caribbean Ctr For Advanced Studies, Miami.        Dissertation   97



Krause, E. W. (1996). Chronic pain, Alexithymia, and object relations . U Tennessee,
Knoxville.                                                                                      Dissertation   200

Wood, S. A. (2000). Object relations, alexithymia, symptoms of psychological distress and
methadone treatment outcome . Smith College School For Social Work, Northampton.                Dissertation   230
Bovasso, G. B., Alterman, A. I., Cacciola, J. S., & Rutherford, M. J. (2002). The Prediction of
violent and nonviolent criminal behavior in a methadone maintenance population. Journal of
Personality Disorders , 16(4), 360-373.                                                         Journal       254




Brown, B. M. (1997). An examination of severe psychopathy in a female offender . California
School of Professional Psychology, San Diego.                                               Dissertation       1




Fullard, D. A. (1999). The personality characteristics and treatment outcomes for thirty-three
(33) adult male inmates in a high-impact incarceration program. The Union Institution,
Cincinnati.                                                                                    Dissertation   33
Leguizamo, A. (2000). Juvenile sex offenders: an object relations approach . University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor.                                                                         Dissertation   128
Wolkenhauer, M. (1996). Male adolescents' object relatedness to their fathers: A
comparison of adolescent sex offenders and a general adolescent population . California
School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.                                                   Dissertation




Alpher, V. S. (1991). Assessment of ego functioning in multiple personality disorder. Journal
of Personality Assessment , 56(3), 373-387.                                                   Journal        4




Alpher, V. S. "Changes in Identity and Self-Organization in Psychotherapy of Multiple
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570-79.                                                                                      Journal         1
Armbrust , C. A. (1997). Measurement of the defensive use of splitting and related object
relations deficits in a clinical population. University of Texas at Austin, Armbrust.             Dissertation   98




Bell, M., Billington, R., & Cicchetti, D. ―Do object relations deficits distinguish BPD from other
diagnostic groups?‖ Journal of Clinical Psychology. 44.4 (1988): 511-6.                            Journal       44




Bovasso, G. B., Alterman, A. I., Cacciola, J. S., & Rutherford, M. J. (2002). The Prediction of
violent and nonviolent criminal behavior in a methadone maintenance population. Journal of
Personality Disorders , 16(4), 360-373.                                                         Journal          254
Brown, B. M. (1997). An examination of severe psychopathy in a female offender . California
School of Professional Psychology, San Diego.                                               Dissertation      1


Dahl, E. E. (2006). The development of a scale to measure separation-individuation themes
in borderline adolescent TAT protocols . California School of Professional Psychology,
Fresno.                                                                                       Dissertation   50




Huprich, S. K. (2003). Depressive personality and its relationship to depressed mood,
interpersonal loss, negative parental perceptions, and perfectionism. The Chicago Journal of
Nervous & Mental Disease , 191(2), 73-79.                                                    Journal         80



Huprich, S. K., Stanford, K., & Smith, M. (2002). Psychometric evaluation of the depressive
personality disorder inventory. Journal of Personality Disorders , 16(3), 255-269.            Journal        148
Kurtz, J. E., Morey, L. C., & Tomarken, A. J. (1993). The concurrent validity of 3 self-report
measures of borderline personality. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral
Assessment , 15(3), 255-266.                                                                     Journal        119




Leerer, C. G. (1996). Outcomes of inpatient cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline
personality disorder. Northeastern University, Boston.                                           Dissertation   14




Middleton, A. E. (2004). Differentiating adolescents with borderline personality disorder from
normal adolescents and adolescents with other disorders . University of Texas at Austin,
Texas.                                                                                         Dissertation     71
Pomerantz, M. (1996). Relationships between borderline and narcissistic personality traits,
and tolerance of ambiguity, aggression and assertion . California School of Professional
Psychology, Los Angeles.                                                                       Dissertation   125




Roberts, K. K. (1998). The relationship between adult attachment styles and Masterson's
delineation of personality disorders . George Fox University, Newberg.                         Dissertation   120




Rutherford, M. J., Alterman, A. I., Cacciola, J. S., McKay, J. R., & Cook, T. G. (1996). Object
relations and reality testing in psychopathic and antisocial methadone patients. Journal of
Personality Disorders , 10(4), 312-320.                                                         Journal       240



Sack, A., Sperling, M. B., Fagen, G., & Foelsch, P. (1996). Attachment style, history, and
behavioral contrasts for a borderline and normal sample. Journal of Personality Disorders ,
10(1), 88-102.                                                                                 Journal


Sharifha, S. (1995). The quality of object relations in borderline and major depressed
patients as displayed on psychological tests . California School of Professional Psychology,
Los Angeles.                                                                                   Dissertation   40
Snyder, J. B. (1999). The relationship of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder to                  151 (experimental
the object relations and reality testing of alcoholic men . Temple University, Philadelphia.   Dissertation   group only)




Stuppy, L. J. (1996). The relationship between dissociation and object-relations impairment
in adult female incest survivor clients with and without personality splitting . Andrews
University, Berrien Springs.                                                                   Dissertation                       60




Tramantano, G., Javier, R. A., & Colon, M. (2003). Discriminating among subgroups of
borderline personality disorder: an assessment of object representations. American Journal
of Psychoanalysis , 63(2), 149-175.                                                            Journal                            57




Aylor , A. R. (1995). The relationship between maternal object representations, infant
temperament and security of attachment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B:
The Sciences and Engineering , 56(5-B).                                                        Dissertation                       87
Celec, M. J. (1995). Attachment and affect motivated eating behavior in an obese population:
Maintenance versus relapse. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
and Engineering , 55(12-B).                                                                  Dissertation    39




Deason, D. M. (1998). A systemic look at the self: The relationship between family
organization, interpersonal attachment and identity . University of Southern Mississippi,
Hattiesburg.                                                                                  Dissertation   114




Deason, D. M., & Randolph, D. L. (1998). A systematic look at the self: The relationship
between family organization, interpersonal attachment, and identity. Journal of Social
Behavior & Personality , 13(3), 465-478.                                                      Journal        114


Goldman, G. A. (2005). Quality of object relations, security of attachment, and interpersonal
style as predictors of the early therapeutic alliance . College of Arts and Sciences at Ohio
University, Athens.                                                                           Dissertation   48
Goldman, G. A., & Anderson, T. (2007). Quality of Object Relations and Security of
Attachment as Predictors of Early Therapeutic Alliance. Journal of Counseling Psychology ,
54(2), 111-117.                                                                               Journal        55
Gussoni Leone, F. M. A. (2003). Relationships of object relations functioning, attachment
security and self-representations to the adult relatedness of college students. Dissertation
Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering , 64(2-B).                    Dissertation   340




Heiss, G. E., & Berman, W. H. (2006). Five scales in search of a construct: exploring
continued attachment to parents in college students. Journal of Personality Assessment ,
67(1), 102-115.                                                                                Journal        216




Jason, K. A. (1998). The effect of positive sibling relationships on object relations and
attachment styles of adult children of divorce . Adelphi University, the Inst of Advanced
Psychological Studies, New York.                                                               Dissertation   130

Johnson , S. H. (1995). Attachment and object relations among bulimic college women .
California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/alameda.                                Dissertation   65
Mallinckrodt, B., Porter, M. J., & Kivlighan, D. M., Jr. (2005). Client Attachment to Therapist,
Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy.
Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training , 42(1), 85-100.                               Journal                          82




McLaughlin, J. T. (1992). Relationship of God-construct complexity, God-image, emotional
attachment, and worldview orientation to psychological health. University of Southern
Mississippi, Hattiesburg.                                                                          Dissertation                     256


McNamara, P., Andresen, J., Clark, J., Zborowski, M., & Duffy, C. A. (2001). Impact of
attachment styles on dream recall and dream content: a test of the attachment hypothesis of                       76 (only second
REM sleep. Journal of Sleep Research , 10(2), 117-127.                                      Journal               study)

Nilsson, K. E. (1995). Relation of adult attachment style, object relations, and therapeutic
factors to early indications of group cohesiveness . University of Oregon, Eugene.                 Dissertation                     38




Reese, R. J., Kieffer, K. M., & Briggs, B. K. (2002). A reliability generalization study of select
measures of adult attachment style. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 62(4),
619-646.                                                                                           Journal
Roberts, K. K. (1998). The relationship between adult attachment styles and Masterson's
delineation of personality disorders . George Fox University, Newberg.                          Dissertation    120




Roche, D. N. (2000). Attachment and object relations: Mediators between child sexual
abuse and women's adjustment . University of Victoria, Canada.                                  Dissertation    122

Sack, A., Sperling, M. B., Fagen, G., & Foelsch, P. (1996). Attachment style, history, and
behavioral contrasts for a borderline and normal sample. Journal of Personality Disorders ,
10(1), 88-102.                                                                                  Journal

Sayer , P. C. (2002). Responses of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder to eye
movement desensitization and reprocessing or a cognitive-behavioral treatment as mediated
by attachment status . Alliant International University, Fresno.                          Dissertation           6




Selby, C. L. B. (2000). The relationship of false self behavior to object relations, attachment,
and adjustment. Unpublished Dissertation, University of North Texas, Denton.                     Dissertation   200
Terletzky, D. L. (1995). Attachment quality and attachment style as predictors of level of
hopelessness among inpatients in a pacific northwest private psychiatric hospital. George Fox
College, Newberg.                                                                               Dissertation   94




Deason, D. M. (1998). A systemic look at the self: The relationship between family
organization, interpersonal attachment and identity . University of Southern Mississippi,
Hattiesburg.                                                                                    Dissertation   114



Deason, D. M., & Randolph, D. L. (1998). A systematic look at the self: The relationship
between family organization, interpersonal attachment, and identity. Journal of Social
Behavior & Personality , 13(3), 465-478.                                                        Journal        114




Farrar, V. (1996). Object relations of incest survivors . Adelphi U, the Inst of Advanced
Psychological Studies, New York.                                                                Dissertation   60
Hadley, J. A., Holloway, E. L., & Mallinckrodt, B. (1993). Common aspects of object relations
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Counseling Psychology , 40(3), 348-356.                                                       Journal                              97




Hansen, T. L. (1997). An investigation of object relations, reality testing, erotophobia, and
defenses in mothers of incest victims . California School of Professional Psychology, San                      29, not including
Diego.                                                                                          Dissertation   control group




Jason, K. A. (1998). The effect of positive sibling relationships on object relations and
attachment styles of adult children of divorce . Adelphi University, the Inst of Advanced
Psychological Studies, New York.                                                                Dissertation                       130


Kossar, M. D. (1999). Interpersonal issues of nonhospitalized adult adoptees: The influence
of age at time of adoption on the perception of relationships . Allegheny U Health Sciences,
US.                                                                                             Dissertation                       99
Riebeling, C. L. (1997). Perceptions of relatedness: Patterns of association between
appraisals of childhood and contemporary relationships . University of Virginia,
Charlottesville.                                                                              Dissertation   97
Schwartz, L. S. (1995). Parental divorce, conflict, and bonding: Impact on object relations
and intimacy in men and women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The
Sciences and Engineering , 56(3-B).                                                           Dissertation   408


Simpao, E. B. (2000). Parent-child separation and family cohesion amongst immigrants:
Impact on object relations, intimacy, and story themes. Long Island University, Brookville.   Dissertation   124




Stuppy, L. J. (1996). The relationship between dissociation and object-relations impairment
in adult female incest survivor clients with and without personality splitting . Andrews
University, Berrien Springs.                                                                  Dissertation   60
Abrams, S. A. (1995). Breast feeding duration and object representations. Dissertation
Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering , 56(3-B).                  Journal        200




Angus , J. M. (2007). Parents of children with Asperger Syndrome: Relationships between
early attachment, ego functioning, and parenting behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts
International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering , 68(4-B).                            Dissertation   262
Aylor , A. R. (1995). The relationship between maternal object representations, infant
temperament and security of attachment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B:
The Sciences and Engineering , 56(5-B).                                                      Dissertation   87




Barlev , A. (2005). Object relations as a mediator between childhood traumas, parental
caregiving and young adult adjustment . Michigan State University, East Lansing.             Dissertation   320
Blank, L. W. (1996). The relationship between the holocaust and object relations in adult
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Brooks , S. D. (2005). An investigation into the object relations, self-esteem and separation-
individuation process of black females from father present and father absent backgrounds .
City University of New York, New York.                                                                Dissertation   35
Cohen , J. S. (1997). Separating memory from hope: Patterns of object representation
among adults who lost a parent in childhood or adolescence . Long Island U, Brooklyn
Center, New York.                                                                                     Dissertation   39



Girard, C. (1997). Separation-individuation and affiliation in adult women: The impact of the early
mother-daughter relationship on the quality of interpersonal relationships. Dissertation Abstracts
International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering , 57(9-B).                                     Dissertation   50




Hardwick, C. J., Hansen, N. D., & Bairnsfather, L. (1995). Are adult children of alcoholics
unique – a study of object relations and reality testing. International Journal of the
Addictions , 30(5), 525-539.                                                                          Journal        230




Heiss, G. E., & Berman, W. H. (2006). Five scales in search of a construct: exploring
continued attachment to parents in college students. Journal of Personality Assessment ,
67(1), 102-115.                                                                                       Journal        216
Nikulainen-Levine, H. T. (1997). The impact of paternal suicide in childhood on women's
adult love relationships . The Wright Inst, Berkeley.                                         Dissertation   84




Schneider, G. K. (1997). Transgenerational effects of the Holocaust: Levels of object
relatedness and intimacy in adult children of survivors . Adelphi University, the Inst of
Advanced Psychological Studies, New York.                                                     Dissertation   102



Simpao, E. B. (2000). Parent-child separation and family cohesion amongst immigrants:
Impact on object relations, intimacy, and story themes. Long Island University, Brookville.   Dissertation   124

Simnowitz, L. B. (1999). The relations among parental identification, levels of separation-
individuation, and object relations among female adolescents. New York University, New
York.                                                                                         Dissertation   188




Vendryes, D. M. (1999). When mothers decide whether or not to forego life-sustaining
treatments for their children: A preliminary study of psychological correlates . University
Miami, Miami.                                                                                 Dissertation   20
Watkins, K. E. (2002). Stress and depression in single African-American mothers as a
function of their sons’ second separation in adolescence . Alliant International University,
Fresno.                                                                                                  Dissertation   90




Balestri, M. (1999). Overt and covert narcissism and their relationship to object relations,
depression, Machiavellianism, and the five factor model of personality. Boston University,
Massimo.                                                                                                 Dissertation   149



Bell, M. D., Greig, T. C., Bryson, G., & Kaplan, E. (2001). Patterns of object relations and
reality testing deficits in schizophrenia: clusters and their symptom and personality
correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 57(12), 1353-1367.                                          Journal        222


Bornstein, R. F., & Huprich, S. K. (2006). Construct validity of the relationship profile test: three-year
retest reliability and links with core personality traits, object relations, and interpersonal problems.
Journal of Personality Assessment , 86(2), 162-171.                                                        Journal      122




Hibbard, S. (1994). An empirical study of the differential roles of libidinous and aggressive
shame components in normality and pathology. Psychoanalytic Psychology , 11(4), 449-474. Journal                        701
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Huprich, S. K., Stepp, S. D., Graham, A., & Johnson, L. (2004). Gender differences in
dependency, separation, object relations and pathological eating behavior and attitudes.
Personality and Individual Differences , 36(4), 801-811.                                       Journal   141




Kelsey, R. M., Ornduff, S. R., Reiff, S., & Arthur, C. M. (2002). Psychophysiological
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332.                                                                                           Journal   50
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and tolerance of ambiguity, aggression and assertion . California School of Professional
Psychology, Los Angeles.                                                                           Dissertation   125




Stiens, R. E. (1995). An assessment of the clinical utility of the Bell Object Relations-Reality
Testing Inventory . California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.                          Dissertation   90



Weich, S., Lewis, G., & Mann, A. (1996). Effect of early life experiences and personality on
the reporting of psychosocial distress in general practice: A preliminary investigation. British
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Benveniste, P. S., Papouchis, N., Allen, R., & Hurvich, M. (1998). Rorschach assessment of
annihilation anxiety and ego functioning. Psychoanalytic Psychology , 15, 536-566.         Journal           75
Burns, B., & Viglione, D. J., Jr. (1996). The Rorschach Human Experience Variable,
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mental health crises . Inst Transpersonal Psychology, Palo Alto.                                  Dissertation   58




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Hall, T. W., Brokaw, B. F., Edwards, K. J., & Pike, P. L. (1998). An empirical exploration of
psychoanalysis and religion: Spiritual maturity and object relations development. Journal for
the Scientific Study of Religion , 37(2), 303-313.                                                 Journal        76


Hall, T. W., & Edwards, K. J. (1996). The initial development and factor analysis of the
Spiritual Assessment Inventory. Journal of Psychology & Theology , 24(3), 233-246.                 Journal        663




Hall, T. W., & Edwards, K. J. (2002). The Spiritual Assessment Inventory: A theistic model
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Engineering , 55(12-B).                                                                            Dissertation   67
McLaughlin, J. T. (1992). Relationship of God-construct complexity, God-image, emotional
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Mississippi, Hattiesburg.                                                                       Dissertation   256




Peterson, D. L. (1999). The relationship of birth order to religious experience and object
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being . Alliant International University, Fresno.                                               Dissertation   117
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Bassman, L. E. (1991). Object relations and self-reported AIDS self-care behavior.
Psychological Reports, 68(3), 915-23.                                                        Journal        509


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Cooke , A. M. (1997). Object relations and self-representations: Implications for adult
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Mills, B., & Aldag, R. J. (1999). Exploring the relationships between object relations/reality
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Tabatabaee, L. (2005). Creative expression and object relations . Alliant International
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Alterman, A. I., McDermott, P. A., Cacciola, J. S., & Rutherford, M. J. (2004). Latent
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Bell MD, Billington R and Becker B. A scale for the assessment of object relations: reliability,
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Benveniste, P. S., Papouchis, N., Allen, R., & Hurvich, M. (1998). Rorschach assessment of
annihilation anxiety and ego functioning. Psychoanalytic Psychology , 15, 536-566.         Journal                      75


Bornstein, R. F., & Huprich, S. K. (2006). Construct validity of the relationship profile test: three-year
retest reliability and links with core personality traits, object relations, and interpersonal problems.
Journal of Personality Assessment , 86(2), 162-171.                                                        Journal      122


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177.                                                                                                     Journal        218
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Assessment , 8(1), 92-99.                                                                                Journal        105




Dahl, E. E. (2006). The development of a scale to measure separation-individuation themes
in borderline adolescent TAT protocols . California School of Professional Psychology,
Fresno.                                                                                                  Dissertation   50

Hall, T. W., & Edwards, K. J. (1996). The initial development and factor analysis of the
Spiritual Assessment Inventory. Journal of Psychology & Theology , 24(3), 233-246.                       Journal        663
Hall, T. W., & Edwards, K. J. (2002). The Spiritual Assessment Inventory: A theistic model
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Subject Pool                  BORI/BORRTI/RT-OR   Measures used other than BORRTI




                                                  Family Experiences Survey, Conflict Tactics Scale,
                                                  Childhood Maltreatment Interview-Revised, Social
                                                  Support Questionnaire, Insecure Attachment
College Women                 BORRTI              Inventory




Undergraduate Students (217
female., 103 males)           BORI




Undergraduate Females (22
maltreated, 33 non-maltreated) BORRTI             TAT
Male substance abusers (10
substance abusers, 10 non-
substance abusers)             BORRTI             Interviews
                                          Marlower-Crowne Social Desirability Scale,
                                          Dissociative Experiences Scale, Life Experiences
College women in New York                 Questionnaire, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Brief
City                             BORRTI   Symptom Inventory




Students enrolled in a private
and residential school for                Child Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index
students with conduct problems BORRTI     (CPTSD-RI)




                                          Combat Exposure Scale, Interpersonal Reactivity
                                          Index, Maturity of Motivation Scale, Interpersonal
male Vietnam era combat                   Behavior Questionnaire, Mississippi Scale for
veterans diagnosed with PTSD BORRTI       Combat Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder



18-60 yr old males with sexual
abuse history                    BORRTI
Paramedics                      BORRTI




Firefighters                    BORRTI




members of the Children's Aid
Society of Toronto              BORRTI   The Internal Control Index




                                         Domgraphic Data, Beck Depression Inventory, the
Australian Firefighters         BORRTI   IES, Internal Control Index, Self Efficacy Scale
                                      Inventory of Interpersonal Problems and measures of
Adult women who have been             distress, the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale, and the
raped                        BORRTI   Beck Depression Inventory




                                      Relationship Questionnaire, Trauma Symptom
women from the Greater                Inventory, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale,
Victoria area                BORRTI   Inventory of Interpersonal Problems




                                      Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale,
College Women betweent the            Dissociative Experience Scale, Life Experiences
ages fo 18 and 30            BORRTI   Questionnaire, Sexual Experiences Questionnaire


                                      Demographic questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90-
Not specified                BORRTI   Revised (SCL-90-R),
African American low-income
women, 53 suicide attempters,             Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Blatt Object
106 control participants         BORI     Relations Inventory
40 charged with domestic                  Demographic questionnaire, Conflict Tactics Scale,
assault, 31 individuals arrested          Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Defense Styles
for nonviolent crimes, 25                 Questionnaire, Narcissistic Personality Inventory,
nonviolent control               BORRTI   Depressive Experiences Questionnaire




                                          Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Narcissistic
                                          Personality Disorder Scale, Ego-Sensitivity Scale,
                                          and the Narcissism-Hypersensitivity Scale, Beck
                                          Depression Inventory, Machiavellian-IV scale, NEO
college students               BORRTI     Five-Factor Inventory




                                          Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, Schwarz-
                                          Getter Interparental Influence Scale, Parent Behavior
A depressed population and a              Form, Inter-rater Reliability of QSOD, Mayman/Jaffe
control                        BORRTI     Self-Other Differentiation Scale (QSOD)
                                          Beck Depressive Inventory, Early Life Events
                                          Questionnaire, Provision of Social Relations, Frost
verteran psychiatric outpatients BORRTI   Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale




58 undergraduate students and             Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory, BDI-II,
90 Psychiatric outpatients    BORRTI      DIDP, ELEQ, PSR,




                                          Demographic Data, Beck Depression Inventory, the
Australian Firefighters       BORRTI      IES, Internal Control Index, Self Efficacy Scale

                                          Beck Depression Inventory, Social Cognition and
                                          Object Relations Scale Score, Comprehensive
Borderline or Major Depressed             System for the Rorschach, Developmental Analysis
subjects                      BORRTI      of the Concept of the Object Scale, Rorschach
Bipolar Disorder, Major
Depression, and Paranoid
Schizophrenia patients      BORRTI
                                     Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety
                                     Inventory, Separation-Individuation Test of
African-American mothers    BORRTI   Adolescence




women diagnosed with bulimia
nervosa                      BORI    Bulimia Test-Revised, Erwin Identity Scale




undergraduate women         BORI     Bulimia Inventory
Caucasian females who
participated in a modified
fasting diet                     BORI   General Questionnaire



Patients seeking treatment for
anorexia or bulimia              BORI   The Eating Disorder Inventory




                                        Repertory grid technique, Eating Disorder Inventory,
undergraduate women              BORI   Eating Attitude Test


undergraduate women              BORI   Bulimia Test-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory
                                         Eating Attitude Test, Eating Self-Efficacy Scale,
                                         Separation Individuation Process Inventory, Eating
                                         Questionnaire Revised, Interpersonal Dependency
Undergraduate students          BORRTI   Inventory
College freshmen and
sophomore women, 30                      11 Eating Disorder Inventory-2 scales, Parental
bulimics and 35 non-bulimics    BORRTI   Attachment Questionnaire




                                         Mody Mass Index, Gormally Binge Eating Scale,
normal, obese, obese binge               Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-
eater, and bulimic women        BORI     Revised


77 undergraduate women for               Interpersonal Dependency Inventory, Eating
quantitative study, 4 bulimic            Questionnaire-Revised, Eating Self-Efficacy Scale,
women for qualitative study     BORRTI   Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale
university women                  BORI     EAT-26, Defense Style Questionnaire



students, aerobic participants,
and anorexic and bulimic
patients                          BORRTI




Healthy human subjects            BORRTI


                                           Family Interview for Genetic Studies, Edinburgh
                                           Inventory of Handedness Scale, Severity of
                                           Psychosocial Stressors Scale, Perceptual Abberation
20 regular smokers, 20 non-                Subscale of the Wisconsin Psychosis Proneness
smokers                           BRTI     Scale, Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire


Healthy human subjects            BRTI     Wisconsin Scales of Psychosis Proneness


Healthy human subjects            BRTI     Wisconsin Scales of Psychosis Proneness




Methadone maintenance
patients                          BORRTI   Interpersonal Reactivity Index
                                 The Hare Psychopathy Checklist, The Socialization
                                 Scale of the California Personality Inventory,
                                 Personality Disorder Examination, The Interpersonal
                                 Reactivity Index, The Machiavellianism Scale, The
                                 Buss-Durke Hostility Index, The Structured Interview
methadone maintenance            for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder, Structured
population              BORRTI   Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID)




Methadone patients      BORRTI   Psychopathy Checklist - Revised




Methadone patients      BORRTI




Methadone patients      BORRTI



                                 The Symptom Checklist 90 Reivsed, Toronto
Methadone patients      BORRTI   Alexithymia Scale
38 ACOA with child age 4 or
younger, 50 control           BORRTI     Parenting Stress Index

                                         Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem
first-semester college students BORRTI   Scale, College Alcohol Survey
Male substance abusers (10
substance abusers, 10 non-
substance abusers)              BORRTI   Interviews

                                         Assessment of Positive Symptoms for Cocaine-
                                         Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP), Cocaine Experience
cocaine-dependent adults      BORRTI     Questionnaire (CEQ)




employees of a large US
manufacturing company         BORRTI     Alcoholic Screening Test




47 alcohol-dependent males,              Affect Intensity Measure, Addiction Severity Index,
46 cocaine-dependent males    BORI       SCQ-39
Subjects who denied a history
of relapse and subjects who               Toronto Alexithymia Scale, State-Trait Anxiety
admitted to a history of relapse BORRTI   Inventory (STAI)


                                          Family Interview for Genetic Studies, Edinburgh
                                          Inventory of Handednessscale, Severity of
                                          Psychosocial Stressors Scale, Perceptual Abberation
20 regular smokers, 20 non-               Subscale of the Wisconsin Psychosis Proneness
smokers                         BRTI      Scale, Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire


                                          Modified Social Network Inventory, Social Network
Substance abusers               BORI      Inventory
adult non-psychotic
psychotherapy outpatients,
psychiatric control (n = 35),
experimental use (n = 33), or             Drug Involvement Scale for Classification of Drug
heavy substance abuse (n =                Abusers, Demographic Questionnaire,
29)                             BORRTI    Comprehensive Object Relations Profile (CORP)
50 severely addicted substance           Sentence Completion Test for ego development, the
abusers, 50 non-addicted                 Toronto Alexythymia Scale, Symptom Checklist-90,
controls                       BORRTI    Childhood Trauma Questionnaire




Male Alcohol-dependent
patients based on the diagnosis          Psychopathy Checklist - Revised, Personality
of psychopathy                  BORRTI   Disorder Examination




34 families                   BORRTI     Defense Style Questionnaire, Affect Regulation Scale
                                        Beck Depression Inventory, Eysenck Personality
                                        Questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory, Positive
                                        and Negative Syndrome Scale, Work Behavior
outpatients enrolled in work            Inventory, Quality of Life Scale, scale of
rehabilitation                 BORRTI   Unawareness of Mental Disorder




stable outpatients with
schizophrenia from Sao Paolo,
Brazil                        BORI




                                        Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief
                                        Psychiatric Rating Scale, Premorbid Adjustment
Schizophrenics                 BORI     Scale


                               BORRTI
outpatients with schizophrenia            Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Eysenck
or schizoaffective disorder      BORRTI   Personality Questionnaire




outpatients with schizophrenia
or schizoaffective disorder      BORRTI   Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
                                          Quality of Life Interview, Semantic Differential form,
patients with clinical diagnoses          Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV Patient
of schizophrenia                 BORI     Edition (SCID-I/P)




36 subjects with schizophrenia
onset at age 20 or before, 28
subjects with onset after age             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Eysenck
30                             BORRTI     Personality Questionnaire
                                          Differentiation-Relatedness Scale, Positive and
patients with schizophrenia or            Negative Syndrome Scale, Premorbid Adjustment
schizoaffective disorders        BORRTI   Scale, Rorschach Comprehensive System




                                          Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, and the
Parents of children with                  Parenting Behavior Inventory, Parental Bonding
Asperger's Syndrome              BORRTI   Instrument


                                          background questionnaire and Conner's Adult ADHD
                                          Rating Scale, Revised NEO-Personality Inventory,
                                          Internalized Shame Scale (ISS), Self-expression
Women with and without ADHD BORRTI        Inventory (SEI)
Volunteers categorized as
pathological gamblers,
pathological stock market
gamblers, or non-gamblers      BORRTI     South Oaks Gambling Screen

                                          Compliance Check List, Social Skills Inventory
patients, 61 females, 51 males BORI       (Research edition)




Subjects who denied a history
of relapse and subjects who               Toronto Alexithymia Scale, State-Trait Anxiety
admitted to a history of relapse BORRTI   Inventory (STAI)



100 - patients dagnosed with
chronic pain, 100 control      BORI       Toronto Alexithymia Scale

                                          The Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, Toronto
Methadone patients             BORRTI     Alexithymia Scale
                                  The Hare Psychopathy Checklist, The Socialization
                                  Scale of the California Personality Inventory,
                                  Personality Disorder Examination, The Interpersonal
                                  Reactivity Index, The Machiavellianism Scale, The
                                  Buss-Durke Hostility Index, The Structured Interview
methadone maintenance             for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder, Structured
population               BORRTI   Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID)




                                  The Psychopathy Checklist - Revised, Minnesota
                                  Multiphasic Personality Inventory second edition,
                                  Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory - third edition,
38-year old woman with            Rorschach Inkblot Characteristics of a Psychopathic
criminal history         BORRTI   Sample



                                  Anomia Scale, Beliefs About Substance Use (BASU),
                                  Carlson Psychological Survey (CPS), Coping
                                  Responses Inventory (CRI), Craving Beliefs
                                  Questionnaire (CBQ), Firestone Assessment of Self-
                                  Destructive Thoughts (FAST), Firestone Voice Scale
Male inmates             BORRTI   for Violence (FVSV)
                                        Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Millon Adolescent
75 sex offenders, 53 general            Clinical Inventory (MACI), Balanced Inventory of
delinquents                    BORRTI   Desirable Responding (BIDR)

                                        Assessment of Qualitative and Structural Dimensions
                               BORRTI   of Objection Representation




                               BORRTI   MMPI, Rorschach, TAT




                                        Introject Measure, Symptom Check Lisk-90-Revised,
38-year old man with MPD       BORRTI   Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
outpatients at Capital Area
Mental Health Center, which
provides low-cost
psychotherapy services to                Splitting Index, Narcissistic Personality Disorder
citizens of Austin and Travis            MMPI Scale, Borderline Syndrome Index, Million
County. Subjects were mostly             Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, Separation-
women.                          BORI     Individuation Inventory




VA inpatients                   BORI



                                         The Hare Psychopathy Checklist, The Socialization
                                         Scale of the California Personality Inventory,
                                         Personality Disorder Examination, The Interpersonal
                                         Reactivity Index, The Machiavellianism Scale, The
                                         Buss-Durke Hostility Index, The Structured Interview
methadone maintenance                    for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder, Structured
population                      BORRTI   Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID)
                                          The Psychopathy Checklist - Revised, Minnesota
                                          Multiphasic Personality Inventory second editon,
                                          Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory - third edition,
38-year old woman with                    Rorschach Inkblot Characteristics of a Psychopathic
criminal history               BORRTI     Sample
11 diagnosed borderline
personality disorder, 20
subjects diagnosed major
depress, 19 adolexcents with
no diagnosis                   BORRTI     TAT, SISTAT




                                          Beck Depressive Inventory, Early Life Events
                                          Questionnaire, Provision of Social Relations, Frost
verteran psychiatric outpatients BORRTI   Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale



58 undergraduate students and             Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory, BDI-II,
90 Psychiatric outpatients    BORRTI      DIDP, ELEQ, PSR
                                         MMPI Personality Disorders Scales, BPD from the
undergraduate students          BORI     Personality Assessment Inventory
                                         Lethality of suicideattempt rating scale, Overt
state hospital inpatients with           Aggression Scale, International Personalit Disorder
BPD and severe Axis I                    Examination, Global Assessment of Functioning
diagnoses who completed                  (GAF) Scale, Symptoms Checklist-90-R, The Beck
(71%) or dropped out (29%) of            Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale,
a DBT Skills Training Group              The Surival and Coping Beliefs Scale, The Empathy
which was 25% intensity of the           SCale, The Penn Helping Alliance Questionnaire, the
DBT model                      BORRTI    DBT Evaluation




Borderline group (21), Other-
disordered group (17), normal            The Diagnosti Interview for Borderlines, Splitting
group (33)                      BORRTI   Index, Separation Individuation Questionnaire
undergraduate psychology                  Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Interpersonal
students                         BORRTI   Behavior Survey



86-individuals involved in the
Access Program in Spokane,
Washington, 34 - psychology
students at George Fox                    Relationship Questionnaire, Relationship Scales
University (control)             BORRTI   Questionnaire, Roberts Relationship Inventory




Methadone patients               BORRTI   Psychopathy Checklist - Revised


                                          Sperling's Attachment Style Inventory, West and
                                          Sheldon's Reciprocal Attachment Questionnaire,
Impatient Borderline and                  Hazan and Shaver's Attachment Self-Report,
college normal (control)         BORRTI   Attachment History Adjective Sort

                                          Beck Depression Inventory, Social Cognition and
                                          Object Relations Scale Score, Comprehensive
Borderline or Major Depressed             System for the Rorschach, Developmental Analysis
subjects                      BORRTI      of the Concept of the Object Scale, Rorschach
Male Alcohol-dependent
patients based on the diagnosis          Psychopathy Chelist - Revised, Personality Disorder
of psychopathy                  BORRTI   Examination




Adult Female Incest Survivors
(29 met diagnosis for DID, 31            The Dissociative Experience Scale, Childhood
did not)                        BORRTI   Maltreatment Interview Schedule-Short Form




                                         Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale Score
Adult Borderline subjects       BORI     (SCORS)




Mothers of 11-14 month old
children                        BORI     Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale
Caucasian females who
participated in a modified
fasting diet                  BORI     General Questionnaire




Undergraduate students in a
southern state university     BORI     Family Functioning Scale




Undergraduate volunteers      BORI


                                       Working Alliance Inventory, Revised Adult
Individual Psychotherapy               Attachment Scale (AAS), Interpersonal Adjective
clients                       BORRTI   Scales - Revised (IAS-R)

Individual Psychotherapy
clients                       BORRTI   Working Alliance Inventory Adult Attachment Scale
First and second year male and
female undergraduate
psychology students from three
universities in suburband New           The Relationship Experience Scale (RES), The
Jersey                         BORI     Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment




                                        IPPA, PQI, PBI, ASI, Continued Attachment Scale,
                                        UCLA Loneliness Scale, Measure of Interpersonal
                                        Dependency, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,
Undergraduate Students         BORI     Depressive Experiences Questionnaire,




                                        The Brother-Sister Questionnaire, a Demographic
undergraduate students at a             Questionnaire, The Relationship Scales
small northeastern college     BORRTI   Questionnaire
College freshmen and
sophomore women, 30                     11 Eating Disorder Inventory-2 scales, Parental
bulimics and 35 non-bulimics   BORRTI   Attachment Questionnaire
38 -clients in first study, 44 -
women clients in the second                 Client Attachment to Therapist Scale, Working
study                              BORRTI   Alliance Inventory


                                            Symptom Checklist-90, Organismic-Mechanistic
                                            Paradigm Inventory (measures one's general
214 university students, 42                 worldview orientation), God-construct instrument (self-
Verterans Administration                    report measure that targets the symbolic and
patients                           BORI     affective dimensions of God-images


Study 1 - college students,
Study 2 - community dwelling
elderly volunteers                 BORRTI   Hartmann's concept of the contextualizing image (CI)

                                            Group Climate Questionnaire --Short Form, Group
student clients                    BORRTI   Attitude Scale, Adult Attachment Scale




                                            Adult Attachment Scale, Inventory of Parent and Peer
Results from 154 different                  Attachment, Parent Attachment Questionnaire,
studies                            BORI     Parental Bonding Instrument
86-individuals involved in the
Access Program in Spokane,
Washington, 34 - psychology
students at George Fox                    Relationship Questionnaire, Relationship Scales
University (control)             BORRTI   Questionnaire, Roberts Relationship Inventory




                                          Relationship Questionnaire, Trauma Symptom
women from the Greater                    Inventory, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale,
Victoria area                    BORRTI   Inventory of Interpersonal Problems
                                          Sperling's Attachment Style Inventory, West and
                                          Sheldon's Reciprocal Attachment Questionnaire,
Impatient Borderline and                  Hazan and Shaver's Attachment Self-Report,
college normal (control)         BORRTI   Attachment History Adjective Sort


                                          Demographic questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90-
Not specified                    BORRTI   Revised (SCL-90-R),




male and female
undergraduate students age 18
to 24 at the University of Norht          True Self Questionnaire, Adult Attachment Scale,
Texas                            BORI     Hopkins Symptom Checklist
                                        The Beck Hopelessness Scale, Adult Attachment
Newly admitted Inpatients      BORI     Types




Undergraduate students in a
southern state university      BORI     Family Functioning Scale




Undergraduate volunteers       BORI




Adult Females (29 victims of            Self-reported measures, McMaster Family
incest, 31 have not                     Assessment Device, Brief Symptom Inventory,
experienced incest)            BORRTI   Rorschach
                                          Self-Report Family Inventory, Self-Expression
Adults self-identified as coming          Inventory, Internalized Shame Scale, Problem History
from dysfunctional families      BORRTI   Scale




Women whose daughters had
been molested by their
biological fathers before the             Sexual Opinion Survey, Defensive Style
age of 12                       BORRTI    Questionnaire




                                          The Brother-Sister Questionnaire, a Demographic
undergraduate students at a               Questionnaire, The Relationship Scales
small northeastern college      BORRTI    Questionnaire

50 -adult adoptees adopted
before the age of 6 months, 49 -
adult adoptees adopted after              Global Severity Index, Symptom Checklist-90-
the age of 1 year                BORRTI   Revised
                                         Parental Bonding Instrument, Maltreatment Scales,
                                         Quality of Relationships Inventory and Parenting
                                         Alliance Inventory, Reciprocal Attachment
Not specified                   BORI     Questionnaire, Adult Attachment Scale

204 - subjects from intact               Family Environment Scale Conflict Subscale,
families, 104- divorced families BORI    Parental Bonding Instrument, Fear of Intimacy Scale

                                         The Family Environment Scale, Schedule of Recent
Recruited from Universities and          Events, demographics survey, six stories based on
Colleges                        BORRTI   the TAT, Motivation for Intimacy Scale




Adult Female Incest Survivors
(29 met diagnosis for DID, 31            The Dissociative Experience Scale, Childhood
did not)                        BORRTI   Maltreatment Interview Schedule-Short Form
Female college and graduate               Maryland Parent Attitude Survey, Breast Feeding
students and their mothers       BORI     Questionnaire constructed by author, TAT




                                          Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, and the
Parents of children with                  Parenting Behavior Inventory, Parental Bonding
Asperger's Syndrome              BORRTI   Instrument

Mothers of 11-14 month old
children                         BORI     Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale




Undergraduate Students (217
female., 103 males)              BORI
35 children of survivors (30
parents of 2 survivors) and 33            Demographic Questionnaire and Semantic
controls                         BORRTI   Differential, Rorschach
Black females, 25 fater-absent,        Separation Individuation Test of Adolescence and the
10 father-present               BORI   Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
                                       Demographic Information Sheet, Mourning Behavior
Men and women who had lost             Checklist, Bereavement Experience Questionnaire,
parents at a young age        BORRTI   Parental Bonding Instrument


                                       Psychological Separation Inventory, the Affiliative
                                       Tendency Scale, the Relationship Closeness
Women ages 30-45 with                  Inventory, and the Mutual Psychological
mothers still alive           BORRTI   Development Questionnaire, Rorschach test




employees of a large US
manufacturing company         BORRTI   Alcoholic Screening Test




                                       IPPA, PQI, PBI, ASI, Continued Attachment Scale,
                                       UCLA Loneliness Scale, Measure of Interpersonal
                                       Dependency, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,
Undergraduate Students        BORI     Depressive Experiences Questionnaire,
27 heterosexual women whose
fathers committed suicide,
control groups - 31 women who
lost their fathers through
natural or accdental deaths
(natural loss group), and 26
women who grew up in intact               Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, Parental
families (Intact Family Group) BORI       Bonding Instrument, Adult Attachment Scale




57 - daughters of Holocaust               Demographic questionnaire, Parent-Child Relations
surivors, 45 - control        BORI        Questionnaire II, Fear of Intimacy Scale


                                          The Family Environment Scale, Schedule of Recent
Recruited from Universities and           Events, demographics survey, six stories based on
Colleges                        BORRTI    the TAT, Motivation for Intimacy Scale
                                          Hamburger Revised Occupational Scale for Rating
                                          Socio-Economic Status, Parental Identification
                                          Scales- Maternal and Paternal, The Separation-
Middle-school females         BORI        Individuation Test of Adolescence




Mothers of inpatients at a long-          Social Support Questionnaire, Parental Bonding
term pediatric nursing facility  BORRTI   Instrument
                                          Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety
                                          Inventory, Separation-Individuation Test of
African-American mothers         BORRTI   Adolescence




                                          Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Narcissistic
                                          Personality Disorder Scale, Ego-Sensitivity Scale,
                                          and the Narcissism-Hypersensitivity Scale, Beck
                                          Depression Inventory, Machiavellian-IV scale, NEO
college students                 BORRTI   Five-Factor Inventory




outpatients with schizophrenia            Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Eysenck
or schizoaffective disorder      BORRTI   Personality Questionnaire



87 women and 35 men at a
large southern university        BORRTI   RPT, NEO-PI-R, IIP-64




                                          BSRS, The Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The
                                          NPDS, The Hecht Feminine Masochism Scale,
students enrolled at the                  Finney Dependent Masochism Scale, The Millon
University of Tennessee          BORI     Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Cyclothymia Scale
                                  SCL-90-R, Defense Style Questionnaire, O'Brien
                                  Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory, Interpersonal
                                  Behavior Scale, Borderline Syndrome Index (BSI),
undergraduate students   BORI     Cramer, Defense Mechanism Manual for the TAT,




                                  Eating Attitude Test, Eating Self-Efficacy Scale,
                                  Separation Individuation Process Inventory, Eating
                                  Questionnaire Revised, Interpersonal Dependency
Undergraduate students   BORRTI   Inventory




young women              BORRTI   Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory
undergraduate psychology                Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Interpersonal
students                       BORRTI   Behavior Survey


subjects presented for
psychotherapy services at a
private outpatient clinic in
Bakersfield, California        BORRTI   MMPI-2




general practice attenders with
psychiatric disorders           BORI    Parental Bonding Instrument




                                        Boundary Questionnaire, Interpersonal Dependency
undergraduate students         BORRTI   Inventory, Spielberg State Trait Personality Inventory
outpatients at Capital Area
Mental Health Center, which
provides low-cost
psychotherapy services to
citizens of Austin and Travis
County. Subjects were mostly
women.                          BORI      Splitting Index and Separation-Individuation Index




Psychiatric patients             BORRTI   SCL-90
25 college students, 25
inpatients diagnosed with
borderline personality disorder,
and 25 inpatients diagnosed
with schizophrenia               BORRTI   Rorschach


nonpatient women                BORI      Emotional Maturity Rating Form, Rorschach


female college students         BORI      Defense Mechanism Inventory
                                          Marlower-Crowne Social Desirability Scale,
                                          Dissociative Experiences Scale, Life Experiences
College women in New York                 Questionnaire, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Brief
City                             BORRTI   Symptom Inventory

26 subjects from a spiritual
direction training program, 39
undergraduate psychology                  Spiritual Assessment Inventory and the Religious
students, and 11 outpatient               Status Inventory and the Marlowe-Crowne Social
clients                          BORI     Desirability Scale




inpatients with paranoid
schizophrenia                    BORRTI   Rorschach
                                         Adapted Shame Rating Scale, Personal Feelings
                                         Questionnaire, Brief Shame Rating Scale, the
students enrolled in various             Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the OMMI, the
psychology classes at the                DPDS, The Hecht Feminine Masoschism Scale,
University of Tennessee,                 Finney Dependent Masochism Scale, The Millon
Knoxville                       BORI     Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Cyclothymia Scale


                                BORRTI   Boundary Questionnaire




self-identified lesbian women   BORRTI   Stage Allocation Measure, Dyadic Adjustment Scale




                                         Parentification Questionnaire (PQ), the Narcissistic
Psychologists from across the            Injury Scale (NIS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
United States                   BORI     (RSE), the Ethical Judgment Scale (EJS)
undergraduates                 BORI      SDMI


                                         Sexuality Experience Scales, Defense Mechanism
                                         Manual, Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening
Married women, 15 - celibate   BORRTI    Questionnaire



                                         Self-Transformational Crisis Assessment, Life
                                         Changes Questionnaire, Spirituality Assessment
adult participants             BORRTI    Scale



: Liberal Protestant (10 men
and 10 women); Conservative
Protestant (7 men and 7
women); Greek Orthodox (9
men and 10 women); Roman
Catholic (10 men and 10
women); and parents of
children who attended a private
school (10 men and 10 women;             Waring Intimacy Questionnaire, the Adjective Ratings
control)                        BORRTI   of God Scale, and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale

                                         Spiritual Well-Being Scale, Mysticism Scale,
                                         Richness of Prayer Experience Index, Narcissistic
                                         Personality Inventory, Defense Mechanisms
adults                         BORRTI    Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
undergraduate students                      Spiritual Assessment Inventory, Religious Status
participating in a local spiritual          Inventory, God Image Scales, Gorsuch Adjective
direction program                    BORI   Checklist

26 subjects from a spritual
direction training program, 39
undergraduate psychology
students, and 11 outpatient                 Spiritual Assessment Inventory and the Religious
clients.                             BORI   Status Inventory



undergraduates                       BORI   Spiritual Assessment Inventory




                                            Spiritual Assessment Inventory, The Spiritual Well-
                                            Being Scale, Intrinsic/Extrinsic-Revised, The Defense
subjects from a local privat                Styles Questionnaire, The Narcissistic Personality
Protestant university                BORI   Inventory

                                            Tennessee Self Concept Scale, Religious Experience
Adult Psychiatric Inpatient                 Questionnaire, God Image Scales of Presence,
subjects                             BORI   Challenge, and Acceptances
                                       Symptom Checklist-90, Organismic-Mechanistic
                                       Paradigm Inventory (measures one's general
214 university students, 42            worldview orientation), God-construct instrument (self-
Verterans Administration               report measure that targets the symbolic and
patients                      BORI     affective dimensions of God-images

                                       God Image Scales (GIS), the Gorsuch Adjective
                                       Checklist (GAC), the Loving and Controlling God
                                       Scale (LCGC), the Spiritual Awareness Inventory
                                       (SAI), the Religious Status Inventory (RSIn),
undergraduate students from a          Experience of God Scale (EGS), and the
small, private, Christian              Forgiveness of Other and Forgiveness of Self Scale
university                    BORI     (FOFS)




                                       Adjective Ratings of God scale, Fear of Intimacy
community college students    BORRTI   Scale




                                       Spiritual Assessment Inventory, Schwarz Outcome
Christians                    BORRTI   Scale -10, Object Relations Form
                                        Religious Experience Questionnaire, Gorsuch
Jewish, Muslim, and Protestant          Adjective Checklist, revised Intrinsic/Extrinsic
undergraduate students from             Religiosity Scale, Religious Problem Solving Scale,
the University of California at         Loving/Controlling God Scale, Spiritual Assessment
Los Angeles                     BORI    Inventory, Tennessee Self-concept Test




                                        AIDS prevention Survey of Thomas, Bassman's HIV
Urban college students         BORRTI   Infection Prevention Scale



Urban college students         BORRTI   AIDS prevention survey of Thomas




College Students enrolled in            Relationship Experience Scale, Continuation and
intro psych classes            BORI     Integration of Self Scale, MMPI-2



Oral group - 27, Combination of
signing and oral - 21, 29 -
college students (control)      BORRI   The inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment
Male and female
undergraduate and graduate                Personality and Time Attitudes Inventory and
students                      BORRTI      Temporal Experience Questionnaire


Adults who were born
biologically male             BORRTI      Hansburg Separation Anxiety Test, SRS



40-women between 18 and 25,               Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Personal
39-women between 40-55      BORRTI        Orientation Inventory




                                          Parental Boding Instrument, Magical Ideation Scale,
                                          Physical Andhedonia Scale, Intolerance of Ambiguity
Not specified                 BORRTI      Scale, Social Skills Inventory




first-level supervisors and mid-
level managers at two mid-size            Coping styles (two scales developed by Latack),
manufacturing plants in the               Somatic Tension (six-item scale by Latack and
Midwest                          BORRTI   Aldag)
Mexican-Americans               BORI     Personal Attitude Inventory




volunteers obtained from the
jury pool of a large metropolitan
Southern city.                    BORI   Inventory of Interpersonal Problems
                                         UCSD Migraine Questionnaire and Durke Hostility
                                         Guilt Inventory, Social Cognition and Object Relations
University Students             BORRTI   Scales-Revised


General Population              BORI     Attributes of Creativity Scale




                                         Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Beck Depression
General Population              BORRTI   Inventory-III
General Population            BORI      Somatic Response Survey, Daily Hassles Scale




Methadone maintenance
patients                      BORRTI    Interpersonal Reactivity Index




high functioning, average
functioning with no pathology,
subjects with personality order
other than borderline, subjects
with borderline personality             Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Global Assessment
disorder,                       RT-OR   Scale, Marlower-Crowne Social Desirability Scale




high functioning, average
functioning with no pathology,
subjects with personality order
other than borderline, subjects
with borderline personality             Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Global Assessment
disorder,                       BORI    Scale, Marlower-Crowne Social Desirability Scale
705 children from public
schools and 110 children from             Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children and
clinics                          BORI     Personality Inventory for Youth
25 college students, 25
inpatients diagnosed with
borderline personality disorder,
and 25 inpatients diagnosed
with schizophrenia               BORRTI   Rorschach



87 women and 35 men at a
large southern university      BORRTI     RPT, NEO-PI-R, IIP-64



male and female university
students                       BORRTI


nonpatient women               BORI       Emotional Maturity Rating Form, Rorschach

11 diagnosed borderline
personality disorder, 20
subjects diagnosed major
depress, 19 adolexcents with
no diagnosis                   BORRTI     TAT, SISTAT


undergraduates                 BORI       Spiritual Assessment Inventory
                                        Spiritual Assessment Inventory, The Spiritual Well-
                                        Being Scale, Intrinsic/Extrinsic-Revised, The Defense
subjects from a local privat            Styles Questionnaire, The Narcissistic Personality
Protestant university          BORI     Inventory




inpatients with paranoid
schizophrenia                  BORRTI   Rorschach




                                        IPPA, PQI, PBI, ASI, Continued Attachment Scale,
                                        UCLA Loneliness Scale, Measure of Interpersonal
                                        Dependency, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,
Undergraduate Students         BORI     Depressive Experiences Questionnaire,


58 undergraduate students and           Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory, BDI-II,
90 Psychiatric outpatients    BORRTI    DIDP, ELEQ, PSR,
                                        MMPI Personality Disorders Scales, BPD from the
undergraduate students         BORI     Personality Assessment Inventory

Psychiatric Patients           RT/OR




                                        Adult Attachment Scale, Inventory of Parent and Peer
Results from 154 different              Attachment, Parent Attachment Questionnaire,
studies                        BORI     Parental Bonding Instrument
subjects presented for
psychotherapy services at a
private outpatient clinic in
Bakersfield, California        BORRTI   MMPI-2




                                        Boundary Questionnaire, Interpersonal Dependency
undergraduate students         BORRTI   Inventory, Spielberg State Trait Personality Inventory




                                        AIDS prevention Survey of Thomas, Bassman's HIV
Urban college students         BORRTI   Infection Prevention Scale
Urban college students         BORRTI   AIDS prevention survey of Thomas




College Students enrolled in            Relationship Experience Scale, Continuation and
intro psych classes            BORI     Integration of Self Scale, MMPI-2
                                        background questionnaire and Conner's Adult ADHD
                                        Rating Scale, Revised NEO-Personality Inventory,
                                        Internalized Shame Scale (ISS), Self-expression
Women with and without ADHD BORRTI      Inventory (SEI)



Oral group - 27, Combination of
signing and oral - 21, 29 -
college students (control)      BORRI   The inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment




Male and female
undergraduate and graduate              Personality and Time Attitudes Inventory and
students                       BORRTI   Temporal Experience Questionnaire
Adults who were born
biologically male             BORRTI      Hansburg Separation Anxiety Test, SRS

Volunteers categorized as
pathological gamblers,
pathological stock market
gamblers, or non-gamblers     BORRTI      South Oaks Gambling Screen


40-women between 18 and 25,               Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Personal
39-women between 40-55      BORRTI        Orientation Inventory




                                          Parental Boding Instrument, Magical Ideation Scale,
                                          Physical Andhedonia Scale, Intolerance of Ambiguity
                              BORRTI      Scale, Social Skills Inventory




first-level supervisors and mid-
level managers at two mid-size            Coping styles (two scales developed by Latack),
manufacturing plants in the               Somatic Tension (six-item scale by Latack and
Midwest                          BORRTI   Aldag)



                                          Compliance Check List, Social Skills Inventory
patients, 61 females, 51 males BORI       (Research edition)
Mexican-Americans               BORI     Personal Attitude Inventory




volunteers obtained from the
jury pool of a large metropolitan
Southern city.                    BORI   Inventory of Interpersonal Problems
                                         UCSD Migraine Questionnaire and Durke Hostility
                                         Guilt Inventory, Social Cognition and Object Relations
University Students             BORRTI   Scales-Revised


General Population              BORI     Attributes of Creativity Scale



                                         Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Beck Depression
General Population              BORRTI   Inventory-III
General Population   BORI     Somatic Response Survey, Daily Hassles Scale



                     BORRI

                     BORRTI


                     BORI


                     BORRTI

                     BORI


                     BORI


                     BORRTI

                     BRTI

                     BORI

                     BORRTI
Results Related to the BORRTI




Object relations deficits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and young adult adjustment. Participants'
lack of basic trust as well as difficulty in relationships, fully mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and
depression, childhood abuse and anxiety, and partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and
dissociation in college students. As predicted, object relations mediated the impact of parental caregiving on
psychopathology in young adults. Levels of lack of basic trust and satisfaction in relationships mediated the relationship
between father care and depression. Furthermore, struggles in interpersonal relationships as well as oversensitivity to
separations and rejections mediated the impact of encouragement of dependence by mothers on depression, and
partially mediated the impact of mother dependence on anxiety and dissociation.




Results indicated that the maltreated group differed significantly from their nonmaltreated counterparts on overall object
relations on the BORRTI. A second level of analysis examined the relationship between two widely known measures of
object relations and personality functioning. There were significant group differences on overall reality testing scores
(average across the three scales), with the maltreated group obtaining higher scores on each of the three scales relative
to the non-maltreated group. Moreover, there was a significant group difference between the scale profiles. A simple
effects MANOVA indicated that this group X scale interaction was due to significantly higher scores on Uncertainty of
Perception in the maltreated versus non-maltreated group.
Preliminary data analysis also determined that the Marlowe-Crowne scale bore modest but significant negative
correlations (Pearson r, at the .05 level or greater) with the three reality-testing scales of the BORRTI (ranging from −.13
to −.24), with the DES total score (−.19), and with the three scales of the DES (ranging from −.13 to −.19). That is,
individuals who exhibited more concern with presenting themselves in a desirable light were less likely to acknowledge
symptoms of poor reality testing and dissociation. The Marlowe-Crowne was, therefore, included as a covariate in
analyses of variance involving the measures of reality testing and dissociation. Specifically, the effect of repressive style
on eight dependent variables (three factors of the Bell Reality Testing Inventory, three factors of the DES, total score on
the DES, and the Global Symptoms Index of the BSI) was calculated. As Table 1 indicates, each of these overall F tests
was significant at the .001 level. Moreover, as the table shows, the scores of Repressor (R) and Low-Anxious (LA)
subjects clustered together on the low end of these scales, with none of the analyses producing significant differences
among these groups.


Of the 37 students, 22 (59.5%) had CPTSD-RI scores in the severe and the very severe ranges. The most common
object relations and reality testing disturbances were insecure attachment and uncertainty of perception, respectively.
CPTSD-RI scores were positively correlated with two of the four object relations scores (insecure attachment and
egocentricity) and with all three reality testing scores (reality distortion, uncertainty of perception, and
hallucinations/delusions).




Object Relatedness was found to be significantly associated with PTSD symptoms after controlling for demographic
factors and trauma, and remained significant in the final step, as well. The altruistic intent to help was associated with
PTSD symptoms even after controlling for the demographic factors and personality/motivational variables. The results of
the present investigation indicate that the capacity for interpersonal relations (object relatedness) and help intentions
were the only significant predictors of current adjustment among veterans under treatment for PTSD.


Results indicate that males with a history of abuse demonstrated greater object relations disturbances than the norm,
scoring significantly higher on all object relations subscales. Disturbances in object relations were predicted by several
sexual abuse variables.
Higher levels of egocentricity and lower levels of social incompetence were associated with taking MHS leaves



To set the metric of the latent variable "relational capacity" the loading of the first measurement variable "alienation" was
set to 1. The loadings of "insecurity" and "social incompetence' were both large and significant. "Relational capacity" had
a significant direct negative effect on "support", indicating that as disturbances in relational capacity increased, the
amount of support that an individual perceived that they received from others decreased.




The latent construct Individual factors was estimated by four measurement variables Egocentricity, Insecurity, Social
Incompetence, and Control. Each of the measurement variables tested had significant parameter loadings (two tailed,
P <0.05). The standardized estimates were as follows: Egocentricity (λx 11=0.70), Insecurity (λx 12=0.75, P <0.001),
Social Incompetence (λx 13=0.57, P <0.001) and Control (λx 14=0.61, P <0.001). This indicates that as higher levels of
Individual factors occur, higher levels of Egocentricity, Insecurity, Social Incompetence and loss of Control will be
observed. The structural relationship of the exogenous latent construct Individual factors had a significant direct effect
on endogenous latent construct, Distress (γ 11=0.29, P <0.001). This indicates that as disturbances in relational
capacity increased, and sense of being out of control increased the level of distress increased.




All subscales of the Bell Object Relations Inventory were positively associated with depression, indicating that as
problems in interpersonal relating increase, so does depression. Similarly, three subscales of the BORRTI were
significantly associated with scores on the IES. Self-efficacy was mildly negatively associated with level of traumatic
stress. To assess whether scores on the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Internal Control Index, and the Bell Object Relations
Inventory were affected by exposure to a traumatic event, independent t-tests were conducted to compare the means
on these scales of the respondents who did not report exposure to a traumatic event at work and the respondents who
did report exposure. There was no significant difference in the means between the groups on the subscales of the
BORRTI (t[158] = .06 to t[158] = 1.4). It would therefore appear that in this sample, patterns of interpersonal relating
were not significantly altered by exposure to traumatic events at work.
With all variables in the model one of the BORTTI sub-scales (Egocentricity) and one of the IIP sub-scales
(Responsibility) in combination explain 59% of the variance of BDI.



Object relations functioning mediated the relationship between child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms.
Sexually abused women experienced more difficulties in Alienation, Insecure Attachment, and Egocentricity, but no
difference was found on the Social Incompetence scale. Alienation predicted Depression, Intrusive Experiences,
Defensive Avoidance, Dissociation, and Impaired Self-Reference. Insecure Attachment predicted Anxious Arousal,
Anger Irritability, Defensive Avoidance, Dissociation, Sexual concerns, Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior and Tension
Reduction Behavior. Egocentricity predicted Dissociation and Impaired Self-Reference. Social Incompetence predicted
Impaired Self-Reference.


Preliminary data analysis also determined that the Marlowe-Crowne scale bore modest but significant negative
correlations (Pearson r , at the .05 level or greater) with the three reality-testing scales of the BORRTI (ranging from −
.13 to − .24), with the DES total score (− .19), and with the three scales of the DES (ranging from − .13 to − .19). A
series of ANCOVAs were computed using the Marlowe-Crowne as a covariate to determine the degree to which scores
on the three reality-testing scales of the BORRTI differed as a function of Abuse Status. No main effects of these
analyses were found: for Reality Distortion, Uncertainty of Perceptions, and Hallucinations and Delusions, F(3, 251) =
2.05, .96, and 1.37, respectively, all NS at the .05 level of significance. As Table 1 indicates, however, the means of
each of these groups separated out in a virtually identical pattern for each analysis. That is, each of the means for the
No Abuse group was the lowest of the four groups (except in the analysis of the scale Uncertainty of Perceptions, in
which No Abuse and Sexual Abuse means were inverted). Next lowest scores were found for the Sexual Abuse group,
followed by scores attained by the Physical Abuse group. The highest scores on all three reality-testing scales were
those of the Both Physical and Sexual Abuse group.
Specifically, the Alienation subscale (BORI) fully mediated the links between all five types of childhood maltreatment and
suicide attempt status, constituting the most robust mediator. In the case of both childhood sexual abuse and childhood
physical neglect, the links with suicide attempt status were fully mediated by five of the six object relations measured;
whereas the other childhood maltreatment types (physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) were fully
mediated by just one or two object relations dimensions.


The partner-assaultive men demonstrated increased object relations and reality testing deficits, decreased use of
mature defenses, and increased use of primitive defenses, compared to the community control group.




Male subjects showed a positive significant correlation between their NPI scores and the Insecurity Attachment object
relations subscale. Females showed inverse significant relationships between their NPI scores, Alienation and Social
Isolation object relations subscales. There was a significant difference between covert and overt narcissism subtypes'
association to object relations deficits, suggesting a positive relationship between covert narcissism and poor object
relations functioning.




No one scale of the BORRTI represented the depressed population, but the BORRTI and the DEQ identifies patients
who have object relations levels reflecting depression and were therefore identifying the same phenomena in the
depressed population. Sixty one percent of the variance of the DEQ 12 was explained by the BORRTI variables. Fifty-
six percent of the variance of the DEQ12 was explained by the IA alone and 46% was explained by ALN alone. After the
IA scale, none of the other scales explained a significant portion of the remaining variability in a multiple regression
procedure.
The pattern of correlations between the BDI-II and related variables was nearly identical. Thus, to control for state-like
depression, partial correlations were computed between the DPDI and related variables while controlling for BDI-II.
Seven of 12 correlations remained significant. These were the support from family subscale and total PSR scale, ALN
and IA scales of the BORRTI, and concern over mistakes and parental criticism subscales and total score of the FMPS.



With one exception, all correlations between the DPDI and the validation variables (including the subscales of the
BORRTI) were strong and significant. The DPDI significantly correlated with Alienation and Insecure Attachment in the
outpatient population.




All subscales of the Bell Object Relations Inventory were positively associated with depression, indicating that as
problems in interpersonal relating increase, so does depression. Similarly, three subscales of the BORRTI were
significantly associated with scores on the IES. Self-efficacy was mildly negatively associated with level of traumatic
stress. To assess whether scores on the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Internal Control Index, and the Bell Object Relations
Inventory were affected by exposure to a traumatic event, independent t-tests were conducted to compare the means
on these scales of the respondents who did not report exposure to a traumatic event at work and the respondents who
did report exposure. There was no significant difference in the means between the groups on the subscales of the
BORRTI (t[158] = .06 to t[158] = 1.4). It would therefore appear that in this sample, patterns of interpersonal relating
were not significantly altered by exposure to traumatic events at work.
All subject with bipolar disorder demonstrated significantly impaired object relations functioning compared to all subjects
with major depression. Bipolar subjects gave evidence of significant impairment on the subscales Alienation,
Egocentricity, Reality Distortion, and Hallucinations and Delusions compared to subjects with major depressive disorder.
The Paranoid schizophrenia group was significantly different for the subscales Alienation, Egocentricity, Social
Incompetence, Reality Distortion, and Hallucinations and Delusions.




There were statistically significant correlations between the severity of bulimia and the severity of object relations and
identity disturbance. Specifically, the Alienation subscale of the Bell Object Relations Inventory and the Confidence
subscale of the Erwin Identity Scale had the strongest correlation with the BULIT-R. The qualitative results indicated that
a number of themes were strongly identified by both "High Bulimics" and "Low Bulimics"




When the four groups were ranked according to severity of type of eating disorder, a linear increase in group means
and in the proportion of high scoring subjects was found on Insecure Attachment and also on the Egocentricity
subscale, which indicates suspicious and manipulative attitudes toward others. Bulimic eaters had a significantly higher
mean than did normal eaters on the IA subscale, but not on the other three OR subscales: ALN, EGC, SI. Also, 36% of
bulimics, compared with 17% of the non-bulimic eaters, had scores above a cut-off value that indicated pathological
elevation on IA.
Results did not show a significant difference between the relapse and maintenance groups. However, a significant
difference appeared on the Insecure Attachment subscale when it compared emotional eaters to non-emotional eaters.
Those who attended support groups attained a higher mean on the Egocentricity scale than those who did not.



Individuals who did not engage in treatment had significantly higher levels of social anxiety (F = 8.29, df = 1, p < .05)
compared with those who did engage in treatment.




Eating Attitude Test scores correlated significantly with the BORRTI subscale for Insecure Attachment (r = .17, p < .03).
Similarly, DT scores correlated with Insecure Attachment (r = .27, p < .001), Social Incompetence (r = .25, p < .001),
Egocentricity (r = .18, < p < .05), and Alienation (r = .21, p < .01). This pattern of correlations is consistent with the
hypothesis that women with higher levels of eating disordered behavior have higher levels of object relations
disturbances, although the magnitude of these relationships is moderate.
There were significant correlations in both males and females on the following measures of pathological eating
behaviors and attitudes: the Eating Self-Efficacy Scale was significantly correlated with the IDI, Separation Individuation
Process Inventory, Insecure Attachment and Egocentricity scales of the BORRTI, and the Eating Questionnaire
Revised. There were differential patterns of correlations between the sexes on the various eating measures. For males,
the Eating Self-Efficacy Scale was also positively correlated with the Alienation and Social Incompetence scales of the
BORRTI, and the Eating Attitude Test was positively correlated with the Separation Individuation Process Inventory. For
females, the Eating Questionnaire Revised was significantly correlated with the IDI, the Eating Attitude Test, and the
Insecure Attachment and Egocentricity scales of the BORRTI. There was also a significant positive correlation between
the Eating Attitude Test and the Insecure Attachment and Egocentricity scales of the BORRTI for females.


Emotional abuse is significantly negatively associated with object relations.




Significant differences amongst the group means measuring severity of object relations disturbance were noted
between the two control groups (normal and obese) and the two eating disordered groups (binge eater and bulimic) on
both the Insecure Attachment and the Egocentricity subscales. Both control groups scored significantly lower on the
object relations variable Egocentricity than the two eating disordered groups.


Significant differences were found between the bulimic sample and the normal sample on the measures of interpersonal
dependence, Insecure Attachment, and Egocentricity. In all cases the bulimic sample's mean score was higher than that
of the normal sample.
Results indicated that "symptomatic eaters" showed more object-relations problems and were more reliant on
maladaptive defenses. We note a reliable difference on the Insecure Attachment subscale with higher scores occurring
among more symptomatic groups, but no difference on the Egocentricity subscale.


The eating-disordered group manifested a higher frequency of pathological scores on the BORRTI than was predicted
statistically or was evidenced in the aerobics and student comparison groups. According to the BORRTI, this finding
suggests a high degree of impairment in object relations development and reality testing among eating-disordered
individuals.



Subjects completed two screening scales to detect psychosis proneness (Bell et al. 1985 ; Chapman et al. 1980 ;
Chapman et al. 1994 ).




Vulnerability to psychosis was assessed with the Bell Reality Testing Inventory


Subjects were all within normal limits on two measures of vulnerability to psychosis (BRTI and WSPP)


Subjects were all within normal limits on two measures of vulnerability to psychosis (BRTI and WSPP)




As Interpersonal Reactivity Index Empathy scores increase, noticeable decreases are found in patient
psychoticism/toughmindedness, reality testing and object relations, suspiciousness, and machiavellianism.
In an analysis using the factor components rather than the factors, the measures of perspective-taking and
asocialization were associated with violent criminal charges, and the measure of psychopathy, but not antisocial
behavior, was associated with nonviolent criminal charges. The results support the use of measures of personality traits
in addition to measures of history of antisocial behavior in making violence risk assessments in substance-dependent
patients. The DSM construct and diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder may be enhanced by greater emphasis on
personality traits associated with antisocial behavior.




As hypothesized, results showed that compared to non psychopaths, psychopaths demonstrated significantly greater
impairment in object relations and, also, unexpectedly in reality testing.




The methadone patients exhibited some specific impairments in object relations, but not in reality testing. Bell inventory
scores did not significantly differ according to the number of comorbid axis I disorders, but they did significantly differ
according to number of axis II disorders diagnosed. The scores were poorest for those with axis II disorders only, while
subjects with only axis I disorders had scores similar to those with neither axis I nor II disorders.


Severity of drug use was related to an impairment in a specific dimension of object relations-egocentricity. There was a
significant relationship between TIs and CIs in object relations and reality testing with levels of psychological distress
and the likelihood of taking psychiatric medication.

The most common area of difficult was egocentricity closely followed by alienation, insecure attachment, and social
incompetence in methadone patients. Difficulty in three areas of reality testing -- reality distortion, uncertainty of
perception, and hallucinations and delusions -- ranged between 58% to 64% for this group.
For each significant result, the means for the groups indicated that the non-ACOA group demonstrated significantly
healthier object relations score means than did the ACOA group

Results revealed clear differences in the relationship between ego functioning and drinking behavior for men compared
to women.




This self-report questionnaire study revealed that adult children of alcoholics (ACAs, n = 49) were significantly different
from adult children from normal families (ACNs, (n = 55) on five of nine Bell Object Relations Reality Testing Inventory
(BORRTI; Bell, 1988) scales and from adult children from normal families 9ACNs, n = 55) on five of nine BORRTI
scales and from adult children from dysfunctional families (ACDs, n = 48) on the Reality Testing summary score. Both
ACAs and ACDs were similar to each other and different from ACNs on Insecure Attachment and on two family
background ratings - perceived quality of paternal and maternal caregiving.




In the cocaine-dependent group statistically significant negative correlations are evident between the Negative
Situations factor and Alienation and between NSIT and Egocentricity. For situational confidence regarding urges and
testing control, statistically significant negative correlations are evident between URTE and Insecure Attachment and
Egocentricity. The correlation between Egocentricity and the negative situations factor for the cocaine-dependent group
differed significantly from the correlation between Egocentricity scores and the negative situations factor for the alcohol
dependent group. For the cocaine-dependent group higher Egocentricity scores are significantly associated with lower
Situational Confidence scores in negative situations.
To clarify the interrelationship among alexithymia (TAS-20), object relations (BORRTI), and anxiety (STAI) and
situational/demographic variables, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed and four significant predictor
variables were found: trait anxiety (STAI-T), alienation (BORRTI-ALN), hallucination/delusions (BORRTI-HD), and
gender. Significant correlations were observed between the BORRTI and the TAS-20 on all of the BORRTI subscales. A
3 x 2 Manova was run on eight dependent object relations variables (ALN, IA, EGC, SI, RD, UP, HD, and PR) using
alexithymia (POS, BORDER, and NEG) and group membership as independent variables resulted in a significant main
effect for alexithymia.




Egocentricity had a statistically significant relationship to the dependent variables of frequency of formal treatment, as
measured by the number of treatments for substance abuse, and the severity of the addiction, as measured by the
alcohol/drug use areas of the ASI. Elevated scores on each subscale for the BORI indicate impairment in each area
measured.
Significant positive relationships exist between the object relations variables, experienced level of childhood trauma,
psychopathology, and difficulty discerning and labeling emotions. Significant inverse relationships were found between
scores on the ego development scale and psychopathology, alienation, egocentricity, insecure attachment and difficulty
discerning and labeling emotions. Substance abusers showed significantly lower levels of object relations than controls.
Substance abusers showed significantly lower levels of ego development than controls. Alexythymia was significantly
correlated with object relations. Experienced level of childhood trauma was significantly correlated with level of object
relations. Experienced level of childhood trauma was inversely correlated with level of ego development. Alexythymia
was inversely significantly correlated with ego development.



Results did not support the hypothesis that psychopaths in the alcoholic sample would exhibit significantly more
impairment in object relations and reality testing than alcoholic patients in the sample without psychopathy. Men
diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder demonstrated the greatest impairment on the BORRTI's object relations
and reality testing dimensions.




The only significant difference observed between sibling pairs concordant for alcoholism with sibling pairs discordant for
alcoholism was on the individual defense style of Displacement. However, when alcoholics were compared with non-
alcoholics across the whole sample, alcoholics had significantly higher scores on the Reality Distortion scale of the Bell
Inventory and were more likely to exceed the clinical cutoff score (>60) on the Alienation and Insecure Attachment
scales.
There were correlations between SUMD insight scores and self-report of clinical and personality variables. Significant
associations with the SUMD emerged for three of the 17 scales, including EPQ Neuroticism (-0.18), NEO Neuroticism
(/0.19), and BORRTI Uncertainty of Perceptions (-0.17). All of these were negative correlations. These results indicate
that impaired insight was associated with subjective reports of lower neuroticism and greater certainty of perceptions.
Patients in the low insight group reported less uncertainty of their perception on the BORRTI.




The Brazilian normal sample showed a pattern of scores within the normal range when compared with U.S. norms. The
Brazilian schizophrenia sample had significantly greater pathology than the Brazilian normal sample on Alienation,
Egocentricity, and Social Incompetence. Their mean scores on Alienation were similar to the matched U.S.
schizophrenia sample, and they had significantly greater pathology on Insecure Attachment, Egocentricity, and Social
Incompetence with 85.6% showing some type of object relations deficit. Findings support the cross-cultural validity of
the Bell Object Relations Inventory and the ubiquity of object relations deficits in schizophrenia. The most common
profiles for both schizophrenia samples were the Psychotically Egocentric and the Socially Withdrawn object relations
types.




Results indicate that 92% of the sample had object relations deficits; 85% showed elevations on the BORI Alienation
scale. Subjects with prominent negative symptoms produced lower values on Insecure Attachment and higher values on
Egocentricity. This suggests that negative symptoms are associated with a reduction in perceived painfulness of
attachment and increased egocentric investment. Other subtyping schemes showed no reliable pattern of object
relations deficits.
Three BORRTI profile types were identified. Six clusters were identified and replicated. The three pairs are called
residually impaired, socially withdrawn, and psychotically egocentric. Residually impaired individuals scored lower on the
Insecure Attachment subscale. They also scored lower on the Social Incompetence score. The second cluster in the
pair shares an overall similarity in profile shape. The BORRTI profile shows Alienation and Reality Distortion at the
border of clinical evaluation, and Hallucinations and Delusions subscale is clinically elevated. Socially Withdrawn - The
second pair of cluster profiles share very similar OR scores marked by clinical elevations on Alienation and Social
Incompetence. These individuals report only residual paranoid beliefs and reality distortions and do not endorse items
suggesting wide-spread delusions or hallucinations. We call the second cluster in the pair Socially Withdrawn - Autistic
to reflect the clinically significant elevations on all three Reality-Testing subscales.


Sixty-one of these had BORRTI profiles identified as sealed-over recovery style, and 36 had profiles interpreted as
integrated recovery style. Groups were compared on demographic characteristics, symptom profiles, and the Wisconsin
Card Sorting Test, a performance measure of executive function. Groups had comparably low levels of positive
symptoms, but the integrated recovery group had higher scores on the BORRTI uncertainty of perception scale.

Personality configuration, construal of self-in-the-world and object relations were predictive of change in well-being in
the specific domains of social relationships and family relationships.



MANCOVA on OR subscales showed significant differences between early- and late-onset groups in the overall group
effect and in three of four subscales. The early onset group demonstrated significantly higher means on AL, IA, and SI.
MANCOVA between early- and late- onset groups on RT subscales showed similar significance, both on an overall
group effect - and for the subscales, RD, UP, and HD, with the early-onset group demonstrating higher means. The
most common OR profiles for the early-onset group included AL, IA, EGC, and SIl AL and SI; AL, SI, and EGC; AL, IA
and EGC; and EGC alone. For the late-onset group, the most common profiles included AL alone; EGC alone; and AL
and EGC. The most common RT profiles for the early onset group included RD, UP, and HD; and RD and HD. For the
late-onset group, the most common profiles included RD, UP and HD; RD and HD; and RD alone.
Negative symptoms are significantly negatively correlated with the BORRTI's Insecure Attachment scale and DRS. The
APNSD was significantly positively correlated with the BORRTI's Insecure Attachment and Alienation scales, and
significantly negatively correlated with HRV. Individuals with higher Factor 1 (BORRTI's Egocentricity and Insecure
Attachment subscales) and Factor 2 scores (BORRTI's Egocentricity and Insecure Attachment subscales), and lower
Factor 3 scores (DRS and HRV scores), tended to have symptom profiles dominated by positive symptoms.



In correlations of the independent variables parent attachment, child's characteristic of AS and parental ego functioning
subscales revealed significant positive correlaion for all the BORRTI subscales except Social Incompetence (ALN
r=.187, p=.002, IA r=.157, p=.011; EGC r=.161, p=.009; SI r=.097, p=.117). Parental attachment emerged to have
significant negative correlations with all of the independent variables, showing that higher levels of parent recalled
attachment were associated with lower levels of reported Alienation, Insecure Attachment, Egocentricity and Social
Incompetence and reported AS characteristics of the child. Correlations between the independent variables and the
dependent variables revealed statistically negative correlations emerged between parental attachment and negative
parenting behaviors (r=-.18, p=.007), and Alienation, Egocentricity and Social Incompetence with positive parenting
behaviors. These findings indicate higher levels of parental attachment are associated with lower levels of negative
parenting behaviors, while higher levels of Alienation, Egocentricity and Social Incompetence are associated with lower
levels of positive parenting behaviors. In addition, statistically significant positive correlations emerged between parental
ego functioning and negative parenting behaviors and between parental attachment and positive correlations emerged
between parental ego function and negative parenting behaviors and between parental attachment and positive
parenting behavior. These finding indicate low levels of parental object relations (high BORRTI scores) are associated
with higher levels of hostile/coercive parenting behaviors, while higher levels of perceived parental attachment are




Overall, the group with ADHD showed greater impairment than the control group on all the subscales of the BORRTI.
ADHD significantly explain between 3 to 6 percent of the variance in Object Relations after controlling for comorbidity.
The results of this study indicate that neither object relations nor social skills, independently or in combination with each
other were significant predictors of compliance. However, some subscales of the BORI and some subscales of the SSI
were found to significantly predict some aspects of compliance as measured by the CCL.




To clarify the interrelationship among alexithymia (TAS-20), object relations (BORRTI), and anxiety (STAI) and
situational/demographic variables, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed and four significant predictor
variables were found: trait anxiety (STAI-T), alienation (BORRTI-ALN), hallucination/delusions (BORRTI-HD), and
gender. Significant correlations were observed between the BORRTI and the TAS-20 on all of the BORRTI subscales. A
3 x 2 Manova was run on eight dependent object relations variables (ALN, IA, EGC, SI, RD, UP, HD, and PR) using
alexithymia (POS, BORDER, and NEG) and group membership as independent variables resulted in a significant main
effect for alexithymia.



In comparing individuals with and without chronic pain, alexithymia had the highest correlation to chronic pain patients,
followed by alienation, insecure attachment, egocentricity, and social incompetence.
The most common area of difficult was egocentricity closely followed by alienation, insecure attachment, and social
incompetence in methadone patients. Difficulty in three areas of reality testing -- reality distortion, uncertainty of
perception, and hallucinations and delusions -- ranged between 58% to 64% for this group.
The risk of violent criminal charges was over two times greater for individuals with high scores rather than low scores on
the Antisocial Personality factor, OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.15 - 6.51, and for individuals with high scores rather than low
scores on the Deficient Empathy factor, OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.05 - 4.71. None of the other factors significantly predicted
violent crimes.




Tracy's scores on the BORRTI indicate elevations on the Alienation, Egocentricity, and Insecure Attachment subscales.
A strong negative relationship has been observed between the BORRTI Alienation subscale and the MCMI Histrionic
Personality Scale scores which was supported in this test battery. Subscales Alienation, Egocentricity and Insecure
Attachment have been observed to support strong relationships to elevations in scales 8, 4, and F on the MMPI-2. This
finding was seen in Tracy's test results. High scores on the Reality Distortion have been found to be common among
Borderline Personalities and Passive Aggressive Personalities as indicated on the MCMI-III as well as scale 8 on the
MMPI-2. Alienation and Egocentricity have been highly correlated with the MMPI F scale. Finally low K scores on the
MMPI, indicative of poor defensive ego functioning, have been strongly negatively correlated with the BORRTI
Egocentricity subscale scores. All of these relationships are apparent in Tracy's testing.




The Intervention is significant for the one variable IA. The three variables whose means decrease have increasing SDs
(ALN, EGC, and RD). The three whose means increase have decreasing standard deviations (SI, UP and HD). This
may be evidence of a subtle intervention effect.
Sex offenders scored significantly higher on all scales with the exception of the Egocentricity Scale. Rates of scores in
the clinical range differed significantly between groups for the Egocentricity and the Social incompetence scales. Rates
approached significant difference for the Alienation scale. On average, subjects who had been sexually abused were
found to have higher scores on all scales with the exception of the Egocentricity scale than subject who had not. In
addition, they tended to have more scores in the clinical range for the Insecure Attachment and Social Incompetence
scale. For the sex offenders, the index of family disruptions was significantly correlated with the Insecure Attachment
and Egocentricity scales. For the general delinquents, the index was significantly correlated with the Social
Incompetence scale and with the CTQ sexual abuse scale. Further, for the general delinquent, correlations approached
significance sample for the Alienation scale and the CTQ physical abuse scale.




The findings in the case of Corinne, Gwen, Paulette, and Celeste suggest the internal organization of these states
involves the mobilization of different ego functions within each. Although narcissistic, egocentric, and antisocial object
relations characteristics and traits were reported by Gwen and Celeste, these two personalities nonetheless differed in
the reality testing domain.



Jesse's intake elevations were on Alienation, Social Incompetence, Uncertainty of Perception, and Hallucinations and
Delusions. Alienation did decrease during the course of treatment, although remaining significantly elevated. At
discharge, an increase on Insecure Attachment was found placing this score in the clinical range indicating greater
concern about maintaining relationships in the face of separation, loss, abandonment, and external threat. For Jesse, a
substantial increase on Uncertainty of Perception (@ + 10 T) indicated increased doubts about interpersonal
perceptions and distinguishing internal and external reality. This is supported by decreased reporting of Schneiderian
―first-rank‖ symptomatology of schizophrenia measured on the Hallucinations and Delusions scale (@ - 10 T). Phillip
also showed a large decline on the Hallucinations and Delusions scale (@ - 40 T). While the Hallucinations and
Delusions scale is most commonly associated with psychotic disorders, in the case of MPD elevations may be due
mainly to idiosyncratic interpretation of passive influence phenomena.
Convergent validity was provided with a strong correlation between the SI and the Separation-Individuation Index
(Christenson and Wilson, 1985) and moderate correlations between the SI and two subscales--Alienation and Insecure
Attachment--of the Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI; Bell, Billington, and Becker, 1986). Contrary to predictions,
the SI was not significantly correlated to the Egocentricity subscale of the BORI. The SI was also able to distinguish
between a therapist-identified group of patients that rely extensively on the defense of splitting and a therapist-identified
group that did not rely primarily on splitting. Supporting Kernberg's theory, subjects reporting borderline and other
severe pathology reported significantly higher mean scores on the SI, Separation-Individuation Index, and the Alienation
and Insecure Attachment subscales of the BORI. Contrary to predictions, the BORI Egocentricity subscale did not
differentiate between these groups.




Statistical comparison of the composite BPD group with affective, schizoaffective, and schizophrenic groups revealed
that the pattern of OR deficits in BPD was significantly different from each of the other diagnostic groups. On the basis
of scores from the Alienation subscale alone, BPD subjects could be distinguished from the other diagnostic groups with
77-82% predictive accuracy.




In an analysis using the factor components rather than the factors, the measures of perspective-taking and
asocialization were associated with violent criminal charges, and the measure of psychopathy, but not antisocial
behavior, was associated with nonviolent criminal charges. The results support the use of measures of personality traits
in addition to measures of history of antisocial behavior in making violence risk assessments in substance-dependent
patients. The DSM construct and diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder may be enhanced by greater emphasis on
personality traits associated with antisocial behavior.
Tracy's scores on the BORRTI indicate elevations on the Alienation, Egocentricity, and Insecure Attachment subscales.
A strong negative relationship has been observed between the BORRTI Alienation subscale and the MCMI Histrionic
Personality Scale scores which was supported in this test battery. Subscales Alienation, Egocentricity and Insecure
Attachment have been observed to support strong relationships to elevations in scales 8, 4, and F on the MMPI-2. This
finding was seen in Tracy's test results. High scores on the Reality Distortion have been found to be common among
Borderline Personalities and Passive Aggressive Personalities as indicated on the MCMI-III as well as scale 8 on the
MMPI-2. Alienation and Egocentricity have been highly correlated with the MMPI F scale. Finally low K scores on the
MMPI, indicative of poor defensive ego functioning, have been strongly negatively correlated with the BORRTI
Egocentricity subscale scores. All of these relationships are apparent in Tracy's testing.




The pattern of correlations between the BDI-II and related variables was nearly identical. Thus, to control for statelike
depression, partial correlations were computed between the DPDI and related variables while controlling for BDI-II.
Seven of 12 correlations remained significant. These were the support from family subscale and total PSR scale, ALN
and IA scales of the BORRTI, and concern over mistakes and parental criticism subscales and total score of the FMPS.


With one exception, all correlations between the DPDI and the validation variables (including the subscales of the
BORRTI) were strong and significant. The DPDI significantly correlated with Alienation and Insecure Attachment in the
outpatient population.
As predicted, the PAI Borderline scale is also more strongly associated with all three BORI factors than the other two
PAI scales, although the size of the BORI correlations with the PAI Paranoia scale is comparable enough to raise some
questions. Greater problems are encountered when the MPD and BORI crossings are considered. The BORI scores
uniformly correlate higher with the MPD Paranoid personality scale than with the MPD Borderline scale. In sum, it
appears as though the BORI factors do not effectively discriminate between the borderline and paranoid traits.



A High Empathy score (for therapists) predicted significantly lower T-scores (fewer problems) in Insecure Attachment in
the patients (F=14.535, p=.003). A High Helping Alliance score predicted significantly lower T-scores in alienation
(F=16.401, p=.002), Inseucure Attachment (F-12.911, p=.005), and Egocentricity (f=17.546, p=.002) independent of
completion of DBT Skills Training. Sixty-seven percent of participants who rated their therapists as both High Empathy
and High Helping Alliance demonstrated the object relations deficits onthe exception of Social Incompetence in the area
There were significant differences on all no dependent variables with the BORRTI.
of Reality Testing. Participants in the borderline group (M = 60.00) showed significantly higher scores on the alienation
subscale than did the other-disordered group (M = 52.94) and the normal group (M = 48.42), while no significant
differences were found between the other disordered group and the normal group. Participants in the borderline group
(M = 60.00) showed significantly higher scores on insecure attachment than both the other-disordered group (M =47.29)
and the normal group (M = 49.88). No significant difference was found between the other-disordered group and the
normal group. The normal and other-disordered group also differed significantly in terms of their scores on the
egocentricity subscale. The Tukey HSD test a confirmed that there were significant differences between the borderline
group and the other two groups, but not between the other-disordered group and the normal group. A comparison of the
mean ratings M on the social incompetence subscale showed no significant effect. Participants in the borderline group
(M = 54.81) performed similarly to those in the other-disordered group (M = 48.76) and the normal group (M = 49.63) on
this subscale. A comparison of the mean ratings of reality distortion revealed a significant effect, F (2, 68) = 27.59, MSE
= 51.11, p = .0001. Participants in the borderline group (M = 62.19) received significantly higher scores on the reality
distortion subscale than did those in the other-disordered group (M = 54.47) and the normal group (M = 47.42). The
The correlations between the RRI and the BORRTI is a ls a low and positive (r=.22), suggesting that some validity
questions must be evaluated. The attachment instruments yielded similar results in both the clinical and nonclinical
groups. However the nonclinical group did reveal a larger proportion of individuals who fell into the secure attached
category.




As hypothesized, results showed that compared to non psychopaths, psychopaths demonstrated significantly greater
impairment in object relations and, also, unexpectedly in reality testing.
Results did not support the hypothesis that psychopaths in the alcoholic sample would exhibit significantly more
impairment in object relations and reality testing than alcoholic patients in the sample without psychopathy. Men
diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder demonstrated the greatest impairment on the BORRTI's object relations
and reality testing dimensions.
A positive and significant correlation between both "frequency" and "type" of dissociative experiences as measured by
the DES and the BORRTI Alienation scale in the sample supported the hypothesis that there would be a relationship
between dissociation and object-relations impairment in this sample, respectively. Incest survivors with higher scores on
the DES are likely to have problems with egocentricity where they view themselves as omnipotent and the center of the
universe, or as powerless and under the control of some indomitable force. Incest survivors with higher scores on the
DES are also likely to feel socially incompetent. The can be expected to have difficulty not only with the opposite sex but
have problems making friends. They are likely to find interpersonal relationships bewildering, unpredictable, and anxiety-
provoking and as a result may try to relieve anxiety by avoidance and escape from others. Incest survivors who scored
higher on the DES are also likely to have more difficulties with reality distortion. Although incest survivors in this study
demonstrated a relationship also between dissociating and the Hallucination and Delusions scale on the BORRTI, the
exact nature of this relationship is more difficult to ascertain. In the DID group only the Reality Distortion scale on the
BORRTI showed a positive and significant correlation between both "frequency" and "type" of dissociative experiences
on the DES. There was also in the DID group a positive and significant correlation between "frequency" of dissociative
experiences on the DES and the Uncertainty of Perceptions scale on the BORRTI. The largest significant correlation in
the non-DID group was between the "frequency" of dissociative experience score on the DES and the Social



It was predicted that the scores on the Alienation and Affect-tone subscales would differentiate the three borderline
groups from the psychiatric control group. This hypothesis was supported, Alienation, F (1, 69) = 50.0, p < .000; Affect-
tone, F (1, 69) = 22.8, p < .000. Contrary to the first hypothesis, scores on the Social Incompetence subscale also
differentiated BPD from non-BPD patients, F (1, 69) = 33.9, p < .000. The Social Incompetence measure is sensitive to
interpersonal anxiety, an experience that all borderline patients shared in this study. To summarize, only one variable,
Emotional Investment, an affective thematic variable, significantly differentiated the Moving Against BPD subjects from
the other BPD subgroups. To summarize the Moving Toward data, only one cognitive-structural attribute and one
affective-thematic attribute were useful in differentiating among the BPD subgroups.
Results did not show a significant difference between the relapse and maintenance groups. However, a significant
difference appeared on the Insecure Attachment subscale when it compared emotional eaters to non-emotional eaters.
Those who attended support groups attained a higher mean on the Egocentricity scale than those who did not.



Hypothesis 1 predicted that there would be a significant relationship between identity development, or role behavior as
measured by the CRI, characteristics of interpersonal attachment as measured by the BORI, and factors of functioning
from family of origin as measured by the FFS. Canonical correlation revealed a significant relationship among these
variables. Among the factors of interpersonal attachment and family functioning, alienation accounted for the most
variance of the canonical factor; followed by inadequate socialization, insecure attachment, positive family affect,
egocentricity, and family conflict. Alienation's effect on role behavior can be seen in that the hero and mascot roles
include socially rewarding modes of interpersonal interaction, while scapegoat and lost child tales carry socially
punished modes of interpersonal interaction.


One canonical root was found to be significant; that is one linear combination of the CRI was significantly predicted by
one linear combination of the BORI, the FFS and gender. The canonical correlation of the root was .811, p<.0001. All
four family role factors of the CRI, all four interpersonal attachment variables of the BORI, and three family functioning
factors of the FFS were highly correlated with the canonical variable.


Security of attachment and quality of object relations were related to the alliance at session one, while quality of object
relations was no longer related to the alliance at session two, and none of the predictors were related to the alliance at
session three. Early therapeutic alliance appears to be influenced by interpersonal attachment and object relations.
Our first hypothesis was that security of attachment would be correlated with elements of object relational functioning.
This hypothesis was supported: AAS security of attachment was inversely correlated with three out of four areas of
deficits in object relations.
The Adult Relatedness variables are intercorrelated with each other, and have significant relationships with the CISS
and BORI scales. The CISS variable was significantly related to the Adult Relatedness variables and the BORI scales.
The BORI scales demonstrated significant relationships with all variables except the attachment security variables. The
findings of this present study demonstrated that an individual's way of relating with others, the degree or level of maturity
of one's object relations functioning, and level of identity integration (Bell et al., 1987) showed significant zero-order
correlations which cross-validated Cooke's (1996) and Wiss' (1991) study but the direction of the relationships were
different.



Factor analyses and correlational analyses indicate that the 5 attachment measures differentiate healthy from
pathological bonding with parents, the construct being assessed has multiple dimensions, and scores on these
attachment measures are correlated with personify variables as would be expected. The structure of the four factors
also illustrates that these five attachment scales at least grossly differentiate healthy from pathological bonding with
parents. Further, some evidence of construct validity is found in the correlations observed between these factors.




Respondents from intact families who report a positive sibling relationship with an older sibling will have equally secure
attachment styles and an equal capacity for object relatedness as subjects from intact families who report a similar
relationship with a younger sibling. There were ancillary findings which provide evidence that both quality of sibling
relationship and family status, when looked at as single entities, rather than in interaction with each other, are predictive
of secure attachment styles.


Emotional abuse is significantly negatively associated with object relations.
Among women clients (N=44) who completed the CATS, WAI, and the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing
Inventory, 2 CATS subscales predicted unique variance in object relations deficits not accounted for by the WAI alone.
Our first hypothesis held that secure client attachment to the therapist would be associated with more extensive in-
session exploration. The third line of Table 1 provides relatively strong support for this hypothesis. Secure Attachment to
therapist was positively associated with Exploration (r = .62, p <.01), whereas Avoidant–Fearful (i.e., insecure)
attachment to therapist was strongly negatively associated with Exploration (r = -.59, p <.01).




Worldview orientation (measured by the OMPI) is mediated by emotional attachment, mostly measured by the BORI


Results showed that participants who were classified as ‗high‘ on an ‗insecure attachment‘ scale were significantly more
likely to (a) report a dream, (b) dream ‗frequently‘, and (c) evidence more intense images that contextualize strong
emotions in their dreams as compared with participants who scored low on the insecure attachment scale.




Scores on the AAS and BORI possessed the lowest mean subscale reliability estimates ranging from .72 to .79, with the
exception of the Alienation scale on the BORI (.84). These findings are consistent with the Garbarino (1998) review that
found reliability estimates to be lower for the AAS, whereas the BORI was reported to have moderate to high score
reliability estimates in previous studies. The PAQ reported the highest mean score reliability estimates with little
variability, indicating that the PAQ is capable of generating reliable score estimates across different samples.
Chi square tests show that there is a significant relationship between measure of attachment and measures of object
relations. In the nonclinical sample the cell within which most cases fall is the normal object relations and secure
attachment cell. In the clinical sample, it should be noted that larger than expected numbers of subjects were found in
several specific cells. One unanticipated cluster was found in the avoidant dismissive attachment and the schizoid
object relations cell on the Roberts. Another cluster is found in the avoidant-fearful attachment and narcissistic object
relations cell on the BORRTI. These differences may be due to the tendencies of these instruments to over-categorize
as schizoid on the RRI and as narcissistic on the BORRTI.


Object relations functioning mediated the relationship between child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms.
Sexually abused women experienced more difficulties in Alienation, Insecure Attachment, and Egocentricity, but no
difference was found on the Social Incompetence scale. Alienation predicted Depression, Intrusive Experiences,
Defensive Avoidance, Dissociation, and Impaired Self-Reference. Insecure Attachment predicted Anxious Arousal,
Anger Irritability, Defensive Avoidance, Dissociation, Sexual concerns, Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior and Tension
Reduction Behavior. Egocentricity predicted Dissociation and Impaired Self-Reference. Social Incompetence predicted
Impaired Self-Reference.




Significant correlations were found for all variables of interest. True Self-Father was negatively related to Alienation,
Egocentricity, and Insecure Attachment on the object relations inventory. True Self-Mother was negatively related to
Egocentricity within the object relations variables. True Self-Friends and Total True Self scores were negatively related
to Alienation, Egocentricity, Insecure Attachment, and Social Incompetence within the object relations variables.
Significant correlations were found for all of the subscales for object relations and attachment variables
The results indicate that attachment theory concepts are better able to predict level of hopelessness than are
demographics alone. Further, attachment theory was supported in that a reflection of one's internalized working models
from early development were greatly able to predict level of hopelessness during crisis, specifically that a poorer quality
of attachment experience was synonymous with a higher level of hopelessness.




Hypothesis 1 predicted that there would be a significant relationship between identity development, or role behavior as
measured by the CRI, characteristics of interpersonal attachment as measured by the BORI, and factors of functioning
from family of origin as measured by the FFS. Canonical correlation revealed a significant relationship among these
variables. Among the factors of interpersonal attachment and family functioning, alienation accounted for the most
variance of the canonical factor; followed by inadequate socialization, insecure attachment, positive family affect,
egocentricity, and family conflict. Alienation's effect on role behavior can be seen in that the hero and mascot roles
include socially rewarding modes of interpersonal interaction, while scapegoat and lost child tales carry socially
punished modes of interpersonal interaction.


One canonical root was found to be significant; that is one linear combination of the CRI was significantly predicted by
one linear combination of the BORI, the FFS and gender. The canonical correlation of the root was .811, p<.0001. All
four family role factors of the CRI, all four interpersonal attachment variables of the BORI, and three family functioning
factors of the FFS were highly correlated with the canonical variable.


This study found that the incest survivors experienced significantly more difficulty than the controls with issues of trust in
intimate relationships, as measured by the Alienation subscale of the BORRTI. Because of this, they may have more
unstable and/or superficial relationships and they may remain more isolated than controls. Their level of current distress
is higher (as measured by the BSI) and they describe their family's functioning (FAD) as more pathological. Level of
object relations, as operationalized by the Alienation subscale on the BORRTI, was predictive of subjects' report of
family pathology. And level of object relations, as measured by Alienation and Insecure Attachment on the BORRTI, was
predictive of level of overall current distress. Results indicating investment in fantasied rather than realistic relationships
(OR-score on the DACOS) approached significance.
Participants also experienced considerable object relations and self deficits in relation to norms. For example, the
sample mean score for the BORRTI Alienation scale was 0.42, placing this group in the ―pathological‖ range according
to Bell (1989). Overall responses on the BORRTI displayed significantly impaired object relations, with 63% of
participants scoring in the range of pathology (T > 60) established by Bell et al. (1986) on one or more of the four Object
Relations subscales.




Women who lived with people other than their parents before the age of 18 evidenced more impairment on the Object
Relations Total score. In addition, number-of-times-married was positively correlated with Object Relations Total score,
Reality Testing Total score (RT-T), and Image Distorting defenses (ID), indicating that the more times a woman has
been married the higher her impairment is likely to be as measured by the OR-T, the RT-T, and the ID. Mothers whose
daughters had been molested by their biological fathers attained significantly higher impairment scores on a composite
measure comprised of level of object relations, degree of reality testing, level of erotophobia, and four defense style
clusters, than mothers whose daughters had not been molested. Incest mothers scored significantly higher on
impairment of object relations (M=1.08) than the non-incest mothers (M=-2.29). Incest mothers scored significantly
higher on impairment of reality testing (M=.35) than the non-incest mothers (M=-1.75). Incest mothers scored
significantly higher on the use of the maladaptive-action defenses than the control mothers.




Respondents from intact families who report a positive sibling relationship with an older sibling will have equally secure
attachment styles and an equal capacity for object relatedness as subjects from intact families who report a similar
relationship with a younger sibling. There were ancillary findings which provide evidence that both quality of sibling
relationship and family status, when looked at as single entities, rather than in interaction with each other, are predictive
of secure attachment styles.


A one-way MANOVA revealed that the two groups of adoptees were significantly different on two of the four subscales
of the BORRTI. On both the Alienation and Egocentricity subscales of the BORRTI, the adopted-after-1-year-group
demonstrated less flexible and less developed object relations functioning than the adopted-before-6-months group.
Significant correlations occur between husbands' Parenting Alliance scores and their wives' scores on Mother and
Father Care, Mother Overprotection, Egocentricity, and Compulsive Self-Reliance. Husbands' Marital Depth scores also
co-vary with wive's scores on Mother and Father Care, Mother Overprotection, Egocentricity, and Compulsive Self-
Reliance. Wives' appraisals of current relatedness (Alienation and Adult Attachment classification) co-vary with several
of their husbands' appraisals of childhood relationships (Father Care, Mother and Father Overprotection, and Verbal
and Physical Abuse).




A third hypothesis stating that immigrant subjects who experienced higher family cohesion would report higher object
relations and motivation for intimacy was partially supported. Subjects from cohesive families reported better object
relations.
A positive and significant correlation between both "frequency" and "type" of dissociative experiences as measured by
the DES and the BORRTI Alienation scale in the sample supported the hypothesis that there would be a relationship
between dissociation and object-relations impairment in this sample, respectively. Incest survivors with higher scores on
the DES are likely to have problems with egocentricity where they view themselves as omnipotent and the center of the
universe, or as powerless and under the control of some indomitable force. Incest survivors with higher scores on the
DES are also likely to feel socially incompetent. The can be expected to have difficulty not only with the opposite sex but
have problems making friends. They are likely to find interpersonal relationships bewildering, unpredictable, and anxiety-
provoking and as a result may try to relieve anxiety by avoidance and escape from others. Incest survivors who scored
higher on the DES are also likely to have more difficulties with reality distortion. Although incest survivors in this study
demonstrated a relationship also between dissociating and the Hallucination and Delusions scale on the BORRTI, the
exact nature of this relationship is more difficult to ascertain. In the DID group only the Reality Distortion scale on the
BORRTI showed a positive and significant correlation between both "frequency" and "type" of dissociative experiences
on the DES. There was also in the DID group a positive and significant correlation between "frequency" of dissociative
experiences on the DES and the Uncertainty of Perceptions scale on the BORRTI. The largest significant correlation in
The results of this study suggest that individuals breast fed from 6-12 months evidenced a significantly higher level of
complexity of object relations than those breast fed for 13 or more months. Also, individuals fed on a flexible schedule
evidenced a significantly higher level of complexity of object relations than those breast fed on a more rigid schedule.
No other significant relationships between object relations and breast feeding were demonstrated. Nor was there a
significant correlation between the object relations of mothers and daughters.
In correlations of the independent variables parent attachment, child's characteristic of AS and parental ego functioning
subscales revealed significant positive correlation for all the BORRTI subscales except Social Incompetence (ALN
r=.187, p=.002, IA r=.157, p=.011; EGC r=.161, p=.009; SI r=.097, p=.117). Parental attachment emerged to have
significant negative correlations with all of the independent variables, showing that higher levels of parent recalled
attachment were associated with lower levels of reported Alienation, Insecure Attachment, Egocentricity and Social
Incompetence and reported AS characteristics of the child. Correlations between the independent variables and the
dependent variables revealed statistically negative correlations emerged between parental attachment and negative
parenting behaviors (r=-.18, p=.007), and Alienation, Egocentricity and Social Incompetence with positive parenting
behaviors. These findings indicate higher levels of parental attachment are associated with lower levels of negative
parenting behaviors, while higher levels of Alienation, Egocentricity and Social Incompetence are associated with lower
levels of positive parenting behaviors. In addition, statistically significant positive correlations emerged between parental
ego functioning and negative parenting behaviors and between parental attachment and positive correlations emerged
between parental ego function and negative parenting behaviors and between parental attachment and positive
parenting behavior. These finding indicate low levels of parental object relations (high BORRTI scores) are associated




Object relations deficits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and young adult adjustment. Participants'
lack of basic trust as well as difficulty in relationships, fully mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and
depression, childhood abuse and anxiety, and partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and
dissociation in college students. As predicted, object relations mediated the impact of parental caregiving on
psychopathology in young adults. Levels of lack of basic trust and satisfaction in relationships mediated the relationship
between father care and depression. Furthermore, struggles in interpersonal relationships as well as oversensitivity to
separations and rejections mediated the impact of encouragement of dependence by mothers on depression, and
partially mediated the impact of mother dependence on anxiety and dissociation.
Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified the level of prompt and accurate information with which subjects
recalled being told about their parents' death as the most significant correlate with increasingly mature object relations,
as measured by the BORRTI


The BORI subscales Insecure Attachment and Social Incompetence are moderately and negatively correlated with SITS
scores. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between Conflictual Independence and Alienation,
Insecure Attachment, Egocentricity, and Social Isolation. Closeness showed statistically significant negative correlations
with Alienation and Insecure Attachment.


This self-report questionnaire study revealed that adult children of alcoholics (ACAs, n = 49) were significantly different
from adult children from normal families (ACNs, (n = 55) on five of nine Bell Object Relations Reality Testing Inventory
(BORRTI; Bell, 1988) scales and from adult children from normal families 9ACNs, n = 55) on five of nine BORRTI
scales and from adult children from dysfunctional families (ACDs, n = 48) on the Reality Testing summary score. Both
ACAs and ACDs were similar to each other and different from ACNs on Insecure Attachment and on two family
background ratings - perceived quality of paternal and maternal caregiving.



Factor analyses and correlational analyses indicate that the 5 attachment measures differentiate healthy from
pathological bonding with parents, the construct being assessed has multiple dimensions, and scores on these
attachment measures are correlated with personify variables as would be expected. The structure of the four factors
also illustrates that these five attachment scales at least grossly differentiate healthy from pathological bonding with
parents. Further, some evidence of construct validity is found in the correlations observed between these factors.
Women in the natural loss group scored higher on (M=.136) on Alienation, than either women in the Suicide Loss group
(M=-.190), or the women in the Intact Family Group (M=-.378). Women in the NLG scored higher (M=.415) on Social
Incompetence than the women in the SLG group (M=-.052). Women in the NLG scored higher (M=.55) on Insecure
Attachment than the women in the IFG (M=-.06). A significant difference was found between the Natural Loss Group
and the non-pathological norms on Alienation and Social Incompetence. A significant difference was found between the
Intact Family Group and the norms. The women in the IFG scored lower on Egocentricity than the normative sample.



Significant differences were found between the two groupsn (daughters of Holocaust survivors and control) on the
Alienation and Insecure Attachment Subscales of the Bell, with DOS showing significantly more Alienation and Insecure
Attachment. All subjects were, however, within normal range of functioning. For DOS only, all of the Bell subscales
correlated significantly with the Love/Reject factor for fathers of the PCRII; the more rejecting their perception of their
fathers' behavior, the lower their levels of object relatedness. For both groups, only the Love/Reject factor of the PCRII
for perception of mothers' correlated significantly with levels of object relatedness.


a third hypothesis stating that immigrant subjects who experienced higher family cohesion would report higher object
relations and motivation for intimacy was partially supported. Subjects from cohesive families reported better object
relations.

Mother-identification was found to have a significant direct impact on daughters' separation-individuation and a
significant indirect impact on object relations. Additionally, Mother-identification had a small mediating effect when
combined with Father-id




Mothers who had refused the Do-Not-Resuscitate had significantly higher scores on the alienation scale and on the
uncertainty of perception scale than the mothers who agreed to the DNR.
A trend was found in married mothers in relationship to depression




Male subjects showed a positive significant correlation between their NPI scores and the Insecurity Attachment object
relations subscale. Females showed inverse significant relationships between their NPI scores, Alienation and Social
Isolation object relations subscales. There was a significant difference between covert and overt narcissism subtypes'
association to object relations deficits, suggesting a positive relationship between covert narcissism and poor object
relations functioning.
Six clusters were identified and replicated. The clusters were grouped into three pairs, residually impaired, socially
withdrawn, and psychotically egocentric. Sealed-Over Recovery was the largest cluster (n=61.33%); Integrated
Recovery was the next largest (n=36, 19.6%); followed in order of size by Socially Withdrawn - Autistic (n=27, 14.7%);
Psychotically Egocentric - Severe (n=23; 12.5%); Socially Withdrawn (n=19, 10.3%); and Psychotically Egocentric
(n=18; 9.8%).

Destructive Overdependence scores on the NEO-PI-R were associated with high Alienation, Insecure Attachment, and
Social Incompetence scores; they were also associated with elevated Egocentricity scores. High Dysfunctional
Detachment scores were associated with high scores on all four subscales. Healthy Dependency scores were
associated with low scores on all four BORRTI subscales.



The two-factor solution here suggests that there are two dimensions of shame, one of them more ―malignant‖ (BSRS1),
the other more ―benign‖ (BSRS2). The malignant component of shame consists of feelings of humiliation, being helpless
in that regard, and (possibly consequently) being depressed. In terms of instinct theory, terms associated with it are said
to be more aggressively determined, and in terms of object relations theory, more persecutory. The more benign
component of shame is organized around being bashful, shy, embarrassed, and blushing. Each of these descriptors is
associated with more libidinally determined inhibitions, which Miller (1985) noted were often pleasurable. These feelings
seem closely tied to the notion of shame as inhibition of exhibitionist impulses described by classical psychoanalysis
(Fenichel, 1945; Freud, 1903). In almost every case, the correlations between the first shame factor (BSRS1) and the
pathology measures—the OMNI, Finney, Hecht, BORI, and NPDS—is higher than the correlations of the second shame
factor (BSRS2) with these same pathology measures. This suggests that BSRS1 more strongly implicates
psychopathology than does BSRS2.
As hypothesized, DSQ Mature and the IBS had their highest loadings on the second factor, whereas all the other
measures had highest loadings on the first factor. DSQ Neurotic seemed to split its loading on the two factors,
suggesting that it reflects elements of both. The first factor is most strongly indexed by the DSQ Immature and the SCL-
90-R, and secondarily by the BSI and the BORI, which have been shown to index borderline functioning.




There were significant correlations in both males and females on the following measures of pathological eating
behaviors and attitudes: the Eating Self-Efficacy Scale was significantly correlated with the IDI, Separation Individuation
Process Inventory, Insecure Attachment and Egocentricity scales of the BORRTI, and the Eating Questionnaire
Revised. There were differential patterns of correlations between the sexes on the various eating measures. For males,
the Eating Self-Efficacy Scale was also positively correlated with the Alienation and Social Incompetence scales of the
BORRTI, and the Eating Attitude Test was positively correlated with the Separation Individuation Process Inventory. For
females, the Eating Questionnaire Revised was significantly correlated with the IDI, the Eating Attitude Test, and the
Insecure Attachment and Egocentricity scales of the BORRTI. There was also a significant positive correlation between
the Eating Attitude Test and the Insecure Attachment and Egocentricity scales of the BORRTI for females.



As expected, scores on the ALN correlated positively with scores on EGO. ALN correlated inversely with weekly alcohol
use, but there were no other significant associations between narcissism and self-reports of health behaviors.
Multivariate regression revealed a significant relationship between psychophysiological reactivity and narcissism.
Subsequent multiple regression analyses indicated that narcissism predicted SCR reactivity and PEP reactivity, but not
HP or TRP reactivity. ALN was the only significant predictor of SCR reactivity, but both EGO and ALN were significant
predictors of PEP reactivity. Thus, higher scores on ALN predicted SCR and PEP hyporeactivity, whereas higher scores
on EGO predicted PEP hyperreactivity. SCR reactivity was significantly lower overall in individuals with elevated scores
on ALN than ion individuals with normal scores. PEP reactivity was significantly greater overall in individuals with
elevated scores on EGO than in individuals with normal scores.
Results indicate that aggression seems related to insecure attachment in those with borderline traits, and to
exhibitionism in those with narcissistic traits. Assertiveness was discerned in those with either borderline or narcissistic
traits if paired with age.


Results indicate that Insecure Attachment is the only measure that has a significant relationship with General
Aggressiveness. The ALN subscale does not contribute significantly to the prediction of General Aggressiveness. Age
combined with either subtest of the BORRTI can provide a significant explanation for level of assertiveness. All three
measures are not necessary, and the better pair of predictors includes age and Alienation.



Mean scores for psychological presenters were significantly higher (i.e. more pathological) than those of somatic
presenters on both BORI subscales, although only the difference on Insecure Attachment remained so after adjusting
for differences in the severity and duration of psychiatric morbidity between psychological and somatic presenters.



To our surprise, the dependent variables were highly inter-correlated, although differentially associated with boundary
score. Thinness of boundaries was found to correlate with all but one of the dimensions assessed, in descending order
of magnitude: insecure attachment (r = .34; p < .001); alienation (r = .28; p < .001); interpersonal dependency
(IDIEMOT; r = .21; p < .001); social introversion (r = .19; p < .001), and egocentricity (r = .18; p < .001); but not social
dependency (IDICONF; r = .11; p = .07). With respect to the measures of personality and trait affect, thinness was
correlated with trait anxiety (r = .41; p < .001), insecure attachment (r = .33; p < .01), and interpersonal dependency (r =
.33; p < .01). Thinness was also correlated with each dimension of interviewer rated interpersonal behavior: openness (r
= .51; p < .001); comfort (r = .41; p < .001); and likeability (r = .35; p < .01). Subsequent stepwise multiple regression
analysis across measures of personality, trait affect, and interpersonal behavior revealed that two variables, openness
and insecure attachment, respectively, were predictive of boundary score (F (2) = 15.09, p < .001). The inclusion of
openness and insecure attachment yielded a multiple R of .57 and an adjusted R2 of .31.
Convergent validity was provided with a strong correlation between the SI and the Separation-Individuation Index
(Christenson and Wilson, 1985) and moderate correlations between the SI and two subscales--Alienation and Insecure
Attachment--of the BORI. The SI was also able to distinguish between a therapist-identified group of patients that rely
extensively on the defense of splitting and a therapist-identified group that did not rely primarily on splitting. Supporting
Kernberg's theory, subjects reporting borderline and other severe pathology reported significantly higher mean scores
on the SI, Separation-Individuation Index, and the Alienation and Insecure Attachment subscales of the BORI. Contrary
to predictions, the BORI Egocentricity subscale did not differentiate between these groups.


Analysis revealed a significant improvement in the object relations ego deficit of Social Incompetence. Other subscales
failed to record a significant directional change, and Alienation, in particular, proved remarkably stable over the 1-year
period. An examination of Social Incompetence data reveals that, of the 10 patients who recorded deficits at the
beginning of rehabilitation, 6 improved while none of those without deficits changed rank.


The BORRTI was used in this project as a screening instrument for psychopathology for the college student control
group. The BORRTI is a self-report, 90-item, true-false inventory that measures impairments in the ego functions of
object relations and reality testing.


BORI was used to create two groups (high interpersonal relatedness group, and low interpersonal relatedness group)
There was a relationship between Alienation and Turning against the object subscale (DMI) and a relationship between
Alienation and Turning against the Self (DMI) in the positive direction. There was also a positive relationship between
Insecure attachment and Turning against the Self
Preliminary data analysis also determined that the Marlowe—Crowne scale bore modest but significant negative
correlations (Pearson r, at the .05 level or greater) with the three reality-testing scales of the BORRTI (ranging from −.13
to −.24), with the DES total score (−.19), and with the three scales of the DES (ranging from −.13 to −.19). That is,
individuals who exhibited more concern with presenting themselves in a desirable light were less likely to acknowledge
symptoms of poor reality testing and dissociation. The Marlowe—Crowne was, therefore, included as a covariate in
analyses of variance involving the measures of reality testing and dissociation. Specifically, the effect of repressive style
on eight dependent variables (three factors of the Bell Reality Testing Inventory, three factors of the DES, total score on
the DES, and the Global Symptoms Index of the BSI) was calculated. As Table 1 indicates, each of these overall F tests
was significant at the .001 level. Moreover, as the table shows, the scores of Repressor (R) and Low-Anxious (LA)
subjects clustered together on the low end of these scales, with none of the analyses producing significant differences
among these groups.

Spiritual maturity, as measured by the three RSIn subscales, are positively associated with level of object relations
development as measured by the four BORI subscales. The Quality subscale for the SAI correlated significantly higer
than the Awareness subscale with the BORI subscales. The Awareness subscale showed significant correlations with
three of the BORI subscales (all but SI), whereas the Quality subscale correlated significantly with all four of the BORI
subscales.
The BSRS had a .44 correlation with the BORI, the BSRS1 had a .44 correlation with the BORI, and the BSRS2 had a
.30 correlation with the BORI. individuals with relatively subclinical scores on the pathology measures are likely to have
little difference in the proportions between the libidinal and aggressive determinants of shame, with slight dominance of
the libidinal. But at levels on the pathology measures, which are likely to signal masochistic dependency (Finney),
impaired object relations (BORI), or severe mood swings (MCMI Cyclo), the aggressive determinants of shame are
significantly higher than the libidinal. Significant interactions between the two components of shame mean that the role
of the more aggressive BSRS1 in its association with the pathology measures is moderated by the elevation of the more
libidiral BSRS2, and vice versa. The coefficients of the interactions in predicting the Finney, BORI, and MCMI Cyclo
scores were each negative. This means that in the higher ranges of BSRS1, the association of BSRS1 with pathology is
actually decreased by higher levels of BSRS2.
Object Constancy (measured by the SDMI) was positively correlated to object relations, satisfaction with the
relationship, and durability of the relationship; Ambivalence, Need Gratification, and Low Self-esteem were negatively
correlated with object relations, satisfaction with the relationship, and durability of the relationship; Narcissistic
Gratification was negatively correlated with object relations and most aspects of the relationship with interesting
exceptions such as sexual satisfaction. There were no sex differences in quality of general object relations.




Celibate participants had statistically significant higher mean scores on Alienation compared to noncelibate participants.



Greater signs of present pschopathology had a negative correlation with higher levels of spirituality. This was not a
significant correlation. The BORRTI's Alienation, Social Incompetence, and Uncertainty of Perception subscales
produced the lowest correlations with the SAS.




A negative correlation exists between marital intimacy and unhealthy object relations (p $<$.001)


Compared to meditative and contemplative prayer, conversational prayer was the most highly correlated with insecure
attachment and social incompetence. Contemplative prayer showed the least levels of correlation with these two
subscales.
Spiritual maturity, as measured by the three RSIn subscales, correlates positively with level of object development as
measured by the four BORI subscales. All 12 correlations in this hypothesis were found to be significant in the predicted
direction. The Worship and Commitment subscale showed significant, negative correlations with all four BORI
subscales. The Involvement in Organized Religion subscale correlated significantly in the predicted direction with all four
of the BORI subscales. The Fellowship subscale also demonstrated significant negative correlations with all four BORI
subscales. Alienation and Insecure Attachment correlated particularly highly with the RSIn. The BORI also had
significant correlations with the Spiritual Assessment Inventory, the God Image Scales, and the Gorsuch Adjective
Checklist.


Spiritual maturity, as measured by the three RSIn subscales, correlates positively with level of object development as
measured by the four BORI subscales. All 12 correlations in this hypothesis were found to be significant in the predicted
direction. The Awareness subscale of the SAI correlated with three of the BORI subscales, and the Quality subscale
correlated significantly with all four of the BORI subscales.


Results of the factor analyses and correlations of the factors with the Bell Object Relations Inventory support the
underlyingscores for the factors were derivedits potential usefulnessof the rawscore ratings on all items loading above
Subscale theory and validity of the SAI and by taking the average for clinical assessment and research.
0.40 on that factor. The SAI subscales were correlated with the four subscales of the Bell Object Relations Inventory
(BORI; Bell et al. 1986), the two subscales of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS; Ellison 1983), the three subscales
of the Intrinsic/Extrinsic-Revised Scale (Gorsuch and McPherson 1989), the three subscales and two empirically derived
factors of the Defense Style Questionnaire (Andrews et al. 1993), and three subscales from the Narcissistic Personality
Inventory (Raskin and Terry 1988) using Pearson Product Moment correlations. Incremental validity of the SAI was
examined by using the Alienation subscale of the BORI as the criterion for overall psychological adjustment. This
subscale was chosen because it is the first factor and accounts for the majority of the variance on the BORI. Two- and
three-step hierarchical regressions were performed to investigate the incremental validity of the SAI relative to the
SWBS and the I/E-R scales in predicting BORI Alienation. Consistent with our expectations, the Instability subscale had
a stronger relationship overall with the BORI scales than did the Awareness subscale. However, the Grandiosity and
Realistic Acceptance subscales had about the same magnitude of correlation with the BORI subscales as did
Awareness. The Grandiosity subscale correlated higher with the Egocentricity subscale (r =0.47; p <0.01) than with any
other BORI subscale, and Egocentricity had lower correlations with the other SAI subscales. This pattern of correlation


Object relations as measured by the BORI subscales was positively correlated to the self-esteem as measured by the
TSCS (PS) at all four time periods of testing. All correlations were significant at .01.
Worldview orientation (measured by the OMPI) is mediated by emotional attachment, mostly measured by the BORI




Pearson correlations found Egocentricity and Potency to be significantly related in firstborns in the negative direction.
Negative correlations that were significantly stronger for firstborns were found between Egocentricity and three RSIn
variables: Leadership, Fellowship, and Openness.


There was a weak positive correlation between wrathful God representations and the Alienation ( p < .05) and
Egocentricity ( p < .01) subscales of the BORRTI-0. There was also a weak positive correlation between Deistic
(impersonal) God representations and the Alienation (p<.05) and Egocentricity subscales of the BORRTI-O (p<.05). In
addition, there was a weak negative correlation between benevolent God representations and the Alienation subscale of
the BORRTI-O (p<.05). The results supported the hypothesis that there would be a significant positive correlation
between the individual capacity for intimacy, as measured by the FIS, and the Alienation (p<.01), Insecure Attachment
(p<.01), Egocentricity (p<.01), and Social Incompetence (p<.05) subscales of the BORRTI-O.


There was a strong correlation between The Instability Scale and Egocentricity. Instability was also moderately
correlated to Alienation and Insecure Attachment. There was a small correlation with Social Insecurity. The Grandiosity
scale also correlated higher with the Egocentricity scale than with any other scale of the BORRTI-O. The
Disappointment Scale was correlated with the Alienation and Insecure Attachment scales. A confirmatory factory
analysis using the structural equation model demonstrated that the BORRTI-O and the two factors of the SAI are closely
related if the variances in the Egocentricity and Grandiosity variables are allowed to correlate.
Protestants showed the greatest number of significant correlations between level of object relations development and
experience of God and self, followed by Muslims, Cultural Jews, and Observant Jews. In Protestants, all four variables
of object relations had a similar level of relatedness with how this group experiences God and self. For the Cultural
Jews, social incompetence had the strongest connection with experience of God and self, though other BORI subscales
also correlate with some aspects of experience of God. Observant Jews did not display clear patterns within the
correlational data. For Muslims, Insecure Attachment and Egocentricity appeared to have the strongest correlations with
the god and self measures.




Object relations, measured by the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, was significantly related to AIDS
knowledge as measured by the AIDS Prevention Survey of Thomas and to self-reported safer sex behavior, measured
by Bassman's HIV Infection Prevention Scale.

Reality testing, measured by the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, was significantly related to AIDS
knowledge as measured by the AIDS Prevention Survey of Thomas and not significantly related to self-reported safer
sex behavior, measured by Bassman's HIV Infection Prevention Scale.


Women consistently obtained less pathological scores on the BORI and the CISS, and scores indicating higher
relationship quality on the RES and relationship history variables. The MANOVA comparing the BORI and CISS scores
of men and women was significant. Posstests of univariate ANOVAs yielded significant differences for Alienation, F(1,
261) = 6.93, p=.009; Egocentricity, F(1, 261) = 10.82, p = .001; Social Incompetence, F(1, 261), p = .022; and CISS,
F(1, 261) = 5.41, p = .021. All four BORI subscales were significantly correlated with the RES subscales except for the
nonsignificant correlations between the BORI Egocentricity subscale and the RES emotional Attachment subscale, and
between the BORI social incompetence subscale and the RES Liking/Respect and Emotional Attachment subscales.
Social Incompetence was significantly correlated with relationship history, demonstrating a low negative correlation with
number of serious romantic relationships.


The findings indicate significant differences between deaf and hearing groups on all measures of symbolic functioning,
and differences between the oral and signing deaf sub-groups on EM themes and Figure Drawings. These results
reflect the powerful impact of early deafness on symbolic functioning and lend support to the hypothesis that presence
of Sign Language between a deaf child and hearing parents may exert some mitigating influence.
Multiple regression analyses suggested that Time Anxiety and Relaxed Mastery were significantly associated with
Insecure Attachment and Social Incompetence. Continuity was associated with Alienation and Egocentricity while
Consistency was associated with Insecure Attachment, Egocentricity, and Social Incompetence. Time Integration was
significantly correlated with Object Constancy, as predicted. Time Integration and object relations scores were also
significantly associated with age.




Object relational pathology was significantly positively correlated with conscious death anxiety in both groups. Object
relational pathology was significantly negatively correlated with unconscious death anxiety in both groups. Correlation
between conscious death anxiety and Alienation is significantly greater in Group II than in Group I.



Parental bonding (Measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument) was found to be related to object relatedness, with
those experiencing greater degrees of alienation perceiving parental figures as less caring and more overprotective than
those identified as less alienated. In addition, magical ideation was found to be related to intolerance for ambiguity and
to lower levels of object relatedness. Results support speculations that intolerance of ambiguity is related to delusion
formation and that the variables under investigation are appropriately studied in non-clinical populations.



Significant correlations, all of which were in hypothesized directions, were as follows: positive thinking coping was
negatively related to alienation and social incompetence; avoidance coping was positively related to reality distortion;
direct action coping was negatively related to alienation and social incompetence; symptom-management coping was
positively related to egocentricity and reality distortion; and, somatic tension was positively related to all six BORRTI
measures. In sum, fourteen zero-order correlations of coping styles and somatic tension to BORRTI indices were
significant, all of them in hypothesized directions, and the sign of only one of the 36 correlations was opposite the
direction hypothesized.
The results of the study indicated that object relations development significantly predicted interpersonal problems. All
eight of the interpersonal problematic styles measured by the IIP were significantly predicted by the BORI. The BORI
accounted for the largest amount of variability in the IIP criterion variable of Socially Avoidant. The least amount of
variability accounted for by the BORI was on the Nonassertive scale. The BORI Alienation scale significantly predicted
six of the eight IIP criterion subscales (Vindictive, Cold, Socially Avoidant, Exploitable, Overly Nurturant, and Intrusive).
The BORI Social Incompetence also significantly predicted six of the eight IIP subscales (Domineering, Vindictive,
Socially Avoidant, Nonassertive, Overly Nurturant, and Intrusive). The BORI Insecure Attachment subscale significantly
predicted four IIP criterion variables (Domineering, Cold, Socially Avoidant, and Intrusive), and the BORI Egocentricity
scale was not a significant predictor of any of the either IIP criterion subscales.

The results show that Ss with migraines expressed significantly more negativism, indirect aggression, irritability, hostility,
suspicion, feelings of guilt, and disturbed object relations compared to Ss without recurrent headaches.
Individuals who had higher scores on the Attributes of Creativity Scale demonstrated a significantly healthier level of
object relations, as assessed by the Bell Object Relations Inventory (Bell, Billington, & Becker, 1986), than individuals
with lower creativity scores.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between object relations, stress, and physiological reactions.
With 3 exceptions out of 64 equations, object relations maintained a direct effect on somatic symptoms regardless of
the introduction of a particular hassle, confirming its impact as a significant mediating factor in physiological reactions.
Object relations were unrelated to gender and age. Age was significantly and negatively correlated with somatic
response for both males and females. Females experienced a significantly greater amount of hassles and somatic
reactions than males.




As Interpersonal Reactivity Index Empathy scores increase, noticeable decreases are found in patient
psychoticism/toughmindedness, reality testing and object relations, suspiciousness, and machiavellianism.



High loading factor items suggested these subscale names: for Factor 1, Reality Distortion (RD); for Factor 2,
Uncertainty of Perception (UP); and for Factor 3, Hallucinations and Delusions (HD). BPRS scores, sums scores, and
GAS scores of 43 inpatients were correlated with subscale scores. RD and UP are both more highly correlated with
Depressive Mood than with any other BPRS scale but are not significantly correlated with BPRS sums scores or with
GAS. RD is correlated with Emotional Withdrawal and Unusual Thought Content, and UP is correlated with Anxiety. Of
the three subscales, HD relates most closely to symptomatology. On the RD subscale, borderline, schizophrenic, and
mixed subjects have highest scores. On UP, borderlines have significantly higher scores than do all other groups, and
on HD, schizophrenic, borderline, and mixed groups have significantly higher mean scores than do all other groups.
Overall classification was 92% and 96.5% for schizophrenia.


High loading factor items suggested these subscale names: For Factor 1 Alienation (ALN), for Factor 2 Insecure
Attachment (IA), for Factor 3 Egocentricity (EGC), and for Factor 4 Social Incompetence (SI). All four subscales were
correlated significantly with Depressive Mood. Other significant correlations with BPRS symptom scales were: ALN with
Conceptual Disorganization and Excitement, IA with Guilt Feelings, SI with Somatic Concern, Hostility, Suspiciousness,
Excitement, and Blunted Affect. EGC was correlated significantly with OR scores from early memories. Borderlines are
highest on ALN; bordelines and other Axis II disorders are highest on IA, and schizophrenics have very low scores;
borderlines, mixed and schizophrenics are highest on EGC; pathological groups are not differentiated on SI.
PCA was performed. Eight items with low communalities were dropped so that 50 items were used for subsequent
analyses. The oblique rotated factor solution yielded five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Four were nearly
identical to the adult version and named accordingly: AL, IA, EGC, and SI. The fifth subscale was named PA. This scale
was comprised of items that reflected satisfaction with relationships when endorsed in the nonpathological direction.


The BORRTI was used in this project as a screening instrument for psychopathology for the college student control
group. The BORRTI is a self-report, 90-item, true-false inventory that measures impairments in the ego functions of
object relations and reality testing.

Destructive Overdependence scores on the NEO-PI-R were associated with high Alienation, Insecure Attachment, and
Social Incompetence scores; they were also associated with elevated Egocentricity scores. High Dysfunctional
Detachment scores were associated with high scores on all four subscales. Healthy Dependency scores were
associated with low scores on all four BORRTI subscales.


Factorial analysis and other statistical tests were used. Factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability
were determined. Four factors were identified: alienation, insecure attachment, egocentrism, and social incompetence.
The results were compared to normative US data. Test factor structure and reliability is considered good.


BORI was used to create two groups (high interpersonal relatedness group, and low interpersonal relatedness group)




Results of the factor analyses and correlations of the factors with the Bell Object Relations Inventory support the
underlying theory and validity of the SAI and its potential usefulness for clinical assessment and research.
Subscale scores for the factors were derived by taking the average of the raw score ratings on all items loading above
0.40 on that factor. The SAI subscales were correlated with the four subscales of the Bell Object Relations Inventory
(BORI; Bell et al. 1986), the two subscales of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS; Ellison 1983), the three subscales
of the Intrinsic/Extrinsic-Revised Scale (Gorsuch and McPherson 1989), the three subscales and two empirically derived
factors of the Defense Style Questionnaire (Andrews et al. 1993), and three subscales from the Narcissistic Personality
Inventory (Raskin and Terry 1988) using Pearson Product Moment correlations. Incremental validity of the SAI was
examined by using the Alienation subscale of the BORI as the criterion for overall psychological adjustment. This
subscale was chosen because it is the first factor and accounts for the majority of the variance on the BORI. Two- and
three-step hierarchical regressions were performed to investigate the incremental validity of the SAI relative to the
SWBS and the I/E-R scales in predicting BORI Alienation. Consistent with our expectations, the Instability subscale had
a stronger relationship overall with the BORI scales than did the Awareness subscale. However, the Grandiosity and
Realistic Acceptance subscales had about the same magnitude of correlation with the BORI subscales as did
Awareness. The Grandiosity subscale correlated higher with the Egocentricity subscale (r =0.47; p <0.01) than with any
other BORI subscale, and Egocentricity had lower correlations with the other SAI subscales. This pattern of correlation




Insecure Attachment is positively correlated with both the UCLA Loneliness Scale, r(216) = .36, p<.001, and the STAI,
r(.216) - .20, p<.05, as well as the Self-Critical scale of the DEQ, r(216) = .41, p<.001. The Alienation and Egocentricity
subscales of the BORI were also positively correlated with Factor 2, r(216) = .53, p<.001, and r<216) = .52, p<.001,
respectively. Insecure Attachment correlated with Jackson's Affiliation Measure, r<216) = -.35, p<.001. Attachment to
Father is negatively correlated with the Egocentricity and Alienation subscales of the BORI.

With one exception, all correlations between the DPDI and the validation variables (including the subscales of the
BORRTI) were strong and significant. The DPDI significantly correlated with Alienation and Insecure Attachment in the
outpatient population.
As predicted, the PAI Borderline scale is also more strongly associated with all three BORI factors than the other two
PAI scales, although the size of the BORI correlations with the PAI Paranoia scale is comparable enough to raise some
questions. Greater problems are encountered when the MPD and BORI crossings are considered. The BORI scores
uniformly correlate higher with the MPD Paranoid personality scale than with the MPD Borderline scale. In sum, it
appears as though the BORI factors do not effectively discriminate between the borderline and paranoid traits.




Scores on the AAS and BORI possessed the lowest mean subscale reliability estimates ranging from .72 to .79, with the
exception of the Alienation scale on the BORI (.84). These findings are consistent with the Garbarino (1998) review that
found reliability estimates to be lower for the AAS, whereas the BORI was reported to have moderate to high score
reliability estimates in previous studies. The PAQ reported the highest mean score reliability estimates with little
variability, indicating that the PAQ is capable of generating reliable score estimates across different samples.




To our surprise, the dependent variables were highly inter-correlated, although differentially associated with boundary
score. Thinness of boundaries was found to correlate with all but one of the dimensions assessed, in descending order
of magnitude: insecure attachment (r = .34; p < .001); alienation (r = .28; p < .001); interpersonal dependency
(IDIEMOT; r = .21; p < .001); social introversion (r = .19; p < .001), and egocentricity (r = .18; p < .001); but not social
dependency (IDICONF; r = .11; p = .07). With respect to the measures of personality and trait affect, thinness was
correlated with trait anxiety (r = .41; p < .001), insecure attachment (r = .33; p < .01), and interpersonal dependency (r =
.33; p < .01). Thinness was also correlated with each dimension of interviewer rated interpersonal behavior: openness (r
= .51; p < .001); comfort (r = .41; p < .001); and likeability (r = .35; p < .01). Subsequent stepwise multiple regression
analysis across measures of personality, trait affect, and interpersonal behavior revealed that two variables, openness
and insecure attachment, respectively, were predictive of boundary score (F (2) = 15.09, p < .001). The inclusion of
openness and insecure attachment yielded a multiple R of .57 and an adjusted R2 of .31.



Object relations, measured by the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, was significantly related to AIDS
knowledge as measured by the AIDS Prevention Survey of Thomas and to self-reported safer sex behavior, measured
by Bassman's HIV Infection Prevention Scale.
Reality testing, measured by the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, was significantly related to AIDS
knowledge as measured by the AIDS Prevention Survey of Thomas and not significantly related to self-reported safer
sex behavior, measured by Bassman's HIV Infection Prevention Scale.



Women consistently obtained less pathological scores on the BORI and the CISS, and scores indicating higher
relationship quality on the RES and relationship history variables. The MANOVA comparing the BORI and CISS scores
of men and women was significant. Posstests of univariate ANOVAs yielded significant differences for Alienation, F(1,
261) = 6.93, p=.009; Egocentricity, F(1, 261) = 10.82, p = .001; Social Incompetence, F(1, 261), p = .022; and CISS,
F(1, 261) = 5.41, p = .021. All four BORI subscales were significantly correlated with the RES subscales except for the
nonsignificant correlations between the BORI Egocentricity subscale and the RES emotional Attachment subscale, and
between the BORI social incompetence subscale and the RES Liking/Respect and Emotional Attachment subscales.
Social Incompetence was significantly correlated with relationship history, demonstrating a low negative correlation with
number of serious romantic relationships.



Overall, the group with ADHD showed greater impairment than the control group on all the subscales of the BORRTI.
ADHD significantly explain between 3 to 6 percent of the variance in Object Relations after controlling for comorbidity.


The findings indicate significant differences between deaf and hearing groups on all measures of symbolic functioning,
and differences between the oral and signing deaf sub-groups on EM themes and Figure Drawings. These results
reflect the powerful impact of early deafness on symbolic functioning and lend support to the hypothesis that presence
of Sign Language between a deaf child and hearing parents may exert some mitigating influence.


Multiple regression analyses suggested that Time Anxiety and Relaxed Mastery were significantly associated with
Insecure Attachment and Social Incompetence. Continuity was associated with Alienation and Egocentricity while
Consistency was associated with Insecure Attachment, Egocentricity, and Social Incompetence. Time Integration was
significantly correlated with Object Constancy, as predicted. Time Integration and object relations scores were also
significantly associated with age.
Object relational pathology was significantly positively correlated with conscious death anxiety in both groups. Object
relational pathology was significantly negatively correlated with unconscious death anxiety in both groups. Correlation
between conscious death anxiety and Alienation is significantly greater in Group II than in Group I.



Parental bonding (Measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument) was found to be related to object relatedness, with
those experiencing greater degrees of alienation perceiving parental figures as less caring and more overprotective than
those identified as less alienated. In addition, magical ideation was found to be related to intolerance for ambiguity and
to lower levels of object relatedness. Results support speculations that intolerance of ambiguity is related to delusion
formation and that the variables under investigation are appropriately studied in non-clinical populations.



Significant correlations, all of which were in hypothesized directions, were as follows: positive thinking coping was
negatively related to alienation and social incompetence; avoidance coping was positively related to reality distortion;
direct action coping was negatively related to alienation and social incompetence; symptom-management coping was
positively related to egocentricity and reality distortion; and, somatic tension was positively related to all six BORRTI
measures. In sum, fourteen zero-order correlations of coping styles and somatic tension to BORRTI indices were
significant, all of them in hypothesized directions, and the sign of only one of the 36 correlations was opposite the
direction hypothesized.


The results of this study indicate that neither object relations nor social skills, independently or in combination with each
other were significant predictors of compliance. However, some subscales of the BORI and some subscales of the SSI
were found to significantly predict some aspects of compliance as measured by the CCL.
The results of the study indicated that object relations development significantly predicted interpersonal problems. All
eight of the interpersonal problematic styles measured by the IIP were significantly predicted by the BORI. The BORI
accounted for the largest amount of variability in the IIP criterion variable of Socially Avoidant. The least amount of
variability accounted for by the BORI was on the Nonassertive scale. The BORI Alienation scale significantly predicted
six of the eight IIP criterion subscales (Vindictive, Cold, Socially Avoidant, Exploitable, Overly Nurturant, and Intrusive).
The BORI Social Incompetence also significantly predicted six of the eight IIP subscales (Domineering, Vindictive,
Socially Avoidant, Nonassertive, Overly Nurturant, and Intrusive). The BORI Insecure Attachment subscale significantly
predicted four IIP criterion variables (Domineering, Cold, Socially Avoidant, and Intrusive), and the BORI Egocentricity
scale was not a significant predictor of any of the either IIP criterion subscales.


The results show that Ss with migraines expressed significantly more negativism, indirect aggression, irritability, hostility,
suspicion, feelings of guilt, and disturbed object relations compared to Ss without recurrent headaches.
Individuals who had higher scores on the Attributes of Creativity Scale demonstrated a significantly healthier level of
object relations, as assessed by the Bell Object Relations Inventory (Bell, Billington, & Becker, 1986), than individuals
with lower creativity scores.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between object relations, stress, and physiological reactions.
With 3 exceptions out of 64 equations, object relations maintained a direct effect on somatic symptoms regardless of
the introduction of a particular hassle, confirming its impact as a significant mediating factor in physiological reactions.
Object relations were unrelated to gender and age. Age was significantly and negatively correlated with somatic
response for both males and females. Females experienced a significantly greater amount of hassles and somatic
reactions than males.
Results found to be not related to the BORRTI                              Additional Comments




                                                                           There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                           abstract does not address results related to
                                                                           object relations and/or the BORRTI.




Results failed to show a significant convergent relationship between the
objective and projective assessment measures.
The BORRTI reached no significant differences on the object relations
between both groups (substance abusers with sexual trauma and substance
abusers without sexual trauma).
Thus, there is no evidence in the present study that reported physical and/or
sexual abuse mediates the relationship between repressive style and either
quality of reality resting, the tendency toward experiencing dissociative
phenomena, or self-reported emotional distress.




Alienation and social incompetence were the two object relations disturbances
not correlated with PTSD symptom severity.




                                                                                Use of BORRTI doesn‘t seem to have much
                                                                                correlation with the results of the study. The
                                                                                inventory was used ―to measure the capacity for
                                                                                interpersonal relations‖. The scale had an
                                                                                internal consistency of alpha = .85
                                                                             There was no publicly available full test file for
                                                                             this source.




Means on the subscales of the BORRTI did not differ significantly between
those who reported encountering a critical incident and those who did not.
Although mean scores for the study group were higher on all subscales of
both the BORRTI and the IIP, when compared with the non-pathological
group scores, these differences were not statistically significant.




Object Relations did not mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse
and interpersonal problems




There was no significant change after EMDR treatment
The AVEQSOD and the BORRTI were discovered to be measuring
completely different phenomena in a depressed population.
There was no publicly available full text file and
abstract does not address results related to
object relations and/or the BORRTI.
A hypothesis predicting that the inpatient group would reveal more severe or
higher total object relations composite scores than the outpatient group was
not supported. Another hypothesis predicting that the major depression group
will show significantly higher deficits on Insecure Attachment, Social
Incompetence, and Uncertainty of Perceptions subscales was not supported.
A hypothesis stating that the major depression group would show significant
deficits in object relations on subscales Insecure Attachment and Uncertainty
of Perception, compared to the paranoid schizophrenia group was not
supported.


There was no difference in scores on the BORRTI among the three groups
There were no significant differences in eating disorder diagnoses or level of
eating pathology between those who did and did not enter treatment




                                                                                 There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                                 abstract does not address results related to
                                                                                 object relations and/or the BORRTI.
                                                                                 There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                                 this source.



There was no significant difference in object relations pathology between the
normal and obese groups or between the binge eater and bulimic groups.
While not part of the formal hypothesis, additional analyses of subtest scores
or Alienation and Social Incompetence yielded similar results. No significant
difference was noted between normal and obese subjects or between binge
eating and bulimic subjects for Alienation and Social Incompetence.


Results supported the strong association between dependency and eating
disorders and demonstrated that the object relationships of the participants
were characterized by both insecure attachment and egocentricity.
The nonclinical comparison groups comprised of individuals concerned with
fitness and health and college students did not deviate in any substantive way
from the general population norms established for the BORRTI.



                                                                                 The BORRTI/BORI was only used as a
                                                                                 screening tool for subjects.




                                                                                 The BORRTI/BORI was only used as a
                                                                                 screening tool for subjects.

                                                                                 The BORRTI/BORI was only used as a
                                                                                 screening tool for subjects.

                                                                                 The BORRTI/BORI was only used as a
                                                                                 screening tool for subjects.
No significant differences in object relations or reality testing between
antisocial and non-antisocial individuals were revealed. Additionally, it was
hypothesized that differences in object relations would be found in antisocial
subjects who were and were not considered to be psychopathic. No significant
differences in object relations were revealed, however, but differences in
reality testing were revealed between antisocial individuals based on their
level of psychopathy.




                                                                                 There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                                 this source.


The results showed no significant relationship between BORRTI scores and
family or social problems, time in treatment, or the months of heroin use        There was no publicly available full text file for
between follow-up evaluations.                                                   this source.
No significant differences were found between ACOA and nonACOA on                   There was no publicly available full text file for
parenting stress or Egocentricity.                                                  this source.

                                                                                    There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                                    this source.
The BORRTI reached no significant differences on the object relations
between both group (substance abusers with sexual trauma and substance
abusers without sexual trauma)


                                                                                    This source used the BORRTI in assessment
                                                                                    but did not record the results.




The alcohol-dependent group and cocaine-dependent group failed to differ on
Affect Intensity or Object Relations. In the alcohol-dependent group no
statistically significant correlations are evident between situational confidence
and object relations scores. In the both drug-preference groups no statistically
significant correlations are evident between URTE and Insecure Attachment
and Egocentricity.
This source was used only to assess
"vulnerability to psychosis" in subjects.




There was no publicly available full text file and
abstract does not address results related to
object relations and/or the BORRTI.
There was no publicly available full text file and
abstract does not address results related to
object relations and/or the BORRTI.
Replication analysis was conducted in an effort to test internal validity of the 8-
cluster solution. Samples were obtained for comparison by randomly dividing
the larger data set into two smaller samples. Student r-tests comparing the
two groups on demography and BORRTI profile scores revealed no
statistically significant differences.
Results indicate that pathological gamblers and pathological stock market
gamblers differ from non-gamblers with respect to their means on the
subscales of alienation and insecure attachment though the differences did
not meet the level of statistical significance.

                                                                               There was no publicly availabe full text file for
                                                                               this source.




Neither Object relations scores as measured by the BORI nor Alexithymia as
measured by the TAS differentiate chronic pain patients from non-pain
individuals. Neither object relations scores nor alexithymia predict whether
chronic pain patients return to work at six months following treatment for
chronic pain.
The Alienation factor did not correlate with the MCMI Schizoid and Avoidant
Personality scale scores as expected.
There was no publicly available full text file and
abstract does not address results related to
object relations and/or the BORRTI.
Contrary to predictions, the SI was not significantly correlated to the
Egocentricity subscale of the BORI
The Alienation factor did not correlate with the MCMI Schizoid and Avoidant
Personality scale scores as expected.


                                                                              There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                              abstract does not address results related to
                                                                              object relations and/or the BORRTI.
No group differences were found for Uncertainty of Perception.
There is no significant relationship between borderline features as measured
by the subtests of the BORRTI (ALN and IA) and Intolerance of Ambiguity
after controlling for Caucasian ethnicity. Results suggest that Borderline traits,
measured by the BORRTI, and Narcissisitc traits, measured by the NPI, are
not significantly related. No univariate correlations were found between
measures of the NPI and measures of the BORRTI.




No significant differences in object relations or reality testing between
antisocial and non-antisocial individuals were revealed. Additionally, it was
hypothesized that differences in object relations would be found in antisocial
subjects who were and were not considered to be psychopathic. No significant
differences in object relations were revealed, however, but differences in
reality testing were revealed between antisocial individuals based on their
level of psychopathy.



                                                                                     There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                                     abstract does not address results related to
                                                                                     object relations and/or the BORRTI.


                                                                                     There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                                     abstract does not address results related to
                                                                                     object relations and/or the BORRTI.
There was no publicly available full text file and
abstract does not address results related to
object relations and/or the BORRTI.
There was no publicly available full text file for
this source.
Respondents from families of divorce who report a positive sibling relationship
were not more likely to have a higher capacity for human relatedness as
measured by the BORRTI than those subjects in families of divorce who do
not report a positive sibling relationship. Respondents from intact families who
report a positive sibling relationship did not differ significantly on a measure of
attachment styles from those subjects in intact families who do not report
positive sibling relationships. Respondents from intact families who report a
positive sibling relationship will not differ significantly on an object relations
measure from those subjects in an intact family who do not report a positive
sibling relationship.

                                                                                      There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                                      this source.
                                                                             There was no publicly availabe full text file for
                                                                             this source.




Results indicate no significant relationships between class of therapeutic   There was no publicly available full text file for
factor and individual attachment style or object relations capacity.         this source.
The correlations between the RRI and the BORRTI is a ls a low and positive
(r=.22), suggesting that some validity questions must be evaluated. The
attachment instruments yielded similar results in both the clinical and
nonclinical groups. However the nonclinical group did reveal a larger
proportion of individuals who fell into the secure attached category.




Object Relations did not mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse
and interpersonal problems

                                                                               There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                               abstract does not address results related to
                                                                               object relations and/or the BORRTI.



There was no significant change after EMDR treatment
There was no publicly availabe full text file for
this source.




There was no publicly available full text file for
this source.
Incest mothers did not score significantly higher on erotophobia than the non-
incest mothers.


Respondents from families of divorce who reported a positive sibling
relationship were not more likely to have a higher capacity for human
relatedness as measured by the BORRTI than those subjects in families of
divorce who do not report a positive sibling relationship. Respondents from
intact families who report a positive sibling relationship did not differ
significantly on a measure of attachment styles from those subjects in intact
families who do not report positive sibling relationships. Respondents from
intact families who report a positive sibling relationship will not differ
significantly on an object relations measure from those subjects in an intact
family who do not report a positive sibling relationship.
                                                                              There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                              abstract does not address results related to
                                                                              object relations and/or the BORRTI.
It was hypothesized that immigrants who experienced parent-child separation
would report lower object relations, lower intimacy, and more rejection and
absence themes as compared to immigrants who came to the U.S. with their
parents. No significant differences were found.
No other significant relationships between object relations and breast feeding
were demonstrated. Nor was there a significant correlation between the object There was no publicly availabe full text file for
relations of mothers and daughters.                                            this source.




                                                                                There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                                abstract does not address results related to
                                                                                object relations and/or the BORRTI.




                                                                                There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                                abstract does not address results related to
                                                                                object relations and/or the BORRTI.
There is no significant difference between the two groups on any subscale of
the BORI




alienation and Egocentricity were not correlated with SITS.
No differences were found between the Suicide Loss Group or the Intact
Family Group and the normative sample consisting of students and
community active adults on the subscales of Alienation, Insecure Attachment,
or Social Incompetence. No difference was found between the two loss
groups and the norms on the Egocentricity subscale.




It was hypothesized that immigrants who experienced parent-child separation
would report lower object relations, lower intimacy, and more rejection and
absence themes as compared to immigrants who came to the U.S. with their
parents. No significant dif




It was hypothesized that the DNR-Y group would have significantly lower
scores on the IA subscale than the DNR-N group. While there were small
differences between the groups' scores in the hypothesized direction, i.e.,
DNR-Y had lower Insecure Attachment scores, these differences were not
statistically significant. The directional hypothesis was rejected.
There was no difference in scores on the BORRTI among the three groups
There is no significant relationship between borderline features as measured
by the subtests of the BORRTI (ALN and IA) and Intolerance of Ambiguity
after controlling for Caucasian ethnicity. Results suggest that Borderline traits,
measured by the BORRTI, and Narcissistic traits, measured by the NPI, are
not significantly related. No univariate correlations were found between
measures of the NPI and measures of the BORRTI.




Abnormal BORRTI was not predictive of a clinically significant MMPI-2, nor           There was no publicly availabe full text file for
was a normal BORRTI predictive of a normal MMPI-2.                                   this source.
Contrary to predictions, the SI was not significantly correlated to the
Egocentricity subscale of the BORI




                                                                              The BORRTI was only used as a screening
                                                                              device for subjects

                                                                              The BORRTI was only used as a screening
                                                                              device for subjects
No relationship between Alienation subscale of BORI and Project subscale of
DMI, no relationship between egocentricity and Turning against Objects, no
relationship between EGC and Projection
There is no evidence in the present study that reported physical and/or sexual
abuse mediates the relationship between repressive style and either quality of
reality resting, the tendency toward experiencing dissociative phenomena, or
self-reported emotional distress.




Social desirability, as measured by the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability
Scale did not correlate significantly with any of the BORI subscales.


Results show that the object relations subscales on the Psychoanalytic
Rorschach Profile did not discriminate diagnostic groups known to have
distinctive patterns of object relations. No correlation was found between
these subscales and scores on the Bell inventory. It is concluded that the
Psychoanalytic Rorschach Profile object relations scales are probably not        There was no publicly available full text file for
valid measures of object relations.                                              this soruce.
                                                                                  There was no publicly available full text file and
                                                                                  abstract does not address results related to
                                                                                  object relations and/or the BORRTI.


In order to investigate the extent of the association of these variables, a
Spearman Rank Order correlation was calculated using a two-tailed test of
significance for the SAM score and all seven subscale scores on the BORRTI
as well as the DAS score. None of the correlations between the SAM stage
and any of the other scores reached a level of significance. Thus, the null
hypothesis was supported.



A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between
group membership and the Bell Object Relations Inventory subscales. For
these groups, object relations did not appear to be impaired as their scores
were not above the cutoff on the Bell Object Relations Inventory. However, it
is notable that the mean scores on each subscales for the nonsexual and
sexual dual relationship groups were higher than for the control group,
suggesting that participants in the dual relationship group reported more
problematic object relations than the control group, though not significantly
different.
Celibate women did not have statistically significant higher scores on the
Insecure-Attachment scale of the BORRTI than noncelibate women. There
was no significant difference on the Egocentricity or Social Incompetence
scales for the two groups.




                                                                              There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                              this source.



No significant differences between prayer group and each of the measures of
reality-testing deficits was discovered.
                                                                            There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                            this source.




The GIS Challenge was not correlated to any of the BORI subscales at F2.
Neither was the GIS Challenge correlated to Insecure Attachment at Intake   There was no publicly available full text file for
and F1 or to Social Incompetence at F2                                      this source.
                                                                          There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                          this source.




No significant correlations were found for Egocentricity and Potency in
laterborns.
                                                                           There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                           this source.


Reality Testing was not significantly related to self-reported safer sex   There was no publicly available full text file for
behavior, measured by Bassman's HIV Infection Prevention Scale.            this source.




Levels of object relations showed very little connection to measures of
relationship history.




                                                                           There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                           this source.
                                                                           There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                           this source.
None of the BORRTI variables contributed in a substantial manner to a
significant discriminant function, nor were any of the univeriate tests
significant. There was failure to reject the null hypothesis of no group
differences.
Results of the study do not corroborate a strong relationship between level of
psychological functioning as measured by BORI and acculturation status as
measured by PAI. There were not statistically significant correlations between
any of the Four Bell Object Relations Inventory subscales scores and the
Attitudinal Acculturation scores on the Personal Attitudes Inventory when
controlling for socioeconomic status and generational levels.




                                                                                  There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                                  this source.




The study hypothesized that participants in creative expression activities
would have a higher level of self-esteem, lower level of depression and more
mature object relations than participants who did not participate in creative
expression activities. Results indicate that there is no significant difference
between the two groups.
There was no publicly available full text file for
this source.




There was no publicly available full text file for
this source.
The BORRTI was only used as a screening tool
for subjects.




The BORRTI was only used as a screening tool
for subjects.




There was no publicly available full text file and
abstract does not address results related to
object relations and/or the BORRTI.

There was no publicly available full text file for
this source
Results show that the object relations subscales on the Psychoanalytic
Rorschach Profile did not discriminate diagnostic groups known to have
distinctive patterns of object relations. No correlation was found between
these subscales and scores on the Bell inventory. It is concluded that the
Psychoanalytic Rorschach Profile object relations scales are probably not    There was no publicly available full text file for
valid measures of object relations.                                          this source.
                                                                             There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                             this source.




Abnormal BORRTI was not predictive of a clinically significant MMPI-2, nor   There was no publicly available full text file for
was a normal BORRTI predictive of a normal MMPI-2.                           this source.




                                                                             There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                             this source.
Reality Testing was not significantly related to self-reported safer sex   There was no publicly available full text file for
behavior, measured by Bassman's HIV Infection Prevention Scale.            this source.




Levels of object relations showed very little connection to measures of
relationship history.




                                                                           There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                           this source.




                                                                           There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                           this source.
None of the BORRTI variables contributed in a substantial manner to a
significant discriminant function, nor were any of the univeriate tests
significant. There was failure to reject the null hypothesis of no group
differences.

Results indicate that pathological gamblers and pathological stock market
gamblers differ from non-gamblers with respect to their means on the
subscales of alienation and insecure attachment though the differences did
not meet the level of statistical significance.




                                                                             There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                             this source.
Results of the study do not corroborate a strong relationship between level of
psychological functioning as measured by BORI and acculturation status as
measured by PAI. There were not statistically significant correlations between
any of the Four Bell Object Relations Inventory subscales scores and the
Attitudinal Acculturation scores on the Personal Attitudes Inventory when
controlling for socioeconomic status and generational levels.




                                                                                  There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                                  this source.


                                                                                  There was no publicly available full text file for
                                                                                  this source.



The study hypothesized that participants in creative expression activities
would have a higher level of self-esteem, lower level of depression and more
mature object relations than participants who did not participate in creative
expression activities. Results indicate that there is no significant difference
between the two groups.
There was no publicly available full text file for
this source.




States that BRTI is often used as a screening
instrument in ketamine studies

				
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