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Physical _ Cognitive Development in Adolescence

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					Physical & Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Human Growth & Development
Chapter 11

Physical Maturation
Growth During Adolescence
       There is a _________________ pace of physical and sexual maturation
       Growth spurt during adolescence produces dramatic changes in
       ________________ and ___________________________
       Girls’ growth spurts start and stop ______________ years earlier than boys’
Physical Maturation
Puberty
       Is the period when sexual organs ______________________, beginning earlier
       for girls than for boys.
       Begins when the ___________________________ gland in the brain signals
       other glands to begin producing androgens or estrogens at the
       ______________________ level
       Girls begin puberty about ________ or __________; boys begin at ________ or
       __________
       _____________________________ - the onset of menstruation
       ___________________ in different parts of the world and even with affluence
       levels
       _______________________________ - boy’s first ejaculation
       Usually occurs around age __________________, although body has be
       producing ____________________ for about a year

Physical Maturation
Puberty
       ____________________________ Sex Characteristics
              Involves organs and structures of the body related to
              _________________________
       ______________________________ Sex Characteristics
              Involve the visible _____________________ of sexual maturity that do
              not involve sex _____________________ directly

Physical Maturation
Body Image
       Involves an adolescent’s own ___________________________ to these
       physical changes
       Western society’s views of menarche have become more
       _____________________ than they used to be so girls tend to have
       _________________________ self-esteem, a rise in status, and self-awareness
       when they begin menstruating.
       Boys’   first ejaculation is roughly ______________________________ to girls’
       menarche, but it is rarely discussed.
       Girls are often __________________________ with their developing bodies, a
       result of strong societal pressures regarding the ideal female shape.

Physical Maturation
Timing of Puberty
       Is a key factor for how adolescents ____________________ to it.
       ____________________ maturation is usually positive for _______________:
               Tend to be better in ______________________, more
               _______________________, have more _____________________ self-
               esteem, and grow up to be more cooperative and responsible.
       More likely to have ________________________ and become more involved in
       __________________________ and substance ______________ with older
       friends.
       ___________________ maturation is often _____________________ for girls:
               Tend to be ______________________ popular but they may not be
               ready to deal with ____________________________ situations
               Reactions depend on ____________________________ norms (country
               & community)

Physical Maturation
Timing of Puberty
       __________________ maturation is ______________________ for boys
              Smaller boys are seen as ________________ attractive and have a
              disadvantage in sports
              Dating lives may ___________________________
              Difficulties often lead to _________________________ in self-concept,
              which can extend into adulthood
              Coping with these challenges may help late-maturing boys become
              ______________________, insightful, and more creative
       Late maturing girls:
              Can be ____________________________ and have low social status at
              first
              When they catch up their self-esteem is _____________ with higher
              body esteem because they are more ________________________ and
              “leggy” than early maturing girls

Physical Maturation
Nutrition, Food, & Eating Disorders
       Adolescent growth spurt requires an _____________________________ in
       food (especially key nutrients such as calcium & iron)
       Average girls require ___________________________ calories
       Average boys require ___________________________ calories
       _____________________________ is a common concern
       Estimates  are that _________________________ adolescents is overweight and
       ___________________________ can be formally classified as obese
       Psychological consequences are ______________________ since body image is
       a key focus
       Potential _____________________________ consequences are a concern
       Obese adolescents have an ___________ chance of becoming obese in
       adulthood

Physical Maturation
Nutrition, Food, & Eating Disorders
ANOREXIA NERVOSA
       A severe eating disorder in which individuals _____________________ to eat,
       while denying that their behavior and appearance, which may become skeletal,
       are out of the ________________________.
               Primarily affects _______________ women between the ages of 12 and
               40
               _______________________________ starve themselves to death
               These women are often ______________________, successful, and
               attractive, and from ___________________________ homes
               About _________________ of anorexics are male
BULIMIA
       An eating disorder characterized by ______________________ on large
       quantities of food, followed by _______________________ of the food through
       vomiting or the use of laxatives.
               Chemical __________________________ results from constant
               vomiting or diarrhea
               Can have serious effect, including ____________________ failure


Physical Maturation
Nutrition, Food, & Eating Disorders:
       Eating Disorders are products of both _________________________ and
       __________________________________ causes, so treatments involve multiple
       approaches
Brain Development & Thought:
       ________________________________ Cortex
              Is the part of the brain that allows people to _______________, evaluate,
              and make complex ______________________________,
              Undergoes considerable _____________________________ throughout
              adolescence and is not fully developed until age ___________
              Because the prefrontal cortex is involved in __________________
              control, the ability to inhibit impulses explains the tendency toward
              ________________ and _______________________ behaviors in some
              adolescents
Cognitive Development & Schooling
Piaget’s Theory
       ______________________ ______________________________ Period:
              The stage during which people develop the ability to think
              ______________________
                    Full capacities of using principles of ________________ unfold
                    gradually, throughout early adolescence (approximately ages 12 -
                    15)
                    Not everyone achieves formal operational skills (some studies
                    estimate that anywhere from ______ to _____________ of college
                    students do not).

Cognitive Development & Schooling
Piaget’s Theory
       The ability to think abstractly ____________________ everyday behavior.
       Adolescents become more ______________________________
       This makes adolescents more interesting, but _______________________.
Criticism of Piaget’s Theory
       Research finds individual differences in cognitive abilities not
       _____________________
       Some researchers suggest that cognitive development is more
       ___________________________, less step-like than Piaget proposed
       Piaget _________________________________ the skills of infants and young
       children
       Piaget focuses only on ________________ and ______________________,
       missing other kinds of intelligence
       More ___________________________________ forms of thinking may follow
       this stage and do not develop until early adulthood

Cognitive Development & Schooling
Information Processing Perspective
       Sees changes in cognitive abilities as ______________________
       transformations in the way that individuals take in, use, and store information.
       From this view, thinking advances during adolescence result from the ways
       people __________________________ their thinking and develop new strategies
       Growth of __________________________________ - the ability to think about
       one’s own thinking process and the ability to monitor one’s cognition

Cognitive Development & Schooling
Adolescent ______________________________________
       A stage of self-absorption where the world is seen only from one’s own
       _____________________________
       Adolescents are highly critical of __________________________ figures,
       unwilling to accept criticism, and quick to find _____________________ with
       others.
       Adolescent egocentrism leads to two distortions:
              __________________________________           Audience - where adolescents
              think they are the focus of everyone else’s attention
              Personal _____________________________ - the belief that the
              adolescent is unique and exceptional and shared by no one else.

Cognitive Development & Schooling
School Performance
       On average, students’ grades ________________________ during adolescence
              One reason may be that the material is getting more
              ___________________________
              Another is that teachers grade older adolescents more
              __________________________
              This decline may also reflect broad educational
              ___________________________, especially in the U.S.

Cognitive Development & Schooling
Socioeconomic Status & School Performance:
       There is a strong relationship between educational
       ________________________________ and socioeconomic
       ___________________ (SES)
       Poorer children have fewer ________________________, lower health, more
       inadequate schools, and less ____________________________ parents
       Differences in educational achievement start from the beginning of school with
       the gap __________________________________ throughout the years.
       There are ethnic and racial differences in school achievement but the
       ________________________________ for them is not clear.
       African American and Hispanic families are more likely to live
       ___________________
       In general, African American and Hispanic students perform at
       ____________________________ levels than Caucasians and Asians who
       perform at higher levels

Cognitive Development & Schooling
Dropping out of School
       _______________________________ students drop out each year
              Due to _____________________________
              Due to problems with the English ________________________
       Hispanic & African American students are more likely to
       ________________________ school
       Asians, however, drop out at a _______________________ rate than
       Caucasians
       ________________ of students who live in households in the lowest
       _______________ of income drop out.
              This rate is _____ times higher than the dropout rate for incomes in the
              highest 20%
       Dropping out perpetuates the ___________________ of poverty
Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being
Illegal Drugs
       In 1900’s drug use ______________________, after decline in the 1980’s
       More than _____________ of 8th graders and close to ____________ of seniors
       said they had smoke marijuana at least one in the last year
       Illegal drug use is on the ______________________
       More than ______________ of high school seniors have used an illegal drug at
       least once in their lives
       Some theories of why adolescents try illegal drugs:
               Perceived _____________________________ experience
               __________________________________ from daily pressures
               Thrill of doing something ____________________________
               A number of ___________________________________ use drugs
               _______________________ ______________________________


Threats of Adolescents’ Well-Being
Alcohol
       More than ______________ of college students have consumed at least one
       alcoholic drink during the last 30 days
       More than ____________ say they’ve had five or more drinks within the past 2
       weeks
       ________________ of high school seniors drink alcohol
Binge Drinking
       _________ drinks for men in one sitting
       _________ drinks for women in one sitting
       __________ of males _______________ of females report binge drinking in the
       past 2 weeks

Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being
Alcohol
       Why do adolescents drink?
               It is an ______________________ thing to do
               Maintaining a ______________________ image for male athletes
               Releases __________________________________ and tension
               False _____________________________ effect - the assumption that
               everyone else is doing it
_____________________________ - a person with alcohol problems who have learned
to depend on alcohol and are unable to stop their drinking

Threats to Adolescent’s Well-Being
Tobacco -
       There are significant numbers of adolescents smoking still, although the overall
       proportion has ____________________________________
       Smoking is more prevalent among _________________________
       Whites smoke _________________________ than African Americans
       Why do    adolescents smoke?
               Smoking is considered ____________ or ________________
               Nicotine can produce biological and psychological
               ____________________
               Smoking produces a pleasant __________________________ state that
               smokers seek to maintain
               Exposure to parent’s smoking and peer smoking
               ________________________ the chances that an adolescent will take up
               the habit.
               Smoking is sometimes seen as an adolescent rite of
               ________________________, being seen as a sign of growing up.
Smoking_________ cigarettes early in life increases you chances by _______________
that you will become an habitual smokers

Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
       __________________
              A sexually transmitted disease, produced by the HIV virus, that has no
              cure and ultimately causes death
       Other STDs
              Over __________ million teenagers contract a STD
              ___________________________ is the most common STD, caused by a
              parasite
              _____________________ _________________________ is a common
              STD and is caused by a virus
              __________________________________ - infection caused by a
              parasite
              ____________________________ and ________________________
              used to be deadly but can now be treated with antibiotics