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									       Intergovernmental Authority on Development




       Disaster Risk Management Programme

                  in the IGAD Region


                       Volume IX-
MAINSTREAMING GENDER EQUALITY AND W OMEN’S EMPOWERMENT
                            IN
ENHANCING DISASTER RISK M ANAGEMENT CAPACITY IN THE IGAD
                         REGION .



                         June 2002
1
1.0   INTRODUCTION


      1.1   IGAD's Disaster Preparedness and Response Strategy Paper
      1.2   Methodology
      1.3   Key Questions Addressed


2.0   PROJECT CONTEXT


      2.1   Social and Economic Situation
      2.2   Gender and the Social Economic Situation
      2.3   Gender and Disaster Management in IGAD
      2.4   The Policy Environment


3.0   DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE STRATEGY


      3.1   IGAD's Comparative Advantage
      3.2   Main Objectives of the IGAD Disaster Preparedness Strategy
      3.3   Sub-Regional and National Institutional Framework
      3.4   National and Sub-Regional Level Institutional Framework
      3.5   Country Disaster Management Overview


4.0   CORE ELEMENTS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT


      4.1   Major Lessons Learned


5.0   DETERMINATION OF PRIORITIES


6.0 OUTPUTS AND ACTIVITIES


      6.1   The Development Objective




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1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 IGAD’s Disaster Preparedness and Response Strategy Paper

IGAD is a sub-regional organization of seven countries: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Somalia, Sudan and Uganda.

The political leaders of the IGAD sub-region have agreed on, and called for, a more integrated
cooperation between the member states in response to the series of natural and complex (man-
made) disasters and other urgent challenges facing the IGAD sub-region. The IGAD’s expanded
mandate is to coordinate and harmonize policies in the areas of socio-economic, agricultural
development, environment protection and political and humanitarian affairs. The prioritization of
programs and projects in the expanded areas of cooperation recognizes the alleviation and
mitigation of humanitarian crises as an integral part of IGADs overall strategy for sustainable
development in the sub-region.

The IGAD Secretariat, with the active participation of Member States, has been involved in
consultative work to develop a Sub-regional Disaster Preparedness Strategy. The Strategy
paper was finalized in 1999 and was presented to the IGAD Assembly of Heads of State and
Governments in their Summit Meeting in Khartoum from 24-25 November 2000. The Summit
endorsed the strategy and mandated the IGAD Secretariat to start the process of
operationalization.

It is within this process that the IGAD Secretariat seeks to develop project ideas for the
implementation of the strategy paper through a consultative process with member stat es as well
development partners. The project proposals will incorporate a holistic approach through the
introduction of the risk management concept and the realization of project ideas in order that
member states are better prepared to mitigate the human sufferings impacted by disasters in
the sub-region. It is anticipated that the project undertakings will enhance the capacity of IGAD
secretariat and the member states to alleviate and mitigate the human sufferings caused by
natural and man made disasters.

The Terms of Reference for the IGAD consultancy to develop project ideas of the Strategy
document focused on seven main strategic areas proposed in the Sub-regional Disaster
Preparedness Strategy as follows:

    Development of disaster preparedness strategies and contingency planning process;
    Elaboration of supporting policies, legislation and agreements for disaster
     Preparedness and response;
 Improvement of sub-regional collaboration for preparedness and response;
 Strengthening of early warning and information systems and vulnerability analysis;
 Development of education and training for disaster mitigation;
 Improving preparedness for impact and needs assessment and resource
     Mobilization;
 Improving preparedness for targeting, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of
relief and rehabilitation assistance.




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In all these seven strategic areas, gender equality and women’s empowerment applied to risk
management, disaster response and preparedness as well as rehabilitation will be incorporated,
thus leading to mainstreaming of gender into the various parameters of risk management and
rehabilitation. Specific gender gaps in risk management, disaster response and preparedness
will be identified and recommendations made on how they should be addressed.

1.2 Methodology

The mission on developing project proposals for disaster preparedness started with a brief by
the IGAD Secretariat in Djibouti. The team was informed of the secretariat’s commitment to the
realization of relevant and appropriate project proposals, which would tap IGAD's expanded,
mandate and build on sub-regional potential while also addressing national aspects. It was
noted that gender is central to IGAD’s disaster preparedness strategy and that the challenge is
how to mobilize action from within in the context of resistance and prevailing attitudes.

Emphasis was placed on the formulation of output and activities on gender equality and
women’s empowerment applied to risk management, disaster response and preparedness to be
incorporated in the related IGAD projects on ‘Disaster Preparedness and Response Capacity’.

The expert on gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment in disaster was asked to work
with the other experts in specific areas of disaster management namely: disaster and risk
management, early warning, relief and rehabilitation in order to prepare a strategic framework,
identifying core elements in which activities and outputs can be defined.

A major challenge in this exercise was how to reconcile the evolving and applicative nature of
gender mainstreaming to disaster management, also relatively new in the sub-region, at the
level of developing project ideas.

The approach adopted was to use the experience in different countries in the IGAD sub-region
with systems and institutional mechanisms for disaster management and identify outputs and
activities that can enhance gender sensitivity and commitment to a woman’s empowerment
paradigm to them. A key concern was to propose ideas that can introduce a gender perspective
in all the proposed project areas in a functional manner.

In the absence of specific project ideas and/or project support documents, the mission adopted
participatory evaluation as a methodological procedure. This procedure gave all the
stakeholders met in the IGAD Secretariat and member states a unique opportunity to participate
in the process of sharing ideas and suggestions about the sub-regional context for disaster
management through feedback. All stakeholders met were thus able to share valuable
knowledge, experiences and concerns about the program.

Discussions with selected individuals and groups sought to establish their level of awareness
about gender issues. Special effort was placed on determining whether those involved in
disaster management activities felt gender was relevant to their work and specific project
activities. The mission thus entailed a participatory application of gender analysis where
emerging recommendations for an effective disaster preparedness and response capacity in the
sub-region provided a basis for identifying the elements that would enhance the integration of
gender in project activities.

The mission sought to guide stakeholders to identify potential constraints and opportunities for
women and men in their respective areas. Relevant IGAD and national documents, as well as

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policy statements, including the statements on gender mainstreaming and women’s
advancement were also reviewed in order to use existing paradigms and institutional
arrangements as a framework for discussion.

The mission visited four member states: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. The gender
expert also participated at 1st regular meeting of ministers in charge of women’s affairs and
gender mainstreaming seminar on the conflict prevention and resolution mechanism of IGAD in
Sudan – October 15-16th and 17-18th. This provided a rich opportunity to interact with
stakeholders from all the IGAD member countries and to listen to their discussions about
mainstreaming gender in peace initiatives and processes in the sub-region. Participants from
the three member countries, which had not been visited by the experts namely Sudan, Eritrea
and Somali, attended the seminar. The recommendations of the core elements for
mainstreaming gender in disaster management in IGAD as well as the outputs are also
informed by this context.

1.3 Key Questions Addressed

This paper aims to identify key elements of gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment
strategies and activities that enhance the capacity of disaster preparedness and response
activities at the IGAD sub-region to do the following:

   Investigate and address institutional practices and policies which inhibit women’s
    empowerment in disaster management;
   To identify ways of ensuring women’s input in current and future disaster preparedness and
    response projects in the IGAD sub-region;
   To make appropriate recommendations for relevant activities for the strategic areas
    proposed for disaster management projects.

The related questions in this regard fall into two categories. The first category is concerned with
the issues of disaster management project design, specifically who should be involved, how
(process) and with what priorities:

What are the priorities of the disaster preparedness and response strategy for the IGAD sub-
region?
Have the IGAD member states developed a vision for disaster management based on the areas
of focus?
Is this vision informed and influenced by the objectives of gender equality and women’s
empowerment as defined in the national plans of actions of member states?
Is impact assessment a priority concern of the IGAD’s disaster preparedness strategy? If so
how is this assessment to be conducted and how will gender figure in it?
What gender related immediate objectives should the disaster management projects include in
order to be results oriented given the sub-regional context and project period?
How can these objectives be marked by (benchmarks) actions that could realize performance?
What will be the process of developing project aspects and establishing links?

The second category of questions focused on issues of project execution and delivery:

Are the management and execution arrangements for disaster management suitable, effective
and participatory?



                                              5
How does the disaster management structural arrangement at the national level function to
improve the implementation of disaster management projects? Is this implementation
arrangement creating sustainability?
Does the current location of disaster management activities enhance gender responsive
capacity building, policy formulation and provide for sustainability?

2.0 PROJECT CONTEXT

2.1 Social and Economic Situation

The IGAD sub-region faces a number of development problems and challenges as a result of
prevailing socio-economic conditions. These include persistent poverty, the devastating effects
of AIDS on the most productive segments of the population, unemployment, limited investment
resources, lack of skilled human resource with entrepreneurial potential, the rapid rate of
economic growth, and the consequences of conflicts and hostilities. The IGAD sub-region is
marked by high illiteracy rate, poor communication infrastructure and connections, limited
regulatory and policy frameworks for promoting trade and an increasing level of exodus of
skilled expertise to other regions.

The member states have tried to address these constraints through broad goals such as
renewed economic growth with greater self-reliance, ensuring key economic and sectoral
policies support based sustainable development and increased economic income and living
conditions for the majority of the population.

The realization of these goals is to based on an understanding of development as investment in
human capabilities in different areas (education, health, skills) so that they can work
productively and creatively. It means giving local people opportunities to participate and to
contribute development planning and implementation. It means ensuring that benefits of
economic development are distributed equitably.

IGAD Member States are vulnerable to acute human suffering and loss of development assets
brought about by disasters with both human and natural causes, and frequently by a
combination of both. With nearly half of the sub-regions population chronically food insecure,
disasters threaten food security through disruption of normal cropping, pastoralist and marketing
activities. In recent years, episodes of drought-induced food shortage and famine associated
with conflict have resulted in millions of causalities, internally displaced persons and refugees.
This has in turn posed major dilemmas for long-term solutions.

Apart from the foremost natural hazard of drought, other ‘slow-onset’ hazards include
environmental degradation, the consequences of which can be equally disastrous to food
supply. Major ‘sudden-onset’ natural hazards such as floods, epidemics, pest infestations and
livestock diseases as well as earthquakes, severe storms and cyclones also threaten the sub-
region.

Other crosscutting factors contributing to sub-regional vulnerability to disasters include extreme
poverty, a high rate of population growth, and high rates of urbanization in some countries.
Rural populations are dispersed and their development is constrained by lack of access to roads
and communications. Population pressures have resulted in migration and widespread
degradation, and mitigation efforts have been insufficient to stop the circle. Policy development
has not been sufficient to promote agricultural and economic development in a way that
effectively addresses environmental degradation and land tenure issues.

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2. 2 Gender and the Social Economic Situation

Gender, the economic, social and political and cultural attributes and opportunities associated
with being male or female is manifested in a number of ways. These include the activities
women and men undertake, the degree of access and control of resources, and the degree of
participation in decision-making.

In most cases women as a group have less access than men to resources, opportunities and
decision-making. These inequalities constrain development because they limit the ability of
women to develop and exercise their full capabilities, for their own benefit and of society as a
society as a whole.

Gender roles in the member countries of the IGAD sub-region reflect the specific cultural beliefs
and expectations the society has on the basis of sex. Different characteristics, roles and
responsibilities are assigned to females and males depending on culture. Some of these cultural
expectations have resulted in socialization processes that have reinforced social relations of
inequality between women and men, girls and boys in the IGAD member countries.

Women are absent indecision making processes both in the private (family) and public domain
and this has a negative impact on their status. Negative customs and detrimental practices such
as wife inheritance, arranged (forced marriages) and institutionalized gender violence affect
women’s self-confidence and bar them from public life. It also relegates them into poor level of
education, poverty and a high level of vulnerability to disasters of any kind.

In a number traditional African societies domestic violence is seen as a way of disciplining
women. Beating one’s wife is considered acceptable and even normal. The power of cultural
beliefs on gender relations and gender roles is demonstrated by the confinement of domestic
violence to the privacy and intimacy of the home, and the tendency by women to hide the
problem because they are the ones who are largely responsible for maintaining harmony within
the family.

National legislation in most member states continues to be limited by negative traditional
practices and customary laws. Policy and constitutional frameworks at the national and
program/project level in the sub-region also fail to explicitly provide for gender equality. As an
example women cannot inherit their husbands estate after his death. In her place a man close
to the family is elected to look after the deceased assets.

Women make the bulk of the no-qualified labor in the towns and urban centers. Those
employed hold low-paying stereotypical jobs that limit their ability to rise to management and
decision-making positions where economic decisions that affect their lives are made. The low
level of female literacy in the sub-region limits national efforts to attain better-planned families,
reduced mortality and a higher level of productivity. In the absence of a deliberate and
systematic attempt to put women’ concerns and gender issues at the center of decision-making,
developing policies in the member countries fail to improve the well being of women and men,
boys and girls on an equal basis.

Women’s experience of poverty, a major concern in the sub-region, is different and in some
ways more acute than men because of the aforementioned gender-based forms of exclusion.




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Women play multiple roles of farmer, health-care, homemaker and community worker.
Traditional male-female power relations make it difficult for them to own land and other assets,
obtain credit and move socially and physically to take advantage of economic opportunities.
They are concentrated in the agricultural sector where the rate of growth is relatively slow.

A greater percentage of women than men are engaged in subsistence agriculture and
experience the decline in agricultural productively more acutely. Women do not have security of
land tenure and rarely have up dated inputs about inputs such as fertilizer and seeds. Their
heavy workload and entrenched institutional practices prevent them from fully tapping available
training soil conservation and management as well extension and information services. Poor
storage facilities, lack of access to markets and break down of farm-to-market roads they further
aggravate the position of women.

Women shoulder most of the problems associated with inadequate shelter and infrastructure
development both in rural and urban areas. They play a major role in the management of
natural resources such as water, soil, foods and forests. Their dominant roles within the
household and agriculture make them the daily mangers of the environment. They are forced to
make long journeys in search of basic facilities.

The effects of the total lack of development in some member countries due to on-going conflicts,
poor, inadequate or non-existent health facilities and lack of basic shelter are some of the
problems that challenge humanitarian efforts that are gender neutral.

War takes men away from homes to battlegrounds. Women then become single heads of
households, educators and social workers. They suffer physically, from fear, distress
psychologically and emotionally. Their lives are perpetually threatened as look for firewood, food
ingredients as they encounter anti-personnel mines. A number of times they have to shield their
children from bombshells and starvation when they themselves are victims of hunger, lack of
fresh food and water.

Adolescent girls are more vulnerable to sexual abuse, violence and prostitution in and outside
conflict situations than boys. Other main concerns that girl and boy children experience
differently include heading households, living in foster homes, camps and /or the street, and
living with trauma as a result of conflict. And though both females and males are affected by the
HIV/AIDS pandemic, women are at a greater risk due to illiteracy, cultural emphasis on
reproduction, economic deprivation, and women’s powerlessness and biological factors that
make them more susceptible to heterosexual transmission. Women further carry a greater
burden than men because of their role as family care givers.

2.3 Gender and Disaster Management in IGAD

These conditions affect women of the IGAD sub-region in different ways depending on r their
particular situation. Some of these women are refugees, others are internally displaced persons
(IDPs) and others nationals residing in their homes. IDPs have to ensure that family members
are safe, walk long distances for food, and ensure their children remain alive. Women in refugee
camps face these and many other challenges including gender-based violence. These same
challenges are faced by women from pastorals communities and / or cross border areas where
land degradation and its subsequent depletion of limited resources such as water points and
grazing land also escalate problems.




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From the perspective of disaster and its management, women have gained little from the
different activities undertaken in the IGAD sub-region due to a number of constraints including
the cultural practices cited above. The limited capacity of disaster management personnel to
undertake gender analysis and develop targeted activities for women’s empowerment has also
contributed to poor articulation of and incorporation of gender issues in a systematic manner in
disaster management.

In view of the nature and magnitude of hazards identified as critical in the sub-region, capacity
building and gender rights awareness should feature prominently in all humanitarian projects
and programs. It is also necessary to promote women as integral members disaster
management groups.

The current approach adopted by most humanitarian agencies is that disaster affects
communities and people and that there is therefore no need to target specific groups. All
community groups regardless of gender experience disaster and should be taken care of. This
manifested for example in the collection of information and the analysis of information in context
for disaster management, which is not informed by a gender perspective. Research and
vulnerability analysis as currently undertaken do not provide disaggregated data that would
enhance project targeting in making women’s vulnerability visible and therefore a priority for
disaster project intervention. Single parent households, child headed households, internally,
refugees, cross border residents, pastor lists communities would emerge as clear areas for
project intervention.

As demonstrated above, women are not considered and treated as a community with full rights
in all the IGAD sub-region. Women spend so much time doing housework that there is no time
to go for any training education or training. This is true regardless of whether the women are
internally displaced ( IDPs), refugees or in their traditional homes.

In situations of conflict, which is one of the common denominators of the states in the IGAD sub-
region majority of women and girls are raped. Although all human refuges experience suffering
regardless if gender for the women the situation is more complex. They are expected o nurture
their families without adequate means. The conditions in the camps make her more vulnerable
because of the increasing culture of insecurity, and violence. According to international legal
statutes, refugees are entitled to UNHCR protection. The conditions obtaining in camps
particularly after a refugee population has lived for a long time, it becomes very difficult to
provide adequate relief services.

The project proposals should be underpinned by a specific IGAD gender and disaster
management strategy developed to handle preparedness and response issues in particular.
Gender issues and the women’s empowerment constitute an important entry point for effective
disaster preparedness and response in view existing policy and structural frameworks and
women’s key role and place in environmental management, agriculture and food security,
conflict resolution and health management.

Another critical issue in disaster management from a gender perspective concerns disaster
management structures and mechanisms. Their current procedures and composition do not
promote or allow for the participation and incorporation of the experiences of women in disaster
management. Policy frameworks are articulated without being informed by gender analysis,
since the women’s voice is absent institutionally at all the levels accountability frameworks do
not include women’s organizations, women leaders or women at the community level. Even
cross-border structural mechanisms include institutions where women are traditionally absent

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such as immigration department, customs department, the armed forces, and local
administration.

The result is a breakdown or lack of direct contact of women and/or gender related
organizations with disaster management systems and structures. Women’s empowerment and
gender equality issues are coordinated by the respective national machineries of IGAD
members states, which have an operational linkage and political oversight through the IGAD
Ministers in Charge of Women Affairs framework. However, since there are no direct linkages
between existing and evolving structures for disaster management and the national machineries
for gender equality women’s participation and the articulation of gender equality concerns is
minimal.

A proactive disaster management strategy targeting vulnerable people and communities, and
covering mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response and recovery, and integrated into
initiatives aimed at poverty and growth cannot be blind to the specific needs of women.

It is important to understand the significance of this differential impact of social, economic and
political circumstances on account of ones gender in the IGAD because many people,
particularly policy makers take women’s rights for granted and believe that life situations,
especially policy and regulatory frameworks are fair and do not discriminate against women.

Clearly, in the context of disaster management, women in the IGAD sub-region emerge as a
most marginalized category of the population who are vulnerable to discriminate policies and /
or gender-neutral projects. Unfortunately most program/project planners and policy makers in
the area do not look at women as a doubly marginalized category and therefore continue to
exclude them from decision-making.

Women in the sub-region therefore have a great need to have the disaster management
projects address the question of their basic rights, a highly sensitive issue that is hardly
addressed in a number of member countries for fear of provoking reprisals from traditionalists
who are opposed to changes of any form with regard to women’s rights. There however is
agreement that the reduction in the vulnerability of communities to disasters (natural and man-
made) in terms of lives, property, economy, and environment cannot be adequately addressed
without systematically addressing gender issues in disaster management.

Women’s vulnerability is characterized by different factors including negative traditions and
practices, denial of basic rights, fear distress in situations of conflict, responsibility for family
needs, especially the provision of food, shelter and care of the sick and elderly. This is why
there is an urgent need to create conditions whereby they can meet their material needs, have
access to means of production, and participate in decision making at all levels. A fundamental
ingredient in this process is to ensure a strong voice of women in shaping their societies and
determining choices in development projects. Specifically this calls for ensuring that women in
the IGAD member states participate in the formal structures of disaster management from the
sub-regional, cross-border, and national to the community level.

The paper proposes the combination of the two complimentary strategies of gender
mainstreaming and women’s empowerment as tools for promoting gender equality in disaster
management projects. These strategies are important both at the level of process (how) and
content (what) and respond to the technical and rationale questions for mainstreaming gender in
project and program design. The ‘how’ question relates to technical aspects of approach and
points to the need for a clear and common conceptual understanding of the strategies by all

                                               10
actors and the need for checklists, guidelines and manuals. The ‘why’ question relates to the
linkages between gender perspectives and other sector areas, relevant international
instruments, and indicates the significance of gender mainstreaming as a tool for sustainable
development and therefore disaster management.


2.4 The Policy Environment

It is against this background that the significance of mainstreaming gender and women’s
empowerment in the disaster management projects must be situated. Most national
development plans of member states have featured the disadvantaged situation of women and
underscored its significance to development. The countries have also committed to
implementing international and regional instruments for women’s advancement such as the
CEDAW, the Beijing Platform for Action the Conventions on the Rights of the Child. The first
effort to recognize and protect universal human rights was the Universal declaration of Human
Rights (UNDHR) passed by the UN in 1948. All countries of the world have signed this
declaration.

The OAU’s (now AU) African Charter on Peoples’ and Human Rights, Article 2 stipulates that all
individuals shall enjoy equal rights before the law regardless of sex, creed and ethnicity.

At the IGAD sub-regional level the key instrument in this regard for promoting gender equality is
the declaration by the Heads of state and Government on 23 rd November1999 in Khartoum,
Sudan. This declaration appreciates the support IGAD has received in the establishment within
the Secretariat of a Women’s Desk and a plan of action, which was endorsed by IGAD
Ministries In-Charge of gender Affairs as an institutional policy framework to ensure
mainstreaming gender into Priority projects and programs.

Since then, gender and women’s empowerment issues have increasingly become visible in the
IGAD Secretariat over the last 2 years. Gender has been identified by the Minister’s in Charge
of Women’s Affairs as a major crosscutting theme for synergy and cooperation between the
IGAD member states, the community, NGOs, other sub-regional and regional structures, UN
agencies and development partners. Gender mainstreaming is now recognized as a critical area
of IGAD’s sub-regional mandate and the IGAD Secretariat as a sub-regional mechanism is now
taking steps to ensure that gender equality and women’s empowerment considerations are
reflected in its structures, activities and approaches.

Established in 1999, and a Gender Focal Point (chief) appointed, the IGAD Women’s Desk
(IWD) is involved in the co-ordination and facilitation of gender related activities in the
secretariat in the sub-region. Gender awareness and sensitization workshops have been
organized for the IGAD secretariat as well as some specific areas of IGAD focus. One such
workshop is the consultative forum for engendering national budgets that was held in Djibouti in
February 2001.An annual meeting of the Ministers in charge of women in the sub-region has
been instituted as a mechanism for guiding and co-coordinating gender issues. It is significant
that it is this growing awareness and commitment that led to the addition of gender as an
important crosscutting component of the implementation of the IGAD disaster preparedness and
response strategy.

Yet there has been minimal success in addressing gender specific needs despite consensus
that the IGAD areas of focus (insert) have a feminine face in the sub-region.


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Despite the increasing use of the term mainstreaming in IGAD, there is still confusion about
what it means and therefore how it should be handled within the organization and/or disaster
management project. There is a general agreement that IGAD should strengthen collaboration
between the member states’ institutional mechanisms for gender mainstreaming and the
promotion of women’s advancement with the technical ministries in development programs,
including IGAD programs.

In adopting the Beijing Platform for Action, governments have undertaken a commitment to a
strategy of mainstreaming gender perspectives throughout policy and planning process. The
governments in the IGAD sub-region have also participated in a review of progress in
implementing progress made in this regard at the 6th Regional Conference on Women for the
Review of the Implementation of the Dakar and Beijing platforms for Action that was held in
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1999.

The major outcome of this conference, the African Plan of Action (2000-2004) is a framework for
the accelerated implementation of the Dakar and Beijing Platforms. It emphasizes the need for
sub-regional and national consultative and coordinating mechanisms to promote gender
equality. The Plan states that the indicators of success in evaluating effectiveness in gender
mainstreaming will need to be presented in measurable numerical terms .In the area of
monitoring and evaluation, the Plan recognizes the need to strengthen monitoring and
evaluation mechanisms and to set up technical teams with adequate skills in policy analysis and
gender auditing.

In particular players in the IGAD disaster management projects must recognize that women are
a major part of the community they serve and make gender perspectives part of formulating,
implementing and evaluating policies and programs.

Similarly, the disaster management project needs to engage women, their experiences and
perspectives in the main arena of decision-making in project activities and outcomes. Due to
current disparities in the areas of disaster management, it is necessary to prioritize disaster
management projects on the basis of gender related bottlenecks. Activities and outputs should
take the different situations and needs of women, girls, men and boys into account and create
space within which each category can develop and exercise its full capabilities for disaster
prevention, preparedness, response and recovery.

The priority areas of focus for IGAD identify promoting gender in development as top on the
agenda. This objective is to be achieved through the mobilization of resources for projects such
as the disaster preparedness and response one. It is however clear that there is need for a
specific IGAD policy on gender that can guide and motivate all member states and development
partners to identify gender equality as an explicit objective of their projects and programs.
Currently the greatest problem facing the IGAD Secretariat in general and the disaster project in
particular, is the nurturing of gender sensitivity and the development of specific strategies that
can translate gender equality concerns and objectives into project interventions.

3.0 Disaster Preparedness and Response Strategy

3.1 IGAD's Comparative Advantage

IGAD’s mandate to harmonize, facilitate and coordinate development activities to promote sub-
regional integration. It mobilizes resources for the implementation of joint / common projects.


                                             12
IGAD builds harmony between member states by promoting regional cooperation through the
mobilization of political will.

One of the major challenges to sustainable development in the sub-region, which in turn makes
it vulnerable to an array of disasters, is the lack of, or failure to implement gender responsible
development policies. Given the national development contexts in the sub-region, and the
crosscutting nature of gender, national gender policies are necessary to complement other
sector policies in facilitating the realization of national development objectives.

The cross-cutting nature of gender on the one hand, and broad based development context of
disaster on the other, require that all state organs, development actors and the general public
participate in the implementation of gender responsive disaster management projects. This can
be achieved through two broad objectives: (a) the first is to mainstream gender equality
objectives in all disaster management activities and at all level; and (b) the second is to promote
women’ empowerment through affirmative action programs, capacity building and access to
resources.

The IGAD as the sub-regional focal point should use the disaster management project to
institutionalize a gender perspective and policy frameworks in all the member states. The nature
of the disaster management projects needs of the member states and difficulty of finding
goodwill towards promoting gender related development or to establish institutional commitment
and a framework for taking gender issues on board combine to make this a model project area.

Through the seven project areas, the IGAD should strive to provide an example of gender
mainstreaming in its areas of focus. It can do this by strengthening the capacity in disaster
management, mobilizing adequate resources for the disaster gender agenda, facilitating
effective information gathering and dissemination and enhancing collaboration between the
different actors.

Its neutrality and coordination role can mobilize member states to work in partnership to develop
gender responsive disaster management capacities, analyze the current situation, formulate
relevant policies, design homegrown implementation strategies and achieve ownership and
sustainable especially through national execution. A major challenge in effective gender
mainstreaming at the national is how to mobilize political will. Thus the disaster preparedness
projects provide an important framework that can be used to effectively translate expressed
intentions in gendering development into action.

3.2 Main Objectives of the IGAD Disaster Preparedness Strategy

The disaster preparedness strategy paper seeks to facilitate and contribute to development in
the IGAD sub-region through the following objectives:

   To develop IGAD sub-regional disaster management capabilities;
   To provide each country with an improved capacity to develop disaster management
    strategies, plans, legislation and policies;
   To develop IGAD’s role in disaster management.

3.3 Sub-Regional and National Institutional Framework

   Council of Disaster Management Ministers (IGAD) – political oversight


                                              13
   Disaster Management Technical Advisory Panel (Senior Officials) – technical oversight and
    consultation
   Project management Team - (within IGAD) management of the project

3.4 National and Sub-Regional Level institutional Framework

   National Disaster Management Agency
   Sub-regional Disaster Management Structure
   District Disaster Management structure


The key features of a typical disaster management are reflected in the following presentation:

                           National Disaster Management Committee

                        Sub-National disaster Management Committee

                            District Disaster Management committee

                           Village Disaster Management Committee

                                          The people


The existing structural arrangements and disaster management systems at the national level
are shown in the table below.




                                             14
                                            3.5 COUNTRY DISASTER MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
Country      National            National           Policy       Legislation       Strategy        National         Sub-         District Plans
              Policy           Operational                                                          Plan           National
            Committee            Agency                                                                             Plans
Djibouti   Inter-Ministry      Ministry of the      To be          ORSEC            Under          ORSEC           ORSEC            ORSEC
            Committee             Interior        revitalized       decree       consideration
             (under the                                             (1985),
           Minister of the                                        POLMAR,
              Interior)
                                                                   SATER
Eritrea     Inter-Ministry        Eritrean          Under            Under          Under           Under           Under           Under
             Committee         Refugee and       consideration   consideration   consideration   consideration   consideration   consideration
                 under             Relief
              discussion        Commission
Ethiopia       National           Disaster         National         To be        5 Year Plan      5 Year Plan    National Plan
               Disaster          Prevention        Policy on      considered        of the            of the       for Food
           Prevention and           and            Disaster                        NDPPC            NDPPC          Security
           Preparedness        Preparedness       Prevention                                     National Plan
             Committee
                                Commission           and                                            for Food
              (NDPPC)
                                                 Management                                         Security
Kenya      Inter-Ministerial    Office of the       Being           Being           Being             Food                        10 Districts
            Committee on         President         prepared        prepared        prepared         Security                     vulnerable to
             Drought and                                                                           Chapter in                       drought
            Food Security                                                                          National 5
             (to become
                                                                                                   Year Plan
               National
               Disaster
             Management
              Authority)
Somalia     To be decided          To be            To be            To be           To be          To be           To be        To be decided
                                 decided           decided          decided         decided        decided         decided
Sudan           Inter-         Humanitarian       HAC 1986            HAC           10 year         Being         Proposed         Proposed
             Disciplinary           Aid             Policy        Legislation       National       prepared
             Committee         Commission         (updated)      Civil Defense      Strategy
              proposed            (HAC)                           Ordinance       (1992-2002)
Uganda        National         Office of the      Yes (1998)         Being           Under          Under            Not         18 Higher Risk
              Disaster            Prime                            prepared      consideration   consideration    applicable        Districts
            Management           Minister
            Commission
                under
             discussion



                                                                          13
4. 0 Core Elements in Disaster Management


4.1    Major Lessons Learned

      That there is a clear political commitment in IGAD and a framework for coordinating
       gender and women’s advancement issues in the sub-regional areas of focus as an
       integral part of sustainable development;
      That a number of appropriate strategies and resolutions have been defined at the
       highest level of IGAD’s gender and women’s advancement leadership, and among IGAD
       secretariat staff;
      As the IGAD operational mechanism stands, this is applied through the Minister’s in
       charge of Women’s Affairs framework whose capacity and application in respective
       member states is diverse and realized in uneven ways;
      That this has not been matched by a systematic (major) budgetary allocation of requisite
       resources (human, information, money and time) to institute and support a participatory
       process building towards a comprehensive IGAD gender strategy;
      That while there is a general consensus that women and children constitute a
       constituency whose needs should be specifically addressed in risk management,
       disaster response and preparedness this is not done in a systematic and comprehensive
       way;
      That given the nature and impact of both complex and natural disasters that characterize
       the IGAD sub-region there is need to furnish actors in disaster management structures
       and relevant line ministries, NGOs and agencies with the skills to integrate gender at all
       stages of the project cycle: planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation;

Key Recommendation

That in the implementation of the disaster strategy that enhances coping mechanisms and
improvement of sub-regional collaboration for preparedness and response to mitigate effects of
disaster IGAD should institute and support a participatory process to develop a gender policy
and strategy, and build up the technical capacity to put this into practice.

The gender strategy would set out systematically how gender and women’s empowerment
issues would be addressed in the seven strategic areas defined in the disaster preparedness
and prevention strategy paper. It would show at all levels, from the sub-regional strategy paper,
through impact areas, specific outputs and activities:

           a) The understanding of gender and women’s empowerment;
           b) How this fits in disaster preparedness projects;
           c) The strategy and indicators for operational zing this



5.0 Determination of Priorities

Given the cross-cutting nature of gender, it is necessary to define a clear gender mainstreaming
strategy in disaster preparedness projects which can complement all other sector and agency
policies in the realization of gender responsive and holistic disaster management strategies.



                                               15
This gender strategy should be cushioned on three critical premises:

    a) That action on gender in disaster management has, and is seen to have, support at the
       highest level in IGAD
    b) That this should be matched by systematic budgetary allocation to institute the
       development of a gender strategy through a participatory process, and build up the
       technical capacity to put this into practice
    c) To ensure that, in developing the gender strategy for disaster management, the
       understanding of gender, how it figures in the projects, and skills and opportunities, as
       well as the indicators for operationalizing the strategy is made explicit at sub-regional,
       national and community levels through impact areas and projects;

Priority issues for gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment have to be realistically
addressed within the project components and the linkage between gender mainstreaming and
the overall disaster preparedness strategy objectives.

Some of these components have been identified as follows:

   Institutional Development - establish a consultative and policy development framework at
    sub-regional level,
   Strategy and planning processes – identify current strategy development and planning
    processes and ways in which these can be improved;
   Policy and legislation - to enhance the development of disaster management policies and
    legislation in member countries
   Training – provide training in disaster management strategy development and planning at
    national level;
   Pilot projects – conduct pilot projects to examine practicality of harmonizing national and
    arrangements across borders;
   Technical Assistance – Provide technical assistance to those developing strategy and plans
    if required.

A core element in this regard is to define and adopt a disaster management policy as the IGAD
plan of action that could enhance the capability of diverse project areas to effectively address
gender in planning, formulation and implementation of project activities.

This can be achieved from the perspective of the specific project management areas such as
the following:

   Capacity building
   Contingency planning
   Strengthening collaboration
   Early warning systems
   Information management systems
   Legislation and policy frameworks

Effective management of gender issues in disaster management requires that this policy
statement spell out the following:

    a) All project actors undergo a gender sensitization and gender analysis training. This
       should aim to equip them with skills to recognize and exploit potential avenues for


                                             16
      enhancing a gender responsive culture. It would help project actors prepare gender
      responsive work-plans;
   b) Require special effort from researchers, planners and policy makers in disaster
      management to establish the use of disaggregated data as the basis for collecting and
      analyzing information, designing projects, monitoring and evaluating disaster
      management projects;
   c) Situate activities aimed at promoting gender and women’s empowerment in disaster
      management in a strategic way I the overall project design. As an example could situate
      activities within the following components:

               Include gender and disaster management in training component
               Engendering early warning systems
               Engendering research and vulnerability analysis for disaster management
               Gender issues in rehabilitation, relief and rehabilitation
               Tailor made information briefs and bulletins on gender and disaster
                management.

   d) Designate some women specific activities for disaster management

           Women and conflict management
           Women and market information systems
           Women and environmental management
           Affirmative action for women’s participation in disaster management structures
           Leadership training for women’s organizations and women leaders
           Women and cross-border disaster management

   e)    Place the responsibility for evolving and producing gender statistics in a strategic and
        mainstream position of project execution. IGAD should mobilize member countries
        through the areas of focus to generate information in a gender responsive manner.

In order to get the vulnerable communities in the IGAD sub-region prepared for disaster, all
organs of disaster management, development actors and the general public need t o participate
in the implementation of the gender strategy through two broad strategies. The first is to
mainstream gender equality objectives in all aspects of disaster management and at all levels.
The second is to promote women’s empowerment through affirmative action programs, capacity
building and access to training.

Core elements of this approach to gender mainstreaming in implementing the disaster
preparedness strategy should therefore be incorporated in all the projects designed to address
the specific strategic areas identified below. The implementation process; the determination of
appropriate framework of principles, policies and legislation at regional and national level; the
establishment of a framework for effective collaboration between actors in the sub-region; the
development of capabilities to ensure that interventions are based on timely information about
events and processes likely to result in disaster; ensuring that communities are aware of
disaster hazards and are capable of acting effectively when disaster strikes; establishing
mechanisms and infrastructure for timely identification and mobilization of resources and
establishing mechanisms for targeting and timely implementation for necessary food and non-
food assistance.




                                             17
The gender strategy would build on existing institutional arrangements for disaster management
as well as for the advancement of women at the national levels and aim to achieving the
following:

        Coordination of different institutional mechanisms
        Sensitization and capacity building for gender responsive planning and project
         implementation
        Special gender specific programs and project development
        Gender research and information management including production, dissemination and
         regular updating of sex disaggregated data for policy development planning
        Lobbying and advocacy as well as networking and resource mobilization
        Monitoring of national sector programs to ensure that gender equality objectives are
         realized.

Specifically the gender strategy for disaster preparedness and response should concentrate on
support for the following elements:

   a) The strengthening of the information sub-system for disaster management to achieve
      comprehensive gender relevant information;
   b) The establishment of a strong foundation for gender as an important premise for disaster
      management training and capacity building in the sub-region;
   c) The development of a gender aware culture and premise for public awareness or public
      information for disaster management in the sub-region;
   d) The development of gender responsive indicators for risk and vulnerability assessment
      in both rural and other areas with high potential disaster scenarios;
   e) The establishment of enabling, functional and normative linkages between the
      institutional framework for disaster management as well as the appropriate structures
      and the gender management systems at all levels - sub-regional, national and the
      community;
   f) The elaboration of gender specific elements of respective disaster prevention and
      mitigation, disaster preparedness and disaster response projects;
   g) The utilization of mechanisms such as the poverty reduction strategy, capacity 21 and
      environmental programs to integrate gender concerns in disaster management.

Key Components of the Strategy

   a) Gender analysis and planning skills for key actors (staff) in disaster preparedness
      projects
   b) Increased national capacity to deliver gender analysis and planning training in the
      context of disaster management
   c) Increased support for institutionalizing a gender perspective within disaster management
      especially at the national level
   d) The development of a strategy paper identifying key gender concerns and areas of
      action in IGAD’s overall disaster strategy and respective project
   e) Establishing clear policy guidelines for effective gender mainstreaming and ensuring
      these are discussed and shared with project planners, implementers, consultants,
      partners and target beneficiaries. This should:

        Clearly indicate that equality of women and men is part of the IGAD disaster
         preparedness strategy;


                                            18
             Clearly indicate that gender equality and equity objectives must be defined as explicit
              objectives during project formulation;
             Be accessible to all groups and parties.

    f)       Identify and analyze gender concerns and gaps in the strategic areas of project
             implementation by:

             Being informed of the gender characteristics of a given population;
             Taking full account of this information in the development of policy and program
              activities;
             Appraising all project documentation in the light of known gender information;
             Consistently monitoring all activities to ensure equitable gender outcomes.

This framework is informed by the goal to have gender disaggregated targets for IGAD’s
disaster preparedness projects. This means that the projects should demonstrate that they seek
to improve the livelihoods and build the capacities of women and men and not just of ‘people’ or
‘communities’. If gender is significant to a project, it needs to be visible at ‘goal’ or ‘purpose’
level. The development of appropriate quantifiable gender indicators for inclusion in the logical
framework and work-plans should be made an explicit responsibility in project design and
progressive monitoring thereafter. This process should involve4 consultations with everyone
involved in project imple4mentation including the beneficiaries.

The complexity of gender issues in general, let alone the context of disaster management needs
to be formally recognized by broadening the type of indicators that are accepted and giving
more weight to qualitative ones. It is important to understand that gender is not only about
outcomes, but also about process. Thus all disaster preparedness projects should start by
ensuring that all project goals will take the interest of both women and men into consideration.

Gender responsive objectives, which arise out of the ‘presence’ of a gender responsive policy
framework, gender responsive needs assessment and goals would provide an effective avenue
for addressing gender and women’s empowerment concerns in disaster preparedness. For
example, they would specify the intention of projects to address known gender gaps such as:

                Male participation in women’s empowerment activities;
                Women’s participation in decision making at all levels;
                Increased women’s access to economic resources;
                Increased respect for the rights of women and men

They also emphasize higher-level strategic objectives, which aim at the social transformation of
the society, and the development of gender responsive democratic institutional mechanisms for
disaster management at the social, economic and political levels.

It is also important to define and specify gender responsive indicators at the project design level
in order to ensure that the other aspects of the project cycle will be gender responsive. Thus,
through the core elements identified a gender responsive monitoring and evaluation framework
for disaster management can be developed that is informed by gender responsive policy
guidelines, goals, objectives, outputs and target groups.




                                                  19
6.0 Outputs and Activities

6.1 The development objective

The development objective of integrating gender equality and women’s empowerment
objectives in the related IGAD projects on Disaster Preparedness and Response Capacity is to
contribute to the reduction in the incidence and seriousness of emergencies arising from
disasters by promoting an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all
policies, so that before decisions are taken, an analysis is made of the effects on women and
men respectively. IGAD has as its objective to address gender inequalities as an integral part of
all its areas of development focus. This means that a gender lens (perspective) will be used to
target vulnerable people and communities, cover mitigation and prevention, preparedness,
response and recovery initiatives aimed at development in the IGAD areas of focus. The goal
of mainstreaming gender equality and women’s empowerment in disaster management in IGAD
will be achieved by providing financial and technical assistance to selected governmental and
non-governmental agencies and women’s organizations engaged in strategic work that can
promote women’s empowerment and gender equality issues as integral parts of all disaster
preparedness and response initiatives.

IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES, OUTPUTS AND ACTIVITIES

Immediate Objective 1: To promote gender equality and women’s empowerment in risk
management, disaster response and preparedness through capacity building in gender
analysis and planning

Output 1: Baseline survey report on existing structures and institutions for disaster
         preparedness in member countries and how gender figures in them.

This output will provide a basis for clearly identifying gender gaps and constraints in the seven
strategic areas and inform the development of the sub-regional gender strategy for disaster
preparedness in the IGAD sub-region and appropriate national / community action plans.

Activity 1.1 Prepare Terms of Reference for Baseline Survey.

Activity 1.2. Develop tools for data collection (such as checklists, guidelines) along the key
           issues raised in the review as indicated above.

Activity 1.3. Data collection, analysis and reporting.

Activity 1.4. Dissemination of baseline survey findings.


Output 2: Sub-regional gender strategy for disaster preparedness and appropriate
         national and community gender responsive disaster preparedness action
         plans developed

This will facilitate the integration of sub-system/sect oral experts perspectives in defining
practical and viable short and long-term objectives, strategies, monitoring indicators, roles and
responsibility and time frame. It will also provide an opportunity for key actors to manage and
adopt proposed activities as a more inclusive approach to gender, which recognizes gender


                                              20
analysis as a good practice, whether or not the participation of women is an issue for a
particular project.

Activity 1. Identify national and community representatives in disaster management to act as
           gender focal points for community and national mobilization.

Activity 2. Identify relevant institutions to conduct institutional capacity assessments for gender
            mainstreaming and women’s empowerment of organizations.

Activity 3. Capacity assessment of selected government structures and NGOs for integrating
           gender in disaster management.

Activity 4. Prepare TOR for NGOs

Activity 5. Subcontract NGOs to undertake community mobilization and develop national and
           community action plans.

Activity 6. Identify priority activities for funding

Activity 7. Develop resource mobilization strategies for national and community gender and
           disaster action plans.

Activity 8. Hold a stakeholder workshop at the conclusion of the strategy development to agree
            on the final framework


Output 3: Existing or emerging national disaster management mechanisms engendered
          and best practices used for publicity and awareness creation for the
          elimination of discriminatory practices.

This will assist in developing partnerships and institutional capacity which will ensure that
gender bias is removed from stereotypes and practices perpetuated in institutions through the
identification of gender issues which actors at the national and community levels can do
something about.

Activity 1. Sub-contract NGOs and CBOs to engender national disaster management
          mechanisms.

Activity 2. Exchange programs at sub-regional, national and district levels.

Activity 3. Production of gender responsive disaster management national and community
           action plans related training manuals and training schedule established by NGOs
           and CBOs.

Activity 4. Identification of training centers.

Activity 5. Training of trainers by NGOs and CBOs

Activity 7. Production of a popular version of IGADs gender and disaster strategy framework
           and action plans


                                                  21
Activity 8. Hold sub-regional, national and sensitization/dissemination workshops on the
          recommendations of the gender strategy and community action plan.


Output 4: Women’s organizations Staff engaged in disaster activities trained disaster
          response and preparedness as well as gender analysis and mainstreaming
          skills.

The focus will be to enhance the capacity of the staff to develop project activities that address
the needs of the women in disaster preparedness while also building the capacity of women’s
organizations to hold national disaster mechanisms accountable to the needs and interests of
women.

Activity 1. Identify women’s organizations involved in disaster related activities at the sub-
           regional national and district levels.

Activity 2. Training of women candidates by NGOS and CBOs

Activity 3. Establish disaster gender audit and monitoring mechanisms

Activity 4 . Commission studies on gender mainstreaming capacities of women’s organizations
           involved in disaster related activities.

Activity 5. Develop strategic plans for capacity building within women’s organizations and
           disaster management structures.


Immediate Objective 2: to contribute to increased social empowerment of women and
their participation in positions of leadership.

Output 1: Recommendations of regional, sub-regional and national instruments relating
          to women’s empowerment and gender mainstreaming disseminated

Activities under this output will enhance community and actors’ understanding of commitments
made at the regional, sub-regional and national level to increase the empowerment of women
and how disaster preparedness institutions can be used to promote gender sensitivity and
equity.

Activity 1. Identify regional, sub-regional and national instruments relating to women’s
          empowerment.

Activity 2. Produce highlights of the key elements and recommendations of regional, sub-
           regional and national instruments relating to gender equality and women’s
           empowerment.

Activity 3. Hold sub-regional and national sensitization and dissemination workshops on
           recommendations.


Output 2: Targeted leadership skills and women’s rights training


                                             22
Training of existing and potential women’s organizations in member states at all levels in
personal leadership skills that can enable them establish linkages with women in other states.
This should also promote women’s awareness of gender disparities in legal and policy
environment of national disaster frameworks.

Activity 1. Evaluate the effectiveness of existing disaster management training programs for
           sensitivity to women’s leadership development.

Activity 2. Develop Terms of Reference for women’s leadership in disaster preparedness and
           women’s rights training.

Activity 3. Sub-contract NGOS and CBOs to mobilize women for leadership training in disaster
            management

Activity 4. Local theater to develop awareness on gender issues in disaster management

Activity 5. Radio and Television programs on gender issues in disaster management and

Output 3: Women friendly disaster components defined in two out of the seven disaster
          preparedness projects (e.g. vulnerability analysis)

This will focus on support to review and harmonize existing best practices in women’s
empowerment in disaster management in order to develop women friendly components. It will
promote gender responsive, decision-making processes in order to enhance institutional
capacity for identifying and addressing existing gender gaps at the project level.

Activity 1. Identify innovative components of disaster management projects to be transformed
           into targeted interventions for women’s empowerment in disaster preparedness.

Activity 2. Provide technical support for the implementation of innovative and catalytic women
           friendly components of disaster management projects

Activity 3. Monitor the transformation and functioning of the disaster preparedness agenda for
           women’s empowerment.

Immediate Objective 3: to build the capacity of governmental and non-governmental
organizations for effective gender mainstreaming in disaster preparedness

Output 1: IGAD Policy on Gender and Development developed

This will facilitate effective dissemination of information between member states and throughout
ministries. Project staff on IGADs commitment to women’s advancement and gender equality. It
will enhance understanding of what gender-mainstreaming commitments entail for all actors
involved in disaster management including NGOS, CBOs and staff of agencies.

Activity 1. Develop TOR for gender and women’s empowerment disaster management

Activity 2. Production and dissemination of the gender and women’s empowerment disaster
           management policy

Activity 3. Sensitization workshops with policy makers

                                            23
Activity 4. Sharing of policy with NGOs, CBOs, women’ s groups and other actors.

Activity 5. Develop a popular version of the gender and women’s empowerment disaster
           management policy.


Output 2: Capacity assessment of government, NGO, CBO and other actors capacity to
          mainstream gender in disaster management policies, plans and programs.

This will provide an understanding of management styles and institutional expressions of power,
which might continue to produce policies, and projects that fail to recognize the needs of women

Activity 1. Develop TOR for capacity assessment

Activity 2. Evaluation of gender analysis and participatory planning skills for government, NGO,
            CBO staff involved in the implementation of disaster management projects

Activity 3. Develop strategic plans for capacity building within the institutions.


Output 3: gender mainstreaming capacity of governmental, non-governmental and community
          based organizations that are engaged in disaster preparedness activities at all levels
          enhanced.

This will provide gender analysis and planning skills for key staff in the various project areas so
that they can integrate gender-planning techniques into participatory planning processes for
disaster preparedness. It should ensure strengthening and/or creation of effective coordination
mechanisms at national and local levels.

Activity 1. Production and dissemination of a glossary of key gender and disaster management
            terminology and skills.

Activity 2. Conduct training sessions at sub-regional, national and community levels.

Activity 3. Provision of technical and advisory services.


Immediate Objective 4: To develop and implement systems and training programs for
tracking and measuring progress in incorporating gender equality and women’s
empowerment in risk management, disaster preparedness and response capacity

Output 1: Qualitative and quantitative indicators for tracking progress in disaster
         preparedness projects developed and disseminated.

The focus will be on defining the norm or benchmark implicit in any indicator against which
change is measured at a specific level (national, community or cross-border).

Activity 1. Preparation of TOR by the national statistics office, the national machinery for
           women’s affairs and the national disaster unit.


                                               24
Activity 2. Development of indicators by the national statistics office in collaboration with the
           women’s national machinery and the national disaster unit.

Activity 3. Dissemination workshops at sub-regional, national and district levels.

Activity 4. Incorporation of indicators into data collection and reporting formats

Output 2: Gender sensitive databases in the national institutions for disaster
         management and or information systems.

This will enhance institutional capacity and consequently sub-regional capacity for gender
responsive policy development, dialogue and advocacy. The focus will be to support to gather,
package and disseminate disaggregated data by sex, sub-system specific surveys and gender
sensitive guidelines and toolkits.

Activity 1. Establish priority areas/ gaps for data collection.

Activity 2. Collection, storage and updating of gender disaggregated data for disaster
          management

Activity 3. Publish and distribute disaggregated data


Output 3: Staff involved in the implementation of the IGAD disaster preparedness
         projects trained in gender responsive monitoring and evaluation.

This will provide increased support for institutionalizing a gender perspective within the various
components of IGADs disaster preparedness projects. It will also provide monitoring and
evaluation skills to project staff through periodic seminars and information kits.

Activity 1. Review and adapt existing training packages

Activity 2. Training of statisticians and planners

Activity 3. Training of staff implementing various disaster projects and components.

Activity 4. Follow up and monitoring of staff trained in ge4dner responsive monitoring and
           evaluation.


Output 4: Case Studies of best practices in project policies and outcomes documented.

Because gender is an evolving and multidisciplinary field and disaster management is a
relatively new practice in IGAD countries, the documentation of best practices will be used to
define relevant and effective models that can be replicated in various interventions.

Activity 1. Prepare best practice guidelines and programs

Activity 2. Identify the best practices

Activity 3. Analyze best practices from monitoring and evaluation of programs and projects.

                                               25
Activity 4. Produce video clips on best practices on gender and disaster preparedness and
           response initiatives.




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