Civil-Military Cooperation in Peace Operations by tiz18123


									Civil-Military Cooperation in
Peace Operations Seminar
      United Nations University
            Tokyo, Japan
         13 – 18 April, 2003
             Mr. Jeff Lewis
   Humanitarian Operations
– Gain a better understanding of the
  components of the “humanitarian community”;
– Better understand the various roles and
  responsibilities of the players;
– Identify possible coordination mechanisms for
  providing humanitarian assistance.
   Humanitarian Operations
Humanitarian Players
– United Nations (UN)
– Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs)
– Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement
– Donors
– Host nation (government and individuals)

– Military forces (as required)
   Strategic, Operational, and Tactical Level Structures

  Level       Governments             Militaries         UN Family              Red                Non-
                                                                             Cross/Red         Governmental
                                                                             Crescent          Organizations

              President, National   National            Security Council;   Council of         National and Multi-
 Strategic    Security Council,     Command             Inter-Agency        Delegates;         national
              Ministries/           Authorities;        Standing            International      headquarters
              Committees            Military Joint      Committee           Committee of the
                                    Staffs                                  Red Cross

              Special Envoy;        Commander           Office for the      Delegates          Regional/Country
Operational   Ambassador                                Coordination of     General;           Directors
                                    Joint Task Force    Humanitarian        International
                                                        Affairs (OCHA);     Federation of
                                                        Lead Agency;        Red
                                                        Regional            Cross/Crescent
                                                        Coordinator         (IFRC)

              Representatives of    Commanders of       Specialized         Efforts of         Efforts in Country
 Tactical     governmental          Military Units in   Agencies/Program    ICRC/IFRC;
                                    country             s in country        National
              agencies in country                                           Societies
   Humanitarian Operations
UN Specialized Agencies
– United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
– World Food Programme (WFP)
– UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
– UN International Children‟s Emergency Fund
– World Health Organization (WHO)
    Humanitarian Operations
UN Coordination
– OCHA: Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
    Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP)
    UNDAC: United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination
    Search and Rescue Teams (w/INSARAG)
    Central Register of Disaster Management Capacities
    On-site Operations Coordination Centre (OSOCC)
– Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)
    heads of all UN operational agencies, major NGO coalitions
    invited to attend
    Strategic level guidance
    Humanitarian Operations
– Special Representative of the Secretary-
  General (SRSG)/Special Envoy
    Highest ranking UN official in mission

– UN Lead Agency
    Assigned by UN Secretary-General
    Mandate to coordinate, not command/control
    Assigned depending on circumstances/country
     – Prior to complex emergencies: UNDP
     – E. Timor: OCHA
   Humanitarian Operations
– Broad Definition:
    Every organization in society which is not part of
    government, and which operates in civil society
– Diversity:
    Operating Styles
    Geographic Focus
    Religious background
    Programmatic Orientation
  Humanitarian Operations
NGO Principles
– Humanity
– Impartiality
– Neutrality
– Independence
– Voluntary
– Unity
– Universality
      Humanitarian Operations
Major NGOs working in relief:
 CARE                           Mercy Corps
 World Vision                   Africare
 Catholic Relief Services       Concern
 Save the Children              World Relief
 International Medical Corps    OXFAM
 Médecins sans Frontières       AmeriCares
 Doctors of the World           Lutheran World Relief
 World (IRISH) Concern          Refugees International
 Adventist Dev. & Relief Int.   American Friends Svc.
 Food for the Hungry            International Aid
 International Rescue           American Refugee Com.
 Joint Relief International
     Humanitarian Operations
NGO Strengths
–   Critical recipient level work
–   Less bureaucratic/more cost-effective
–   Access to local knowledge
–   Neutrality essential to security
–   Work protected by international conventions
NGO Weaknesses
–   Not homogenous system
–   Lack of collaboration
–   Failure to see the „big picture‟
–   Government $$ erodes independence
–   Can be perceived as threat to host nation
   Humanitarian Operations
Efforts to improve accountability
– Sphere Project: Minimum Standards in
   Disaster Response:
    water supply and sanitation
    food aid
    shelter and site planning
    health services

– ICRC/NGO Code of Conduct
    130 organizations have signed

– Donor demands for increased accountability
    What is “acceptable loss”
      Humanitarian Operations
Aid Dilemmas in Conflict:
–   Defers state responsibility to citizens
–   Fuels conflict: diversion of aid to troops
–   Camps become a base to militants/guerrillas
–   Refugees/aid workers as targets/hostages
  Humanitarian Operations
Elements of Humanitarian Response:
– Logistics/Planning
– Assessment Teams
– Security/Protection
– Engineering
– Health Care (physical/mental)
– International/national law
– Management/Administration
– Advocacy/Public Relations
Humanitarian Operations

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