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					Database of spectrum metaphors
Updated 26 Jan 2007

Author abbreviations
Haz 01 Hazlett, Thomas W (2001), "The Wireless Craze, The Unlimited Bandwidth Myth, The Spectrum Auction Faux Pas, an
Wer 03 Werbach, Kevin (2003), "Radio Revolution: The Coming of Age of Unlicensed Wireless," New America Foundation an
Faul    Faulhaber, Gerald R. and David J. Farber (2002), ―Spectrum Management: Property Rights, Markets, and the Commo
Far 02
FCC 03 FCC 2003: Notice of Enquiry and Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, ET Docket 03-237, ―Establishment of an Interferenc
Haz 06 Hazlett, Thomas W (2006), ―The Spectrum-Allocation Debate: An Analysis,‖ IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 10, No. 5, p
Marg    Margie, R Paul (2003), ―Can You Hear Me Now? Getting Better Reception from the FCC's Spectrum Policy,‖ 2003 STA
03
Stap    G Staples and Werbach, K, ―The end of spectrum scarcity,‖ IEEE Spectrum, Volume 41, Issue 3, March 2004 Page(s
Wer 04

Coding definitions in column 1
u      unmatched - excerpt found by one coder, but not by another
d      disagreement dup - coders agreed on existence of excerpt, but coded differently
m      coders agreed on excerpt and classification
x      An "unclear" or "other" coding
       Net codings excl. "x"


Code    excerpt
  m     Interference between operators is prevented by slotting each type of wireless
        service into its own reserved slice of spectrum.


   u    Interference between operators is prevented by slotting each type of wireless
        service into its own reserved slice of spectrum.


   u    Today, however, leading policy makers -- including the current FCC Chair -- decry
        the "spectrum drought" produced by administrative allocation and call for the
        creation of private bandwidth markets.
  m     Trading radio spectrum like a commodity is currently not quite legal

   u    In the prime frequencies under 3 GHz, particularly important for mobile uses, only
        about six percent of frequencies are zoned for flexible use.9
  m     Moreover, the services liberalized constitute just a small slice of available airspace.

   u    Moreover, the services liberalized constitute just a small slice of available airspace.

  m     Spectrum that could provide a wide range of valuable uses remains off-limits or
        severely underutilized

   u    That MMDS operators could provide two-way traffic within the allocated frequency
        space did not matter: two-way violated license specifications.
   u    That MMDS operators could provide two-way traffic within the allocated frequency
        space did not matter: two-way violated license specifications.
   u    The band is divided into thirty-three channels
m   The FCC granted some waivers for two-way MMDS service, requiring that there
    would be no interference spillover.

u   William Kennard, Hundt's successor, has warned of a "spectrum drought"
    squeezing the emerging wireless Internet and has pledged to improve spectrum
    management by greater reliance on market forces
u   a potentially productive swath

u   a potentially productive swath

u   The misallocation of MMDS frequencies cost society a fortune.
u   Moreover, ordinary phone calls consume a small fraction of the bandwidth used for
    full motion video.
u   Massive investments in high capacity fiber optic transmission lines (radio spectrum
    in a tube) are the most visible manifestation of the bandwidth race.54
u   HDTV, but were quite concerned that the FCC would re-allocate vacant Ultra-High
    Frequency ("UHF") channel space to other uses.
u   In fact, the proceeding was prompted by the political interests of TV station owners,
    who were not interested in HDTV, but were quite concerned that the FCC would re-
    allocate vacant Ultra-High Frequency ("UHF") channel space to other uses.

u   could be done in a fraction of the spectrum space consumed by one HDTV signal.

m   Leaving "TV spectrum" vacant provided an inventory of valuable inputs should
    expansion one day prove profitable.
u   UHF spectrum not used by analog TV broadcasters remained untouched




u   "the government-created artificial scarcity of spectrum"

x   [T]wo things are clear: the government-created artificial scarcity of spectrum will
    cease to be a defining factor in the television industry, and the days when most
    viewers do not pay for most programs are numbered.74
u   As the rents accruing from parsimonious spectrum allocation policies (licensing
    many fewer broadcast competitors than could utilize the airwaves) were substantial
    in the golden eras of radio and television broadcasting, the incentives for radio and
    TV interests to play the quid pro quo game were high.
m   Firms wishing to utilize airwaves for new, competitive purposes must make an
    affirmative public interest showing before the FCC.
u   First, basic resource utilization is determined in the spectrum allocation process.

u   seek access to unoccupied radio waves

x   The New Economy companies typically profit from expanding bandwidth, driving
    down access costs, increasing functionality, and expanding the size (and therefore
    utility) of networks.
u   they promote enhanced availability of spectrum where radio and television
    broadcasters seek to limit it
u   This process zones bands of frequencies

x   Instead, broadcasters were given licenses as de facto private property
x   airwave chaos

u   medium would be of little use because of the cacophony of competing voices


u   medium would be of little use because of the cacophony of competing voices


u   but the station strayed from its assigned frequency



x   "...broadcasters realized that they had to have the exclusive right to a channel
    because all the public was getting was static, the broadcasters came to
    Washington, and they went to the then
    secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, and they said: Mr. Hoover, you have got to
    do something to regulate us, you have got to do something so the public can hear
    the radio. That is what led to the licensing system."
m   Her church owned and operated Kall Four Square Gospel ("KFSG"), but the station
    strayed from its assigned frequency.


u   it further expanded the band to 89 channels


u   radio stations were on the air

u   Act beyond "minimizing interference," it could discriminate against stations only on
    the basis of priority-in-time. This reflected an old principle of common law that when
    a resource is effectively utilized in a socially useful way, a right is acquired against
    late-comers who might attempt to appropriate the resource.

u   higher bands

m   Its weakness was not in traffic control, but in failing to distribute benefits to key rent
    seeking constituencies.

u   traffic control


u   unoccupied frequencies

x   It caused renewed demand for the assertion of full sovereignty over radio by
    Congress .
x   order to airwaves
u   radio market as an audio maelstrom
u   But the system is clearly inept at maximizing consumer welfare, as vast portions of
    spectrum space are left vacant and virtually all the remaining portions are
    underutilized.
m   But the system is clearly inept at maximizing consumer welfare, as vast portions of
    spectrum space are left vacant and virtually all the remaining portions are
    underutilized.
m   It uses an economically crude and technically obsolete framework to separate
    various services in frequency space.
u   Not only is this proposition theoretically false, as demonstrated by Coase,132 but it
    is perationally incorrect, as radio spectrum users under public interest regulation rely
    on de facto private property rights to limit interference. Wireless licensees, not the
    FCC, police "their" irspace,133 reporting interference from nauthorized
    transmissions, or "piracy," to law enforcement authorities.
u   Rarely is trespass reported because incursions are infrequent and substantial
    damage is even rarer still



u   Rarely is trespass reported because incursions are infrequent and substantial
    damage is even rarer still.
m   That is because the rules have been systematically biased to underutilize radio
    waves, producing Type II misallocation.
u   The block allocation system is the sine qua non of FCC spectrum regulation.
m   The interference rationale for public interest allocation historically has been based
    on the claim that radio spectrum is a unique resource that cannot be regulated by
    standard means such as property rights.
u   Unregulated access to radio waves may result in a "tragedy of the commons,"
    destroying a valuable resource due to overuse

m   Unregulated access to radio waves may result in a "tragedy of the commons,"
    destroying a valuable resource due to overuse

u   Wireless licensees, not the FCC, police "their" airspace


u   Wireless licensees, not the FCC, police "their" airspace
u   All wireless communication implies some level of potential deterioration of valuable
    signals
u   Consider a given band of frequencies that has been divided into twenty
    channels...This hypothetical array of alternative bands
x   Hence, the quest is for an optimal level of interference



u   In Plan 1, channels are spaced widely, and interference is relatively low.
u   Interference is a cost of doing business in wireless. Like other byproducts (e.g.,
    pollution), it is a cost that can spill over to third parties, short-circuiting rational
    mitigation by interference producers if the rules allow it.
x   investors are unwilling to underwrite transmitting facilities without secure spectrum
    access.
m   Plan 2 packs in more stations with less separation… Plan 5 packs in emissions very
    densely, using all twenty channels for communication

u   5 packs in emissions very densely, using all twenty channels for communication.
u   5 packs in emissions very densely, using all twenty channels for communication.

u   Countless plans are possible when channel slots

u   increasing traffic compacts the bandwidth available for new service




u   increasing traffic compacts the bandwidth available for new service




u   Initially, the low volume of transmissions causes little interference



u   That is because of two reinforcing effects: (a) the most valuable communications
    are conducted first, and (b) increasing traffic compacts the bandwidth available for
    new service.
u   Call Type II Error underutilization (where "productive interference" is inefficiently
    blocked).
u   Optimal policy involves a balancing of the respective forms of social loss. Call Type I
    Error overutilization (or the airwave "chaos" problem, featuring "destructive
    interference").
x   Band managers must account for consumer demands over a wide array of
    competing services, including demands by business users (input markets).
u   It requires efficient systems and an intensity of wireless traffic taking the market
    right up to the "edge of chaos."
m   Material self-interest of these primary participants in the regulatory process strongly
    favors under-utilization of radio spectrum.
u   The allocation system will be especially prone to Type II errors because the losses
    associated with overutilization of spectrum will be closely monitored and carefully
    reported, while losses from under-utilization generally will not be
u   The FCC receives relatively
    little negative feedback from the costs of restricting spectrum access, compared to
    the pressure resulting from
    potential losses from output expansion
u   Wireless firms will not sit idly by while new entrants invade their operating space,
    degrading quality of service.
u   adjacent bandwidth could accommodate a competitive entrant

u   More efficient rules would reward incumbents that volunteer their best information,
    including proprietary knowledge about economical ways to intensify utilization of the
    spectrum resource
m   Such information is valuable for optimal band utilization
m   Entrants petitioning for the use of under-utilized frequencies must shoulder a
    substantial burden of proof
u   Of course, incumbents may be coaxed into accepting new spectrum allotments

u   Spectrum owners would race to develop new applications, compete to increase
    traffic, and rationally trade off the gains from serving consumers in one wireless
    market versus the costs of lost opportunities elsewhere.
u   The airwaves always look crowded


u   Underutilized or even unused radio spectrum is formally "allocated" within the
    regulatory system.
u   vast tracts of "new" spectrum
u   Also in the 1930s radio engineers found they could economically utilize the
    spectrum above 3 MHz.
u   Both FM radio and television were to live in the Very High Frequency band


u   By the 1930s, short waves (high frequencies) were utilized in long-distance
    communications.
u   data, voice and video services; these licenses were allocated 1.15 GHz, located
    between the frequencies of 27 and 29 GHz.
u   Investment in technology permits increased traffic and higher quality over time; at
    each moment there are also countless combinations trading volume for quality (e.g.,
    reliability).
u   Microwave transmissions in this band are now widely utilized for point-to-point
    communications, relay services, mobile telephony, paging, dispatch, and "wireless
    cable."
u   More communications can be squeezed out of a given frequency with more
    sophisticated transmitters and receivers

u   Each decrease in channel size makes room for more channels, increasing service
    capacity


u   Methods to intensify traffic within a given band push the intensive margin.
u   the agency conducts a rule making to consider the allocation of frequencies, a
    zoning function
u   which lowers the power of emissions and splits bandwidth into re-usable cells

u   First, the agency conducts a rule making to consider the allocation of frequencies, a
    zoning function.
u   Losses from inefficient spectrum use are much larger


u   The central feature of the spectrum allocation system is that the underlying resource
    cannot be owned by any party
u   The predictable result of such radically diffused ownership is tragedy of the
    spectrum commons
u   competitors would be afforded ready access to unoccupied radio spectrum

u   and two proposals to increase broadcast slots were quickly brought
m   Department would no longer enforce the priority-in-use rights that had regulated
    airwave traffic since the advent of broadcasting in 1920

u   European regulators had already expanded the AM band


u   rights that had regulated airwave traffic


u   The other proposal would have increased the number of frequencies by dropping
    channel separation from 10 Kc to 7 Kc

x   upping available broadcast frequencies by 50%

u   a transmitting technique using wider bands than amplitude modulation
u   Rejecting the opportunity to expand radio station slots

u   stated that the VHF band (where Armstrong had devised his FM equipment to
    operate) was virtually worthless for communications stretching beyond ten mile


u   stated that the VHF band (where Armstrong had devised his FM equipment to
    operate) was virtually worthless for communications stretching beyond ten miles


u   Two hundred stations fell silent

x   While important and controversial stations like WCFL, the voice of the Chicago
    Federation of Labor
u   hostility to his request for an allocation to use unoccupied VHF frequencies for FM
    radio broadcasting.
u   Stations operating on almost identical bands still did not drown one another out

u   The signals traveled much further
u   This is not the ostensible aim of regulation, which is to limit spillover damage
    suffered by third parties.
u   This is not the ostensible aim of regulation, which is to limit spillover damage
    suffered by third parties.
u   This is not the ostensible aim of regulation, which is to limit spillover damage
    suffered by third parties.
u   To squeeze in more local assignments, each station's coverage area had to be
    reduced, or else interference between stations in adjacent communities would
    threaten local broadcasting.
u   Soon listeners were lost, and stations went silent
m   Yet, the official FCC Allocation Table blocks off spectrum space for sixty-seven
    channels.
u   The FCC could have allocated the total volume of spectrum to [television]
    broadcasting in such a way as to produce fewer, higher-powered outlets.
m   allocating a huge swath of bandwidth to UHF, ostensibly to provide increased choice
    for American viewers,
u   If airwaves were set off limits by airwave regulation, then wires -- "spectrum in a
    tube" -- would provide the competition to satisfy customer demand.
m   Cable systems were local, not interstate, and did not utilize radio spectrum
u   solved the problem of spectrum scarcity

u   buffer channels are not shared in this model, each existing licensee is given two
    adjacent channels of protection
u   Bringing radio spectrum out of an unproductive employment

m   Since digitization would economize on bandwidth, new capacity would be available.
    Fleet Call requested permission to utilize it for increased business-to-business
    communications.
u   "pirates" discovered many years ago that they could transmit in these stretches of
    dead air
u   In general, each FM station was awarded a slot with three vacant channels on
    either side

u   In general, each FM station was awarded a slot with three vacant channels on
    either side

m   Pirate radio stations attempt to make productive use out of idle airspace.

u   Pirate radio stations attempt to make productive use out of idle airspace.

m   The existing FM allocation inefficiently devours spectrum by keeping multiple
    channels vacant between broadcasting stations in the same market.
u   The existing FM allocation inefficiently devours spectrum by keeping multiple
    channels vacant between broadcasting stations in the same market.
m   The FM band is divvied into 100 channels by the FCC, with 200 kHz allocated to
    each.
m   These guard bands give a station assigned 94.5 MHz the implicit right to silence six
    adjacent channels: 94.7, 94.9 and 95.1 to the north; 94.3, 94.1, and 93.9 to the
    south.
u   allowing new low-power stations to crowd in on the FM dial


u   each existing full-power station occupies a 20 kHz channel and is protected by two
    adjacent vacant channels (one on either side)
u   If existing broadcasters were given the right to subdivide assigned frequencies

u   The bill guts low power FM by protecting three vacant co-channels around FM
    assignments and requires the FCC to consider the effect of low-power FM stations
    "on incumbent FM radio broadcasters . . .
u   Let us calculate the capacity of the FM band to support new 100-watt stations by
    supposing that each existing full-power station occupies a 20 kHz channel and is
    protected by two adjacent vacant channels (one on either side).
u   November 1964, some 400 full-power FM stations have been "short spaced,"
    operating with just one or two channels of separation.
m   buffer channels are not shared in this model, each existing licensee is given two
    adjacent channels of protection
u   By this estimation, there exists sufficient space in allocated FM frequencies for
    about 5500 new 100-watt stations in the top ten U.S. radio markets alone.
m   The spacing would result, however, in some full-power stations sharing just one
    buffer channel with low-power stations
u   With the most powerful FM stations, the area "blanketed" is up to 2.5 miles in
    radius.
u   Blocking off three channels for each full-power FM assignment wastes usable
    bandwidth, as does the use of separate buffer channels between stations.

u   Blocking off three channels for each full-power FM assignment wastes usable
    bandwidth, as does the use of separate buffer channels between stations.

u   Blocking off three channels for each full-power FM assignment wastes usable
    bandwidth, as does the use of separate buffer channels between stations.

u   despite the fact that airspace for low-power broadcasting has been found there by
    both radio pirates and FCC regulators.
u   Since such areas are served by fewer full-power stations, spectrum space is
    relatively abundant for LPFM.
u   The assumption that a band used once for FM high-power stations (even if only as a
    buffer) is available nowhere within a given radio market is also extremely
    conservative
u   These rules are so stringent they soak up all low-power insert capacity in the top
    four markets, despite the fact that airspace for low-power broadcasting has been
    found there by both radio pirates and FCC regulators.
u   This lower-bound approximation reveals that the FCC's controversial plan to create
    a low-power radio service contemplated allocating barely a flash of available
    airspace to community broadcasters.
u   This lower-bound approximation reveals that the FCC's controversial plan to create
    a low-power radio service contemplated allocating barely a flash of available
    airspace to community broadcasters.
x   This lower-bound approximation reveals that the FCC's controversial plan to create
    a low-power radio service contemplated allocating barely a flash of available
    airspace to community broadcasters.
u   Were low-power assignments extended to these areas, available insert slots would
    swell
u   Congestion is managed by protocols directing traffic in order of the most time-
    sensitive communications.
u   Congestion is managed by protocols directing traffic in order of the most time-
    sensitive communications.
u   embedded in decentralized devices to avoid interference by frequency-hopping


u   embedded in decentralized devices to avoid interference by frequency-hopping


m   Improved traffic management increases communications capacity



u   Improved traffic management increases communications capacity
u   reading coded information detailing traffic conditions over alternative frequencies
u   reading coded information detailing traffic conditions over alternative frequencies


u   Receivers decipher coded information, constructing messages from what would
    appear a "cacophony of competing voices" to less sophisticated systems. The
    ability to detect low- power transmissions, combined with intelligence to separate
    data sent over a given frequency, again increases communications capacity

u   These systems intelligently sort communications across many bands
u   These systems intelligently sort communications across many bands, reading coded
    information detailing traffic conditions over alternative frequencies.
u   UWB systems can operate underneath existing radio emissions without causing
    noticeable degradation of signal

u   Yet, by utilizing frequencies spanning a wide range of the radio spectrum

u   Yet, by utilizing frequencies spanning a wide range of the radio spectrum

u   and whether the incursion of such (low level) interference in restricted bands,
    including broadcast television, is in the public interest

u   distributing "pooled spectrum" efficiently among competing licensees



u   Principally, UWB needs permission to access a wide range of frequencies (several
    GHz)
u   Rather than posing a threat to existing communications, the technologies represent
    an opportunity to squeeze far more out of given bandwidth
u   Rather than posing a threat to existing communications, the technologies represent
    an opportunity to squeeze far more out of given bandwidth
u   regulatory structure designed to maximize the value of the public's airwaves
x   SDR allows more sophisticated use of spectrum

u   SDR introduces a more efficient traffic cop.

m   SDR poses a direct threat to traditional spectrum management by frequency
    hopping.
u   SDR poses a direct threat to traditional spectrum management by frequency
    hopping.
u   Smart systems are programmed to automatically sidestep interfering signals,
    freeing unused guard bands to be used productively
u   Smart systems are programmed to automatically sidestep interfering signals,
    freeing unused guard bands to be used productively
u   Software-defined radio poses a fundamental challenge to the block allocation
    system.
u   The technology enables devices to seek out pockets of the airwaves that are not
    being used locally and adapt to those frequencies.

u   The technology enables devices to seek out pockets of the airwaves that are not
    being used locally and adapt to those frequencies.
u   They "'could be the silver bullet' that resolves spectrum congestion."
u   This problem is vividly seen here because both SDR and UWB economize on
    spectrum use
u   This threat jeopardizes existing interference control mechanisms, centrally planned
    allocations that limit traffic to neatly separated, pre-designated slots.

u   This threat jeopardizes existing interference control mechanisms, centrally planned
    allocations that limit traffic to neatly separated, pre-designated slots.

u   Under block allocation -- and the spectrum-hogging technologies mandated by block
    allocation -- these voids are substantial.
u   Existing transmissions are undisturbed due to the ability of UWB to use extremely
    low-power transmissions that do not rise above the "noise floor."
u   given that the spillover emission standard adopted for microprocessors


u   It also has extraordinary ability to go through physical structures
u   The UWB users request parity with digital devices that accidentally pollute the
    airwave


u   despite the enormous spectrum efficiencies of UWB

u   An FCC license does not yield the right to deploy spectrum in alternative uses

u   In rare cases the Commission has reallocated occupied spectrum and moved
    existing users to other bands after a period sufficiently long to amortize their
    investments.
m   In the past, the Commission has generally accommodated new services or
    expansions of existing services by newly allocating or reallocating unoccupied
    spectrum.
u   The opportunity cost of spectrum to the licensee


u   Yet, in recommending policies to allow spectrum to flow to more valuable uses

u   According to Kwerel and Williams, prices paid for UHF television licenses were a
    small fraction of those paid for cellular telephones, adjusting for bandwidth, despite
    being in the same
    local market and being allocated adjacent frequencies.
u   economically efficient distribution of the radio spectrum

u   PCS licenses sold in the A and B blocks (allocated 30 MHz each)
u   This accounts for the widely varying prices paid for "similar spectrum"; the spectrum
    is not similar if it cannot be used the same way
u   Winning bids at FCC auctions vary considerably when allocated spectrum blocks
    are "priced."
u   Concern over vested rights in radio frequencies was intense


u   Dill differentiates spectrum ownership, which Congress determined can only belong
    to the people of the United States as a whole
u   The Federal Radio Commission held that the government could not define the
    spectrum resource
u   The demand for organized spectrum exchanges will be satisfied

u   The demand for organized spectrum exchanges will be satisfied through the
    existence of a tradable commodity
u   When frequencies are property, wireless users and operators will naturally buy, sell,
    and creatively reconfigure rights in complex ways.
u   A few years ago the idea of selling frequency rights was considered radical; now it is
    mainstream.
u   Clearly, spectrum auctions have reached the point of diminishing returns.


u   Such interests may effectively mask protectionist goals while lobbying to limit
    spectrum access


u   The government should make as much spectrum available as possible, at the
    lowest possible prices
u   And so it mandated that the FCC dump huge new spans of spectrum on the market

m   The resulting allocation is clearly too parsimonious: the U.S. market is starved for
    additional bandwidth.
u   The reality of spectrum management in the U.S. in 2000, and for the foreseeable
    future, is chronic spectrum shortages



u   Where economic scarcity limits spectrum access, rents result from demand for the
    resource,
u   spectrum scarcity is rendered moot

u   If appropriately handled, these technologies can render spectrum not scarce but
    abundant
u   Instead of regulation being mandated by a peculiar form of scarcity, open access to
    spectrum is mandated by a peculiar form of abundance
u   It is undisputed that a true commons would lead to over-exploitation and airwave
    chaos
u   [y]ou can no more lease electromagnetic waves than you can lease ocean waves . .
    . . You can use the spectrum as much as you want as long as you don't collide with
    anyone else or pollute it with high-powered noise or other nuisances.

u   [y]ou can no more lease electromagnetic waves than you can lease ocean waves . .
    . . You can use the spectrum as much as you want as long as you don't collide with
    anyone else or pollute it with high-powered noise or other nuisances.

u   Data that would otherwise be a jumble -- lost in the cacophony
x   Frequency re-use purportedly unleashes unlimited bandwidth
x   Indeed, the mechanism recommended by Noam is a complex series of auctions to
    sell airwave access rights -- in tiny increments -- to high bidders purchasing "control
    over a specific slice of the rainbow."
u   Indeed, the mechanism recommended by Noam is a complex series of auctions to
    sell airwave access rights -- in tiny increments -- to high bidders purchasing "control
    over a specific slice of the rainbow."
m   Messages also hop from band to band, depending on local traffic conditions, and
    are reassembled by the receiver.

u   Messages also hop from band to band, depending on local traffic conditions, and
    are reassembled by the receiver.

u   Rather than separate transmissions by frequency buffers
u   spread spectrum technologies transmit multiple messages down the same
    frequency path

u   spread spectrum technologies transmit multiple messages down the same
    frequency path

u   Still, the SDR expert he cites has alertly noted that the block allocation system
    stifles SDR by preventing the fluid use of frequencies
u   That users must be made to invest in particular types of wireless systems, giving up
    less costly alternatives, concedes the existence of scarcity and exposes the
    spectrum commons paradigm as simply an alternative regime for resolving costly
    conflicts over resource use
m   That, however, is exactly what rationing a scarce resource entails: a controlling
    authority resolves conflicting demands for specific slices

m   That, however, is exactly what rationing a scarce resource entails: a controlling
    authority resolves conflicting demands for specific slices.
u   The spectrum abundance argument precisely inverts the relationship between
    technology and regulation
u   with each message using its own dedicated channel to flow to a receiver


u   For any given investment in transmission and reception, increased traffic degrades
    communications; after some volume of traffic,

u   For any given investment in transmission and reception, increased traffic degrades
    communications; after some volume of traffic,

u   Multiplexing techniques, sending more than one stream over a frequency

u   Spectrum (or effective bandwidth) supply continues to slope upward
u   The wireless pioneer Guglielmo Marconi initially believed that no two transmissions
    could be intelligible within the same region
u   Given the availability of both spread spectrum technology and unlicensed bands, it
    is curious that firms bid so aggressively to escape the commons

u   Investors are willing to pay substantial amounts to avoid the spectrum commons

u   That is the choice made in buying a FCC license, as it offers exclusivity in spectrum
    use
m   The race extends to software design, data storage, and caching -- any method for
    more intense bandwidth utilization
u   Yet, the architecture of the Internet - - a network of networks -- seriously
    misallocates scarce bandwidth.
u   Any tenancy enjoyed is via custom (as in transmission etiquette protecting multiple
    users from interference) or economics (as when scarcity is not a factor).

u   but otherwise Part 15 devices are permitted to roam across designated bands

u   For any given investment in transmission and reception, increased traffic degrades
    communications; after some volume of traffic, marginal degradation fully offsets the
    marginal value of additional signals.
x   A fundamental question is why, if spectrum sharing is highly efficient, it takes a
    government policy banning exclusive use to promote it.
u   Yet, in the downtown business districts of cities, unlicensed bands -- if allowed to
    offer popular services -- are apt to become over-crowded because success would
    inspire new entry.
m   Once the FCC proceedings open up particular airspace for unlicensed access,
    spectrum is allocated according to the demands of actual users.
u   Unlicensed access to radio spectrum has advantages and disadvantages when
    compared to licensed spectrum




u   Where spectrum is not scarce
m   wherever coordination between users is important to efficient spectrum utilization,
    open access is problematic.
u   control radio traffic, band managers could compete to attract communications
    traffic, charging subscribers, operators, or manufacturers for use of the spectrum.

u   Digital systems employing spectrum re-use have been widely adopted in licensed
    bands, carrying far more traffic (measured by almost any metric) than unlicensed
    frequencies.
u   networks that serve them have coped with spectrum scarcity
u   Meanwhile, congestion continues to plague many unlicensed frequencies


u   Meanwhile, congestion continues to plague many unlicensed frequencies


u   Private licensees or band managers, conversely, profit by discovering and
    implementing value maximizing traffic strategies.
u   in the event the license-free bands become unacceptably crowded


u   likely migrate to more intensive use of licensed spectrum in the years to come

u   because unlicensed spectrum standards are public goods and naturally tend to be
    underprovided,
u   licensees with liberal rights to determine spectrum use or spectrum owners under a
    property rights regime
u   meaning information flows through the same lane on a wireless "highway."
    HomeRF's technology is called "frequency hopping," meaning the information
    bounces from lane to lane as it travels to its destination.

u   meaning information flows through the same lane on a wireless "highway."
    HomeRF's technology is called "frequency hopping," meaning the information
    bounces from lane to lane as it travels to its destination.

u   Some unlicensed users attempt to mimic a property rights solution to interference by
    homesteading frequency space in unlicensed bands
u   Spectrum scarcity leads to a highly contentious "mess" at 2.4 GHz
u   Squatter's rights may be effective in policing airwave traffic, even without legal
    enforcement, where the costs of interference are symmetric.
u   Squatter's rights may be effective in policing airwave traffic, even without legal
    enforcement, where the costs of interference are symmetric.
u   Contracts for spectrum access would be analogous, and many competing firms
    could simultaneously market devices or provide services in licensed or owned
    spectrum.
u   control of access to radio spectrum could promote frequency sharing by numerous
    users, establishing protocols to maximize value
m   That is because effective control over airwave space is not sacrificed by allowing
    users to impose interference costs on themselves.
u   The essential benefit of unlicensed spectrum is allowing use of fallow airwaves

m   While millions may use cordless phones, the effective owner of a band reserving
    spectrum space for cordless phone access can minimize transaction
m   composed only of lowpower (defined typically in millionths of a watt) blocks for
    emissions defined in frequency space.
u   Hence, the safe and effective solution to long-distance low- power transmissions is
    to define property rights and treat the power increments used by low-power service
    providers as exclusive use spectrum.
u   Importantly, efficient algorithms allowing maximum bandwidth use would be
    possible given private control over access

u   increases in UWB use will not amount to anything more than background noise

u   Indeed, technology suppliers could individually or through consortia purchase rights
    to spectrum
u   Not only would localized devices be given free access to spectrum


x   Relieving entrants of responsibility for emissions allows pollution to be deposited in
    distant, and not easily identified, localities.

u   Several licenses could be allocated per band, up to the ceiling set by the "noise
    floor" limits
u   Several licenses could be allocated per band, up to the ceiling set by the "noise
    floor" limits



u   With UWB and other low-power technologies, emissions ride for many miles


u   With UWB and other low-power technologies, emissions ride for many miles


u   The FCC then allowed limited use of occupied frequencies

u   Another example permitted instructional television licensees in the microwave band
    to lease their channel space to "wireless cable" companies.
u   Hence, de facto property rights to spectrum were awarded on an open entry basis

m   These licenses permitted access to unoccupied frequency space (i.e., the right to
    create non-interfering transmissions) and to "additional capacity . .
m   allowing new PCS operators to access frequency space already in use, allocating it
    according to market incentives.
u   incumbent users occupied a small fraction of total band capacity

u   Airwaves were moved from an underutilized allocation and opened to more intense
    usage offering enhanced consumer surplus.

m   Airwaves were moved from an underutilized allocation and opened to more intense
    usage offering enhanced consumer surplus.

u   Market transactions then determined efficient resource use within the band
u   This implied that a nationwide swath of 140 MHz could be effectively "bought" for
    about $4 per pop

m   In this manner, firms or other third parties wishing to utilize radio waves could lease
    bandwidth from the PCS licensee
u   to subdivide the license's allocated bandwidth

u   those bands are used more intensively than ever

u   Despite such ostensible permissiveness, however, such firms have petitioned the
    FCC to enact further rules making market trading of bandwidth a reality.
u   "Simply put, frequencies should be treated more like private property."

u   but indicates that the actual logistics of directing traffic are best handled in complex,
    multiple-user situations by private firms or organizations,
m   Licensees would essentially own, and be responsible for, the airspace within the
    interference contours of currently licensed services
u   Licensees would essentially own, and be responsible for, the airspace within the
    interference contours of currently licensed services
x   The FCC would be mandated to allocate all requested bands for private use
u   and the TV band is still vastly under-utilized, as analog and digital TV transmissions
    continue to use only a fraction of available bandwidth

u   and the TV band is still vastly under-utilized, as analog and digital TV transmissions
    continue to use only a fraction of available bandwidth

u   blocks of spectrum rights would be granted to all 50 state officials

u   technical and legal aspects of spectrum use

u   The band management rights maximize spectrum flexibility



u   The federal government, claiming "nearly one-third" of frequency space,589 was
    ordered to "relinquish one-quarter of its spectrum stockpile."
u   The federal government, claiming "nearly one-third" of frequency space,589 was
    ordered to "relinquish one-quarter of its spectrum stockpile."
u   The latter category, however, allows private parties to determine radio wave usage

u   The spectrum allocation system was not liberalized, and the TV band is still vastly
    under-utilized,
u   AFEL -- adjacent frequencies emission limit
m   An underutilized band implies a potential investment opportunity

u   licensees the freedom to utilize these frequencies for other services
m   local area networks by accessing spectrum space it is licensed to use by a private
    band manager.
m   The AFEL of band A is the maximum allowable "spillover" from A to other bands

u   The AFEL of band A is the maximum allowable "spillover" from A to other bands.

u   The management rights granted winning bidders gave licensees the freedom to
    utilize these frequencies for other services.
u   emissions are confined to the original bandwidth assigned

m   Rather than TUFs being allocated and assigned by the state, users petition the state
    for rights to control unoccupied frequencies.
u   There the wireless licensee gains an explicit right to radio frequencies:

u   A private party surveys existing spectrum use in the spectrum registry
u   licensee effectively owns the spectrum resource
u   in effect treating its frequencies as commodities to be bought

u   inefficiently allocates resources, and the grinding rule making process combines the
    failures of socialism with
u   stymied by overloading the spectrum

u   This requires changing the nature of radio spectrum rights, shifting the non-
    ownership regime to one of private property rights
u   allocated spectrum protected as "guard-bands" for adjacent public safety bands
u   competitive use of the radio spectrum
u   per market is allocated for licenses issued to "band managers" who may lease or
    disaggregate the frequencies with few limitations
u   embrace of the very system blocking spectrum utilization as the answer to the
    wireless bandwidth bottleneck:
u   As long as rights are vested in private parties with freedom to contract, order is
    maintained by owners with recourse to enforcement
u   too little use of radio waves
u   Year after year vast tracks of valuable frequencies are walled off

u   Allowing unoccupied TV channels to provide wireless 3G or other communications
    services
u   privately owned spectrum
u   Public safety is another key issue advanced in arguments opposing property rights
    to radio spectrum
u   Access was initially blocked to reserve space for high-definition television, which is
    not likely to be provided.
u   It is sometimes asserted that large corporate interests will realize windfalls from
    liberalizing property rights to radio spectrum
u   The public safety lobbyists are still waiting for access to the unoccupied UHF
    spectrum, which remains largely vacant today.
m   Efficient utilization of spectrum relies on minimalist procedures bounded by clear
    standards
m   Hence, it does not reveal unoccupied or under-utilized frequency space

m   Hence, it does not reveal unoccupied or under-utilized frequency space

u   It lists broad classifications, which often overlap, and does not indicate actual uses,
    intensity of traffic, or other operational information.
u   A vast portion of available radio space is consumed by federal (including military)
    use
u   Privatizing radio spectrum rights would remedy this situation

u   This ad hoc method, in which an act of Congress orders agencies to transfer a
    politically mandated quantity of bandwidth, is a mechanism for identifying
    underutilized frequencies.
u   Underlay rights could give entrants the right to conduct low-power emissions
    beneath existing users

u   Underlay rights could give entrants the right to conduct low-power emissions
    beneath existing users

u   These operators would utilize the untapped communications capacity in the "noise
    floor" as sophisticated systems filter out background interference.
m   Allow new competitors to access unoccupied, or underutilized, bands by petitioning
    the regulatory authority and claiming an interest in such usage.

m   Allow new competitors to access unoccupied, or underutilized, bands by petitioning
    the regulatory authority and claiming an interest in such usage.

m   Band owners will have profit incentives to maximize the competitive value of their
    airspace
m   Band owners will have profit incentives to maximize the competitive value of their
    airspace
u   the next step is to invite new entrants into whatever vacant spectrum space they can
    find.
u   specific piece of spectrum should be used to provide a narrowly defined service

u   apply more property rights to the ownership of spectrum
u   In 1986, the FCC was about to allow mobile radio users to access vacant UHF-TV
    channels, only to be deluged by the broadcasting lobby's HDTV gambit.
u   Since 1985, the FCC has walled off this band from competing users, particularly
    those wanting to offer public safety and mobile telephone service, on the grounds
    that advanced television would consume remaining capacity

u   Since 1985, the FCC has walled off this band from competing users, particularly
    those wanting to offer public safety and mobile telephone service, on the grounds
    that advanced television would consume remaining capacity

u   We should never forget that any transmission capacity not used is wasted forever.
    It's water over a dam. And, there has been water pouring here for many, many
    years, even during an endless spectrum drought.
m   While broadcasters and regulators have long argued that extensive intervals need
    be left vacant between local broadcasts ("taboo channels"), the current allocation
    vastly underutilizes the band.
m   While broadcasters and regulators have long argued that extensive intervals need
    be left vacant between local broadcasts ("taboo channels"), the current allocation
    vastly underutilizes the band.
u   unoccupied UHF frequencies even at 95 GHz
u   and innovating in business models, network architectures, and consumer
    applications to encourage new traffic.
u   Band managers endeavor to produce the preferred combination of traffic and signal
    quality
u   Spectrum is a valuable, scarce commodity


u   Spectrum is a valuable, scarce commodity
u   The FCC identifies a "spectrum drought," while frustrated builders of advanced
    systems bemoan the rigidities denying
    them access to airwaves.
m   the utilization of spectrum bandwidth demonstrates the continuing scarcity of
    frequency space, as do the price tags attached to licenses guaranteeing some
    measure of exclusivity in the use of radio waves.
u   the utilization of spectrum bandwidth demonstrates the continuing scarcity of
    frequency space, as do the price tags attached to licenses guaranteeing some
    measure of exclusivity in the use of radio waves.
u   While technology soars, networks grow, and applications multiply, little utilized
    bands languish.
u   New technologies promise to replace scarcity with abundance


u   New technologies promise to replace scarcity with abundance, dumb terminals with
    smart radios able to adapt to their surroundings,
u   The static wireless paradigm is giving way to dynamic approaches based on
    cooperating systems of intelligent devices.
u   Is there a ―spectrum shortage,‖ and if so, how can it be alleviated?
u   Should spectrum lincensees be given property rights?

u   Words and pictures fly over invisible pathways with near instantaneous speed


u   Words and pictures fly over invisible pathways with near instantaneous speed


u   Yet the real value of a….WiFi connection to a laptop….

m   Government could cease the frustrating and ineffcient task of parceling out
    spectrum
m   More than one service can occupy the "same" spectrum, in the same place, at the
    same time
u   The frequencies that now carry one signal could someday carry thousands…or
    billions


u   The strangeness of wireless communication vanishes when we see that it is no
    different than acoustic communication, otherwise known as speech.
u   When two or more signals share the same space at the same time

u   The sound waves used in ordinary speech are analogous to the radio waves used in
    wireless communication.
u   He later developed a technique for adding capacity based on the principle that
    tuning forks can be made to vibrate at the same frequency across distances.
u   If the transmitter or receiver were smarter, the same signal might be intelligible


u   If the transmitter or receiver were smarter, the same signal might be intelligible


u   Regulating radio meant regulating frequencies, by parceling out the usable
    spectrum to licensees and service categories.
u   Some mobile phone systems, for example, chop up their licensed frequencies

u   Therefore, any statement about interference or spectrum scarcity assumes a
    particular set of technical and regulatory conditions.
u   Have we now exhausted the capacity of the spectrum?

u   Have we now exhausted the capacity of the spectrum?

u   If we only focus on frequencies, virtually every useful band has been allocated to
    one use or another
u   Most of the spectrum is empty in most places most of the time.
u   Any new service, such as digital television or third-generation (3G) mobile phone
    networks, requires that incumbents be ―cleared‖ out of existing bands to make
    room.
u   The "usable" spectrum of frequencies is five thousand times wider than it was in
    1927
u   As a result, bandwidth has become almost synonymous with capacity.
m   Between the view of spectrum as filled up and the reality of its emptiness lies

u   Many advances in wireless technology make use of excess capacity that shows up
    in the real world but not on the official chart.
u   Radio is a broadcast service, meaning that a tower sends out a signal at the
    maximum allowed power in all directions. It blankets an area
u   Similarly, a wider band adds capacity, but it’s not the only way to do so.
u   Two systems with the same ―amount‖ of spectrum may have very different capacity
    profiles.
u   What matters is the use that can be made of the spectrum, not just the abstract
    width of the frequency band
u   What matters is the use that can be made of the spectrum, not just the abstract
    width of the frequency band
u   As the previous section demonstrates, interference matters because of its
    implications for capacity.
u   Communication over the airwaves is speech
u   The NTIA manages the federal government's use of spectrum
u   If spectrum were not scarce, and simultaneous uses of the same spectrum were not
    mutually exclusive, there would be no reason to treat it differently from other forms
    of speech.
u   The airwaves are considered a public asset,
u   Whether spectrum is in fact scarce as we assume is a major theme of this paper

u   The downside of the static approach is that the devices aren’t smart enough to get
    out of each other’s way
u   The downside of the static approach is that the devices aren’t smart enough to get
    out of each other’s way if there are multiple signals in the same
m   Transmitters and receivers that don't think much for themselves are relatively cheap
    to build.
u   Historically, large amounts of spectrum were kept as guard bands where no one
    could transmit, to allow a wide "buffer" between licensed signals
u   In the early days, such as when radio and TV broadcasting were established,
    affordable receivers weren’t even smart enough to tell what was in their band.
u   Intelligent transmitters and/or receivers can engage in a different form of wireless
    communication than the traditional static systems.
u   Of course, raising power increases the likelihood of impinging on other signals,
    especially those adjacent either geographically or frequencywise.
u   Static wireless systems are static because of the cost and computational capability
    of hardware, more so even than scarcity of spectrum
u   The FCC established wide "guard bands" around licensed frequencies where no
    one could transmit
u   The louder the signal, the easier it is to find among other noise
m   Because of their flexibility, dynamic systems often have the ability to ―maneuver‖
    around potential interference, whether by splitting up signals into packets spread
    across a wide range of frequencies, hopping from place to place in the spectrum, or
    sending communications through a physically distinct route across a mesh network.
m   Because of their flexibility, dynamic systems often have the ability to ―maneuver‖
    around potential interference, whether by splitting up signals into packets spread
    across a wide range of frequencies, hopping from place to place in the spectrum, or
    sending communications through a physically distinct route across a mesh network.

m   Dynamic wireless techniques effectively multiply the usable spectrum.
u   Instead of cheap, dumb terminals at the endpoints, there are agile, intelligent
    devices.
u   Now transfer the setting from smart human
    listeners to smart digital radios.
u   Now transfer the setting from smart human
    listeners to smart digital radios.
u   These seven degrees of freedom for sharing spectrum compare with the single
    dimension - frequency - under the static approach.
u   ―Cognitive‖ devices can sense the local spectral environment, adjust their
    transmissions to take advantage of temporarily empty spaces, and move their
    signals elsewhere as soon as another transmission is detected.
u   ―Cognitive‖ devices can sense the local spectral environment, adjust their
    transmissions to take advantage of temporarily empty spaces, and move their
    signals elsewhere as soon as another transmission is detected.
u   A spread spectrum system inverts the static model of transmitting with high power
    on a narrow channel
m   As discussed earlier, wireless systems designers have long understood how to
    "multiplex" multiple signals by sending them along different frequencies, or by
    splitting up spectrum into tiny slices of time.
x   Dynamic wireless communication

u   Using low power and spreading the signal across a range of frequencies, it’s
    possible to carry more transmissions imultaneously.
u   A signal arriving from thousands of miles overhead is different from a signal arriving
    laterally from a few yards away, even if both are within the same frequency band.

u   A signal arriving from thousands of miles overhead is different from a signal arriving
    laterally from a few yards away, even if both are within the same frequency band.

u   A smart enough system can distinguish these two signals based on their angle of
    arrival,
u   A smart enough system can distinguish these two signals based on their angle of
    arrival,
u   Comparing the signal received at the different antennas makes it easier to
    distinguish transmissions from noise, increasing effective capacity.
u   developed systems that multiplex satellite and terrestrial transmissions in the same
    frequency band.
u   Radio frequencies are never totally empty of noise
u   Radio frequencies are never totally empty of noise.
u   With enough smarts, though, a dynamic system
    can transmit and receive very faint signals ithout
    ever raising above the noise-floor threshold.
u   Knowing how a signal is bouncing around tells the receiver something about the
    location and nature of the transmitter.
u   Knowing how a signal is bouncing around tells the receiver something about the
    location and nature of the transmitter.
m   The basic definition of a mesh is that receivers talk to each other as well as to the
    transmitter

m   The basic definition of a mesh is that receivers talk to each other as well as to the
    transmitter

u   When radio waves encounter obstacles such as walls, some fraction bounce off the
    obstacle and the remainder pass through.
u   A radio talks to a fixed swath of spectrum, and
    understands a fixed modulation scheme for coding signals.
u   A radio talks to a fixed swath of spectrum, and
    understands a fixed modulation scheme for coding signals.
u   As DSP chips become more powerful for the same price, an SDR system can
    decode a larger swath of spectrum or perform other new functions
u   Combined with processing capabilities that allow such devices to sample the
    spectrum around them, agile radios can in effect manufacture new spectrum.
u   Combined with processing capabilities that allow such devices to sample the
    spectrum around them, agile radios can in effect manufacture new spectrum.
u   Even a channel supposedly occupied by a licensed system is empty much of the
    time in much of the defined physical area

u   At a time when policy-makers were infatuated with spectrum auctions, Gilder
    pointed out that auctions were counterproductive if intelligent devices could share
    spectrum and avoid inteference on their own
x   At a time when policy-makers were infatuated with spectrum auctions, Gilder
    pointed out that auctions were counterproductive if intelligent devices could share
    spectrum and avoid inteference on their own
u   If there is enough capacity to support a commons, exclusive rights are unnecessary

u   If there is enough capacity to support a commons, exclusive rights are unnecessary.

u   Until recently, these concepts were rarely applied to spectrum, because capacity
    constraints were thought to be so severe.
u   Spectrum licenses have incentives to squeeze as much capacity as possible out of
    their spectrum
u   Technology is making the wireless world look more and more like an ocean

u   These early wireless data networks generally used licensed spectrum
x   "Licensed" and "unlicensed" are generally presented as the two models for
    spectrum usage.
m   Dynamic wireless techniques, and the systems they make possible, ultimately erode
    the very rationale for thinking of ―the spectrum‖ as a physical asset that can and
    should be divided into frequency bands.
x   For present policy purposes, however, it can still be useful to list prominent
    mechanisms for sharing spectrum.
u   A technology that could increase capacity or deliver a new kind of service can’t be
    used in these bands if it doesn’t meet those criteria.
u   It is also known as ―underlay,‖ because unlicensed devices operate below the noise
    threshold of the highpower licensed devices in the band
u   It uses transmissions spread across huge frequency ranges at extremely low power,
    below the detectable noise floor for other licensed devices in the same band.
u   It uses transmissions spread across huge frequency ranges at extremely low power,
    below the detectable noise floor for other licensed devices in the same band.

u   It implies that the government has not made the spectrum available to licensees,
    when in fact the spectrum has been allocated and assigned like any other spectrum
    block.
m   ―Cognitive radios‖ could detect such holes in the spectrum, switch communications
    there, and then move away as soon as the licensee began transmitting

u   For example, they may be set aside as "guard bands" between licensed frequencies
    for older services such as broadcast television

m   Furthermore, as the electrospace model shows, there are many ways to slice the
    spectrum pie
u   However, today's smart unlicensed devices could transmit in the guard bands
    without impinging on the licensed services.

u   However, today's smart unlicensed devices could transmit in the guard bands
    without impinging on the licensed services.

m   Opportunistic sharing means taking advantage of unused spectrum in licensed
    bands.

u   There is no reason to believe that all the posisble mechanisms for opportunistically
    sharing spectrum have been discovered or implemented
u   However, MAN systems are also used to provide ―backhaul‖ connections from such
    last-mile networks to central aggregation points, point-to-point connections between
    facilities, or coverage throughout a campus or other geographically defined facility.

u   The University of Georgia has funded a network of WiFi hotspots covering all of
    downtown Athens, GA.
u   Because the traffic is local, there is no need to connect to a backbone provider.

u   If users provide their own wireless nodes, and no node is overwhelmed with traffic,
    the community-wide network would function peer to- peer, much as local area
    networks in businesses do today.
u   But unlicensed devices have advanced beyond WiFi to include frequency-hopping

u   But unlicensed devices have advanced beyond WiFi to include frequency-hopping

u   Tapping these local nodes would reduce costs, avoiding the need to send data long
    distances over wireless networks
x   Tapping these local nodes would reduce costs, avoiding the need to send data long
    distances over wireless networks
u   Cognitive radios would seek out free space in spectrum to carry the signals


u   Cognitive radios would seek out free space in spectrum to carry the signals


u   Governments cannot merely sit back and wait for technological development to
    eliminate spectrum scarcity
u   In June 2003, the Bush Administration formed a task force to examine government
    spectrum use, with a similar mandate to propose reforms.
u   Incentives for unlicensed deployment in rural areas; investigating the impact of
    cognitive radio and the unlicensed of extremely high frequency spectrum (above 50
    GHz)
u   These include: unlicensed sharing of the broadcast spectrum

m   Though government regulation of the radio spectrum was designed to manage and
    mitigate physical scarcity of the airwaves, that regulation now creates scarcity.

u   As a general matter, the federal government should recognize that the objective of
    spectrum policy is not to minimize interference, but to maximize usable capacity.

m   As a general matter, the federal government should recognize that the objective of
    spectrum policy is not to minimize interference, but to maximize usable capacity.

x   By establishing guidelines for cognitive radios that can sense and respond to the
    local spectral environment
u   Depending on the nature of the licensed use, the government can make under-
    utilized frequencies available for non-interfering shared access by time, geographic
    area, direction of signal, or other variables.
u   However, as much spectrum as possible at such extremely high frequencies should
    be made available for unlicensed use with minimal restrictions.
u   However, as much spectrum as possible at such extremely high frequencies should
    be made available for unlicensed use with minimal restrictions.
u   Spectrum Policy Task Force, new unlicensed allocations should not be limited to
    spectrum above 50 GHz.
x   The FCC should allow for spectrum sharing along the other deimnsions of the
    electrospace model
u   Unlicensed spectrum at low frequencies, below 2 GHz, is particularly important.

u   A large block of high frqeuency spectrum (above 50 GHz) that is currently
    unassigned could be designed as open space for completely unregulated
    unlicensed activity
u   A poor-quality receiver may not afect the service for which it is licensed, but it will
    create scarcity by limiting the space for opportunistic and shared unlicensed devices
    around it
u   Anyone could engage in any form of wireless transmissions they chose, so long as
    they did not impinge on other systems.
m   WiFi happened almost by accident, because the 2.4 GHz ―junk band‖ spectrum was
    so congested with devices such as microwave ovens that it was considered
    unusable for licensed systems.
u   The currently block allocation system of government-licensed frequencies leaves
    huge quantites of spectrum fallow


u   A large block of high frequency spectrum (above 50 GHz) that is currently
    unassigned could be designated as an open space for completely unregulated
    unlicensed activity,
u   A large block of high frequency spectrum (above 50 GHz) that is currently
    unassigned could be designated as an open space for completely unregulated
    unlicensed activity,
u   If no more unlicensed spectrum is made available through dedicated open-access
    bands, low-power underlay, and opportunistic sharing
u   Similarly, growing intelligence of computing devices at the edges of networks exerts
    a powerful force that is magnified over time
u   There is absolutely no question that wireless devices will continue to become more
    powerful, and that enterprising technologists will find new ways to multiplex and
    interwave radio signals

u   In addition, to the extent that the interference temperature limit in a band is not
    reached, there could be opportunities for other transmitters, whether licensed or
    unlicensed, to operate in the band at higher power levels than are currently
    authorized


d   In such cases, the interference temperature limit for the band would serve as an
    upper bound or ―cap‖ on the potential RF energy that could be introduced into the
    band.
d   In such cases, the interference temperature limit for the band would serve as an
    upper bound or ―cap‖ on the potential RF energy that could be introduced into the
    band




u   The interference temperature concepts introduced in this proceeding were initially
    developed as part of the Commission’s Spectrum Policy Task Force’s (Task Force)
    work on means for improving the management of the radio spectrum to increase the
    public benefits derived from use of the spectrum resource

u   The interference temperature model could represent a fundamental paradigm shift
    in the Commission’s approach to spectrum management by specifying a potentially
    more accurate measure of interference that takes into account the cumulative
    effects of all undesired RF energy, i.e., energy that may result in interference from
    both transmitters and noise sources, that is present at a receiver at any instant of
    time
x   This new approach could provide radio service licensees with greater certainty
    regarding the maximum permissible interference, and greater protections against
    harmful interference that could be present in the frequency bands in which they
    operate

u   A general implementation of the interference temperature approach would involve
    planning, study of existing RF noise and interference levels and other factors, and
    transition processes that would take a substantial amount of time to complete

u   A general implementation of the interference temperature approach would involve
    planning, study of existing RF noise and interference levels and other factors, and
    transition processes that would take a substantial amount of time to complete
u   In particular, we are posing questions concerning the development of the
    interference temperature metric, including the determination of interference
    temperature limits for specific frequency bands, and an assessment of the
    cumulative noise and interference environment in radiofrequency bands, including
    standard methodologies for making assessments, to support the selection of those
    limits.
u   In particular, we are posing questions concerning the development of the
    interference temperature metric, including the determination
    of interference temperature limits for specific frequency bands, and an assessment
    of the cumulative noise and interference environment in radiofrequency bands,
    including standard methodologies for making assessments, to support the selection
    of those limits.
u   We further note that the Commission’s Technical Advisory Committee has
    concluded that introduction of the interference temperature concept is a reasonable
    approach to defining harmful interference as a function of how the spectrum is
    actually being used and the designs and margins of particular receivers

u   an approach that uses real-time measurements of actual spectrum use and adapt
    the responses of transmitters and receivers to these measurements.
m   However, the dramatic increases in the overall demand for spectrum based
    services, rapid technical advances in radio systems, in particular the introduction of
    various advanced modulation technologies, the increased use of spectrum for
    mobile services, and the need for increased access to the limited supply of
    spectrum in recent years are straining the effectiveness of the Commission’s
    longstanding spectrum policies in dealing with some allocations and applications

u   In the past, this model generally served well to control interference and to facilitate
    effective use of the spectrum in environments in which the specific services and
    operating technology were stable and well defined
u   The primary restrictions we apply to technical operations under these licenses are
    those necessary to ensure that interference is not caused to services operating in
    adjacent geographic areas or in adjacent or nearby frequency bands

u   These changes are prompting the Commission to revisit its traditional model and
    evolve its spectrum management policies to consider more flexible and market-
    oriented approaches that can provide incentives for users to migrate to more
    technologically innovative and economically efficient uses of the spectrum

u   These restrictions typically take the form of limits on signal strength at the edge of a
    licensee’s service area and limits on maximum transmitter power, antenna height
    and out-of-band emissions
u   Under this model, the Commission has established operational parameters in
    portions of the spectrum in which the patterns of radio signals, both geographically
    and technically, are well understood and generally predictable by equipment
    manufacturers and licensees.
u   and methodologies for measuring the cumulative ―background noise‖ and RF
    interfering signal levels in specific frequency bands and across the radio spectrum.

u   and methodologies for measuring the cumulative ―background noise‖ and RF
    interfering signal levels in specific frequency bands and across the radio spectrum.
x   In order to begin our exploration of the process that would be involved in a transition
    to an interference temperature regime, we seek comment on specific technical
    guidelines in the NPRM portion of our discussion that could be implemented in the
    near future for selected frequency bands prior to any possible general
    implementation of interference temperature limits and real-time adaptation of
    transmitters to the interference temperature environment
u   Such new approaches could better allow the Commission to enable future uses of
    the spectrum, while possibly providing a greater degree of certainty to incumbents
    regarding the RF environment in which they will continue to operate

u   The Task Force Report recommended that the Commission evolve its spectrum
    policy toward more flexible and market-oriented spectrum polices that will provide
    incentives for users to migrate to more technologically innovative and economically
    efficient uses of spectrum.
u   To obtain data on the condition of the RF environment in each frequency band that
    would be used in setting temperature limits, the Task Force recommended that the
    Commission undertake a systematic study of the RF noise floor

u   To obtain data on the condition of the RF environment in each frequency band that
    would be used in setting temperature limits, the Task Force recommended that the
    Commission undertake a systematic study of the RF noise floor

d   We seek comment on whether it would be necessary to shift our current paradigm
    for assessing interference from approaches based primarily on transmitter
    operations towards new approaches that focus on the actual RF environment and
    interaction between transmitters and receivers, such as the interference
    temperature metric.
d   We seek comment on whether it would be necessary to shift our current paradigm
    for assessing interference from approaches based primarily on transmitter
    operations towards new approaches that focus on the actual RF environment and
    interaction between transmitters and receivers, such as the interference
    temperature metric
d   We seek comment on whether the Commission’s approach for managing
    interference should be changed from its current methodology in order to address the
    changes in spectrum demand and RF operations and environments that have
    occurred in recent years
u   We then discuss and request comment, information, and research on issues
    relating to possible approaches for a general implementation of interference
    temperature limits, including questions concerning the development and
    implementation of the interference temperature metric, the means and criteria by
    which devices would comply with the interference temperature limits to provide real-
    time interference protection to licensed services, and methodologies for measuring
    the cumulative ―background noise‖ and RF interfering signal levels in specific
    frequency bands and across the radio spectrum
u   We then discuss and request comment, information, and research on issues
    relating to possible approaches for a general implementation of interference
    temperature limits, including questions concerning the development and
    implementation of the interference temperature metric, the means and criteria by
    which devices would comply with the interference temperature limits to provide real-
    time interference protection to licensed services, and methodologies for measuring
    the cumulative ―background noise‖ and RF interfering signal levels in specific
    frequency bands and across the radio spectrum

u   In principle, interference temperature measurements would be taken at various
    receiver locations and these measurements would be combined to estimate the real-
    time condition of the RF environment

u   More specifically, it is the temperature equivalent of this power measured in units of
    ―Kelvin‖ (K)
u   One such element is the provision of maximum feasible flexibility of spectrum use
    by both licensed and unlicensed users, subject only to those rules that are
    necessary to afford reasonable opportunities for access by other spectrum users
    and to prevent or limit interference among multiple spectrum uses
u   that will provide incentives for users to migrate to more technologically innovative
    and economically efficient uses of spectrum.
u   The emissions from undesired transmitters could include out-of-band emissions
    from transmitters operating on adjacent frequencies or in adjacent frequency bands
    as well as from transmitters operating on the same frequency as the desired
    transmitter


x   We seek comment on whether unrealized opportunities exist for unlicensed, low-
    power users to access spectrum
u   One approach would be to select a different transmitting frequency or, if none were
    available, to cease transmitting until the RF environment changed to a state in which
    a transmission would no longer cause an unacceptable temperature level

x   One approach would be to select a different transmitting frequency or, if none were
    available, to cease transmitting until the RF environment changed to a state in which
    a transmission would no longer cause an unacceptable temperature level

u   Another approach would be for the receive sites of a licensed service to measure
    the temperature and communicate those measurements to a central site, where the
    interference temperature profile for the region would be computed.


x   Another approach would be for the receive sites of a licensed service to measure
    the temperature and communicate those measurements to a central site, where the
    interference temperature profile for the region would be computed.


u   If the result of this analysis were below the interference temperature limit set for that
    location, the device would transmit.
u   In cases where devices subject to the temperature cap were not equipped to
    respond on a real-time basis, actions to ensure the environment remained in
    compliance with the temperature limit could involve restrictions on sales of
    additional devices if the temperature approached the limit
u   The transmitted temperature data from this monitoring system could also include
    the frequency and geographic location of the interference temperature
    measurement(s) and the measurement bandwidth so that an individual device could
    compute the rise in temperature due to its own contribution and make a decision to
    transmit
u   The transmitted temperature data from this monitoring system could also include
    the frequency and geographic location of the interference temperature
    measurement(s) and the measurement bandwidth so that an individual device could
    compute the rise in temperature due to its own contribution and make a decision to
    transmit.
u   There are several actions that could be taken in the event that a device determines
    that its transmissions would cause the interference temperature limit to be
    exceeded.
u   As a result, the station’s service reliability and signal coverage have been reduced.

u   This figure shows the signal of a radio station designed to operate out to a range at
    which the received power approaches the level of the noise floor that existed at the
    time the system was built


u   Also, what approaches would best allow the Commission to transition to spectrum
    management by the interference concept in existing occupied spectrum bands?

m   As a result there are no unoccupied frequency bands within the range of
    frequencies where low-cost consumer applications can be easily manufactured
u   How would the costs and benefits of an interference temperature approach
    compare to the costs and benefits under the Commission’s current spectrum policy?

u   How would the costs and benefits of an interference temperature approach
    compare to the costs and benefits under the Commission’s current spectrum policy?

u   We seek comment as to how the Commission can accomplish this objective and
    avoid long, drawn out interference disputes without detrimentally affecting
    reasonable expectations of all interested parties, including expectations regarding
    the Commission’s use of its authority to impose conditions, modify licenses and take
    other steps to promote greater access to, and more efficient use of, the spectrum

x   In bands where several services share the spectrum on a primary or secondary
    basis, should the interference temperature limit be based on all the licensed
    services or only on the service most susceptible to interference
u   In general, we would expect that licensees would prefer to see the interference
    temperature limits in the bands they use set low, while manufacturers and users of
    unlicensed devices would prefer to see these limits set high
u   The effective functioning of interference temperature limits as a useful tool for
    managing interference depends on an understanding of the condition of the RF
    environment, i.e., the noise floor
u   The effective functioning of interference temperature limits as a useful tool for
    managing interference depends on an understanding of the condition of the RF
    environment, i.e., the noise floor
u   "and research on the levels of the noise floor in the various frequency bands and
    how those levels vary over time and across geographic regions.
x   These estimates of margin can provide an indication of whether a given operation
    can tolerate additional undesired RF energy from new unlicensed devices or other
    sources.
u   Where a service has a high service margin, we would generally expect that the
    interference temperature could be set relatively high (i.e., a significant amount
    above the noise floor)
u   Where a service has a high service margin, we would generally expect that the
    interference temperature could be set relatively high (i.e., a significant amount
    above the noise floor)
u   Can interference from a transmitter be distinguished from naturally occurring noise?

u   Thus, we seek comment on whether a modest rise in the noise floor, such as
    envisioned by the interference temperature concept, would generally not cause
    harmful interference as defined under our rules
u   Thus, we seek comment on whether a modest rise in the noise floor, such as
    envisioned by the interference temperature concept, would generally not cause
    harmful interference as defined under our rules
u   Ultimately, however, harmful interference cannot occur if the interference is below a
    system’s threshold of operation.
u   Finally, we note that the 6650-6675.2 Hz segment of this band is used by the radio
    astronomy service.
u   In these bands, fluctuations in the interference temperature can be compared to
    fluctuations in C/(I+N) or (S/I).
x   The band currently supports a variety of different systems operating pursuant to
    each of these allocations
u   they could employ DFS to adjust their frequency of operation to ensure that
    operation occurs on unoccupied channels.
u   We request comments on whether any portion of the bands discussed above that
    are allocated for fixed operation should be excluded from consideration under this
    proposal and why.
u   Satellite Monitoring of Spectrum Occupancy

u   The Inquiry describes a number of approaches to adaptive or real-time interference
    temperature measurement by which monitored information regarding spectrum
    occupancy could be transmitted back to individual devices.
u   This rule requires that all out-of-band emissions from U-NII devices operating in the
    5.15-5.25 GHz band not exceed an EIRP of -27 dBm/MHz.
u   We request comment on the utility and potential benefits of such a real-time
    monitoring approach in the two bands discussed above, as well as in any other
    bands where the interference temperature concept could be applied
u   ―Removing the fences,‖ in this view, will lead to more efficient use of the spectrum

u   Economists since Ronald Coase (1959) have argued strongly and persuasively that
    allocating a scarce resource by administrative fiat makes little sense; establishing a
    market for spectrum, in which owners could buy, sell, subdivide and aggregate
    spectrum parcels would lead to a much more efficient allocation of this scarce
    resource
u   Economists since Ronald Coase (1959) have argued strongly and persuasively that
    allocating a scarce resource by administrative fiat makes little sense; establishing a
    market for spectrum, in which owners could buy, sell, subdivide and aggregate
    spectrum parcels would lead to a much more efficient allocation of this scarce
    resource.

u   However, this experiment in bringing market forces to bear to allocate radio
    spectrum has been applied to only about 10 percent of the most valuable spectrum.

d   The result was rather chaotic; in major radio markets, interference became the
    norm as new firms attempted to poach on the frequencies of popular radio stations

x   The result was rather chaotic; in major radio markets, interference became the
    norm as new firms attempted to poach on the frequencies of popular radio stations.

u   We show that there are several property rights regimes that can simultaneously
    support both markets and the rapid diffusion of the new radio technologies, leading
    to a far more efficient allocation of this important and limited national resource.

u   The standard procedure (until quite recently) was that an individual or firm wishing
    to utilize spectrum for a specific purpose license for a particular frequency in a
    particular location applied to the FCC for a license that covered only that purpose,
    frequency and place.
u   Again, valuable spectrum provides little value to consumers while other uses are
    starved for spectrum.
m   The experience was not successful, and this band is extremely underutilized
u   There are several efforts underway at the FCC to improve this highly inefficient use
    of the spectrum
m   Current licensees received scarce spectrum years ago at zero cost from the
    government under the expectation that it would be theirs forever
m   The basics of the system we use today were established when the most important
    use of the spectrum was broadcasting and the range of usable spectrum was about
    1% of what it is today
u   The FCC is also engaged in band clearing, in which current license holders are
    offered spectrum in other bands to give up their current allocation that could be
    more constructively deployed in other uses.
u   To an economist, this critique is as natural for the FCC’s method of allocating a
    scarce resource as it was for the Soviet Union’s method of running its economy.

u   An existing license holder may have incentives to innovate to increase the capacity
    of its frequency band if it can thereby serve more customers.
u   Coase’s solution was to create sufficient property rights in spectrum so that it could
    be sold to private owners who would then be free to buy, sell and lease spectrum.

u   Spectrum could be aggregated or subdivided, according to the needs of customers
    as expressed through the market



u   In the case of spectrum, spillovers in the form of out-of-band power in adjacent
    frequencies are important, and can generally be controlled by the careful definition
    of property rights.
u   As a consequence, ―guard bands‖ of spectrum were designated between each
    usable bands so that out-of-band power leakage would not impinge on nearby
    signals.
u   But these constraints are based on the ability of the intended receivers to filter out
    spurious signals.
u   For example, early TV receivers had little ability to reject power spills from adjacent
    TV broadcast bands

u   From the economic perspective, radio interference is the spillover that is the primay
    rationale for government control of the spectrum.
u   Therefore, the spillovers associated with out-of-band out-of-area frequency
    emissions can be fully controlled through the appropriate and careful definition of
    the owner’s property rights;
u   However, the wasted spectrum is still there, ―protecting‖ TV sets, so television set
    manufacturers have no incentive to install more sophisticated tuners
u   Restrictions on transmitters include in-band power restrictions, so one transmitter
    doesn’t interfere with a transmitter at a distant location, and out-of-band power
    restrictions, to control emissions in frequency bands in use by others

u   The spillover of interference in adjacent bands can thus be eliminated by suitably
    constraining each owner’s property right to use his or her frequency, exactly as we
    do today.
u   Today’s technical rules on interference are likely to become tomorrow’s property
    rights in spectrum
u   Most broadcasters emit at a particular frequency (or a limited set of frequencies) so
    that simple receivers can easily locate them.
u   The difference between a fee simple property rights regime and the current
    licensing system is that a market-based regime is a far more powerful mechanism
    to achieve an efficient allocation of the scarce resource of spectrum, as it harnesses
    the self-interest of owners rather than relying on bureaucratic processes

u   Within the relevant geographic region, emission is at a high enough power that
    more than one emitter at the same (or similar) frequency will cause damaging
    interference to the signal of at least one emitter.
u   Not surprisingly, radio engineers have lauded the openness of Part 15 spectrum as
    a boon to innovation.
u   The openness of Part 15 spectrum has also promoted innovation in spectrum use.

u   This technology allows a signal to be "spread" across a range of frequencies,
    trading off power for bandwidth
u   On the other hand, the bandwidth of the UWB signal spans a large fraction of the
    total frequency available to all, and appears (if undetected) at many frequencies for
    which licensees hold exclusive use
u   The power of the emission is extremely low; for most purposes, it is part of the
    background radio noise, and non-UWB receivers that are designed to reject noise
    would not recognize the signal, so there is no interference with high-powered
    broadcasters
d   The signal to be transmitted is captured in small time intervals (about 1
    microsecond) and the signal is converted to a set of very short pulses (about 1
    picosecond) and these pulses are broadcasted over a very wide bandwidth (greater
    than 1 Ghz); the broadcaster emits this picosecond pulse in a time slot every
    microsecond at very low power; the receiver (which must be synchronized) picks up
    the low power signal over this wide bandwidth, and converts it back to (a very good
    approximation of) the original signal
d   The signal to be transmitted is captured in small time intervals (about 1
    microsecond) and the signal is converted to a set of very short pulses (about 1
    picosecond) and these pulses are broadcasted over a very wide bandwidth (greater
    than 1 Ghz);
d   ―Agile‖ radios are devices in which a radio can determine if a specific frequency
    band is currently in use, emit in that band if not, and switch to another band in
    microseconds if another user begins to emit in that band
d   Agile‖ radios are devices in which a radio can determine if a specific frequency band
    is currently in use, emit in that band if not, and switch to another band in
    microseconds if another user begins to emit in that band.
d   As long as there are sufficient frequency bands so that the agile radio pair can
    always find an unused band, agile radio achieves a more efficient use of bandwidth
    without interference with existing licensees (or owners, in a property rights market
    regime).
d   As long as there are sufficient frequency bands so that the agile radio pair can
    always find an unused band, agile radio achieves a more efficient use of bandwidth
    without interference with existing licensees (or owners, in a property rights market
    regime)

u   Both transmitter and receiver must be agile for this system to function
u   Provided the agile radio switches its emissions to another band, it need not interfere
    with the ham band.
u   Central to the choice between a property right regime or a commons regime are (i)
    scarcity and (ii) transaction costs.
u   If a resource is scarce in that many people contend for its use, then a commons
    regime will be afflicted with the ―tragedy of the commons,‖ in which the resource is
    overused; in spectrum terms, we experience interference
u   In this view, property rights are the problem, not the solution; ―building fences‖ of
    property rights violates the commons principle
u   While the new technology opens up new opportunities for efficient use of spectrum,
    using either of these technologies appears to violate the license rights of current
    licensees
u   Why adopt a legacy-driven property rights model when the new technologies
    promise an end to scarcity
m   Agile radio emitters that vacated a frequency within (say) one microsecond after the
    frequency owner began broadcasting would be non-interferers.
u   Agile radio emitters that vacated a frequency within (say) one microsecond after the
    frequency owner began broadcasting would be non-interferers.
u   Conversely, either a UWB emitter exceeding its power ceiling or an agile radio
    emitter taking too long to vacate is an interfering user and becomes subject to
    penalties.
u   Conversely, either a UWB emitter exceeding its power ceiling or an agile radio
    emitter taking too long to vacate is an interfering user and becomes subject to
    penalties.
u   In order to focus on these central issues, we first examine two property rights
    regimes that appear to release both the power of the market and the power of the
    new sharing technologies to improve the efficiency of spectrum use. Fee simple
    ownership with non-interference easement

u   Thus, UWB emitters that maintained power levels below the noise threshold would
    be non-interferers.
u   If the average life of such a receiver is (say) three years, then the agile radio service
    providers could begin using their technology in bands adjacent to the interferees
    after (say) twice the average receiver life, or six years, assuming that most receivers
    in the field at that point incorporate the
    enhanced standards.
u   If the industry can agree that (say) the introduction of agile radio is likely to result in
    more business for all participants, but at the cost of increasing filtering capabilities
    for receivers in adjacent
    bands, then chip manufacturers may agree to establish enhanced standards for new
    receivers (for these adjacent bands) effective immediately.
m   The introduction of new technology in one band may only be possible if receivers in
    adjacent bands can accommodate the new technology, which may require a costly
    upgrade
u   During an earthquake or defense contingency (local or national), there is no time to
    ask permission or negotiate with other parties; military and public emergency
    personnel need to have immediate preemption capabilities for spectrum capacity
    substantially larger than their everyday administrative needs.

u   While this may not be good news to cellular carriers who have spent billions on
    bandwidth made scarce by government regulation, it is good news to the consuming
    public and we should welcome it.
u   In this situation, the price of spectrum at the margin is likely to be zero (or very close
    to it)
u   This short-run excess supply occurs as a result of markets eliminating current
    inefficient uses.
u   Under either regime, the artificial scarcity created by the current licensing regime is
    eliminated.
u   While this may not be good news to cellular carriers who have spent billions on
    bandwidth made scarce by government regulation, it is good news to the consuming
    public and we should welcome it
u   Agile radios will find the next frequency they hop to is busy, as is the next, and the
    next, and so forth


m   Agile radios will find the next frequency they hop to is busy, as is the next, and the
    next, and so forth


u   Agile radios will find the next frequency they hop to is busy, as is the next, and the
    next, and so forth


u   As the airwaves congest, the best solution will be the market, as it is for virtually
    every other economic good or service.
m   However, as new devices and new uses proliferate, spectrum scarcity will become
    reality
u   If all users were forced to undertake a costly upgrade to agile radio (or UWB, if
    feasible), then a commons regime may be workable in the short run, as long as
    scarcity is not an issue.
u   In a long run world of spectrum scarcity (real this time, not the artificial scarcity of
    government allocation), prices are no longer zero and the commons model breaks
    down.
u   In a world of real spectrum scarcity, owners will invest in metering gear and charge
    users a positive price, ensuring that the spectrum is allocated, in real time and
    otherwise, to its highest valued use.
u   Is it likely that in the long run spectrum will indeed become scarce?
m   In the long term, we expect that new uses for radio spectrum will utilize the
    spectrum fully, and the demand and supply of this important resource will come into
    balance
u   New uses of radio spectrum should come on stream fairly quickly, promising to fill
    this newly available spectrum.
u   The nature of the market changes, and spectrum bandwidth now becomes a scarce
    resource; not now, but in the future.
u   While today’s massive underutilization of spectrum suggests that markets and new
    technology may increase available spectrum by orders of magnitude, we have no
    doubt that clever engineers and aggressive marketers will find ways to fill that
    spectrum with new and useful gadgets that we all must have
u   In the long run, as this resource becomes better utilized and spectrum becomes
    scarce, we expect that owned spectrum becomes more attractive as a superior
    method to manage scarcity.
u   In the short run, we believe this regime is likely to free up so much spectrum that
    this resource will be in excess supply.
m   At least in the United States, new technologies and regulatory reforms may soon
    free up enough RF capacity to transform wireless-industry economics, especially for
    popular mobile telephony and wireless Internet services
x   But access to spectrum has been chronically limited ever since RF transmissions
    were first regulated in the early 20th century.
x   From cellphones to police scanners, from TV sets to garage-door openers, virtually
    every wireless device depends on access to the radio frequency wireless spectrum

m   Radio spectrum may be one of the most tightly regulated resources of all time.
x   A newly permitted method of using spectrum, ultrawideband, takes spread spectrum
    to its logical conclusion, operating at such low power that, subject to appropriate
    safeguards, it can underlie existing licensed services
m   Before we look further at what it means to live in an age of spectrum abundance,
    let’s look more closely at the two main reasons for the past era of scarcity: the state
    of available radio technologies and government policies.
d   Consequently, the extent to which there appears to be a spectrum shortage largely
    depends not on how many frequencies are available but on the technologies that
    can be deployed
x   Consequently, the extent to which there appears to be a spectrum shortage largely
    depends not on how many frequencies are available but on the technologies that
    can be deployed.
u   If you scan portions of the radio spectrum, even premium frequencies below 3 GHz
    in dense, revenue-rich urban areas, you will find that most bands are quiet most of
    the time.
u   If you scan portions of the radio spectrum, even premium frequencies below 3 GHz
    in dense, revenue-rich urban areas, you will find that most bands are quiet most of
    the time.
m   Fifty years ago, when TV sets still used vacuum tubes, guard bands were the only
    way those sets could distinguish signals on adjacent channels
u   First described during World War II, spread-spectrum technology is already used in
    many cellular phone networks and in Wi-Fi, but newer systems promise even
    greater capacity improvements.
u   For example, at least five digital TV shows can
    be broadcast on the same frequencies that a single analog channel now occupies.

u   If you scan portions of the radio spectrum, even premium frequencies below 3 GHz
    in dense, revenue-rich urban areas, you will find that most bands are quiet most of
    the time
u   Last year, a Spectrum Policy Task Force, organized by the FCC, recognized that
    much of the spectrum already licensed is not really in short supply
m   Many regulations intended to promote harmony of the airwaves have instead, by
    putting artificial limits on technology, created massive inefficiency in spectrum
    utilization.
x   Moreover, interference is not some inherent property of spectrum. It’s a property of
    devices.
m   New radio transmission and networking technologies can squeeze more and more
    capacity out of the same spectrum
u   Radio waves do not pass through some ethereal medium called ―spectrum‖; they
    are the medium.
u   Relatively modest capacity increases—from either new spectrum allocations or new
    technologies—can have dramatic consequences.
u   Similarly, digital cellular systems now carry three times as many phone calls as their
    analog predecessors.
u   The era of future abundance will be as foreign to us as our world today would have
    been to Marconi and Tesla, whose early sparkgap radios occupied the entire usable
    spectrum for each individual Morse code message
m   TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPACT new radio technologies are having on spectrum
    availability, it is helpful first to address a common misconception: that spectrum is a
    concrete and finite resource
u   What’s licensed by governments is not a piece of a finite pie but simply the right to
    deploy transmitters and receivers that operate in particular ways
u   Another recent innovation, smart antennas, can focus adaptively to ―lock into‖ a
    directional signal.
u   Instead of radiating a signal in all directions equally, they figure out where a user is
    located and direct the radiation accordingly,reducing effective interference with other
    transmitters.
x   It will be as if we figured out a way for freight trains to travel on highways, with cars
    being none the wiser
u   Now, too, novel coding algorithms can take factors that traditionally hampered
    transmission, such as physical obstacles and motion, and use them to generate
    information that increases capacity.
u   Once TV stations commence all-digital broadcasting on their newly assigned
    channels—perhaps as early as 2007—the FCC will also reclaim a huge cache
    (approximately 290 MHz) of ―beachfront‖ spectrum, assigned for analog
    broadcasting since the 1940s
u   Perhaps the greatest technological gain in wireless capacity, however, will come
    from systems that work cooperatively.
u   Traditional spectrum licenses were technology- and service-specific, precluding
    most of the capacity- enhancing mechanisms described above.
u   A combination of sophisticated coding techniques, powerful signal processing, and
    widely adopted technical standards allows a cacophony of unlicensed devices, from
    Wi-Fi to garage-door openers, to coexist without any operator or government
    deciding what can be deployed.
u   At long last, the epoch of spectrum scarcity will be over.
u   Clearly, in the decade ahead, spectrum access will become more like a
    commodity—widely affordable for almost any purpose the user desires
u   In the future, the type of spectrum sharing that the FCC permits in unlicensed bands
    may also be possible in licensed bands through the use of spectrum underlays and
    cognitive radios, described above
u   The commercial value of any frequency band depends on its propagation
    characteristics and the current deployment environment
u   THE TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY developments surveyed here suggest that
    we are beginning an entirely new era—an era of spectrum abundance.
m   When spectrum seems scarce, service providers must focus all their energy on
    acquiring and husbanding spectrum access rights.
u   A radio is anything that communicates information using electromagnetic waves that
    have a frequency in what is known as the "radio spectrum.
m   As competition for spectrum resources intensifies, disputes over who bears the
    burden of interference have led to costly and frequent regulatory battles at the
    Federal Communications Commission ("FCC" or "Commission").
u   The Commission could increase predictability for, and facilitate more efficient use
    of, spectrum resources by setting an easy-to-measure interference temperature for
    various bands that defines acceptable levels of interference in advance.

u   The Task Force Report recognizes the importance of addressing interference as
    part of increasing the utility of the spectrum resource.
m   This is a difficult task, but nonetheless an important part of the larger goal of
    maximizing the utility of the nation's spectrum resource
u   Use of the electromagnetic spectrum is growing at a staggering pace
u   Maximizing utility is now becoming even more challenging because of the explosion
    of "Wi-Fi" wireless networks, and as the Commission fields more calls for a
    "commons" approach to spectrum management
u   The Task Force Report recognizes the importance of addressing interference as
    part of increasing the utility of the spectrum resource
u   To put the metric to use, the FCC will need to make this policy determination many
    times for many bands all across the spectrum
u   It suggests that the Commission: (1) state that the purpose of the permissible
    interference standard is to maximize total utility in each band rather than to minimize
    interference to any individual spectrum user;
u   The ability of the receiver to pick up the desired signal can be degraded in a number
    of ways
u   The currently usable radio spectrum runs from approximately 3 kHz to 400 GHz.

m   The receiver then discriminates among all the signals it receives and determines
    which signal it has been programmed to obtain.
u   To radio engineers, "interference" occurs when the ability of a radio receiver to pick
    up a desired signal is reduced by another radio signal, such as the signals
    emanating from the radio tower or the microwave oven in the examples above

u   To radio engineers, "interference" occurs when the ability of a radio receiver to pick
    up a desired signal is reduced by another radio signal, such as the signals
    emanating from the radio tower or the microwave oven in the examples above

m   The more energy a given transmitter radiates into a particular band, and the closer
    that transmitter is to a receiver that considers the receiver's signal undesirable, the
    more potential for
    interference.

u   So, even when transmitters are designed to transmit in a certain frequency range,
    the signals they produce spill over into adjacent frequencies.
u   This is because it is extremely difficult using today's technology to completely
    restrict signals to a particular frequency band…. Even if this spill-over energy is at a
    low level, it can be picked up by receivers tuned to that band

u   Because virtually every transmitter emits small amounts of unwanted energy in
    frequency bands where they are not licensed to operate, they could theoretically be
    construed as potential sources of interference to receivers in almost any other radio
    service
u   But more interference protection, like more collision protection, means more cost in
    many situations.
m   But the resulting fragile system may be worse for spectrum policy overall because it
    means that no other spectrum user can share the band without causing substantial
    interference, thereby reducing the efficient use of spectrum resources

u   Conversely, if the FCC allows too little interference, the cost savings of designing
    fragile systems will be outweighed by the cost of precluding sharing of the band by
    other users.
u   Engineers must therefore decide whether the added cost of each additional step
    they can take to protect against interference is worth the benefit to their company.

m   If all interference were prohibited, the ability to use spectrum resources would be
    severely limited.
u   Radio engineers can design systems to tolerate more or less interference, much in
    the way that automobile engineers can design cars to withstand more or less force
    in collisions
u   These wideband devices emit energy over, as the name suggests, a wide swath of
    frequencies, rather than the more focused band used by narrowband technologies
    like cellular and television transmitters.
u   [i]nterference which endangers the functioning of a radionavigation service or other
    safety services or seriously degrades, obstructs, or repeatedly interrupts a
    radiocommunication service operating in accordance with [international] Radio
    Regulations.
u   [i]nterference which endangers the functioning of a radionavigation service or other
    safety services or seriously degrades, obstructs, or repeatedly interrupts a
    radiocommunication service operating in accordance with [international] Radio
    Regulations.
u   Federal courts have cited the harmful interference standard many times over the
    past 15 years
u   Furthermore, most of these proceedings deal with out-of-band interference and the
    type of retrospective disputes described above, rather than setting prospective
    permissible interference levels.
u   When one licensee alleges that another licensee has inflicted an impermissible level
    of interference on it, the Commission turns to the harmful interference standard

u   The harmful interference standard can be useful in arbitrating such retrospective
    disputes over whether an individual instance of interference was impermissible

u   The Commission sought to protect DBS from interference above this permissible
    level by not only limiting additional DBS service interruptions due to MVDDS to "a
    negligible level" more than current DBS service interruptions
u   In addressing MVDDS, it struggled with determining the permissible level of
    interference for one new service in one frequency band
u   The Commission offered a number of answers: (1) the independent MITRE Report
    suggested that the alternative 2.86 percent increase suggested by DBS operators
    "seems very small" and because "there is precedent for a ten percent increase" in
    previously negotiated spectrum sharing arrangements between satellite providers in
    the same band;
u   By emitting across a wide frequency range, UWB devices can theoretically operate
    at very low power, transmit large amounts of information per second, and can
    transmit through physical obstacles that would block narrowband signals

u   By emitting across a wide frequency range, UWB devices can theoretically operate
    at very low power, transmit large amounts of information per second, and can
    transmit through physical obstacles that would block narrowband signals

m   It concluded that: "With appropriate technical standards, UWB devices can operate
    using spectrum occupied by existing radio services without causing interference,
    thereby permitting scarce spectrum resources to be used more efficiently."

u   It concluded that: "With appropriate technical standards, UWB devices can operate
    using spectrum occupied by existing radio services without causing interference,
    thereby permitting scarce spectrum resources to be used more efficiently."

u   The UWB dispute required the Commission to create rules for new devices that
    could interfere with dozens of frequency bands across a huge swath of the most
    densely packed portion of
    the radio spectrum.
u   UWB devices, on the other hand, are designed to emit energy across a huge
    frequency range; thus they are "wideband" devices.
u   In its attempt to protect existing spectrum users from impermissible interference, the
    Commission devised a complicated set of restrictions on various types of UWB
    applications
u   In other words, the Commission set a level of permissible interference in many
    bands that is far, far below any application of the harmful interference standard.
u   In initiating this NOI, the Commission should consider: (1) stating that the purpose
    of the permissible interference standard is to maximize total utility in each band
    rather than to minimize interference to any individual spectrum user
m   More generally, uncertainty may lead to under-investment and under-utilization of
    spectrum resources as future disputes arise.
m   The goal of this process should be to create a standard specifically designed as a
    tool for the Commission to use in setting prospective permissible interference levels
    that maximize the social utility of various spectrum bands, as opposed to a tool for
    determining retrospectively whether interference has occurred after the Commission
    receives a complaint.
u   In initiating this NOI, the Commission should consider: (1) stating that the purpose
    of the permissible interference standard is to maximize total utility in each band
    rather than to minimize interference to any individual spectrum user; (2) recognizing
    circumstances where private efficiencyenhancing transactions will not correct
    Commission mistakes in setting incorrect permissible interference temperatures;
    and (3) addressing the importance of limiting interference in certain critical bands,
    such as military bands, even if these limitations lead to less intensive use of
    spectrum resources.
m   Next, the Commission should increase the utility of spectrum resources and
    predictability for licensees by establishing a well-understood permissible
    interference standard and explicitly state that the purpose of the standard is not to
    minimize interference to any individual spectrum user, but to maximize total utility of
    the band in question.
u   The Commission's task would then become how to choose the interference
    temperature that maximizes total utility.
u   The post-transaction level of interference would theoretically sink to a level that
    maximizes overall utility.
u   Once the permissible interference temperature is known in a band where there are
    a small number of identifiable spectrum users, Coase's argument suggests that the
    parties can enter into private transactions that result in an efficient amount of
    interference–meaning a level of interference that maximizes the combined values of
    the parties' use of the band in question–
u   As hard as the project may be, the FCC's permissible interference standard should
    state how it will balance hard-to-quantify values of national defense, scientific
    progress, public safety, and education with economic growth through more intensive
    use of spectrum resources.
u   Furthermore, certain technologies can cause interference across many bands

u   The Commission's goal should still be to maximize total social utility in these bands,
    but in bands occupied by users such as the military, radio astronomers, public
    safety entities, and educators, utility is not easily measurable in dollars.

u   The Commission's goal should still be to maximize total social utility in these bands,
    but in bands occupied by users such as the military, radio astronomers, public
    safety entities, and educators, utility is not easily measurable in dollars.

u   Therefore, while the Commission should always seek to set an interference
    temperature so that the overall use of the band is maximize
u   Unlimited numbers of unlicensed users can share frequencies; technical standards
    or etiquette governs usage rights, but there are no rights to protection from
    interference.
u   However, government may also wish to promote the important efficiency and
    innovation benefits of a spectrum commons by allocating spectrum bands for
    shared use, much as it allocates land to public parks
m   In each instance, decision makers prohibit certain wireless activities such that
    others become more productive: ―exclusive use‖ leads to intense spectrum sharing
    in cellular bands, for example, where liberal use rules yield licensees de facto
    spectrum-ownership rights
u   Potential conflicts are a byproduct of productive airwave use; efficient rules
    maximize the total value of wireless applications rather than minimize disruptions.

u   In unlicensed spectrum, an outside party—the regulatory agency—imposes rules to
    determine basic resource-appropriation issues
u   In US cell-phone networks, the state has awarded relatively liberal exclusive rights,
    approximating de facto private spectrum property
u   The absence of such infrastructure can constitute a tragedy of the commons
    symmetric to the destruction of social value via overuse or interference.
u   The TV band is nonetheless a textbook example of socially wasteful underutilization
    (overallocation) of radio spectrum
u   The US experience with public-interest spectrum regulation underscores that these
    decisions characteristically squander rich possibilities for efficient airwave utilization.

u   This infrastructure, a complementary input to spectrum in the provision of wireless
    services, is a key component in productive spectrum deployment.
u   Government planners set aside bandwidth with very high value for an over-the-air
    delivery platform that nearly 90 percent of US households pay to bypass via cable or
    satellite
u   Government planners set aside bandwidth with very high value for an over-the-air
    delivery platform that nearly 90 percent of US households pay to bypass via cable or
    satellite
u   Assuming that additional bandwidth for a ―spectrum commons‖ is desirable,
    delivering benefits in excess of opportunity costs for the spectrum, a path to that
    end must still be devised
u   Cellular networks organize complex spectrum sharing, equipping customers with
    handsets, frequency-access rights, and wireless network infrastructure in exchange
    for subscription fees
u   One possible arrangement would be for a licensee or group of licensees covering a
    particular band throughout the US to charge manufacturers a fee for the right to
    produce and market devices to operate in that band.
u   Allocated up to 19 MHz per market, the SMR band was adjacent to the 800-MHz
    cellular bands
u   Just as a public park is best provided when the costs of the park are known and
    competitive alternatives permitted, so exclusive spectrum ownership can facilitate
    efficiency across diverse access regimes.
dth Myth, The Spectrum Auction Faux Pas, and the Punchline to Ronald Coase's "Big Joke": An Essay on Airwave Allocation Policy," Harvar
ensed Wireless," New America Foundation and Public Knowledge, no date on document, dd 15 Dec 2003 on NAF site http://www.newameric
ent: Property Rights, Markets, and the Commons‖, AEI-Brookings Joint Center Working Paper 02-12, December 2002

 ocket 03-237, ―Establishment of an Interference Temperature Metric‖
sis,‖ IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 68-74. (Sept./Oct., 2006)
on from the FCC's Spectrum Policy,‖ 2003 STAN. TECH. L. REV. 5

rum, Volume 41, Issue 3, March 2004 Page(s):48 – 52


             Count of codes               For more data, see tab "Analysis"
                        634
                         13
                        107
                         41
                        754


             category                   comment                                                   multi-
             Spectrum, substance        dual code: "slice" of spectrum, implies spectrum is       code
                                                                                                    2
                                        something slice-able. One is able to "slot" wireless
                                        services into slices of spectrum, implies slice is some
                                        sort of container
             Spectrum, space, container dual code: "slice" of spectrum, implies spectrum is         2
                                        something slice-able. One is able to "slot" wireless
                                        services into slices of spectrum, implies slice is some
                                        sort of container
             Spectrum, resource         "drought"


             Spectrum, resource           "trading", "commodity"; spectrum can be traded like a
                                          resource in a market
             Spectrum, land               "zoned"

             Spectrum, substance          dual code "slice" of as a substance - airspace-           2
                                          spectrum as space
             Spectrum, space              dual code "slice" of as a substance - airspace-           2
                                          spectrum as space
             Spectrum, resource           "valuable uses", "underutilized"; utilization of
                                          something with value; "off-limits" - excludability,
                                          property/land
             Spectrum, space              dual code "traffic", "frequency space"                    2

             Signal, object, moving       dual code "traffic", "frequency space"                    2

             Spectrum, substance          "divided"; spectrum as something divisible
Spectrum, space, container "spillover"; implies that there are hard divisions
                           between the frequencies (i.e. they are contained in
                           something to spill over)
Spectrum, resource         "drought"


Spectrum, resource          dual code: spectrum as a "productive" resource;           2
                            "swath" of spectrum implies a section of land
Spectrum, land              dual code: spectrum as a "productive" resource;           2
                            "swath" of spectrum implies a section of land
Spectrum, resource          "misallocation, fortune"
Spectrum, substance         "consume" a part of spectrum

Spectrum, substance         "in a tube" as a substance that can be contained or
                            held
Spectrum, space             "vacant"

Spectrum, space             dual code, "vacant"- spectrum as land, as well as         2
                            "channel space" - spectrum as space


Spectrum, space             "spectrum space"

Spectrum, space             "vacant"

Other                       "untouched"; implies spectrum is a resource that is
                            not utilized. Note: although "untouched" may imply
                            "object", in this context the meaning of "untouched" is
                            closer to that of a resource that is not used. However,
                            for sake of conservatism, this is coded as "Other"

Spectrum, resource          "scarcity"; Spectrum is something that can become
                            scarce
Unclear                     "artifical scarcity" could be an indirect model for a
                            resource or substance

Spectrum, resource          "utilize"



Spectrum, resource          "utilize"; Spectrum has utility

Spectrum, resource          "resource utilization"

Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied"; implies radio waves as space that can
                           be occupied
Unclear                    "expanding"


Spectrum, resource          "availability","limit"; Spectrum is a thing that can be
                            available, or limited by various parties
Spectrum, land              "zones","bands"; like land can be zoned and identified

Other                      "private property"
Unclear                    "chaos": sound chaos (cacophony?), traffic chaos
                           (implying objects)?
Signal, sound, speech      dual code: "cacophony","voices": implies signals as        2
                           speech. "medium would be of little use": spectrum as
                           utilized resource.
Spectrum, resource         dual code: "cacophony","voices": implies signals as        2
                           speech. "medium would be of little use": spectrum as
                           utilized resource.
Spectrum, space, container dual code:"strayed"; signal as deviated from its proper    2
                           position; "assigned frequency"; spectrum depicted as
                           discrete containers that hold signals, something for
                           signals to "stray" out of.
Other                      This quote clarified some things for me (or maybe
                           took me on a tangent?). If Spectrum is a container,
                           then what we get in broadcast



Signal, object, moving      dual code:"strayed"; signal as deviated from its proper   2
                            position; "assigned frequency"; spectrum depicted as
                            discrete containers that hold signals, something for
                            signals to "stray" out of.
Spectrum, space             "expanded the band"; implies Spectrum as a spatial
                            resource that was limited but now discrete portions
                            were opened up.
Signal, object, moving      "on the air";implies signals as objects flying through
                            the atmosphere
Spectrum, resource          "resource" and "utilized"




Signal, object, altitude   "higher"; signals can avoid interference by being
                           "higher" in altitude
Signal, object, moving     dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects    2
                           that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                           is space for congestion to take place.
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects    2
                           that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                           is space for congestion to take place.
Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied"; implies radio waves as containers that
                           can be occupied
Other                      "sovereignty"

Unclear                     "order"; implies airwaves are able to be in chaos
Signal, sound               "audio malestrom"; similar as "cacophony"
Spectrum, space             dual-code: "spectrum space","vacant","vast portions";     2
                            explicit linking to space metaphor. "underutilized" -
                            spectrum as a utilized resource
Spectrum, resource          dual-code: "spectrum space","vacant","vast portions";      2
                            explicit linking to space metaphor. "underutilized" -
                            spectrum as a utilized resource
Spectrum, space             "frequency space"; explicit linking to space metaphor

Spectrum, space             "airspace"                                                 2




Spectrum, land              dual-code: "trespass", "incursions"; implies airspace is   2
                            like land. "substantial damage", implies signals that
                            exceed the boundaries of their "containers" move in
                            such a way as to cause damage.

Spectrum, land,             "trespass"

Spectrum, resource          "underutilize"; implies spectrum is resource that has
                            utility
Spectrum, substance         "block"
Spectrum, resource          "unique resource"; explicit linking to resource
                            metaphor

Spectrum, substance        dual-code: "destroying"; suggests that spectrum is          2
                           substance that can be destroyed. "valuable resource" -
                           explicit linking to resource metaphor.
Spectrum, resource         dual-code: "destroying"; suggests that spectrum is          2
                           substance that can be destroyed. "valuable resource" -
                           explicit linking to resource metaphor.
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "police"; implies airspace is space that can
                           be policed/managed (like a city). "airspace", implies
                           space
Spectrum, space            "airspace"
Signal, resource           "valuable signals","deterioration"; implies signals
                           having value, and this value able to deteriorate.
Spectrum, substance        "divided into twenty channels","array of bands";
                           implies spectrum as divisible substance
Unclear                    "level of interference"; implies stratified levels of
                           interference. Perhaps "Signal, object, altitude",
                           because at different "altitudes" there are different
                           amounts of Signals interfering with each other?
Spectrum, space            "spaced" - channels within the frequency
Spectrum, space, container "spill"


Unclear                     "access"

Spectrum, space, container "packs in","less separation", "dense", implies
                           Spectrum as container (finite volume), packing in
                           "stations".
Spectrum, space            dual code "densely" spectrum with volume
Spectrum, space, container dual code "packs in"

Spectrum, space, container "channel slots"; spectrum as being discrete slots
                           signals can reside in
Signal, object, moving     dual code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects     2
                           that get jammed in air. "compacts the bandwidth",
                           implies that spectrum is a container with limited
                           volume and space. Normally would multicode "traffic"
                           as space, but container is a subset of space.

Spectrum, space, container dual code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects     2
                           that get jammed in air. "compacts the bandwidth",
                           implies that spectrum is a container with limited
                           volume and space. Normally would multicode "traffic"
                           as space, but container is a subset of space.

Spectrum, space, container "low volume","little interference"; implies that if there
                           was a high volume, there would be much interference,
                           thus implying that spectrum is limited in space and
                           volume.
Signal, object, moving     "traffic" "conducted"


Spectrum, resource          "underutilization"

Spectrum, resource          "overutilization"


Other                       "band managers"

Signal, object, moving      "traffic"

Spectrum, resource          "under-utilization",spectrum has utility.

Spectrum, resource          "overutilization"


Spectrum, space             "expansion", implies that spectrum is space that the
                            amount of output can fill


Spectrum, space             "invade", spectrum as space "operating space"              3

Spectrum, space             "adjacent bandwidth", implies spectrum as space that
                            frequencies can be next to each other
Spectrum, resource          "utilization"


Spectrum, resource          "utilization"; Spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource          "under-utilized",spectrum has utility.
Spectrum, land              "allotments"; applies spectrum as some kind of land

Signal, object, moving      "traffic"


Spectrum, space             "crowded", implies spectrum as space that signals
                            can crowd into. Might extend this mental model to
                            container, though it’s a bit vague.
Spectrum, resource          "underutilized"

Spectrum, land              "tracts", implies spectrum as some kind of land
Spectrum, resource          "economically utilize"

Spectrum, space, container "live in", VHF band is a place one can live in. Unclear
                           if "to live" represents any other metaphor. Signals as
                           agents, perhaps?
Spectrum, resource         "utilized"

Spectrum, space             "between"

Signal, object, moving      "traffic"


Spectrum, space, container "in this band"


Spectrum, space, container "squeezed out of a given frequency"; implies
                           spectrum as containers that contain some substance
                           that can be squeezed out
Spectrum, space, container "increasing service capacity", "makes room for",
                           "channel size"; strongly implies that spectrum is a
                           limited space that decreasing size of "channels" can
                           make space for "more"
Signal, object, moving     "traffic"
Spectrum, land             "zoning", spectrum is like land that can be zoned

Spectrum, substance         "splits bandwidth"; bandwidth is something splittable
                            into discrete cells
Spectrum, land              "zoning"

Spectrum, resource          "inefficient", "spectrum use"; implies spectrum is a
                            resource where utilization efficiency can be measured

Spectrum, resource          "resource"

Spectrum, land             "tragedy of spectrum commons"; implies that
                           spectrum is like common land
Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied", implies spectrum as space that can be
                           occupied
Spectrum, space, container "slots"; spectrum now contains slots within which
                           broadcasts can reside in
Signal, object, moving     dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects     2
                           that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                           is space for congestion to take place.
Spectrum, space            "expanded the band"; implies Spectrum as a spatial
                           resource that was limited but now discrete portions
                           were opened up.
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects     2
                           that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                           is space for congestion to take place.
Spectrum, space            "increased number of frequencies", as if frequencies
                           are artificially created. "dropping channel separation" -
                           as if spectrum were space
Unclear                    "upping frequencies", implies that there are limits on
                           frequencies that can be manually lifted.
Spectrum, space            "wider bands", bandwidth as occupying space
Spectrum, space, container "expand","slots", implies that radio stations reside in
                           slots in spectrum
Spectrum, resource         dual code: "worthless"; implies that VHF is able to         2
                           take on value; here, it has no value. "stretching";
                           implies that spectrum is a spatial medium that signals
                           can stretch in
Spectrum, space            dual code: "worthless"; implies that VHF is able to         2
                           take on value; here, it has no value. "stretching";
                           implies that spectrum is a spatial medium that signals
                           can stretch in
Signal, sound, speech      "fell silent", as if stations send signals that are
                           speech.
Other                      "stations….voice of"; stations as transmitters of
                           speech
Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied"

Signal, sound              "drown one another out", here drown refers to noise,
                           so signal is noise
Signal, object, moving     "travelled", implies signal moves through space
Spectrum, space, container dual code "spillover" Spectrum as a container               3

Signal, object             "spillover" Signals as objects within spectrum that can     3
                           spill over
Spectrum, space            "spillover" Spectrum as a space where things can fall       3
                           in or out of boundaries
Spectrum, space, container "squeeze in", implies that bands are containers that
                           have limited volume

Signal, sound, speech        "went silent", stations transmit signals of speech
Spectrum, space              "spectrum space"

Spectrum, substance          "volume"

Spectrum, space              "swath", implies space

Spectrum, substance          "spectrum in a tube"
Spectrum, resource           "utilize"; Spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource           "scarcity"; Spectrum is something that can become
                             scarce
Spectrum, space              "buffer" and "adjacent"

Spectrum, resource         "unproductive","employment", implying spectrum has
                           utility
Spectrum, space, container "new capacity"; implies that bandwidth has capacity
                           (signals can be "IN" it), and this capacity is going to
                           be expanded
Spectrum, space            "dead air", implies spectrum as "airspace" thus space.

Spectrum, space, container dual-code: "slot", implies spectrum is container;          2
                           "vacant" channels, implies space that can be
                           occupied/empty
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "slot", implies spectrum is container;          2
                           "vacant" channels, implies space that can be
                           occupied/empty
Spectrum, space            dual code- spectrum as "idle" and spectrum as space-       2
                           "airspace"
Spectrum, resource         dual code- spectrum as "idle" (resource) and               2
                           spectrum as space- "airspace"
Spectrum, space            dual code: "vacant" for space, "devours" for
                           substance
Spectrum, substance        dual code: "vacant" for space, "devours" for
                           substance
Spectrum, substance        "divvied", implies that bandwidth is a divisible
                           substance
Spectrum, space            "adjacent channels", implies bandwidth as space
                           where channels can be next to each other spatially;
                           "north" and "south"
Spectrum, space, container "crowd in"; implies that in the FM dial, there is a
                           concept of "in" and "out", and crowding implies limited
                           volume, like a container
Spectrum, space            "occupies","adjacent", "vacant"; all indicators of
                           spatial analogy
Spectrum, substance        "subdivide"; implies spectrum as a substance that is
                           divisible
Spectrum, space            "vacant"


Spectrum, space              "vacant"


Spectrum, space              "seperation"

Spectrum, space            "buffer"; implies spatial buffering, "adjacent", implies
                           spatial organization
Spectrum, space, container "space in" can place more within a portion of the
                           spectrum
Spectrum, space            "spacing","buffer", spatial organization terms
Signal, blanket             "blanketed"

Spectrum, space             Multicode- "buffer" as a signal as an object to protect   3
                            the main signal, "usable" spectrum as a resource,
                            "blocking" spectrum as a space
Spectrum, resource          Multicode- "buffer" as a signal as an object to protect   3
                            the main signal, "usable" spectrum as a resource,
                            "blocking" spectrum as a space
Signal, object              Multicode- "buffer" as a signal as an object to protect   3
                            the main signal, "usable" spectrum as a resource,
                            "blocking" spectrum as a space
Spectrum, space             "airspace"

Spectrum, space             "spectrum space"

Spectrum, space             "buffer"; implies spatial buffering,


Spectrum, space             "airspace"


Spectrum, space             "airspace", implies spectrum as space


Spectrum, space             dual code "airspace" spectrum as a space                  2


Other                       "Flash" relating to vision                                2


Spectrum, space, container "slots"; spectrum now contains slots within which
                           broadcasts can reside in
Signal, object, moving     dual code, "congestion"- spectrum as a space "traffic"-    2
                           signal as movement
Spectrum, space            dual code, "congestion"- spectrum as a space "traffic"-    2
                           signal as movement
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "hopping", moving, spatial organization. By     2
                           implication, implies signals are some kind of hopping,
                           moving object
Signal, object, moving     dual-code: "hopping", moving, spatial organization. By     2
                           implication, implies signals are some kind of hopping,
                           moving object
Signal, object, moving     dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects    2
                           that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                           is space for congestion to take place. "capacity"

Spectrum, space, container dual code: "traffic" "capacity"                            2
Signal, object, moving     dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects    2
                           that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                           is space for congestion to take place.
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects      2
                           that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                           is space for congestion to take place.
Radios, agents             "deciper", "constructing", "ability", "intelligence" -
                           indicate that receivers are somehow thinking
                           machines


Spectrum, space            "across", spatial organization term
Signal, object, moving     "traffic"

Signal, object, altitude   "underneath", indicator of altitude. Not sure if should
                           code with Spectrum, space, as this metaphor is
                           inherent within altidude.
Spectrum, resource         dual code: "utilizing", implies spectrum has utility.        2
                           "spanning", spatial organization term.
Spectrum, space            dual code: "utilizing", implies spectrum has utility.        2
                           "spanning", spatial organization term.
Spectrum, land             "incursion", "restricted bands", implies bands are like
                           land that can be trespassed. "Restricted" modifier
                           adds weight to the "land" mental model
Spectrum, resource         "distributing", "efficiently", indications of resource.
                           However, might be discarded because of scare
                           quotes around "pooled spectrum". Attack against
                           "common spectrum"?
Spectrum, space            "wide range", indicating space

Spectrum, substance        "squeeze", bandwidth as something tangibly
                           compressed
Spectrum, space, container "squeeze"

Spectrum, resource         "maximize the value", spectrum has value
Unclear                    Antecedent sentence vaguely alludes to space, but
                           "use" is more aligned with "resource"
Signal, object, moving     "traffic" this time it actually implies signals are moving
                           objects to be monitored
Spectrum, space            dual code: signal hopping as well as moving in the           2
                           spectrum 'space'
Signal, object, moving     dual code: signal hopping as well as moving in the           2
                           spectrum 'space'
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "sidestep", spatial term. "freeing                2
                           unused","productively", spectrum as resource
Spectrum, resource         dual-code: "sidestep", spatial term. "freeing                2
                           unused","productively", spectrum as resource
Spectrum, substance        "block"

Spectrum, space, container dual-code: "pockets of airwaves", like air-pockets           2
                           (emptiness). Unused frequencies - implying resource.

Spectrum, resource         dual-code: "pockets of airwaves", like air-pockets           2
                           (emptiness). Unused frequencies - implying resource.
Spectrum, space             "congestion"
Spectrum, resource          "economize", spectrum can be utilized, has value

Spectrum, space, container dual code, "neatly separated, pre-designated slots"-        2
                           spectrum as space with containers, as well as signals
                           as objects with the word "traffic"
Signal, object, moving     dual code, "neatly separated, pre-designated slots"-        2
                           spectrum as space with containers, as well as signals
                           as objects with the word "traffic"
Spectrum, substance        "block"

Signal, object, altitude    "rise above", implying signals can vary in elevation

Spectrum, space, container "spillover"; implies that there are hard divisions
                           between the frequencies (i.e. they are contained in
                           something to spill over)
Signal, object, moving     "go through", signal as a penetrating object
Spectrum, space            "pollute", implying "airwave" as some kind of
                           atmosphere, space. Perhaps this should mean all
                           instances of 'airwave" hereafter are to be classified as
                           "space", seeing as this is the only usage of it?
Spectrum, resource         "efficiencies", efficiency is attribute of a resource.
                           "How well a resource is being utilized"
Spectrum, resource         "deploy", "alternative uses", spectrum as a resource
                           that can be deployed ("put to use")
Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied"


Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied", implies spectrum as space that can be
                           occupied

Spectrum, resource          "opportunity cost", a term of economics; implies
                            spectrum is a resource that can entail an opportunity
                            cost if utilized (or not utilized)
Spectrum, resource          "valuable uses", spectrum has utility that can be
                            valued
Spectrum, space             "adjacent frequencies", frequencies can be spatially
                            adjacent to each other


Spectrum, resource          "economically","efficient distribution", qualifiers of
                            resources and uses of resources
Spectrum, substance         "blocks"
Spectrum, resource          "varying prices paid", implies that spectrum is a
                            resource to be paid for
Spectrum, substance         "spectrum blocks"

Spectrum, resource          "vested rights"; an economical perspective of "right" is
                            a right to a resource (a perspective I am taking here)

Spectrum, resource          "spectrum ownership", spectrum as a resource that
                            can be owned. "belong"
Spectrum, resource       Explicit

Spectrum, resource       "exchanges"; implies spectrum is a resource that can
                         be exchanged
Spectrum, resource       "spectrum exchanges", "tradable commodity", implies
                         spectrum as tradable resource
Spectrum, resource       "property"; implies spectrum as some kind of ownable
                         land
Spectrum, resource       "frequency rights", rights to spectrum; spectrum is a
                         resource
Spectrum, resource       "point of diminishing returns", spectrum as a resource
                         that has diminishing utility. (+1 reference on page
                         417)
Spectrum, resource       "spectrum acces", similar to spectrum rights.
                         Spectrum as a resource that can be accessed
                         (usually through politico-economic means?) +1 in
                         page.
Spectrum, resource       "available", "lowest possible prices", spectrum as a
                         resource that can be sold and controlled
Spectrum, space          "huge new spans"; spatial term for spectrum

Spectrum, resource       "starved"- spectrum as a food (resource)

Spectrum, resource       "chronic spectrum shortages","spectrum
                         management", shortages are linked with things of
                         value, utility. These resources are also managed (+1
                         reference to lack of spectrum resource in paragraph)

Spectrum, resource       "resource, economic scarcity"

Spectrum, resource       "scarcity"; Spectrum is something that can become
                         scarce
Spectrum, resource       "scarce", "abundant", qualifiers of resources.

Spectrum, resource       "scarcity", "abundancy", qualifiers of resources

Spectrum, resource       "commons", referring to spectrum as commons,
                         shared resources (viz Tragedy of the Commons)
Spectrum, land           dual-code: "lease", reference to land ownership.         2
                         "collide", implies signals as moving object


Signal, object, moving   dual-code: "lease", reference to land ownership.         2
                         "collide", implies signals as moving object


Signal, sound            "cacophony", implying signals are just sound
Unclear                  "unlimited bandwidth"
Other                    dual code: other: "rainbow" Spectrum as a substance:     2
                         "slice"
Spectrum, substance         dual code: other: "rainbow" Spectrum as a substance:      2
                            "slice"

Signal, object, moving      dual-code: "hop", implying signals are some moving        2
                            object, "band to band": by implication signals hop in a
                            spatial realm
Spectrum, space             dual-code: "hop", implying signals are some moving        2
                            object, "band to band": by implication signals hop in a
                            spatial realm
Spectrum, space             "frequency buffers", buffers as spatial separation
Spectrum, space             dual-code: "spread spectrum,"frequency path", as if       2
                            spectrum had "paths". Also implies that messages are
                            objects that move down paths
Signal, object, moving      dual-code: "spread spectrum,"frequency path", as if       2
                            spectrum had "paths". Also implies that messages are
                            objects that move down paths
Spectrum, resource          "fluid use of frequencies" - refers to utilization of
                            spectrum
Spectrum, resource          dual-code: "costly alternatives","scarcity","resource
                            use", implies spectrum as kind of resource.


Spectrum, substance         dual code: "scarce","resource","rationing": explicit      2
                            reference to resources. "slices": implies spectrum as
                            substance that can be cut
Spectrum, resource          dual code: "resource'                                     2

Spectrum, resource          "abundance", attribute of resource

Spectrum, space, container "dedicated channel","to flow to a receiver", as if these
                           "dedicated channels" were vessels, e.g. containers

Spectrum, space             dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects   2
                            that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                            is space for congestion to take place.
Signal, object, moving      dual-code: "traffic"; implies signals as moving objects   2
                            that get jammed in air. Traffic also implies that there
                            is space for congestion to take place.
Signal, object              "over a frequency", implying as messages were some
                            object to move.
Spectrum, resource          "supply", economic term
Signal, sound, speech       "intelligible", refers to speech comprehensibility

Spectrum, resource          "availability of spread spectrum","commons", as if
                            there was a lot of resources, no need for "commons"

Spectrum, resource          "commons", referring to spectrum as commons,
                            shared resources (viz Tragedy of the Commons)
Spectrum, resource          "exclusivity in spectrum use", same as rights/access
                            to spectrum. Spectrum is resource
Spectrum, resource          "utilization"; Spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource        "misallocates, scarce"

Spectrum, land            "tenancy"


Spectrum, space           "roam across", as if bandwidth were some space that
                          is traversable
Signal, object, moving    "traffic"


Unclear                   "spectrum sharing" - ?

Spectrum, space, container "over-crowded"


Spectrum, space           "airspace", implies spectrum as space

Spectrum, resource        "access to radio
                          spectrum","advantages","disadvantages", implies
                          spectrum is a resource that can be accessed; this
                          access can have a measure of advantage of
                          disadvantage. (+1 reference to "access" in next
                          sentence.)
Spectrum, resource        "scarce", qualifiers of resources.
Spectrum, resource        "utilization"; Spectrum has utility

Signal, object, moving    "traffic"


Signal, object, moving    "traffic"


Spectrum, resource        "scarcity", attribute of a resource
Spectrum, space           dual-code: "congestion", similar to traffic. Traffic       2
                          implies moving signals, also a space for congestion to
                          take place
Signal, object, moving    dual-code: "congestion", similar to traffic. Traffic       2
                          implies moving signals, also a space for congestion to
                          take place
Signal, object, moving    "traffic"

Spectrum, space           "crowded", implies Spectrum as a space that can be
                          occupied. Might be extended to "container(s)", but is a
                          bit vague.
Spectrum, resource        "intensive use", use that is qualified, implies spectrum
                          as a resource
Spectrum, resource        "public goods"

Spectrum, resource        "spectrum owners,"property rights regime", spectrum
                          is resource that has rights
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "wireless 'highway'", "lane to lane",            2
                           "travels", implies spectrum as some kind of space.
                           "bounces","travels", implies signals are travellers of
                           some sort
Signal, object, moving     dual-code: "wireless 'highway'", "lane to lane",            2
                           "travels", implies spectrum as some kind of space.
                           "bounces","travels", implies signals are travellers of
                           some sort
Spectrum, land             "property rights", "homesteading", spectrum as land

Spectrum, resource         "scarcity", attribute of a resource
Signal, object, moving     dual code "airwave traffic" as well as "squatter's          2
                           rights"- spectrum as land
Spectrum, land             dual code "airwave traffic" as well as "squatter's          2
                           rights"- spectrum as land
Spectrum, resource         "spectrum access","licensed","owned spectrum",
                           indicative of a resource

Spectrum, resource         "sharing","maximize value", implying spectrum is
                           resource
Spectrum, space            "airwave space", spectrum as space

Spectrum, land             "fallow", implies spectrum is some kind of utilized land

Spectrum, space            "spectrum space"

Spectrum, space            "frequency space", spectrum is thought of as space

Spectrum, land             "to define property rights", solution is to think of
                           spectrum as land

Spectrum, resource         "maximum bandwidth use","private control","access",
                           indicators of spectrum as a resource

Signal, sound              "background noise", implies signals are sound

Spectrum, resource         "purchase rights", spectrum as a limited access/rights
                           thing
Spectrum, resource         "given free access", implying that it is a benefit to
                           have free access to spectrum, implying that spectrum
                           is a resource
Unclear                    Unclear whether pollution codes as spectrum as land
                           or whether it’s a mental model to associate signals

Signal, object, altitude   dual code: "ceiling","floor", implies the signals can be    2
                           stratified. "noise", implies that signals are sound. (the
                           scare quotes are not in relation to "noise" and "floor"
                           individually, but the juxtaposition of the two)
Signal, sound                dual code: "ceiling","floor", implies the signals can be    2
                             stratified. "noise", implies that signals are sound. (the
                             scare quotes are not in relation to "noise" and "floor"
                             individually, but the juxtaposition of the two)

Spectrum, space              dual-code: "many miles", implies spectrum is a vast         2
                             expanse. "emissions ride", implies signals travel

Signal, object, moving       dual-code: "many miles", implies spectrum is a vast         2
                             expanse. "emissions ride", implies signals travel

Spectrum, space              "occupied frequencies", spectrum as space that can
                             be occupied
Spectrum, space              "channel space"

Spectrum, resource           "property rights", spectrum as property, resource

Spectrum, space, container spectrum as space "unoccupied" as well as
                           "frequency space"
Spectrum, space            "frequency space", spectrum is thought of as space

Spectrum, space, container "small fraction","capacity", "occupied", implies spatial
                           volume that is limited
Signal, object             dual-code: "were moved", implies that signals are             2
                           objects; "underutilized", implies that spectrum is a
                           resource that can be utilized
Spectrum, resource         dual-code: "were moved", implies that signals are             2
                           objects; "underutilized", implies that spectrum is a
                           resource that can be utilized
Spectrum, resource         "efficient","resource use", spectrum is resource
Spectrum, land             "swath", implies that band of frequencies are some
                           sort of land. Reinforced by that it can be purchased

Spectrum, resource           "utilize", "lease", implies spectrum/bandwidth as
                             resource
Spectrum, substance          "subdivide", as if bandwidth were some kind of
                             substance that was divisible
Spectrum, resource           "bands used more intensively" - implies that spectrum
                             is a heavily used resource
Spectrum, resource           "trading" as a resource/commodity

Spectrum, resource           "private property", implies spectrum is ownable, etc.

Signal, object, moving       "traffic"

Spectrum, space              dual-code: "airspace", spectrum is space,                   2
                             "responsible", "own" implies spectrum is resource
Spectrum, resource           dual-code: "airspace", spectrum is space,                   2
                             "responsible", "own" implies spectrum is resource
Unclear                      Tempted to code as "resource", but has strong ties
                             with economic terminology "private use" (as well as
                             surrounding context)
Spectrum, resource          dual code: "underutilized"; implies spectrum is           2
                            resource that has utility; "fraction"; implies that
                            spectrum is divisible
Spectrum, substance         dual code: "underutilized"; implies spectrum is           2
                            resource that has utility; "fraction"; implies that
                            spectrum is divisible
Spectrum, resource          "spectrum rights", implies economic rights to
                            spectrum, spectrum is resource
Spectrum, resource          "spectrum use", technical and legal aspects imply that
                            it is controlled and managed.
Spectrum, resource          "management rights", "maximize", spectrum is
                            something that can be managed, rights to. Usually
                            things that are managed are resources (human
                            resources, capital resource, etc).
Spectrum, space             dual code: "stockpile" - spectrum as a resource,          2
                            "frequency space"- spectrum as a space
Spectrum, resource          dual code: "stockpile" - spectrum as a resource,          2
                            "frequency space"- spectrum as a space
Spectrum, resource          "usage", spectrum has utility

Spectrum, resource          "under-utilized"

Spectrum, space             "adjacent frequencies", spatial term
Spectrum, resource          "underutilized"; implies spectrum is resource that has
                            utility
Spectrum, resource          "utilize", implies spectrum/bandwidth as resource
Spectrum, space             "spectrum space"

Spectrum, space, container "spillover", implies that these limits are boundaries of
                           space that signals must reside in
Signal, object             "spillover" Signals as objects within spectrum that can    3
                           spill over
Spectrum, resource         "utilized"

Spectrum, space, container "confined", implies assigned bandwidth as some
                           container that can confine emissions
Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied", spectrum as space to be occupied

Spectrum, resource          "licensee", "right", implies frequencies are some kind
                            of resource
Spectrum, resource          "use", spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource          explicit
Spectrum, resource          "commodities", "bought", implies spectrum has value

Spectrum, resource          "allocates resources"

Spectrum, space, container "overloading", implies spectrum has a certain load
                           that can be exceeded
Spectrum, resource         "private property", implies spectrum is ownable, etc.

Spectrum, space             "adjacent", spatial term
Spectrum, resource          "use", spectrum has utility
Spectrum, substance         "disaggregate"

Spectrum, resource          "utilization"

Spectrum, resource          "vested rights","owners", implies spectrum is an
                            economic *thing* to access
Spectrum, resource          "use", spectrum has utility
Spectrum, land              "vast tracts", indicates spectrum is some kind of land

Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied", spectrum as space to be occupied

Spectrum, resource         "privately owned", implies spectrum can be owned
Spectrum, resource         "property rights", implies spectrum as some kind of
                           property
Spectrum, space, container Access was blocked to save "space" within the
                           container
Spectrum, resource         "windfalls", "property rights", spectrum has value and
                           is property
Spectrum, space, container "vacant" "unocuppied"

Spectrum, resource          "efficient","utilization", spectrum is resource

Spectrum, resource         dual-code: "unoccupied", spectrum as space to be          2
                           occupied, "utilized", spectrum has utility
Spectrum, space, container dual-code: "unoccupied", spectrum as space to be          2
                           occupied, "utilized", spectrum has utility
Signal, object, moving     "traffic"

Spectrum, space             "radio space"

Spectrum, resource          "privatizing", "spectrum rights", Hazlett's usual
                            doctrine
Spectrum, resource          "underutilized"


Signal, object, altitude    "emissions beneath existing users", stratification of    2
                            signals. Automatically implies space for signals to
                            dodge each other
Spectrum, space             "emissions beneath existing users", stratification of    2
                            signals. Automatically implies space for signals to
                            dodge each other
Spectrum, resource          "utilized" and "untapped"                                2

Spectrum, space, container dual code: "unoccupied"; implies spectrum is space to     2
                           occupy; "underutilized"; implies spectrum is resource
                           that has utility
Spectrum, resource         dual code: "unoccupied"; implies spectrum is space to     2
                           occupy; "underutilized"; implies spectrum is resource
                           that has utility
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "competitive value","profit incentives",       2
                           implies airspace as resource. "airspace" - space
Spectrum, resource          dual-code: "competitive value","profit incentives",     2
                            implies airspace as resource. "airspace" - space
Spectrum, land              "vacant" and "spectrum space"

Spectrum, substance         "piece of spectrum",spectrum is a substance that is
                            divisible
Spectrum, resource          "property rights", "ownership"
Spectrum, space             "vacant"

Spectrum, space, container dual-code: "walled off", "remaining capacity", implies   2
                           that bandwidth has some sort of definite capcity.
                           "consume", implies that spectrum is consumable and
                           thus a resource
Spectrum, resource         dual-code: "walled off", "remaining capacity", implies   2
                           that bandwidth has some sort of definite capcity.
                           "consume", implies that spectrum is consumable and
                           thus a resource
Spectrum, resource         "drought"


Spectrum, space             dual-code: "vacant", "between", "intervals", spectrum   2
                            is space, "underutility" - spectrum has utility

Spectrum, resource          dual-code: "vacant", "between", "intervals", spectrum   2
                            is space, "underutility" - spectrum has utility

Spectrum, space, container "unoccupied", spectrum as space to be occupied
Signal, object, moving     "traffic"

Signal, object, moving      "traffic"

Spectrum, resource          "valuable","scarce","commodity"; implies spectrum is
                            a resource that has all these attributes

Spectrum, resource          "valuable",'scarce" - quite explicit
Spectrum, resource          "drought"


Spectrum, space             dual code "Frequency space"as space and                 2
                            "utilization" and "scarcity" as resource

Spectrum, resource          dual code "Frequency space"as space and                 2
                            "utilization" and "scarcity" as resource

Spectrum, resource          "utilized"

Spectrum, resource          (unclear) "scarcity","abundance", implies spectrum is
                            resource. However, it is only by implication that
                            Werbach is referring to spectrum.
Radios, agents              "smart radios","dumb terminals", implies radios are
                            sentient beings
Radios, agents              "intelligent devices", implies radios are sentient beings

Spectrum, resource          "spectrum shortage"
Spectrum, resource          "property rights", implies spectrum as some kind of
                            property
Signal, object, moving      dual-code: "pathways", implies spectrum as a                2
                            traversable space, "fly over", "speed", implies words
                            and pictures are moving objects
Spectrum, space             dual-code: "pathways", implies spectrum as a                2
                            traversable space, "fly over", "speed", implies words
                            and pictures are moving objects
Spectrum, resource          "real value", connection implies spectrum has value

Spectrum, land              "parceling", implies spectrum is land to be parceled
                            out
Spectrum, space             "occupy", implies spectrum is space to be occupied

Spectrum, space, container "carry", implies that frequencies are some kind of
                           container whose capacities could be expanded, and
                           signals reside within these frequency containers

Signal, sound, speech       "no different than…speech"

Spectrum, space             "share the same space", implies spectrum is a space

Signal, sound, speech       analogy speech to radio waves

Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Radios, agents              dual-code: "smarter", implies transmitters or receivers     2
                            can be "smart". "intelligible", implies signals are
                            speech
Signal, sound, speech       dual-code: "smarter", implies transmitters or receivers     2
                            can be "smart". "intelligible", implies signals are
                            speech
Spectrum, land              "Parceling"

Spectrum, substance         "chop up", implies frequencies is some kind of meat
                            that a mobile phone chef can slice and dice
Spectrum, resource          "scarcity"

Spectrum, space, container multi-code: "capacity" -> Container, "exhausted" ->          2
                           resource
Spectrum, resource         multi-code: "capacity" -> Container, "exhausted" ->          2
                           resource
Spectrum, resource         "useful","use", frequencies have utility

Spectrum, space, container "empty"
Spectrum, space            "to make room", implies that spectrum is space
Spectrum, space            "five thousand times wider", implies frequencies is
                           space
Spectrum, space, container "capacity"
Spectrum, space, container "filled up", "emptiness", implies spectrum is a
                           container
Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Unclear                     Unclear

Spectrum, space, container "capacity," also "wider"
Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Spectrum, resource         dual-code: "use", spectrum has utility. "width", implies     2
                           spectrum is space
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "use", spectrum has utility. "width", implies     2
                           spectrum is space
Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Signal, sound, speech       Explicit
Spectrum, resource          "use", spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource          "scarce"


Spectrum, resource          "asset", airwaves (spectrum) have value
Spectrum, resource          "scarce", spectrum has scarcity

Spectrum, space             "space"

Radios, agents              "smart enough"

Radios, agents              "think for themselves", implies transmitters and
                            receivers can think
Spectrum, space             "wide 'buffer'" - buffer zone

Radios, agents              "smart enough"

Radios, agents              "intelligent devices", implies radios are sentient beings

Spectrum, space             "adjacent..frequencywise"

Spectrum, resource          "scarcity", spectrum has scarcity

Spectrum, space             "wide 'guard bands'" - spatial term

Signal, sound               "louder the signal", signal has audible volume
Signal, object, moving      dual-code: "spread across wide range of frequencies",       2
                            "hopping", implies that spectrum is both spatial and
                            that signals can hop
Spectrum, space            dual-code: "spread across wide range of frequencies",       2
                           "hopping", implies that spectrum is both spatial and
                           that signals can hop


Spectrum, resource         "usable" - spectrum has utility
Radios, agents             "intelligent devices", implies radios are sentient beings

Radios, agents             Dual code: signal as speech also radios as the agent        2

Signal, sound, speech      Dual code: signal as speech also radios as the agent        2

Unclear                    "sharing spectrum" - ?

Radios, agents             dual code "empty spaces"- spectrum as space,                2
                           radio's as agents "move their signals"

Spectrum, space            dual code "empty spaces"- spectrum as space,                2
                           radio's as agents "move their signals"

Spectrum, space            "narrow channel" - spatial term

Spectrum, substance        "Splitting up spectrum", implies spectrum is some
                           ham you can slice and dice

Unclear                    A fancy catch-phrase - perhaps implies Radio/agent,
                           but not clear enough
Spectrum, space, container "carry"

Signal, object, altitude   Dual code "within the same frequency band" also             2
                           "thousands of miles overhead"

Spectrum, space            Dual code "within the same frequency band" also             2
                           "thousands of miles overhead"

Radios, agents             Signals- "arrival" radios "distinguish"

Signal, object, moving     Signals- "arrival" radios "distinguish"

Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Spectrum, space            "in the same"

Signal, sound              "noise" - signals are noisy
Spectrum, space            "empty"
Radios, agents


Radios, agents             dual code: "bouncing" and "knowing"                         2

Signal, object, moving     dual code: "bouncing" and "knowing"                         2
Radios, agents             dual-code: "talk to each other", implies that there is     2
                           some intelligence, also implies that signal is speech

Signal, sound, speech      dual-code: "talk to each other", implies that there is     2
                           some intelligence, also implies that signal is speech

Signal, object, moving     "encounter" "bounce" "pass through"

Radios, agents             dual code "swath" and "talks"                              2

Spectrum, land             dual code "swath" and "talks"                              2

Spectrum, space            "larger swath of spectrum", swaths of spectrum imply
                           space
Spectrum, substance        Dual code: "manufacture" and "agile radios"                2

Spectrum, substance        Dual code: "manufacture" and "agile radios"                2

Spectrum, space            "empty", "in much of the defined physical area",
                           implies that spectrum maps spatially to physical
                           space
Radios, agents             "intelligent devices", devices have intelligence           2


Unclear                    dual-code: "spectrum auctions", spectrum can be            2
                           auctioned, implies resource? Coded Unclear.
                           "intelligent devices", devices have intelligence
Spectrum, land             "capacity", "commons" , implies spectrum as a
                           common land that has "enough capacity"
Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Spectrum, space, container "squeeze" "capacity"

Unclear                    "like an ocean", it's not land, but it's more than space

Spectrum, resource         "use", "licensed" spectrum, spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource         "spectrum usage", spectrum has utility

Other                      This isn't a metaphor for Spectrum as a substance
                           but rather an argument against it

Unclear                    "sharing spectrum" - ?

Spectrum, space, container "capacity'

Signal, object, altitude   "below "

Signal, sound              dual-code: "spread across huge frequency ranges",          2
                           implies spectrum is space. "below detectable noise
                           floor", implies signals are noise
Spectrum, space          dual-code: "spread across huge frequency ranges",        2
                         implies spectrum is space. "below detectable noise
                         floor", implies signals are noise
Spectrum, substance      "block"


Spectrum, substance      "holes"


Spectrum, space          "guard bands","between", like "buffer frequencies",
                         implies spectrum is a space where signals can collide
                         or interfere with each other
Spectrum, substance      "slice","spectrum pie", spectrum is now pie

Radios, agents           dual-code: "smart devices", devices have intelligence.   2
                         "impinging", implies signals are some kind of moving
                         object
Signal, object, moving   dual-code: "smart devices", devices have intelligence.   2
                         "impinging", implies signals are some kind of moving
                         object
Spectrum, resource       "taking advantage","unused", implies spectrum has
                         utility. Perhaps from this, all "sharing" implies
                         spectrum, resource?
Spectrum, resource       See previous note regarding "opportunitistic sharing
                         spectrum"
Signal, blanket          "coverage"



Signal, blanket          "covering"

Signal, object, moving   "traffic"

Signal, object, moving   "traffic"


Spectrum, space          "frequency-hopping", implies that signals can hop.       2
                         Also implies that there is space to hop around
Radios, agents           "frequency-hopping", implies that signals can hop.       2
                         Also implies that there is space to hop around
Spectrum, resource       "tapping" "costs"

Unclear                  "send data long distances" - implies that signals that
                         carry the data are moving objects
Radios, agents           dual-code: "Cognitive radios", radios have cognition,    2
                         "free space in spectrum", spectrum is space

Spectrum, space          dual-code: "Cognitive radios", radios have cognition,    2
                         "free space in spectrum", spectrum is space

Spectrum, resource       "scarcity"
Spectrum, resource         "spectrum use" - spectrum has utiltiy

Radios, agents             "Cognitive radio" - radio has cognition


Unclear                    Unlicensed sharing of spectrum….does imply
                           resource?
Spectrum, resource         "scarcity"


Spectrum, space, container dual code "usable" - resource and "capacity"-            2
                           spectrum as container

Spectrum, resource         dual code "usable" - resource and "capacity"-            2
                           spectrum as container

Radios, agents             "Cognitive radio" - radio has cognition

Spectrum, resource         "under-utilized", spectrum has utility


Signal, object, altitude   "use"- spectrum as resource and "high"- signals as       2
                           described by altitude
Spectrum, resource         "use"- spectrum as resource and "high"- signals as       2
                           described by altitude
Signal, object, altitude   "above"

Unclear                    spectrum sharing again

Signal, object, altitude   "low" and "below"

Spectrum, space            "large block","open space", implies spectrum is space


Spectrum, resource         "scarcity", spectrum has scarcity. Once again,
                           "opportunistic sharing" is linked with resource

Signal, object, moving     "impinge", implies that these transmissions are
                           signals that move and "hit" other systems.
Spectrum, space            "congested"


Spectrum, land             "fallow", implies that spectrum is some kind of unused
                           farmland. The predominant usage of the land
                           metaphor here is with its "un-usage" and 'under-
                           utilization"
Spectrum, space            dual code: "open space" -> Space, "block" ->             2
                           substance

Spectrum, substance        dual code: "open space" -> Space, "block" ->             2
                           substance
Spectrum, resource         "opportunistic sharing" -- see note above

Radios, agents             "intelligent devices", implies radios are sentient beings

Unclear                    "interweave", perhaps a sympathetic metaphor to one
                           that we currently have categorized. One way we might
                           think of signals is threads. Too many of them might
                           tangle up, causing congestion, etc.
Interference, heat         "interference temperature limit", as more emitting
                           transmitters are added to the system, the temperature
                           increases, implying that signals are some form of heat
                           energy. Ironically, this is the metaphor closest to
                           physical reality yet, just not in the right frequency
                           range =).
Spectrum, space, container "into the band"


Interference, heat         "inteference temperature limit", "upper band", sort of
                           implies that the band is some sort of environment with
                           a climate, where too many signals makes it too hot to
                           properly operate in. Reinforces the idea that taking
                           the term "temperature", which applies to infrared
                           radiation, to even farther down the electromagnetic
                           spectrum.... but to an effect that is lost upon the
                           layman.

Spectrum, resource         "spectrum resource"




Signal, sound              "noise sources", implies that signals are noise




Unclear                    "present in frequency bands" imply something about
                           frequency bands being containers, but here the
                           "thing" being "contained" is not an object, but an
                           action - "interference". How does the mind represent
                           "interference"?
Interference, heat         "inteference temperature", implies signals are forms        2
                           of heat. "RF noise…levels", implies signals are sound.
                           Note the inconsistent mash-up of metaphors.

Signal, sound              "inteference temperature", implies signals are forms        2
                           of heat. "RF noise…levels", implies signals are sound.
                           Note the inconsistent mash-up of metaphors.
Interference, heat          "interference temperature limit", implies signals are    2
                            forms of heat. "cumulative noise", implies signals are
                            sound



Signal, sound               "interference temperature limit", implies signals are    2
                            forms of heat. "cumulative noise", implies signals are
                            sound



Spectrum, resource          "how the spectrum is …being used", spectrum has
                            utility



Radios, agents              "responses of transmitters"

Spectrum, resource          "limited supply of spectrum", spectrum has scarcity




Spectrum, resource          "effective use of the spectrum", spectrum has utility


Spectrum, space             "adjacent or nearby frequency bands", spectrum is
                            space


Spectrum, resource          "economically efficient uses of the spectrum",
                            spectrum has utility. Also note "market-oriented
                            approaches".


Spectrum, space, container "out-of-band emissions", implies an "in" and "out" of
                           band orientation, implying bands are containers

Spectrum, substance         "portions of the spectrum"



Spectrum, space, container Dual code: Spectrum as containers "in" and spectrum       2
                           as a space- "across"

Spectrum, space             Dual code: Spectrum as containers "in" and spectrum      2
                            as a space- "across"
Unclear              "interference temperature environment", the same
                     environment I was talking about in a note above.
                     Spectrum as a climate?



Spectrum, resource   "uses of the spectrum", spectrum has utility



Spectrum, resource   "economically efficient uses of the spectrum",
                     spectrum has utility. Also note "market-oriented
                     approaches". (AGAIN)

Interference, heat   "temperature limits", implies signals as form of heat    2
                     energy, "noise floor", implies signals as sound


Signal, sound        "temperature limits", implies signals as form of heat    2
                     energy, "noise floor", implies signals as sound


Radios, agents       "interaction between"




Interference, heat   "interference temperature metric", implies signals are
                     form of heat energy



Spectrum, resource   "spectrum demand", spectrum has demand



Spectrum, space      "across the radio spectrum", implies spectrum as         2
                     space. "interference temperature limits", implies
                     signals are form of heat energy
Interference, heat           "across the radio spectrum", implies spectrum as            2
                             space. "interference temperature limits", implies
                             signals are form of heat energy




Interference, heat           "interference temperature", implies signals as form of
                             heat energy. Also note "RF environment". Spectrum
                             as an environment with climate? Introduce new
                             metaphor, "Spectrum, climate"?
Interference, heat           RF energy is now measured in Kelvins (valid
                             mathematically but is strange metaphor-wise)
Spectrum, resource           "spectrum use", spectrum has utility



Spectrum, resource           "economically efficient uses of spectrum"

Spectrum, space, container "out-of-band emissions", implies an "in" and "out" of
                           band orientation, implying bands are containers. Also,
                           "adjacent frequencies" imply spectrum of space, but
                           that is a "super-class" (if you will) of container(s), thus
                           is included by definition. Think "adjacent containers"

Unclear                      "unrealized opportunities"

Interference, heat           "temperature", implies signals as form of heat energy.      2
                             "RF environment","acceptable temperature level",
                             implies that Spectrum is some sort of climate

Other                        "temperature", implies signals as form of heat energy.      2
                             "RF environment","acceptable temperature level",
                             implies that Spectrum is some sort of climate

Interference, heat           "temperature", implies signals as form of heat energy.      2
                             "interference temperature profile for the region",
                             evokes thought of colorful temperature gradient
                             graphs use in climatology, thus will code as
                             Spectrum, climate
Other                        "temperature", implies signals as form of heat energy.      2
                             "interference temperature profile for the region",
                             evokes thought of colorful temperature gradient
                             graphs use in climatology, thus will code as
                             Spectrum, climate
Signal, altitude             "below"
Interference, heat   "temperature", implies signals as form of heat energy



Interference, heat   "temperature", implies signals as form of heat energy




Radios, agents       "make a decision"




Radios, agents       "determines"


Signal, blanket      "signal coverage"

Signal, sound        "noise floor", implies signal as noise. This is in
                     conjunction with Figure 1 on page 7, which shows the
                     same inconsistent juxtaposition of metaphors. There
                     is a consistency of this inconsistent juxtaposition…

Spectrum, space      "occupied"


Spectrum, space      "unoccupied frequency bands", implies frequency as
                     space that can be occupied
Interference, heat   "interference temperature", implies signals as form of   2
                     heat energy. "Costs and benefits", spectrum is
                     resource
Spectrum, resource   "interference temperature", implies signals as form of   2
                     heat energy. "Costs and benefits", spectrum is
                     resource
Spectrum, resource   "efficient use of the spectrum", spectrum has utility.
                     Déjà vu.




Unclear              "services share the spectrum"


Interference, heat   "temperature limits", implies signals as form of heat
                     energy. Metaphor deluges the text for the remainder
                     of the page.
Interference, heat   "temperature limits", implies signal as form of heat     2
                     energy. "noise floor", implies signal as sound
Signal, sound              "temperature limits", implies signal as form of heat      2
                           energy. "noise floor", implies signal as sound

Spectrum, space, container "in the various frequency bands"

Unclear                    "tolerate"- contrast to using a word such as "hold" to
                           imply spectrum as a container

Interference, heat         "interference temperature", implies signal as form as     2
                           heat energy. "noise floor", implies signal as sound

Signal, sound              "interference temperature", implies signal as form as     2
                           heat energy. "noise floor", implies signal as sound

Signal, sound              "naturally occuring noise", signals are noise

Interference, heat         "interference temperature", implies signal as form as     2
                           heat energy. "noise floor", implies signal as sound

Signal, sound              "interference temperature", implies signal as form as     2
                           heat energy. "noise floor", implies signal as sound

Signal, object, altitude   "below"

Spectrum, substance        "segment of this band"

Spectrum, space, container "in these bands"

Unclear                    Bands are able to "support" systems?

Spectrum, space            "unoccupied"

Spectrum, substance        "portion of the bands"


Spectrum, space            "Spectrum occupancy", spectrum is space to be
                           occupied
Spectrum ,space            "spectrum occupancy"


Spectrum, space, container "out-of-band emissions"

Interference, heat         "interference temperature", implies signal as form of
                           heat energy

Spectrum, resource         "efficient use", implies spectrum has utility

Spectrum, resource         "scarce resource","efficient allocation", says spectrum   2
                           is resource
Spectrum, land              The term "parcels" could make this spectrum as land       2
                            or containers, depending on how you look at it.
                            There's the code for "scarce resource" as wel.



Spectrum, resource          "Valuable"


Spectrum, land              "poach" on the frequencies, implies that spectrum is
                            land where there is game

Unclear                     "poach"


Spectrum, resource          "limited national resource"



Spectrum, resource          "utilize"



Spectrum, resource          "value" "starved"

Spectrum, resource          "extremely underutilized", spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource          "inefficient use", spectrum has utility, has efficiency

Spectrum, resource          "scarce resource", spectrum has scarcity

Spectrum, resource          "usable spectrum", spectrum has usability metric?


Spectrum, space, container "in other bands"


Spectrum, resource          "scarce resource"


Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Unclear                    Do we have a category that fits for "Spectrum as
                           property" I think this could apply to land, but it can
                           also apply to objects
Spectrum, substance        "aggregated or subdivided", implies Spectrum is like
                           play-dough. On the other hand, I'm not sure if this
                           could actually be Spectrum as resource, because it
                           seems to be in a legal context, that is, resources
                           being aggregated or subdivided.
Spectrum, space, container "spillovers"
Spectrum, space, container "out-of-band power leakage"


Radios, agents              "ability…to filter out"

Spectrum, space, container "adjacent","power spills", implies that frequencies are
                           like containers, that once filled to the brim with
                           "power", spill over to adjacent containers
Spectrum, space, container "spillover"

Spectrum, space, container "spillover"


Spectrum, resource          "wasted spectrum", implies spectrum has utility

Spectrum, space, container "in-band", "out-of-band", in 'n out terminology implies
                           spectrum as a series of containers


Spectrum, space, container "spillover"


Spectrum, resource          "property rights", implies spectrum is resource

Signal, object              "emit"

Spectrum, resource          "scarce resource of spectrum"




Signal, object              "Emission"


Spectrum, space             "openness"

Spectrum, space             "openness"

Spectrum, space             "range of frequencies"

Spectrum, space             "large fraction of total frequency", implies spectrum is
                            divisible like space.

Signal, sound               "noise", implies signals as noise
Spectrum, space             "very wide bandwidth", implies spectrum is space          2




Signal, object, moving      "transmitted, captured" and "wide"                        2



Spectrum, space, container "emit in that band", "switch to another band", implies     2
                           bands are some sort of tubing or piping, thus I have
                           opted to use "container".
Radios, agents             "determine" "switch" "emit"                                2


Spectrum, resource          "more efficient use of bandwidth", spectrum has utility   2



Radios, agents              "find an unused band"                                     2




Radios, agents              "must be agile", radios as having agility
Radios, agents              "switches"

Spectrum, resource          "scarcity"

Spectrum, resource          "'tragedy of the commons'", "resource is overused",
                            spectrum is resource

n/a

Spectrum, resource          "efficient use", implies spectrum has utility


Spectrum, resource          "scarcity"

Spectrum, space             multicode: "vacated"                                      2

Radios, agents              multicode: "vacated"                                      2

Radios, agents              multicode: "vacate"                                       2


Spectrum, space             multicode: "vacate"                                       2
Spectrum, land              "easement"




Signal, sound               "noise threshold", implies signals as noise

Spectrum, space             "adjacent"




Spectrum, space             "adjacent"




Spectrum, space             "adjacent bands", spectrum is space


Spectrum, space             "capacity"




Spectrum, resource          "scarce"


Spectrum, resource          "price of spectrum", spectrum has value

Spectrum, resource          "excess supply"

Spectrum, resource          "scarcity"

Spectrum, resource          "scarce", spectrum has scarcity


Spectrum, space            "next frequency they hop", implies both that radios are   3
                           agents that can hope, also that signals are objects,
                           because radios are "using these signals" to hop, and
                           also that spectrum is space to hop in
Radios, agents             "next frequency they hop", implies both that radios are   3
                           agents that can hope, also that signals are objects,
                           because radios are "using these signals" to hop, and
                           also that spectrum is space to hop in
Signal, object, moving     "next frequency they hop", implies both that radios are   3
                           agents that can hope, also that signals are objects,
                           because radios are "using these signals" to hop, and
                           also that spectrum is space to hop in
Spectrum, space, container "congest"
Spectrum, resource          "spectrum scarcity"

Spectrum, resource          "scarcity"


Spectrum, resource          "scarcity"


Spectrum, resource          "scarcity"


Spectrum, resource          "scarce"
Spectrum, resource          "utilize the spectrum fully", spectrum has utility


Spectrum, space, container "fill this…spectrum"

Spectrum, resource          "scarce resource"

Spectrum, resource          "underutilization"



Spectrum, resource          "scarce"


Spectrum, resource          "supply"

Spectrum, space, container "free up enough RF capacity" - implying that RF is a
                           container with set capacity. READ NOTE

Unclear                     "access"

Unclear                     "access"


Spectrum, resource          "resource"
Unclear                     "underlie"


Spectrum, resource          "scarcity" and "abundance"


Spectrum, resource          "Spectrum shortage" implies there is scarcity, thus
                            spectrum is a resource

Unclear                     "Shortage"


Spectrum, container(s)      Dual code: Spectrum as a container and signals as     2
                            sounds. "portions" and "quiet"
Signal, sound               Dual code: Spectrum as a container and signals as       2
                            sounds. "portions" and "quiet"

Spectrum, space             "Adjacent channels, guard bands", implies space

Spectrum, container(s)      "capacity"


Spectrum, container(s)      "occupies"


Signal, sound               "Bands are quiet most of time" - implying signals in
                            these bands are noise

Spectrum, substance         "supply"

Spectrum, resource          "utilization"


Unclear                     Radios as causing interference

Spectrum, space, container "Squeeze more and more capacity" - implies
                           spectrum is like a toothpaste tube.
Signal, object, moving     "Pass"

Spectrum, container(s)      "capacity"

Spectrum, container(s)      "carry"

Spectrum, resource          "Future abundance", implying it is more scarce today,
                            implying resource.

Spectrum, resource          "common misconception that ..." "resource"


Spectrum, substance         Demonstrates that Werbach does NOT think of
                            spectrum as a substance
Radios, agents              "smart," "focus"

Radios, agents              "radiating" "figure out"


Unclear                    Once again -- the "highway" metaphor, likening
                           signals to freight trains and cars, moving objects.
Spectrum, space, container "capacity"


Spectrum, resource          "Cache" - implying spectrum is a precious resource to
                            be cached.
Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Spectrum, space, container "capacity"

Signal, sound              "cacophony"



Spectrum, resource         "scarcity"
Spectrum, resource         "Commodity" - implies resource

Radios, agents             "cognitive"


Spectrum, resource         "Commercial value" - implies spectrum has value,
                           thus implies resource
Spectrum, resource         "Abundance" - implies resource

Spectrum, resource         "scarce"

Radios, agents             "communicates"

Spectrum, resource         "resources"


Spectrum, resource         "resources"



Spectrum, resource         "resources"

Spectrum, resource         "resources", "utility" - spectrum has utility

Spectrum, resource         "Use" - implies spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource         "maximizing utility" - spectrum has utility


Spectrum, resource         "increasing the utility" - spectrum has utility

Spectrum, space            "all across the spectrum" - spatial organization term

Spectrum, resource         "maximize total utility" - spectrum has utility


Signal, object             "pick up" - signal as an object that is "picked up"

Spectrum, resource         "usable radio spectrum" - select parts of spectrum
                           have utility
Radios, agents             "discriminates, determines"
Radios, agents              "ability" "pick up" and signals as objects that can be   2
                            'picked up"


Signal, object              "ability" "pick up" and signals as objects that can be   2
                            'picked up"


Spectrum, container(s)     "radiates into a particular band" - not only does this
                           imply spectrum is space that energy is "poured" into,
                           but it is radiated into a specific band as opposed to
                           others; the keyword is "into" which implies spectrum
                           consists of container bands.
Spectrum, space, container "spill over"

Spectrum, space, container "restrict signals to a particular frequency band" -
                           implies that signals spill over these frequency bands,
                           which implies spectrum consists of containers

Spectrum, container(s)      "emits small amounts… in frequency bands" - implies
                            frequency bands are containers that transmitters can
                            emit something into

Spectrum, resource          "protection"

Spectrum, resource          "efficient use of spectrum resources" - spectrum has
                            utility


Spectrum, resource          "sharing of the band" - implies that spectrum is a
                            resource that can be shared

Spectrum, resource          "protect against"


Spectrum, resource          "resources"

Signal, object, moving      "collisions", implies that signals are like auto
                            collisions, which implies signals are moving objects
                            like autos
Spectrum, land              "swath"


Signal, object, moving      multi-code: "obstructs": implies signals are moving      2
                            objects that block each other. "interrupts": implies
                            signals are a form of speech/noise that can be
                            interrupted.
Signal, noise, speech       multi-code: "obstructs": implies signals are moving      2
                            objects that block each other. "interrupts": implies
                            signals are a form of speech/noise that can be
                            interrupted.
Interference, harm         "harmful interference", implies that interference does
                           harm
Spectrum, space, container "out-of-band interference" can imply that there's a set
                           space or territory for the signal

Interference, harm          "inflicted", "harmful", implies that interference does
                            harm

Interference, harm          "harmful interference", implies that interference does
                            harm

Interference, harm          "protect DBS from interference" - implies that services
                            need protection from a damaging source

Spectrum, space             "in"

Spectrum, resource          "spectrum sharing" - implies that spectrum is a
                            resource that can be shared



Spectrum, space             "across a wide frequency range" for spectrum as           2
                            space, and "block" for signals as objects


Signal, object              multi code: "across a wide frequency range" for           2
                            spectrum as space, and "block" for signals as objects


Spectrum, space, container multi code: "scarce spectrum resources" and                2
                           "spectrum occupied by"


Spectrum, resource          multi code: "scarce spectrum resources" and               2
                            "spectrum occupied by"


Spectrum, land              "swath"



Spectrum, space             "across a huge frequency range" - implies that
                            spectrum is a spatial range of frequencies
Interference, harm          "protect …spectrum users" - implies that users need
                            protection from interference that damages

Spectrum, space             "in many bands"

Spectrum, resource          "utility" - spectrum has utility
Spectrum, resource   "under-utilization of spectrum resources"

Spectrum, resource   "utility"




Spectrum, resource   "spectrum resources"




Spectrum, resource   "utility"




Spectrum, resource   "utility"

Spectrum, resource   "utility"

Spectrum, resource   "spectrum users, use of spectrum" - spectrum has
                     utility



Spectrum, resource   "spectrum resources"



Spectrum, space      "across many bands" - across implies that spectrum
                     is space
Spectrum, resource   multicode: "utility" and "occupied"                  2



Spectrum, space      multicode: "utility" and "occupied"                  2



Spectrum, resource   "use of the band" - implies spectrum has utility

Spectrum, resource   "share frequencies", by definition of "sharing"
                     spectrum is a resource

Spectrum, land       "much as it allocates lands"
Spectrum, resource       "productive"; "spectrum sharing", by defition of
                         "sharing" spectrum is a resource


Spectrum, resource       "productive airwave use", spectrum has utility and its
                         use can be productive

Spectrum, resource       "resource-appropriation"

Spectrum, resource       "private spectrum property", spectrum can be property

Spectrum, resource       "overuse"

Spectrum, resource       "underutilization"

Spectrum, resource       "utilization"


Spectrum, resource       "productive"

Spectrum, space          multicode: "over-the-air","delivery platform", implies   2
                         that signals are moving objects that travel in a
                         spectrum that is space
Signal, object, moving   multicode: "over-the-air","delivery platform", implies   2
                         that signals are moving objects that travel in a
                         spectrum that is space
Spectrum, resource       "opportunity costs", spectrum is an economic
                         resource in order to have opportunity costs

Spectrum, resource       "spectrum sharing", by defition of "sharing" spectrum
                         is a resource

Spectrum, space          "in"


Spectrum, space          "adjacent to the 800-Mhz cellular bands", adjacency is
                         spatial term
Spectrum, resource       "access regimes" this is defined earlier
 : An Essay on Airwave Allocation Policy," Harvard Journal of Law & Technology (Spring 2001), 335-567, http://mason.gmu.edu/~thazlett/pub
d 15 Dec 2003 on NAF site http://www.newamerica.net/index.cfm?pg=article&DocID=1427
 er 02-12, December 2002




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Citing Evan Kwerel,     Haz 01   404 SRS+hy
John Williams

                        Haz 01   404 hy


                        Haz 01   404 hy

                        Haz 01   405 hy



citing "Congressional   Haz 01   405 hy
budget Office"
                        Haz 01   405 SRS
                        Haz 01   405 hy

                        Haz 01   405 SRS

                        Haz 01   406 hy


                        Haz 01   406 hy
                       Haz 01    406 hy

                       Haz 01    407 hy

                       Haz 01    407 hy

                       Haz 01    407 hy

                       Haz 01    409 hy

citing presidnt of      Haz 01   410 hy
National Association of
Broadcasters
                        Haz 01   410 hy



citing Reed Hundt      Haz 01    410 hy

citing George Gilder   Haz 01    411 hy

                       Haz 01    412 SRS+hy

                       Haz 01    413 hy




                       Haz 01    417 SRS

                       Haz 01    419 hy

citing George Gilder   Haz 01    420 hy

                       Haz 01    421 hy

                       Haz 01    421 hy

citing George Gilder   Haz 01    422 hy



citing George Gilder   Haz 01    422 hy



                       Haz 01    422 hy
                       Haz 01    422 hy
Noam                   Haz 01    422 SRS
Noam   Haz 01   422 SRS


       Haz 01   422 SRS+hy


       Haz 01   422 hy


       Haz 01   422 hy
       Haz 01   422 hy


       Haz 01   422 hy


       Haz 01   422 hy

       Haz 01   422 hy



       Haz 01   422 SRS+hy


       Haz 01   422 SRS+hy

       Haz 01   422 hy

       Haz 01   422 hy


       Haz 01   423 hy


       Haz 01   423 hy


       Haz 01   423 hy

       Haz 01   423 hy
       Haz 01   423 hy

       Haz 01   424 hy


       Haz 01   424 hy

       Haz 01   424 hy

       Haz 01   425 SRS+hy
Haz 01   425 SRS

Haz 01   426 SRS


Haz 01   426 hy

Haz 01   426 SRS


Haz 01   427 hy

Haz 01   427 SRS


Haz 01   427 SRS+hy

Haz 01   427 hy




Haz 01   427 hy
Haz 01   427 SRS+hy

Haz 01   428 SRS


Haz 01   428 SRS


Haz 01   428 hy
Haz 01   429 hy


Haz 01   429 hy


Haz 01   429 SRS

Haz 01   431 hy


Haz 01   431 hy

Haz 01   432 SRS

Haz 01   432 hy
citing Wong   Haz 01   432 hy



citing Wong   Haz 01   432 hy



              Haz 01   432 hy

              Haz 01   432 hy
              Haz 01   432 SRS

              Haz 01   432 SRS

              Haz 01   434 hy


              Haz 01   434 hy

              Haz 01   434 SRS+hy

              Haz 01   434 hy

              Haz 01   434 SRS+hy

              Haz 01   435 SRS+hy

              Haz 01   435 hy


              Haz 01   435 hy


              Haz 01   435 hy

              Haz 01   435 hy

              Haz 01   435 hy


              Haz 01   435 SRS


              Haz 01   435 hy
                 Haz 01   435 hy




                 Haz 01   435 hy


                 Haz 01   435 hy


                 Haz 01   436 hy

                 Haz 01   436 SRS

                 Haz 01   436 hy

                 Haz 01   436 SRS+hy

                 Haz 01   437 SRS+hy

                 Haz 01   437 hy

                 Haz 01   438 hy


                 Haz 01   438 SRS+hy


                 Haz 01   438 hy
                 Haz 01   438 hy


                 Haz 01   439 SRS+hy

                 Haz 01   439 hy

                 Haz 01   440 hy

                 Haz 01   441 SRS

citing unknown   Haz 01   442 hy

                 Haz 01   442 SRS

                 Haz 01   442 SRS+hy

                 Haz 01   442 hy

                 Haz 01   442 hy
                 Haz 01   443 hy


                 Haz 01   443 hy


                 Haz 01   443 hy

                 Haz 01   443 hy

                 Haz 01   443 hy



                 Haz 01   443 SRS

                 Haz 01   443 SRS

                 Haz 01   443 hy

                 Haz 01   443 SRS

                 Haz 01   444 hy
                 Haz 01   444 SRS+hy

                 Haz 01   444 hy
                 Haz 01   444 SRS+hy

                 Haz 01   444 SRS+hy

                 Haz 01   444 SRS

                 Haz 01   444 SRS

                 Haz 01   445 hy

                 Haz 01   445 SRS+hy

                 Haz 01   445 hy

citing unknown   Haz 01   446 hy
                 Haz 01   448 hy
                 Haz 01   449 hy

                 Haz 01   449 SRS

citing Kennard   Haz 01   449 hy

                 Haz 01   449 hy

                 Haz 01   450 hy
Haz 01   450 hy
Haz 01   450 SRS

Haz 01   451 SRS

Haz 01   452 hy

Haz 01   452 hy
Haz 01   452 hy

Haz 01   453 hy

Haz 01   453 hy
Haz 01   453 hy

Haz 01   455 SRS

Haz 01   455 hy

Haz 01   455 SRS

Haz 01   456 SRS+hy

Haz 01   456 SRS+hy

Haz 01   456 SRS+hy

Haz 01   456 SRS

Haz 01   458 SRS

Haz 01   458 hy

Haz 01   458 SRS


Haz 01   458 hy


Haz 01   458 hy


Haz 01   459 SRS

Haz 01   461 SRS+hy


Haz 01   461 SRS+hy


Haz 01   461 SRS+hy
           Haz 01   461 SRS+hy

           Haz 01   461 SRS

           Haz 01   463 hy

           Haz 01   464 hy
           Haz 01   466 SRS

           Haz 01   466 hy



           Haz 01   466 hy



Brinkley   Haz 01   466 SRS


           Haz 01   466 SRS+hy


           Haz 01   466 SRS+hy


           Haz 01   468 hy
           Haz 01   469 SRS

           Haz 01   469 SRS

           Haz 01   469 hy


           Haz 01   469 hy
           Haz 01   469 SRS


           Haz 01   469 SRS+hy


           Haz 01   469 SRS


           Haz 01   469 SRS

           Wer 03   1   hy


           Wer 03   1   hy
Wer 03   1   hy

Wer 03   2   SRS
Wer 03   2   hy

Wer 03   2   hy


Wer 03   2   hy


Wer 03   2   hy

Wer 03   3   SRS+hy

Wer 03   3   SRS+hy

Wer 03   3   hy



Wer 03   3   SRS

Wer 03   5   hy

Wer 03   6   SRS

Wer 03   7   SRS

Wer 03   7   hy


Wer 03   7   hy


Wer 03   7   SRS

Wer 03   7   hy

Wer 03   7   SRS

Wer 03   8   SRS

Wer 03   8   hy

Wer 03   8   hy

Wer 03   8   SRS
Wer 03   8   hy
Wer 03   8    hy

Wer 03   9    SRS
Wer 03   9    SRS+hy

Wer 03   9    SRS

Wer 03   9    hy

Wer 03   9    SRS
Wer 03   9    SRS

Wer 03   9    hy

Wer 03   9    hy

Wer 03   11   SRS

Wer 03   11   hy
Wer 03   11   hy
Wer 03   12   SRS


Wer 03   12   hy
Wer 03   12   hy

Wer 03   13   SRS

Wer 03   13   SRS

Wer 03   13   SRS+hy

Wer 03   14   hy

Wer 03   14   SRS

Wer 03   14   hy

Wer 03   14   SRS

Wer 03   14   hy

Wer 03   14   hy

Wer 03   14   hy
Wer 03   15   SRS+hy
Wer 03   15   SRS+hy




Wer 03   15   SRS+hy
Wer 03   15   hy

Wer 03   15   SRS

Wer 03   15   SRS

Wer 03   15   hy

Wer 03   16   SRS


Wer 03   16   SRS


Wer 03   16   hy

Wer 03   16   SRS+hy


Wer 03   16   hy

Wer 03   16   SRS

Wer 03   17   SRS


Wer 03   17   SRS


Wer 03   17   SRS

Wer 03   17   SRS

Wer 03   17   SRS

Wer 03   17   SRS

Wer 03   17   hy
Wer 03   17   SRS
Wer 03   17   SRS


Wer 03   18   SRS

Wer 03   18   SRS
Wer 03   18   SRS+hy


Wer 03   18   SRS+hy


Wer 03   18   SRS

Wer 03   19   SRS

Wer 03   19   SRS

Wer 03   19   hy

Wer 03   19   SRS

Wer 03   19   SRS

Wer 03   19   hy


Wer 03   20   hy


Wer 03   20   hy


Wer 03   20   hy

Wer 03   20   SRS

Wer 03   20   SRS

Wer 03   21   SRS

Wer 03   21   hy

Wer 03   22   hy
Wer 03   25   hy

Wer 03   25   SRS+hy


Wer 03   25   hy

Wer 03   26   SRS

Wer 03   26   SRS

Wer 03   26   hy
Wer 03   26   hy


Wer 03   26   SRS


Wer 03   27   SRS+hy


Wer 03   27   hy


Wer 03   27   SRS+hy

Wer 03   27   hy


Wer 03   27   hy


Wer 03   27   SRS+hy


Wer 03   27   hy

Wer 03   28   SRS



Wer 03   33   SRS

Wer 03   40   SRS

Wer 03   40   SRS


Wer 03   41   hy

Wer 03   41   hy

Wer 03   41   SRS

Wer 03   41   hy

Wer 03   42   hy


Wer 03   42   hy


Wer 03   43   SRS
Wer 03   43   hy

Wer 03   43   hy


Wer 03   43   hy

Wer 03   43   SRS+hy


Wer 03   44   SRS


Wer 03   44   SRS+hy


Wer 03   44   hy

Wer 03   44   hy


Wer 03   44   SRS

Wer 03   44   SRS

Wer 03   44   SRS

Wer 03   44   hy

Wer 03   44   SRS

Wer 03   45   hy


Wer 03   45   hy


Wer 03   45   hy

Wer 03   45   SRS+hy


Wer 03   45   hy



Wer 03   46   SRS


Wer 03   46   SRS
Wer 03   47   hy

Wer 03   47   hy

Wer 03   47   hy



FCC 03   1    hy




FCC 03   1    SRS


FCC 03   1    hy




FCC 03   1    SRS




FCC 03   1    hy




FCC 03   1    hy




FCC 03   2    hy



FCC 03   2    hy
FCC 03   2   hy




FCC 03   2   hy




FCC 03   2   hy




FCC 03   3   SRS

FCC 03   3   hy




FCC 03   3   hy


FCC 03   3   hy



FCC 03   3   hy




FCC 03   3   hy


FCC 03   3   SRS



FCC 03   4   SRS


FCC 03   4   SRS
FCC 03   4   hy




FCC 03   4   hy



FCC 03   4   hy



FCC 03   4   hy



FCC 03   4   hy



FCC 03   4   SRS




FCC 03   4   hy




FCC 03   4   hy



FCC 03   4   hy
FCC 03   4   hy




FCC 03   5   hy



FCC 03   5   hy

FCC 03   5   hy



FCC 03   5   SRS

FCC 03   5   hy




FCC 03   5   SRS

FCC 03   6   hy



FCC 03   6   hy



FCC 03   6   hy




FCC 03   6   hy




FCC 03   6   SRS
FCC 03   6    hy



FCC 03   6    hy




FCC 03   6    SRS




FCC 03   6    SRS


FCC 03   7    SRS

FCC 03   7    hy




FCC 03   8    SRS


FCC 03   8    hy

FCC 03   8    hy


FCC 03   8    hy


FCC 03   8    hy




FCC 03   9    SRS


FCC 03   9    hy


FCC 03   11   hy
FCC 03        11   hy


FCC 03        11   SRS

FCC 03        11   SRS


FCC 03        11   hy


FCC 03        11   hy


FCC 03        12   hy

FCC 03        12   hy


FCC 03        12   hy


FCC 03        12   SRS

FCC 03        14   SRS

FCC 03        14   SRS

FCC 03        15   hy

FCC 03        18   SRS

FCC 03        19   SRS


FCC 03        20   hy

FCC 03        20   SRS


FCC 03        20   SRS

FCC 03        20   hy


Faul Far 02   1         hy

Faul Far 02   1         hy
Citing coase -        Faul Far 02   1       SRS
particularly since
FaulFar dispute the
validity of the
spectrum/land
metaphor
                      Faul Far 02   1       SRS


                      Faul Far 02       2   hy


                      Faul Far 02       2   SRS


                      Faul Far 02       2   SRS



                      Faul Far 02       3   SRS



                      Faul Far 02       4   SRS

                      Faul Far 02       4 SRS+hy
                      Faul Far 02       4    hy

                      Faul Far 02       5 SRS+hy

                      Faul Far 02       5 SRS+hy


                      Faul Far 02       5   SRS


                      Faul Far 02       5   SRS


                      Faul Far 02       6   SRS

                      Faul Far 02       6   SRS


                      Faul Far 02       6   hy




                      Faul Far 02       7   SRS
Faul Far 02   8    SRS


Faul Far 02   8    SRS

Faul Far 02   8    hy


Faul Far 02   8    SRS

Faul Far 02   8    SRS


Faul Far 02   8    hy

Faul Far 02   8    hy



Faul Far 02   8    SRS


Faul Far 02   8    hy

Faul Far 02   9    SRS

Faul Far 02   9    hy




Faul Far 02   9    SRS


Faul Far 02   10   SRS

Faul Far 02   10   SRS

Faul Far 02   10   hy

Faul Far 02   11   hy


Faul Far 02   11   hy
Faul Far 02   11   hy




Faul Far 02   11   SRS



Faul Far 02   12   hy


Faul Far 02   12   SRS


Faul Far 02   12   hy



Faul Far 02   12   SRS




Faul Far 02   12    hy
Faul Far 02   12   SRS

Faul Far 02   13   SRS

Faul Far 02   13   hy


Faul Far 02   13   hy

Faul Far 02   13   hy


Faul Far 02   13   SRS

Faul Far 02   14 SRS+hy

Faul Far 02   14   SRS

Faul Far 02   14   SRS


Faul Far 02   14   SRS
FaulFar resist the land Faul Far 02   14   SRS
metaphor, so coding
this as a cite of
something they want to
discredit
                        Faul Far 02   14   hy

                       Faul Far 02    15   SRS




                       Faul Far 02    15   SRS




                       Faul Far 02    15 SRS+hy


                       Faul Far 02    16   SRS




                       Faul Far 02    16   SRS


                       Faul Far 02    18   hy

                       Faul Far 02    18   SRS

                       Faul Far 02    18   SRS

                       Faul Far 02    18   hy


                       Faul Far 02    19   hy



                       Faul Far 02    19 SRS+hy



                       Faul Far 02    19   hy



                       Faul Far 02    19   SRS
Faul Far 02    19 SRS+hy

Faul Far 02    19        SRS


Faul Far 02    19        SRS


Faul Far 02    19        SRS


Faul Far 02    19   SRS
Faul Far 02    19 SRS+hy


Faul Far 02    19        SRS

Faul Far 02    19        SRS

Faul Far 02    19        SRS



Faul Far 02    20        SRS


Faul Far 02    20        SRS

Stap Wer 04   49    SRS+hy


Stap Wer 04   49    SRS

Stap Wer 04   49    SRS


Stap Wer 04   49    SRS+hy
Stap Wer 04   50    SRS


Stap Wer 04   50    SRS+hy


Stap Wer 04   50    hy


Stap Wer 04   50    SRS


Stap Wer 04   50    SRS
                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS


                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS+hy

                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS


                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS


                       Stap Wer 04   50   hy


                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS

                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS+hy


                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS

                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS+hy

                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS

                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS

                       Stap Wer 04   50   SRS

                       Stap Wer 04   50   hy


attrib to "common      Stap Wer 04   50   SRS+hy
misconception"

attrib indirectly to   Stap Wer 04   50   hy
opponents
                       Stap Wer 04   51   SRS

                       Stap Wer 04   51   SRS


                       Stap Wer 04   51   hy

                       Stap Wer 04   51   SRS


                       Stap Wer 04   51   hy
Stap Wer 04   51   SRS

Stap Wer 04   51   SRS

Stap Wer 04   52   SRS



Stap Wer 04   52   SRS
Stap Wer 04   52   hy

Stap Wer 04   52   SRS


Stap Wer 04   52   hy

Stap Wer 04   52   hy

Stap Wer 04   52   SRS+hy

Marg 03       1    SRS

Marg 03       1    SRS+hy


Marg 03       1    SRS



Marg 03       1    SRS

Marg 03       1    SRS+hy

Marg 03       1    hy
Marg 03       2    hy


Marg 03       2    hy

Marg 03       2    hy

Marg 03       3    hy


Marg 03       3    hy

Marg 03       3    hy

Marg 03       3    SRS+hy
      Marg 03   3   SRS



      Marg 03   3   SRS



      Marg 03   4   SRS+hy




      Marg 03   5   SRS

      Marg 03   5   hy



      Marg 03   6   hy



      Marg 03   6   SRS

      Marg 03   6   SRS+hy



      Marg 03   6   hy


      Marg 03   6   SRS


      Marg 03   6   SRS+hy

      Marg 03   6   hy


      Marg 03   6   SRS


FCC   Marg 03   7   hy



FCC   Marg 03   7   hy
               Marg 03   7    hy

               Marg 03   7    SRS


               Marg 03   7    hy


               Marg 03   8    hy


               Marg 03   10   hy


               Marg 03   11   SRS

               Marg 03   11   hy




               Marg 03   12   SRS



               Marg 03   12   SRS



UWB: cite 88   Marg 03   12   SRS+hy



UWB: cite 88   Marg 03   12   SRS



               Marg 03   12   SRS



               Marg 03   12   hy

               Marg 03   13   hy


               Marg 03   14   SRS

               Marg 03   16   hy
Marg 03   16   SRS+hy

Marg 03   16   SRS+hy




Marg 03   17   SRS




Marg 03   17   SRS+hy




Marg 03   17   SRS

Marg 03   17   SRS

Marg 03   18   hy




Marg 03   19   SRS



Marg 03   19   hy

Marg 03   19   SRS



Marg 03   19   SRS



Marg 03   19   hy

Haz 06    1    hy


Haz 06    2    SRS
Haz 06   2   SRS+hy



Haz 06   4   hy


Haz 06   5   SRS

Haz 06   5   hy

Haz 06   5   SRS

Haz 06   5   SRS

Haz 06   5   SRS


Haz 06   5   SRS

Haz 06   6   hy


Haz 06   6   hy


Haz 06   7   hy


Haz 06   7   hy


Haz 06   8   SRS


Haz 06   9   hy

Haz 06   9   SRS
http://mason.gmu.edu/~thazlett/pubs/The Wireless Craze.pdf
Total count for each document

          Source                Code           Total logged              Coded Unclear, Other
          Wer 03                x                      140                      7
          Source                Code           Total logged              Coded Unclear, Other
          Haz 01                x                      392                     19
          Source                Code           Total logged              Coded Unclear, Other
          Faul Far 02           x                       79                      1
          Source                Code           Total logged              Coded Unclear, Other
          FCC 03                x                       73                      8
          Source                Code           Total logged              Coded Unclear, Other
          Haz 06                x                       17                      0
          Source                Code           Total logged              Coded Unclear, Other
          Marg 03               x                       56                      0
          Source                Code           Total logged              Coded Unclear, Other
          Stap Wer 04           x                       38                      6

          Total                                      795                        41
                                                                               5%

                                  Metaphor                      Word    Density
                                     count                      count (metaphor
                                                                         s/1000
                                                                         words)
          Wer 03                         140                   25,701       5.4
          Haz 01                         392                   90,215       4.3
          Faul Far 02                     79                   13,753       5.7
          FCC 03                          73                   17,088       4.3
          Haz 06                          17                    4,574       3.7
          Marg 03                         56                   12,667       4.4
          Stap Wer 04                     38                    3,375      11.3
          Total                          795                  167,373       4.7

Breakdown of major categories
                                                                                                     570
          Category                     Count
          Spectrum                       570        72%
          Category                     Count
          Signal                         112        14%
                                                                                           Count




          Category                     Count
          Radio                           41          5%
          Category                     Count
          Interference                    24          3%
          Category                     Count
          Other                           11          1%
          Category                     Count
          Unclear                         36         5%                                            Spectrum
                                                   100%
 By author

          Code                  source             Count       # cites         Net
          <>x                   Haz 01               373            24         349
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum   Haz 01          313        22   291   83%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Signal     Haz 01           58         2    56   16%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Radio      Haz 01            1         0     1   0%

Code       source        Count   # cites   Net
<>x        Wer 03          133         0   133
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum   Wer 03           82         0    82   62%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Signal     Wer 03           25         0    25   19%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Radio      Wer 03           22         0    22   17%

Code       source        Count   # cites   Net
<>x        Faul Far 02     78          2    76
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum   Faul Far 02     62          2    60   79%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Signal     Faul Far 02      6          0     6   8%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Radio      Faul Far 02      8          0     8   11%

Code       source        Count   # cites   Net
<>x        FCC 03          65          0    65
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum   FCC 03          30          0    30   46%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Signal     FCC 03          12          0    12   18%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Radio      FCC 03           4          0     4   6%

Code       source        Count   # cites   Net
<>x        Haz 06          17          0    17
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum   Haz 06          16          0    16   94%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Signal     Haz 06           1          0     1   6%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Radio      Haz 06           0          0     0   0%    100%
                                                       90%
Code       source        Count   # cites   Net         80%
<>x        Marg 03         56          4    52
                                                       70%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
                                                       60%
Spectrum   Marg 03         42          2    40   77%
                                                       50%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net
Signal     Marg 03          6          2     4   8%    40%
category   source        Count   # cites   Net         30%
Radio      Marg 03          3          0     3   6%    20%
                                                       10%
                                                                                            10%
         Code                  source         Count     # cites      Net                     0%
         <>x                   Stap Wer 04      32            2       30
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum              Stap Wer 04      25            2       23     77%
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Signal                Stap Wer 04       4            0        4       8%
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Radio                 Stap Wer 04       3            0        3       6%

                                   Haz 01    Wer 03 Faul Far 02   FCC 03 Haz 06    Marg 03
         Spectrum                    83%       62%         79%      46%       94%       77%
         Signal                      16%       19%          8%      18%         6%       8%
         Radio                        0%       17%         11%       6%         0%       6%

Breakdown of Spectrum metaphors

         category                             Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum                               570          28      542            Total spectrum
         category                             Count     # cites      Net            Spectrum, space
         Spectrum, space                        234           8      226            Spectrum, resource
         category                             Count     # cites      Net            Spectrum, land
         Spectrum, resource                     258          14      244            Spectrum, substance
         category                             Count     # cites      Net            Other
         Spectrum, land                          31           3       28
         category                             Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, substance                     39           3       36

         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum              Haz 01           313          22      291
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, space       Haz 01           134           7      127
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, resource    Haz 01           134          12      122
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, land        Haz 01            20           1       19
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, substance   Haz 01            25           2       23


         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum              Wer 03           82            0       82
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, space       Wer 03           42            0       42
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, resource    Wer 03           27            0       27
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, land        Wer 03            5            0        5
         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum, substance   Wer 03            8            0        8

         category              source         Count     # cites      Net
         Spectrum              Faul Far 02      62            2       60
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, space       Faul Far 02     24          0    24
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, resource    Faul Far 02     34          0    34
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, land        Faul Far 02      3          2     1
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, substance   Faul Far 02      1          0     1

category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum              FCC 03          30          0    30
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, space       FCC 03          14          0    14
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, resource    FCC 03          12          0    12
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, land        FCC 03           0          0     0
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, substance   FCC 03           3          0     3

category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum              Haz 06          16          0    16
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, space       Haz 06           3          0     3
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, resource    Haz 06          12          0    12
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, land        Haz 06           1          0     1
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, substance   Haz 06           0          0     0

category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum              Marg 03         42          2    40
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, space       Marg 03         11          1    10
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, resource    Marg 03         27          1    26
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, land        Marg 03          2          0     2
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, substance   Marg 03          0          0     0

category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum              Stap Wer 04     25          2    23
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, space       Stap Wer 04      6          0     6
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, resource    Stap Wer 04     12          1    11
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, land        Stap Wer 04      0          0     0
category              source        Count   # cites   Net
Spectrum, substance   Stap Wer 04      2          1     1
                                           Faul Far 02             FCC 03            Haz 01
         Total spectrum                  60                  30             291
         Space                           24       40%        14      47%    127         44%
         Resource                        34       57%        12      40%    122         42%
         Land                             1        2%         0       0%     19          7%
         Other                            1        2%         4      13%     23          8%


Breakdown of Signal metaphors

         category                               Count    # cites      Net
         Signal                                   112          4      108         Total Signal
         category                               Count    # cites      Net         Signal, object
         Signal, object                            73          3       70         Signal, sound
         category                               Count    # cites      Net         Other
         Signal, sound                             32          0       32
         category                               Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, blanket                            4          0        4

         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal                 Haz 01            58           2       56
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, object         Haz 01            47           2       45
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, sound          Haz 01             9           0        9
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, blanket        Haz 01             1           0        1

         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal                 Wer 03            25           0       25
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, object         Wer 03            14           0       14
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, sound          Wer 03             9           0        9
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, blanket        Wer 03             2           0        2

         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal                 Faul Far 02        6           0        6
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, object         Faul Far 02        4           0        4
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, sound          Faul Far 02        2           0        2
         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal, blanket        Faul Far 02        0           0        0

         category               source          Count    # cites      Net
         Signal                 FCC 03            12           0       12
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, object       FCC 03             1              0      1
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, sound        FCC 03             9              0      9
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, blanket      FCC 03             1              0      1

category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal               Haz 06             1              0      1
category             source          Count       # cites    Net                      Haz 01
Signal, object       Haz 06             1              0      1
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, sound        Haz 06             0              0      0
category             source          Count       # cites    Net                      Wer 03
Signal, blanket      Haz 06             0              0      0

category             source          Count       # cites    Net
                                                                                 Faul Far 02
Signal               Marg 03            6              2      4
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, object       Marg 03            5              1      4
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
                                                                                    FCC 03
Signal, sound        Marg 03            0              0      0
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, blanket      Marg 03            0              0      0

category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal               Stap Wer 04        4              0      4
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, object       Stap Wer 04        1              0      1
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, sound        Stap Wer 04        3              0      3
category             source          Count       # cites    Net
Signal, blanket      Stap Wer 04        0              0      0

                                             Haz 01               Wer 03
Total Signal                  112                     56                   25
Object                         73     65%             45    80%            14     56%
Sound                          32     29%              9    16%             9     36%
Other                           7      6%              2     4%             2      8%

Ratio object:sound             2.3                    5.0                  1.6
                                       Word count (MS Word)
Total excl. Unclear, Other   # cites
        133                        0      25,701
Total excl. Unclear, Other   # cites
        373                       26      90,215
Total excl. Unclear, Other   # cites
         78                        2      13,753
Total excl. Unclear, Other   # cites
         65                        0      17,088
Total excl. Unclear, Other   # cites
         17                        0       4,574
Total excl. Unclear, Other   # cites
         56                        4      12,667
Total excl. Unclear, Other   # cites
         32                        2       3,375

          754                    34      167,373
         95%                    4%




   112

                 41


  Signal        Radio
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%    Spectrum
50%    Signal
40%    Radio
30%
20%
10%
        10%
         0%
              Haz 01 Wer 03 Faul FCC 03 Haz 06 Marg Stap
                            Far 02              03 Wer 04




          Stap Wer 04
                77%
                 8%
                 6%




Total spectrum               570
Spectrum, space              234       41%
Spectrum, resource           258       45%
Spectrum, land                31        5%
Spectrum, substance           39        7%
                               8        1%
              0%    20%        40%           60%       80%


Faul Far 02


    FCC 03


    Haz 01


    Haz 06


   Marg 03


Stap Wer 04


    Wer 03


                   Space   Resource   Land     Other
                      Haz 06           Marg 03         Stap Wer 04        Wer 03
                 16               40              23                 82
                  3        19%    10        25%    6        26%      42     51%
                 12        75%    26        65%   11        48%      27     33%
                  1         6%     2         5%    0         0%       5      6%
                  0         0%     2         5%    6        26%       8     10%




Total Signal               112
Signal, object              73   65%
Signal, sound               32   29%
                             7    6%
              0%         20%         40%           60%           80%      100%



    Haz 01




    Wer 03




Faul Far 02




   FCC 03



                           Object     Sound        Other




       Faul Far 02                   FCC 03                      Haz 06          Marg 03   Stap Wer 04
                 6                            12
                 4             67%             1            8%
                 2             33%             9           75%
                 0              0%             2           17%

                   2.0                     0.1
Stap Wer 04

				
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