DCE 5011-3rd - PowerPoint Presen

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      Definition of Curriculum
• All planned experiences which the learner
  may be exposed to in order to achieve the
  learning goal.
• The total way in which educational policy
  decisions are put into practice.
• The master plan which outlines the
  dimensions and structure of the learning
• Chadwick and Legge (4 elements)
• 1. Aims and Objectives (principles, values,
      policies, learner needs and wants)
• 2. Design (allocation of resources, control of
  content and methods)
• 3. Implementation (support, communication,
      publicity and use of resources)
• 4. Evaluation (attainment, methods of
•   Rogers (5 elements)
•   1. Philosophical Framework (overall goals)
•   2. Context (setting-facilities; class climate)
•   3. Content (materials and sequencing)
•   4. Events (activities and sequencing)
•   5. Evaluation Process (monitor/feedback)
•   Knox (5 steps/elements)
•   Need assessment
•   Establishing educational context
•   Formulating objectives
•   Organizing methods
•   Evaluating attainment
   4 fundamental questions in
     curriculum construction
• What educational purposes should an
  institution seek to attain?
• What educational experiences can be
  provided to attain these purpose?
• How can these educational experiences
  be effectively organized?
• How we determined whether these
  purposes are being attained?
What educational purposes should the
 learning institution seek to attain?
• Sources of educational objectives:
  learners themselves, contemporary life,
  subject specialists, philosophy of
• Learners themselves – needs and interest
• Contemporary life – critical issues in life
• Subject specialists – experts in the area
• Philosophy – education and social values
    Importance of learners’ involvement in
           curriculum construction
• Concerns changing the life of learners
• The right to express their needs, wants and
• Strategically – ensure learner’s participation
• Politically – influence existing power structure,
  foster democracy and justice
• Philosophically – towards achieving goals
           Setting Objectives
• General purposes (aims) – the social and
  institutional goals of the programme
• Programme objectives – the educational or
  operational outcomes toward which a total
  programme will be directed for a prescribed
  period of time
• Learning objectives – the specific behavioral
  outcomes that a learner will be helped to seek in
  a particular learning activity (eg. Tutorial
Translating needs into programme
objectives through mutual planning
• 1. Organize the needs into a priority system –
  consensus in formulating priorities
• 2. Screen the needs through selected filters:
  – Philosophy of institution (eg. Meet community needs)
  – Feasibility (with regard to time, cost, staff etc)
  – Allowing for flexibility (accomplish own need)
• Translate the screened needs into:
  – Programme objectives
  – Learning objectives (knowledge, attitude and practice)
 Selecting learning experiences
• Provide opportunity to practice
• Provide satisfaction upon practice
• Relevant to learner’s attainment and
• Expose to many experiences to attain obj.
• Expose to many experience that bring
  about several outcomes
 How can learning experiences
        be evaluated
• Begin with the objective
• Identify the situation when learners are
  ready to express the behaviour
• Standardize the recording
• Use the results of the evaluation for:
  – Modify and improve curriculum
  – Clarifying educational objectives
  – Influence the learning process
                       Framework for Learning

                 Adult learning theories provide;

• a system of coherent, internally consistent and interrelated concepts and
ideas that help us to understand how best to facilitate learning for adults.
(Foley,1995; Knowles,1990; Merriam & Caffarella,1991)

• a focus on the personal and situational characteristics of adult learners.
(Merriam & Caffarella,1991:248-265)

• principles that help educators “to predict when and how learning will take
place and ...[to]... arrange for its occurrence”. (Merriam & Caffarella,1991:249)
The principles help to highlight those characteristics of post-compulsory
learners that should be taken into account when designing, developing and
implementing learning support materials for adults students, including those
engaged in on-line learning.
      Characteristics of Adult
• Autonomous and Self-Directed -- can
  assume responsibility and leardership
• Accumulation of Experiences/knowledge --
  learner as resource, connect to experience
• Goal-oriented -- know what to achieve,
  develop goals together
• Practical oriented -- immediate need
• Expect respect-- accept/acknowledge
      Eight key principles of adult learning
1. Adults have a need to know why they need to learn
something before undertaking to learn it.
2. Adults have a disposition for self-directed learning.

3. Adult learners have significant differences in the quantity and
quality of their experience.

4. Adults benefit from interaction with others undertaking the
same learning experience.

5. Adults expect differing perspectives and backgrounds to be
afforded equal legitimacy.

6.Adults are more „ready to learn‟ when the learning event has
direct relevance to their real-life situations.

7. Adult learning is motivated and enhanced through the
processes of „reflection‟.

8. „Internal motivators‟ are the most potent for adult learners.
 Design implications from the key principles of learning

   Learning Principle               Design Principle

Adults have a need to know     Inform the learner(s) of „the
why they need to learn         need to know‟.
something before
undertaking to learn it.
 Design implications from the key principles of learning

    Learning Principle               Design Principle

Adults have a disposition for   Include an orientation to self-
self-directed learning.         directed learning approaches
                                and tactics at the beginning
                                of the educational activity or
 Design implications from the key principles of learning

    Learning Principle                Design Principle

Adult learners have              Provide a wide range of
significant differences in the   options for individualised
quantity and quality of their    approaches and strategies.
 Design implications from the key principles of learning

    Learning Principle              Design Principle

Adults benefit from            Emphasise experiential
interaction with others        learning over knowledge
undertaking the same           transmission techniques, and
learning experience.           emphasise peer-helping
 Design implications from the key principles of learning

   Learning Principle               Design Principle

Adults expect differing        Emphasise the value and
perspectives and               utility of the learner‟s
backgrounds to be afforded     experience when undertaking
equal legitimacy.              the learning process.
 Design implications from the key principles of learning

    Learning Principle               Design Principle

Adults are more „ready to       Make it clear at the outset of
learn‟ when the learning        a learning experience what
event has direct relevance to   its relevance is to the
their real-life situations.     learner‟s life tasks or
 Design implications from the key principles of learning

   Learning Principle               Design Principle

Adult learning is motivated    Reflective opportunities and
and enhanced through the       challenges should be an
processes of „reflection‟.     integral design feature of
                               learning materials for adult
Design Implications from the Key Principles of Learning

    Learning Principle               Design Principle

„Internal motivators‟ are the   Integrate strategies and
most potent for adult           activities that will enhance
learners.                       „internal‟ motivators to learn,
                                such as ensuring that the
                                learner is exposed to success
                                and positive feedback during
                                the learning event.
General instructional framework for procedural
     knowledge and skills development
           (As is the basis of most Training Packages)

            Breaking instructions into “chunks”

           Testing what is done in each chunk for


      Snowballing (integrating knowledge/skill so that
      the student can to the „tasks‟ – not just the „bits‟

 How can learning experiences
       be organized?
• Continuity – reiteration of content
• Sequence – progressive development of

• Integration – application beyond discipline
Facilitating Adults Learning
            learning system

   •   Clear & attainable objective
   •   Motivation
   •   Appropriate learning task
   •   Reinforcement & feedback
   •   Sequential practice
   •   Transfer of learning
   •   Feedback in transfer situation
    for providing Information
• Lecture                • Some perimeters for
                           effective lecture:
• Question-answer
                            – not more > 30 mins.
  session                   – 4 to 5 major points
• Field trips               – enhance with visuals
                            – simple language
• Printed materials
                            – allow time for note taking
• Result Demonstration        and questioning
                            – believe in what you are
   for In-depth Understanding
• Forum (several         • Group project
  guests, lecture        • Seminar
  followed by question
  and answer)            • Simulated TV Show
• Buzz group following   • Dialogue
  a lecture              • Searching for
• Group discussion         assumptions
• Simulation game        • Debate
• Role playing
         for Skill Training
•   Interactive computer
•   Skill demonstration
•   Hands-on with supervision
•   Internship
•   Case study
        for Offering Multiple
•   Panel
•   Guest speaker
•   Drawing
•   3-D Creation
 for developing Group Agenda

• Group workshop
• Brainstorming
• Delphi technique
 for Individual Problem solving

• Study group
• Individual conference
• Self-confidence building
    Considerations for Selecting
• Objective/purpose of the class
• Characteristics of the learners
• The subject matter
• Characteristics of techniques, tools or
• Learning situation
• Preferred Techniques/Tools/Strategies
    Considerations for selecting
• Objective/purpose               – Practical learner (case
   – In-depth understanding         study, internship)
     (role playing, debate)    • Subject matter
• Learners characteristics        – Wood work (skill dev.)
   – Intuitive learner (buzz      – Environment (multiple
     group, study group)            perspectives)
   – Sequential learner        • Learning situation
     (interactive computer,      (location, duration, group
     printed materials)          size)
        Methods and Resources
•   Self-study             •   Computer
•   Lectures               •   Software
•   Discussion/seminar     •   Screens
•   Visual symbols         •   TV
•   Audio visual           •   Text books
•   Tell and Show          •   Overhead projectors
•   Exercises              •   LCD
•   Case Studies           •   Flip Charts
•   Dramatic experiences   •   White boards
•   Projects               •   Slide projector