Imperial and Local Origins of the American Revolution by kll13320

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									Imperial and Local Origins of the
     American Revolution
   Events, Ideas, Turning Points, 1689-
                   1776
           Imperial Origins

• Mercantilism
• Self Government
• Imperial Rivalries
             Mercantilism
• Imperial Self Sufficiency
• Closed Economic System
• Codified and Enforced through Navigation
  Acts
          Self Government
• Royal Governors were often absentees
• Lower Houses of Assembly wielded a great
  deal of power
• Heritage of Rule of Law (1689 Bill of
  Rights, English Rights and Liberties)
• Power of the Purse
          Imperial Rivalries
• European Wars for Balance of Power
  beginning in 1689 had an imperial
  component
• By French and Indian War (1754-1763),
  struggle is between England and France for
  global imperial hegemony
• England wins, but at a huge cost
        Experiential Origins
• Robert Walpole and Salutary Neglect
• New Imperial Policy and George Grenville
• Actions and Perceptions of George III
             Robert Walpole
• First Minister , 1721-
  1742
• Salutary Neglect—few
  Navigation Acts
  Enforced
• Ties to crown made
  him a symbol of
  “corruption”
           New Imperial Policy
• George Grenville              • Sugar Act, 1764
• Single Economic System        • Proclamation of 1763
• Colonies to pay a portion
  of their administration and
                                • Not Well Received in
  governance costs                the Colonies
• New Navigation Acts—
  lower rates, better
  enforcement
       George III—1760-1820
• Really was trying to   • Challenge of finding a
  restore balance          good first minister
  between crown and
  commons
• Image of tyrant is
  creature of colonial
  disappointment, not
  what he did
 Ideological Origins—Why the
Colonies Responded the Way that
           They Did

• Habit of Self-Government
• Construction of English History
• Whig Theory (Corruption)—link of Sugar
  Act with Act for the Encouragement of
  Officers Making Seizures
       How They Responded
• Stamp Act Congress—no taxation without
  representation; boycott, Sons of Liberty
  [1765]
• After Townshend Duties--John Dickenson’s
  Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania—tax
  to regulate trade but not for revenue [1767]
• East India Company Crisis—Boston Tea
  Party [1773]
   How the Brits Responded—
         Coercive Acts
• Boston Port Act
• Act for the Impartial Administration of
  Justice
• Quartering Act
• Massachusetts Government Act
• Quebec Act—illustrative of Colonial
  Paranoia
First Continental Congress-1774
• Declaration of American Rights—tax to
  regulate not to raise revenue.
• Continental Association (enforce boycott)
• Rejected Galloway’s Plan of Union
• Anything new here?
First Continental Congress
      Lexington and Concord
• Paul Revere’s Ride
• April 19, 1775—Lexington Green
• Concord, “the Shot heard round the world.”
      Timing of Independence
• Ideology didn’t evolve much since 1765
• Colonies lost faith in GIII—why the
  declaration is directed against him—he
  moved to crush the Wilkites in England and
  was no longer the “father of his people”.
Ralph Waldo Emerson—
Revolution and Memory
    By this rude bridge that
        arched the flood,
     Their Flag to April's
        breeze unfurled,
      Here the embattled
          farmers stood
    And fired the Shot heard
       'round the World.
             Independence?
• Battle of Bunker Hill—no doubt that
  colonies are at war
• Olive Branch Petition
• Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of
  Taking Up Arms
• George III declares colonies in rebellion on
  August 22, 1775.
        Independence Declared
•   Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
•   Lee Resolution
•   Jefferson’s Declaration
•   Independence Declared

								
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