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history of tabari

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									An Index of al-Tabari
The History of al-Tabari : An Annotated Translation. Ehsan Yar-Shater, General Editor. State University of New York Press 1989-. According to the preface, the History of al-Tabari, who lived from 839-923 A.D. "is by common consent the most important universal history produced in the world of Islam." Tabari’s title is ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk, which means the history of prophets and kings. These 38 volumes tells facts and legends of the history of the world from Adam and Eve down to 915 A.D. Background: Tabari was his nickname, since he came from Tabaristan, which is in Iran, south of Tehran. While some Hanbalites have accused him of having Shi’ite tendencies, there is no basis for that except that he was Iranian. Tabari’s credibility as a historian would be rather high, if it were not for these first three volumes. He appears to be so much into factual detail that where there is none he readily makes it up, or repeats what others have made up without any qualifications. Do we really know the names of Adam and Eve’s daughters? Do we really know that Eve always had twins? Do we really know that Eve was pregnant with Cain and his twin before being expelled from the Garden? (551 entries)

The History of al-Tabari volume 1
General Introduction and From the Creation to the Flood (101 entries) Most important history in Islam al-Tabari vol.1 p.ix. Arabic versions al-Tabari vol.1 p.x14 Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Kamil (260-350 /873/4-961) was a biographer of Tabari alTabari vol.1 p.7 Tabari’s life. From Tabaristan. Against Mu’tazilites and Kharijites. al-Tabari vol.1 p.10 Tabari was independently wealthy. al-Tabari vol.1 p.14 Tabari knew the Qur’an by heart when he was 7 years old. al-Tabari vol.1 p.15

Tabari went on a pilgrimage. al-Tabari vol.1 p.19 Tabari had a great memory. al-Tabari vol.1 p.19 Tabari felt slave girls should not have any money. al-Tabari vol.1 p.21-22 Variations: Tabari was instructed on the variant readings of the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.1 p.23 Sunni: Hanbalites were against Tabari al-Tabari vol.1 p.30 Ibn Hanbal was not married until he was 40 years old. al-Tabari vol.1 p.34 Examples where Tabari was a legalist al-Tabari vol.1 p.42 Pro-hadith quote against innovations al-Tabari vol.1 p.47 Science: ‘Ali bin Radha of Tabari wrote a medical encyclopedia called Firdaws alHikmah around 850-860 A.D.. al-Tabari vol.1 p.49 Solid attitude towards scholarship al-Tabari vol.1 p.54 Tabari quotes various sources, then renders his judgment al-Tabari vol.1 p.55 Different readings p.56 Sunni: Falsely accused by certain Hanbalites of being a Shi’ite since he was from Persia. al-Tabari vol.1 p.62 Sunni: Tabari was first a Shafi’ite. Later he founded his own school. al-Tabari vol.1 p.62 Sunni: Discord between different schools al-Tabari vol.1 p.66 Sunni: The Hanbalites would use violence to intimidate Muslims belonging to other schools. al-Tabari vol.1 p.71 Does Allah sit on a throne? al-Tabari vol.1 p.71,76 Tabari discusses examples of different interpretations of the Qur’an al-Tabari vol.1 p.72 Tabari died 2/17/923 A.D. al-Tabari vol.1 p.78 Tabari was against the Zahirite Muslims. al-Tabari vol.1 p.121

Other Muslims historians al-Tabari vol.1 p.137,141 Muslim historian who criticized Tabari al-Tabari vol.1 p.158 Other historians before Tabari were al-Ya’qubi (died 284 A.H. 897/898 A.D.) Khalifah bin Khayyat (died 204 A.H. 819-820 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.1 p.159 Ibn Hajar’s Tahdhib and the History of Baghdad by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi . alTabari vol.1 p.161 The world might only last 7,000 years al-Tabari vol.1 p.173 Two fingers together might mean length. al-Tabari vol.1 p.177 Al-Awza’i founded a legal school al-Tabari vol.1 p.178 Some think only 500 more years for the world after Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.1 p.183 Mohammed was angry that the Jews said he was wrong. Mohammed said God did not rest on the seventh day. al-Tabari vol.1 p.188,218 Cosmology: Tabari had a "proof" of God. al-Tabari vol.1 p.194-195 Predestination: The first thing created was a pen for writing what was predestined. al-Tabari vol.1 p.198-201,218,219 People kept pestering Mohammed for gifts. al-Tabari vol.1 p.204 Tablet in heaven al-Tabari vol.1 p.205 Were water and wind created before God’s throne, or was God’s throne created first? al-Tabari vol.1 p.207 Tabari concluded God created the world on Sunday, because early Muslim scholars agreed on this. al-Tabari vol.1 p.212 There are seven heavens. al-Tabari vol.1 p.213 Allah created the Ka’abah before creating the rest of the world. al-Tabari vol.1 p.216 Science: The earth sits on a big fish. al-Tabari vol.1 p.220 Science: Stars guard against Satan. al-Tabari vol.1 p.223

One day = 1,000 years. al-Tabari vol.1 p.224 Interpretation and translation of Sura 2:117 al-Tabari vol.1 p.225-226 I asked the Messenger of God [Mohammed]" Where does it [the sun] set? He replied: It sets in the heaven and is then raised from heaven to heaven until it is raised to the highest, seventh heaven. Eventually, when it is underneath the Throne, it falls down and prostrates itself, and the angels who are in charge of it prostrate themselves together with it. The sun then says, My Lord, whence do you command me to rise, from where I set or from where I rise? He continue. This is (meant by) God’s word: ‘And the sun: It runs to a place where it is to reside (at night)’ where it is held underneath the Throne – ‘That is decreed by One Mighty and Knowing’ by ‘this’ is meant the procedure of the mighty’ Lord in His royal authority, the Lord Who is ‘knowing’ about His creation. He continued. Gabriel brings to the sun a garment of luminosity from the light of the Throne, according to the measure of the hours of the day. It is longer in the summer and shorter in the winter, and of intermediate length in the autumn and spring. [spring, fall, and winter fashions!] He continued. The sun puts on that garment, as one of you here puts on his garment. Then, it is set free to roam in the air of heaven until it rises whence it does. … The same course is followed by the moon in its rising … But Gabriel brings it a garment from the light of the Footstool. This is (meant by) God word ‘He made the sun a luminosity and the moon a light.’" alTabari vol.1 p.231 Where the sun sets in heaven, and then rises to the seventh heaven. al-Tabari vol.1 p.231,232 Mohammed said that God originally made two suns, but Gabriel dragged his wing over one, reducing its brightness and leaving black marks, and it became the moon. p.233 Science: The sun sets in a muddy spring. al-Tabari vol.1 p.234 al-Tabari vol.1 p.234 also mentions that the sun sets in a muddy spring. The word "muddy" is hami’ah, meaning mean black clay, but hamiyah is a similar word that can mean hot. (See footnote 442 p.234) "God created an ocean three fasrakhs (18 kilometers) removed from heaven. Waves contained, it stands in the air by the command of God. No drop of it is spilled. All the oceans are motionless, but that ocean flows at the rate of the speed of an arrow. It is set free to move in the air evenly, as if it were a rope stretched out in the area between east and west. The sun, the moon, and the retrograde stars [5 planets] run in its deep swell. This is (meant by) God’s word: ‘Each swims in a sphere.’ ‘The sphere’ is the circulation of the chariot in the deep swell of that ocean." al-Tabari vol.1 p.235

Tabari knew of five planets. al-Tabari vol.1 p.235 The Prophet [Mohammed] replied: ‘Ali, they are five stars: Jupiter (al-birjis), Saturn (zuhal), Mercury (utarid), Mars (Bahram), and Venus (al-zuhrah). These five stars rise and run like the sun and the moon and race with them together. All the other stars are suspended from heaven as lamps are from mosques,…" alTabari vol.1 p.235-236 Science, The origin of eclipses: "He [Mohammed] continued. When the sun rises, it rises upon its chariot from one of those springs accompanied by 360 angels…. When God wishes to test the sun and the moon, showing His servants a sign and thereby asking them to stop disobeying Him and to start to obey, the sun tumbles from the chariot and falls into the deep of that ocean, which is the sphere. When God wants to increase the significance of the sign and frighten His servants severely, all of the sun falls, and nothing of it remains upon the chariot. That is a total eclipse of the sun, when the day darkens and the stars come out." al-Tabari vol.1 p.236 Two early nations were Ad and Thamud. al-Tabari vol.1 p.237 Mu’adh’s birth and death (c.600-18/639) al-Tabari vol.1 p.241 Dark smudge on the moon al-Tabari vol.1 p.244-245 Iblis was an angelic jinn. al-Tabari vol.1 p.250 Iblis was named ‘Azazil. al-Tabari vol.1 p.254 People were not directly created by Allah, but by the angel of death. al-Tabari vol.1 p.256 Some of God’s spirit was in Adam. al-Tabari vol.1 p.262,264 Eve was created from Adam’s rib. al-Tabari vol.1 p.273 Adam disobeyed God. al-Tabari vol.1 p.275 Iblis entered into the mouth of a snake. al-Tabari vol.1 p.275-279 women: Eve was originally intelligent, Allah made her [but not Adam] stupid after the fall of Adam and Eve. al-Tabari vol.1 p.280,281 Hisham (ca.738-819 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.1 p.290 Even Eve had a veil al-Tabari vol.1 p.294

Land of Nudh [Nod] al-Tabari vol.1 p.295 Even Adam went on a pilgrimmage to the place of Mecca. al-Tabari vol.1 p.295 Angels performed the pilgrimmage 2,000 years prior to Adam. al-Tabari vol.1 p.295 Paradise and the Garden of Eden appear to be the same. al-Tabari vol.1 p.296 The black stone and Moses’ staff were brought from Paradise by Adam to India. al-Tabari vol.1 p.297 Adam brushed his head against heaven, and that is why he became bald. alTabari vol.1 p.297 30 fruits were mentioned al-Tabari vol.1 p.208 Some say wheat was the "fruit" of the tree that drove them from Paradise. alTabari vol.1 p.298-299 Adam wept bitterly because of his sin and repented. al-Tabari vol.1 p.302 The black stone was originally a white jewel, but it turned black because so many menstruating women touched it prior to Islam. al-Tabari vol.1 p.303 People came from Adam as white and black ants. al-Tabari vol.1 p.307,329,330 Cain (Qabil) killed his brother Abel (Habil) al-Tabari vol.1 p.307 Some say Cain killed Abel over a woman. They married their sisters. al-Tabari vol.1 p.308 According to ibn Ishaq, Eve was pregnant with Cain and his sister when they were expelled from paradise. al-Tabari vol.1 p.310 Tabari has a literal translation of Genesis 4:9-16. al-Tabari vol.1 p.312 The twin sister of Cain (Qabil) was named Qalima. al-Tabari vol.1 p.314 Adam shared responsibility for every soul that is wrongfully killed. al-Tabari vol.1 p.315 Names of Adam’s daughters. al-Tabari vol.1 p.317 Adam was a prophet. al-Tabari vol.1 p.303

Adam was taught the 21 letters of the alphabet, and to not eat dead animals, blood, or pork. al-Tabari vol.1 p.324 The flood would last seven years. al-Tabari vol.1 p.324 Mohammed said Adam lived 1,000 years. al-Tabari vol.1 p.327,328 Adam lived 960 years. al-Tabari vol.1 p.329 Noah dug up Adam and Eve’s bodies and reburied them after the flood. al-Tabari vol.1 p.334,362 Some say Idris is the same person as Enoch. al-Tabari vol.1 p.336 Adam, Noah, Enoch, Seth were prophets. al-Tabari vol.1 p.344 Tall tales by the Persians al-Tabari vol.1 p.345,349 Enoch practiced Jihad al-Tabari vol.1 p.346 Noah’s ark al-Tabari vol.1 p.348 Noah had 10 people in the ark. He had a fourth son, Yami, who did not believe in him and did not go in the ark. al-Tabari vol.1 p.360 Satan needed to get in the ark to survive too. He got in by tricking Noah. alTabari vol.1 p.360 Noah became a Muslim. al-Tabari vol.1 p.360 Contradiction: Alexander is dul Qarnain. al-Tabari vol.1 p.371

The History of al-Tabari volume 2
Prophets and Patriarchs (63 entries) Early historian Sharahil (640-721 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.2 p.3 footnote 12 Zoroastrian holidays al-Tabari vol.2 p.5 footnote 21 Arbasisah was the wife of Japheth. It also mentions the other wives of Noah. alTabari vol.2 p.11,12 Noah’s children became Muslims. al-Tabari vol.2 p.12

Pelug, Reu, and Serug al-Tabari vol.2 p.16,122 72 sects of Israelites, and 73 sects of Islam. al-Tabari vol.2 p.18 footnote 63 "In the Turks, Slavs,… in none of whom there is good." al-Tabari vol.2 p.21 Persians and Indians are descendants of Shem. al-Tabari vol.2 p.17 Kings of Persia were from Japheth. al-Tabari vol.2 p.16 One reason for the tower of Babel was so that a flood would not get them again. al-Tabari vol.2 p.27 Dhu al-Qarnain (Zhul Qarnain) al-Tabari vol.2 p.23 footnote 74. The prophet Jud and the people of Ad sound similar to Lot and the people of Sodom. al-Tabari vol.2 p.35-36 Genealogy of Abraham al-Tabari vol.2 p.48 Only four kings ruled over all of the earth: Nimrud, Nebuchadnezzar, Solomon, Dhu al-Qarnain al-Tabari vol.2 p.50 Between Noah and Abraham, there were no messengers except Hud [to Ad] and Salih [to Thamud] al-Tabari vol.2 p.50 Prophets: Abram said a star and the moon were his lord. He changed his mind later though. al-Tabari vol.2 p.51 The star Abram said was his lord was Jupiter. al-Tabari vol.2 p.54 Jewish Apocryphal story of Abraham saying the largest idol broke the smaller ones. al-Tabari vol.2 p.56 It was a Kurd who advised the people to burn Abraham to death. al-Tabari vol.2 p.58 Gabriel had God’s voice??? al-Tabari vol.2 p.59 Pharaoh liked Sarah and Abram lied to Pharaoh saying she was his sister. alTabari vol.2 p.62 Abram only told three lies. al-Tabari vol.2 p.63 Isaac [not Ishmael] was seven when he was almost sacrificed. al-Tabari vol.2 p.68

It is odd that Gabriel has to ask questions here. al-Tabari vol.2 p.70 Sarah gave permission for Abraham to marry Hagar. al-Tabari vol.2 p.72 Sarah performed female circumcision on Hagar. al-Tabari vol.2 p.72 The Qur’an does not say which son Abraham almost sacrificed. Tabari says some 16 authorities say Isaac, 23 authorities say Ishmael, and he gives arguments for both. al-Tabari vol.2 p.82-97 Nothing in the Qur’an says the sacrifice was on the 10th day which commemorates Abraham and his son. al-Tabari vol.2 p.96 footnote 241 Abram practiced ten purification practices of Islam al-Tabari vol.2 p.99 The wicked ruler Nimrod was punished with gnats that killed his people and a gnat in his brain. al-Tabari vol.2 p.105 At Babel, the original language was Syriac. Then there were 73 languages. alTabari vol.2 p.108 Zul-Qarnain: Alexander was a believer. al-Tabari vol.2 p.109 Lot, Sodom, and homosexuality. al-Tabari vol.2 p.111-115 Names of angels, such as Israfil. al-Tabari vol.2 p.115 Abraham bargained with numbers for Sodom. al-Tabari vol.2 p.116 Sodom was only destroyed after Lot bore witness against them. al-Tabari vol.2 p.117 Names of Lot’s daughters. al-Tabari vol.2 p.118 Sodomites dispensed with women by means of men. al-Tabari vol.2 p.122 Four million people lived in Sodom. al-Tabari vol.2 p.124 Sarah was buried in a field Abram bought. al-Tabari vol.2 p.125 Abram married again and had many children. al-Tabari vol.2 p.127 Nimrod imprisoned Abram for seven years. al-Tabari vol.2 p.128 God miraculously changed Abraham’s language from Syriac to Hebrew. al-Tabari vol.2 p.128

Isaac was blind. al-Tabari vol.2 p.129 The angel of death fooled Abraham. al-Tabari vol.2 p.129-130 Jacob’s wives al-Tabari vol.2 p.134-135 Jacob’s ladder al-Tabari vol.2 p.135 Jacob worked seven years for one wife, Leah, and seven more years for Rachel. al-Tabari vol.2 p.135 The Torah says you cannot marry two sisters. al-Tabari vol.2 p.136 Esau’s descendants went to Alexandria and then to Byzantium. al-Tabari vol.2 p.136 Rachel stole her father’s idols for money so that they could eat. (The writer apparently forgot Jacob had all those herds.) al-Tabari vol.2 p.139 Job was allegedly ordered to beat his wife. al-Tabari vol.2 p.140 Job was a prophet. al-Tabari vol.2 p.143 Job’s son Bishr was also a prophet. al-Tabari vol.2 p.143 Jethro the Midianite al-Tabari vol.2 p.143 The Egyptian king who bought Joseph was a Muslim. al-Tabari vol.2 p.152 Contradiction: Joseph’s master was named Qatafir al-Tabari vol.2 p.153 Jacob’s image appeared to warn Joseph just as he was on the verge of committing adultery with Potiphar’s wife. al-Tabari vol.2 p.155-156 Only four people spoke when they were small: Pharaoh’s daughter Mashatah, the witness for Joseph, the companion of Jurayj, and Jesus son of Mary. alTabari vol.2 p.158 The Egyptian baker imprisoned with Joseph was crucified. al-Tabari vol.2 p.162 After Joseph was released, he was given Potiphar’s position, Potiphar died, and Joseph married Potiphar’s wife, who before had wrongly accused him. al-Tabari vol.2 p.166 Isaac was Abraham’s son who was almost sacrificed. al-Tabari vol.2 p.175

Al-Khidr in Sura 18:60-62 is very similar to a Jewish tale: R. Joshua bin Levi and the Strange Actions of Elijah in William M. Brinner (translator) of Nissim bin Jacob bin Shahin An Elegant Composition Concerning Relief After Adversity, Yale Judaica Series vol.20 1977. Relief II, 13-16; J. Obermann, Two Elijah Stories in Judeo-Arabic Transmission. Hebrew Union College Annual 23, no.1 (1950-1951 p.387-404. al-Tabari vol.2 p.387-404 footnote 493.

The History of al-Tabari volume 3
The Children of Israel (33 entries) Tabari tried to be accurate al-Tabari vol.3 p.xi Tabari identified Dhul-Qarnain [Zul Qarnain] with Alexander the Great according to the translator’s forward al-Tabari vol.3 p.xi Ubayy bin ka’b [‘Ubai bin ka’b] and al-khidr al-Tabari vol.3 p.6 Al-Khidr’s fish turned everything it touched into rock al-Tabari vol.3 p.11 Old Testament genealogy al-Tabari vol.3 p.30 Exaggerating shooting an arrow toward heaven. The arrow returned stained with blood. al-Tabari vol.3 p.54 Tabari claims the Egyptians practiced crucifixion al-Tabari vol.3 p.57 Exaggeration al-Tabari vol.3 p.57-58 Do not invent a lie against God al-Tabari vol.3 p.61 620,000 Israelite men al-Tabari vol.3 p.63 Gabriel put pebbles in Pharaoh’s mouth, because he was afraid that Pharaoh might say something to have God’s mercy on him. al-Tabari vol.3 p.65 The Jews transported all of their dead to the holy land. al-Tabari vol.3 p.69 Al-Samiri means Samaritan (footnote). The footnote says that al-Tabari in his Tafsir [commentary] says that al-Samari was a prominent Israelite that Moses forbade Israelites to have contact with him, and that is why the Israelites were separated from the Samaritans. al-Tabari vol.3 p.72.

The calf spoke because the Lord breathed life into the calf. Moses accused God of misleading the Israelites. al-Tabari vol.3 p.73. God had many commandments for the Israelites, but he took away 6/7ths of them, leaving only the ones they received. al-Tabari vol.3 p.78 Moses went to Jericho. al-Tabari vol.3 p.80 Exaggeration of Og. al-Tabari vol.3 p.83 Moses lived 120 years,. al-Tabari vol.3 p.88 Exaggeration al-Tabari vol.3 p.88 The town of Ai. al-Tabari vol.3 p.96 Hailstorm al-Tabari vol.3 p.97 The Israelites raped Canaanite women. al-Tabari vol.3 p.97 Joshua lived to be 127 years old. al-Tabari vol.3 p.97 Three Persian holidays. al-Tabari vol.3 p.113 Ezekiel’s bones al-Tabari vol.3 p.119 Elijah got feathers. al-Tabari vol.3 p.125 460 years from Joshua to Samuel. al-Tabari vol.3 p.127 Confused a witch with a scholar. al-Tabari vol.3 p.137-138 David had 99 wives. al-Tabari vol.3 p.144 King David married Uriah’s wife while Uriah was still alive. He sinned in sending Uriah to his death. It was two angels [not Nathan] who told David the story of the two men and the little ewe. al-Tabari vol.3 p.145,148-149 All sin every day. al-Tabari vol.3 p.147 King David’s hands were stained with blood. al-Tabari vol.3 p.151 Solomon was warlike. al-Tabari vol.3 p.153 Satan assumed Solomon’s form to steal Solomon’s signet ring. Solomon was unrecognized and lost his authority until Satan threw it into the sea, a fish

swallowed it, a fisherman caught it, and Solomon got it back. al-Tabari vol.3 p.169

The History of al-Tabari volume 4
The Ancient Kingdoms (67 entries) Solomon’s wife sacrificed to a locust idol. al-Tabari vol.4 p.20 The good Israelite king Asa had women veiled in shabby clothing al-Tabari vol.4 p.25 The army of Zerah the Indian [Ethiopian] was 1.1 million al-Tabari vol.4 p.28 Babylonians had 600,000 troops al-Tabari vol.4 p.37 al-Tabari confused two Zechariahs al-Tabari vol.4 p.37 Sennacherib’s army was destroyed miraculously al-Tabari vol.4 p.38 The good king Josiah al-Tabari vol.4 p.40 Isaiah was pursued by the Israelites. He miraculously hid in the hollow trunk of a tree. However, a portion of the robe was shown, and the Jews sawed the tree in half, killing Isaiah. al-Tabari vol.4 p.41 The prophet Jeremiah al-Tabari vol.4 p.44 Jeremiah slept for 70 years al-Tabari vol.4 p.45 The sleepers and the donkey in the Qur’an al-Tabari vol.4 p.46 Belshazzar’s madness al-Tabari vol.4 p.49 Esther and Mordecai al-Tabari vol.4 p.50-51 Christians assert Esther’s son was Cyrus. al-Tabari vol.4 p.51 John the Baptist and Nebuchadnezzar (anachronism) al-Tabari vol.4 p.54 Jeremiah chapter 1 al-Tabari vol.4 p.56

Japheth al-Tabari vol.4 p.58 An angel of God deceived Jeremiah al-Tabari vol.4 p.60 Jeremiah went insane when God executed Jeremiah’s judgment. al-Tabari vol.4 p.60 Jeremiah slept for 100 years al-Tabari vol.4 p.62 Statues in Daniel al-Tabari vol.4 p.63 Rabbinic legend of the gnat in the brain al-Tabari vol.4 p.64 The Torah perished by Ezra’s time, but God miraculously gave him a new one. al-Tabari vol.4 p.64-65 The Jews considered Ezra a son of God al-Tabari vol.4 p.65 Fable of the earth folding for Jeremiah al-Tabari vol.4 p.67 Zoroastrians had secret teaching. al-Tabari vol.4 p.72 A Jew named Sami [Samaritan?] al-Tabari vol.4 p.77 Mandean (Mandaean) religion al-Tabari vol.4 p.77 Ohrmazd the Zoroastrian deity al-Tabari vol.4 p.85 Fable of the bad smelling body odor of Alexander of Macedon’s mother. al-Tabari vol.4 p.90 An anachronism of Antiochus the king of Babylon slew many Jews for the murder of John the Baptist. al-Tabari vol.4 p.97 Even Muslims agree that John the Baptist was killed al-Tabari vol.4 p.97 "They say" Jesus was born in Jerusalem al-Tabari vol.4 p.100 Persians say Jesus was born 65 years after Alexander conquered Babylon alTabari vol.4 p.102 The Christians say Jesus was born 303 years after Alexander conquered Babylon al-Tabari vol.4 p.102 Both al-Tabari and Ibn Ishaq say Mary the mother of Jesus was the daughter of ‘Imran al-Tabari vol.4 p.102-103

John the Baptist, a prophet, had the prohibition of the marriage of a man to his niece. al-Tabari vol.4 p.103 Gives a genealogy of both Mary and Joseph. They are the same until Joram and the Uzziah / Ahaziah. al-Tabari vol.4 p.103. Joseph’s genealogy is bin Jacob bin Mathan, bin Eleazar, bin Eliud, etc. al-Tabari vol.4 p.103 Mary’s genealogy is bint ‘Imran bin Josiah bin Amon, etc. al-Tabari vol.4 p.103 Mary’s mother was Hanna bint Faqud bin Qabil. al-Tabari vol.4 p.103 Elizabeth bint Faqud. al-Tabari vol.4 p.103 The Romans helped Nebuchadnezzar destroy the Temple in Jerusalem because the Israelites had killed John the Baptist. al-Tabari vol.4 p.106 However, the report the Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the Temple because the Israelites had killed John the Baptist is erroneous al-Tabari vol.4 p.107 John the Baptist descended from Solomon and David. al-Tabari vol.4 p.108 The angel Gabriel appeared to Mary as an attractive man. He breathed on the opening of her garment and that is how Mary conceived. al-Tabari vol.4 p.112113 In the womb, John the Baptist bowed to Jesus. al-Tabari vol.4 p.114 Mary was surrounded by angels, so Iblis [Satan] could not touch Jesus like he touched everyone else. al-Tabari vol.4 p.115 Nativity star when Jesus was born. That night a group set out, and they were discussing the signs of the Messiah, as indicated in the book of Daniel. al-Tabari vol.4 p.116 Childhood miracles of Jesus knowing what a person did, and turning water to wine. al-Tabari vol.4 p.117 Iblis [Satan] appeared as an old men when tempting Jesus. al-Tabari vol.4 p.118 Zechariah was falsely accused of impregnating Mary. The Jews tried to kill him, he miraculously hid in a tree, the fringe of his robe showed, the Jews sawed the tree in two and killed him. (This appears to be a repeat of an earlier story, except with Isaiah in al-Tabari vol.4 p.41.) al-Tabari vol.4 p.120

Jesus at the last supper. al-Tabari vol.4 p.121 They only crucified a likeness of Jesus. al-Tabari vol.4 p.122 According to Ibn Humayd - Ibn Ishaq, an impeccable authority - Wahb bin Munabbih al-Yamani: God allowed Jesus the son of Mary, to die at three o-clock in the day; then He took him unto Himself." al-Tabari vol.4 p.112 "Among the apostles, and the followers who came after them were the apostle Peter and Paul who was a follower and not an apostle, they went to Rome." [It does not say whether they went to Rome together or not.] al-Tabari vol.4 p.123 Joseph and Mary went to Egypt until Herod died and Archelaus took his place alTabari vol.4 p.125 Thamud was called Iram [Aram?] al-Tabari vol.4 p.130 The Jinn took way ‘Amr the necklaced. al-Tabari vol.4 p.136 Before Mohammed, the evil king ‘Amluq commanded that every bride had to have sex with him before she could be with her husband. (prima nocte) al-Tabari vol.4 p.151 Slaughter of Jews at Mecca prior to Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.4 p.154 The story of the sleepers in the cave. al-Tabari vol.4 p.155-159 Jonah survived in the belly of a whale. al-Tabari vol.4 p.160-166 Jonah defied the Lord al-Tabari vol.4 p.161 Jonah’s whale swam up the Euphrates River until it came to Ninevah. al-Tabari vol.4 p.161 Jonah grieved over the tree that was miraculously destroyed. al-Tabari vol.4 p.164 Samson fought for religion [Jihad], killing, taking goods, and taking captives alTabari vol.4 p.171

The History of al-Tabari volume 5
The Sasanids, the Byzantines, the Lakmids, and Yemen (91 entries)

The Persians occupied Yemen from 570-630 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.xvi (Translator’s forward) The Persians captured Nisibis in 363 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.xviii (Translator’s forward) Massacres commonly done by "good" rulers al-Tabari vol.5 p.9,15,24,33,40,55 Most of the Lakhmid population was Christian al-Tabari vol.5 p.22 Princess complained of a hard bed, similar to the story of the princess and the pea. al-Tabari vol.5 p.36 Exile of Christians from Antioch. al-Tabari vol.5 p.40 274-291 A.D. the Romans attacked the Persians. al-Tabari vol.5 p.47,47 Persecution of Christians. al-Tabari vol.5 p.47 In 338 A.D. the Romans and Persians fought. al-Tabari vol.5 p.49 700-701 A.D. war al-Tabari vol.5 p.53 Musaylimah was a prophet who was a rival to Mohammed al-Tabari vol.5 p.55 Severe persecution of Christians. al-Tabari vol.5 p.67 The reward of Sinrimar, which was death for doing a good job but not doing the very best possible. al-Tabari vol.5 p.76 Shrines to Al-Lat and ‘Uzza al-Tabari vol.5 p.76 Shrines of the daughters of Allah. al-Tabari vol.5 p.76 There is lengthy disagreement on the first male to accept Islam: ‘Ali, Abu Bakr, or Zayd bin Harithah (Mohammed’s adopted son). There is great disagreement on the order afterwards too. al-Tabari vol.5 p.80-87 Bahram persecuted Christians (footnote) al-Tabari vol.5 p.93 Perso-Byzantine War in 421-422 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.93 Music: Origin of the gypsy people. The Persian king Bahram said that his people should busy themselves with music and requested the Indian king send musicians. The Indian king sent 12,000 of them. al-Tabari vol.5 p.94 footnote 243

Legendary tales of Bahram al-Tabari vol.5 p.100-101 The Byzantines and Persians fought in 421 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.102 In 449 A.D. Armenians and Georgians revolt from the Persians imposing Zoroastrian religion after Yazdgird II persecuted the Jews, forbade the Jews to observe the Sabbath and closed all Jewish schools. al-Tabari vol.5 p.107,109 Persians attack the Romans [Byzantines] in 439 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.108 Famine al-Tabari vol.5 p.110,111 Allah helped the Zoroastrian king by sending rain. al-Tabari vol.5 p.112 The Muslim Mazyar bin Qarin revolted against the Tahirid governors in Khurasan during the time of Caliph al-Mu’tasim. Mazyar was captured and executed in 840 A.D. (225 A.H) al-Tabari vol.5 p.117 footnote Persians and Hephthalites fight in 484 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.121 Himyarites first mentioned by Pliny the Elder al-Tabari vol.5 p.122 footnote Sabaean rock inscription al-Tabari vol.5 p.122 Jadis and Thamud were three generations after Noah al-Tabari vol.5 p.123 footnote Byzantines and Lakhmids fight 500-502 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.125 Herodotus says the Persians learned about trousers from the Scythians al-Tabari vol.5 p.129 Mazdak started a Zoroastrian heresy c.488-496 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.132-133 footnotes 502 A.D. Zoroastrians were persecuted al-Tabari vol.5 p.137 Persians fight Byzantines summer/502-fall/506 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.136 Persians fight with Byzantines 528-531 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.140 Medina/al-Madinah was called Yathrib since 536 B.C. al-Tabari vol.5 p.145 Nabonidus of Babylon came to Ya-at-ri-bu (Yathrib) ca.556-539 B.C. Ptolemy called it Iathrippa, and Minaean inscriptions say Ytrb. al-Tabari vol.5 p.145

The Alans (Ossetians) converted to Christianity in the tenth century al-Tabari vol.5 p.151 Persecution of Mazdekites and Christians al-Tabari vol.5 p.155 540-543 A.D. fighting al-Tabari vol.5 p.158-159 Mohammed might have been born 570 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.163 Tabari supports 570 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.163 Aws and Khazraj of Medina both formed the Banu Qaylah bint Halik al-Tabari vol.5 p.165 The Qurayzah were massacred by Mohammed in 6 A.H 627 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.165 footnote 419 A few men might have survived Khaibar. al-Tabari vol.5 p.170 footnote 436 Dhu al-Qarnaiyn [Zul Qarnain] In Sura 18:82-97. "He witnessed the setting of the sun in its resting place into a pool of black and foetid slime." al-Tabari vol.5 p.173-174 Ahmad allegedly in the Psalms al-Tabari vol.5 p.175 Shamir Yur’ish raided China and build Samarqand [Samarkand] al-Tabari vol.5 p.176-177 Famous Battle of Harrat Waqim in 683 A.D. when the Umayyad Muslim bin ‘Uqbah defeated the Muslim Medinans. al-Tabari vol.5 p.179 footnote 460. Legendary giant race of Ad. al-Tabari vol.5 p.180 footnote 463 The evil king Lakhi’athah Yanuf Dhu Shanatir was a homosexual who forced young boys to have relations with him. al-Tabari vol.5 p.189 ‘Umar bin al-Khattab deported Christians to Iraq. al-Tabari vol.5 p.193 footnote 487 Sharahb’il Yakuf persecutes Christians in Ethiopia c.472 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.194 footnote 487 Jewish Ma’di Karib Ya’fur persecutes Christians in southwest Arabia in 523 A.D. until the Abyssinians defeated him in 525 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.195 footnote 488

Historian Abu ‘Abdallah Wabh bin Munnabbih (ca.34/634-110/728) one of the most knowledgeable Ummayad period historians al-Tabari vol.5 p.167 footnote 490 Hubal and divination al-Tabari vol.5 p.200 Jewish Arabs killed Christian Arabs, burning 2,000 of them when their church was burned. al-Tabari vol.5 p.202 Accuracy of reports al-Tabari vol.5 p.203 San’a pre-eminent in 3rd century A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.203 Second Abyssinian invasion 530 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.203 ca.533 A.D. some Abyssinians revolt in Yemen al-Tabari vol.5 p.214 The evil practice of a king sleeping with every new bride (prima nocte). al-Tabari vol.5 p.213 Al Mansur destroyed a large Christian church in Yemen al-Tabari vol.5 p.217 Shrine to al-Lat at Ta’if was destroyed in 630 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.223 footnote 531 Semi-legendary Abu Righal guided Abrahah to Mecca al-Tabari vol.5 p.223 footnote 552 Ka’bah had a door-ring. al-Tabari vol.5 p.227 Reasons why not the Expedition of the Elephant might not be in 570 A.D. alTabari vol.5 p.230 footnote 563 The Ka’bah was made of stone and covered with cloth al-Tabari vol.5 p.232 The Arabs were not blacks. al-Tabari vol.5 p.248 Byzantines persecute Monophysites in 572 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.251 The Sasanians had a poll tax al-Tabari vol.5 p.255 570 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.266,268 Mohammed’s mother Aminah bint Wahb in ‘Abd al-Manaf was from the Meccan clan of Zuhrah al-Tabari vol.5 p.270 footnote 645

Hubal was introduced to Mecca by ‘Amr bin Luhayy of the Khuza’ah tribe. The battle of Uhud showed that Hubal and Allah were not the same. al-Tabari vol.5 p.271 footnote 646. Splitting open the breast al-Tabari vol.5 p.278-280 Repentance washes away sins al-Tabari vol.5 p.281 Abdallah might have died when Mohammed was 28 months or 7 months alTabari vol.5 p.283. Shaykhs were before Islam al-Tabari vol.5 p.287 Persians fight Byzantines, Armenians, and Georgians in Lazica from 549-561 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.299 Jews killed in Persia al-Tabari vol.5 p.311 Zoroastrians also killed their apostates, so Mohammed possibly could have gotten the idea from them. al-Tabari vol.5 p.314 Persians occupy Damascus 613 A.D. al-Tabari vol.5 p.318 In June, 614 A.D., Jerusalem was sacked [by the Persians]. al-Tabari vol.5 p.318 Abu Sa’id Hasan bin Abi al-Hasan (died 110 /728) was an ascetic who is regarded as a proto-Sufi. al-Tabari vol.5 p.335 footnote 785. Muhammad bin Muslim al-Zuhri, also known as Ibn Shihab, was a founder of the Islamic science of tradition. He died 124/742 A.D. Ibn Ishaq was one of his pupils al-Tabari vol.5 p.336 footnote 789 Plague in Persia. al-Tabari vol.5 p.358 The Persian king Kisra was overthrown in 2/25/628. al-Tabari vol.5 p.379 The Zoroastrian Persians had Christian concubines al-Tabari vol.5 p.381 Zoroastrians title of herbed al-Tabari vol.5 p.377 Zoroastrian killing and seizing women al-Tabari vol.5 p.383 Son cannot inherit father’s position if the father was executed for a crime. alTabari vol.5 p.387

An amputee or mutilated person could not hold any government office or Zoroastrian religious position. al-Tabari vol.5 p.397 Woman ruler: Buran daughter of Kisra (iii) ruled Persia for one year and four months. She is also called Buran-dukht, and her mother was Maryam, a Byzantine princess. She restored the wooden cross to the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.5 p.403-405 text and footnote 996. The historian al-Waqidi (130-207/747-823) was from Medina. He wrote many works on history, but only the Kitab al-maghazi and possibly the Kitab al-riddah survive. Ibn Sa’d and others used his works. al-Tabari vol.5 p.413 footnote 1020

The History of al-Tabari volume 6
Muhammad at Mecca (57 entries) Daughters of Allah al-Tabari vol.6 p.107-112 Al-Waqidi al-Tabari vol.6 p.xv Theory of Hagarism al-Tabari vol.6 p.xvii Miracles al-Tabari vol.6 p.xxii ‘Aisha died 58 A.H. 668 A.D. al-Tabari vol.6 p.xxiii Fighting in Sura 8:39 not known when written al-Tabari vol.6 p.xxiv The South Arabian tribe of Qahtan might be the same as the Biblical Joktan. alTabari vol.6 p.xxii Ishmael married a daughter of Jurhun al-Tabari vol.6 p.xxvii Mohammed’s genealogy al-Tabari vol.6 p.xxx Waraqh bin Nawtal was a Christian who was Khadijah’s cousin al-Tabari vol.6 p.xxxi,68 The idea of Mohammed thinking of committing suicide. al-Tabari vol.6 p.xxxix,xl, 68-73. I went to Khadijah and said, ‘Wrap me up! Wrap me up!’ When the terror had left me, he came to me and said, 'Muhammad, you are the Messenger of God.'" He (Muhammad) said: I had been thinking of hurling myself down from a mountain crag, but he appeared to me, as I was thinking about this, and said, 'Muhammad, I am Gabriel and you are the Messenger of God.' Then he said,

'Recite!' I said, 'What shall I recite?' He took me and pressed me three times tightly until I was nearly stifled and was utterly exhausted; then he said: ‘Recite in the name of your Lord who created,’ and I recited it.... (p.69) Gabriel came to Muhammad and said, 'O Muhammad, recite!' He said, ‘I cannot recite.’ Gabriel was violent towards him and then said again, ‘O Muhammad, recite!’ He said, ‘I cannot recite,’ and Gabriel again was violent towards him.... (p.70) "Then he went to Khadijah and said, ‘Khadijah, I think that I have gone mad.’ ‘No, by God,’ she said. ‘Your Lord would never do that to you. You have never committed a wicked act.’" There is more on p.71-73, but it is basically duplicated. The word "Allah" only appears rarely in the earliest passages of the Qur’an. alTabari vol.6 p.xxxiii Satanic verses. al-Tabari vol.6 p.xxxiv Reciting the Satanic verses persuaded many Muslims to return from Abyssinia. al-Tabari vol.6 p.xliii Meccans not totally against Mohammed until he mentioned their idols. al-Tabari vol.6 p.xlii Satanic verses. al-Tabari vol.6 p.xliii Pre-Islamic Allah. al-Tabari vol.6 p.2 ‘Abd al-Muttalib could stand beside the idol Hubal while praying to Allah. Hubal. This is because the pre-Islamic Arabs believed in many gods, but believe Allah was the Supreme god. al-Tabari vol.6 footnote 4 p.3 Mohammed’s grandfather went to a sorceress for advice. al-Tabari vol.6 p.4 Waraqh was a Christian. al-Tabari vol.6 p.6 Throwing pebbles was pre-Islamic. al-Tabari vol.6 p.22 Surrogate husband (pre-Islamic). al-Tabari vol.6 p.35 Abraham was a friend of God. al-Tabari vol.6 p.36 Mohammed’s genealogy. al-Tabari vol.6 p.38 Tiny ants killed the survivors. al-Tabari vol.6 p.41 Mohammed saw a Christian monk. al-Tabari vol.6 p.44

The trees and stones prostrated themselves in worship of Mohammed, and they only prostrate themselves for a prophet. al-Tabari vol.6 p.46 Pre-Islamic women could engage in trading. al-Tabari vol.6 p.47 The lucky stone in the Ka’bah. al-Tabari vol.6 p.53 footnote 72 Muslims lunar year was 354 days. al-Tabari vol.6 p.55 There was a war when Mohammed was 20 years old. al-Tabari vol.6 p.51 Mohammed was born in the year of the elephant. al-Tabari vol.6 p.60 Mohammed started being a prophet at 43 [not 40]. al-Tabari vol.6 p.61 Alleged prophetic miracle of bringing dates. al-Tabari vol.6 p.67 Mohammed used to spend one month per year at religious retreat in Hera. alTabari vol.6 p.70 How to tell if a being is an angel or devil. al-Tabari vol.6 p.73 Joseph was pre-eminent as a full moon or stars. al-Tabari vol.6 p.78 Mohammed had fragrant skin. al-Tabari vol.6 p.80 Mohammed’s uncle could not leave his old religion. al-Tabari vol.6 p.84 Sura 53, daughters of Allah, cranes. al-Tabari vol.6 p.107-112 Zayd/Zaid bin Harithah was captured in war as a boy. al-Tabari vol.6 p.86 footnote 135 Miracle. al-Tabari vol.6 p.90 No opposition to Mohammed until he denounced their gods. al-Tabari vol.6 p.93 Abu Talib protected Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.6 p.94 The worst the polytheists did to Mohammed was grab his cloak. [at least prior to Uhud]. al-Tabari vol.6 p.102 ‘Abdallah bin Mas’ud was the first to recite the Qur’an publicly. Offer to worship al-Lat and al-‘Uzza for a year. [Mohammed did not accept the offer.] p107.

Satanic verses: Daughters of Allah, cranes, Sura 53 again. al-Tabari vol.6 p.111 617 A.D. Pre-Islamic battle of Bu’ath between the various tribes of Medina. alTabari vol.6 p.123 The four small clans were collectively known as Aws Allah, but they originally were called Aws Manat. They were a tribe of al-Aws. al-Tabari vol.6 p.130 footnote 207 Al-‘Abbas bin Ubadah said, "In swearing allegiance to him [Mohammed], you are pledging yourselves to wage war on all mankind." al-Tabari vol.6 p.134 The devil disguised as an old man praises Mohammed for "the beauty of his discourse, the sweetness of his speech, and how he dominates the hearts of men with the message which he brings." al-Tabari vol.6 p.141 When non-Muslims wanted to beat ‘Ali, Mohammed said to sleep in Mohammed’s bed and wrap himself with Mohammed’s green Hadrami cloak and nothing unpleasant would happen to him. al-Tabari vol.6 p.142 Mohammed would not accept a gift. [Later he would take booty though.] al-Tabari vol.6 p.149 It was OK to lodge with an unmarried woman. al-Tabari vol.6 p.151,152 The chain of transmission was arbitrary, because contradictory accounts all allegedly came from Ibn ‘Abbas. al-Tabari vol.6 p.153,154,155 A falsehood about the Jews: they dated events from the fire of Abraham. alTabari vol.6 p.159

The History of al-Tabari volume 7
The Foundation of the Community (51 entries) Claims all of Mohammed’s marriages were for political purposes. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xviii The Muslims fought on the last day of the sacred month, because if they had waited a day, the caravan would have gotten away. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxi Eye for an eye. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xvii

After the battle of Badr, Ka’b bin al-Ashraf was assassinated. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix Expeditions (in order) Badr, barley-meal raid (defensive), three others against nomadic tribes led by Mohammed, al-Qaradah (led by Mohammed’s adopted son Zayd), Uhud (March 21. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix In the raid on the caravan at al-Qaradah, led by Mohammed’s adopted son Zayd. one-fifth of the booty, which Mohammed took, was 20,000 Dirhams. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix,99; vol.7 p.99 Expeditions in A.H. 4 (in order): Dhat al-Riqa’, Raji’, Bi’r Ma’unah, Badr al-Maw’id (=Barley-meal raid II). al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv Since ‘Amir bin Al-Tufayl had suggested killing someone, he was not responsible in Muslim eyes, since he did not actively participate himself. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxv Mohammed married Zainab bint Khuzaymah. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxvi Ibn Hisham’s omissions. al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxvii ‘Aisha was 6-7 when married, and came the marriage was consummated when she was 9-10, three months after coming to Mecca. al-Tabari vol.7 p.7. The chain of transmission includes an unnamed man from the Quraysh. Mohammed married ‘Aisha in the month of Shawwal, and he consummated the marriage in the month of Shawwal because he liked that month. al-Tabari vol.7 p.8 Zuhayr born. al-Tabari vol.7 p.9 Muslims in Mecca died. al-Tabari vol.7 p.20 Mohammed said the Muslims had a better right to Moses than the Jews had. alTabari vol.7 p.26 Prayers made on this night will be granted. al-Tabari vol.7 p.27 Saul = Talut. al-Tabari vol.7 p.39 Mohammed gave an evasive answer. al-Tabari vol.7 p.43 Al-Hakim because caliph in 684 A.D. al-Tabari vol.7 p.50 Exaggeration al-Tabari vol.7 p.61

Mas’ud al-Tabari vol.7 p.61 Abu Jahl’s head was thrown down in front of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.7 p.62 Booty al-Tabari vol.7 p.64 Mohammed said that only Hellfire will look after ‘Uqbah’s children al-Tabari vol.7 p.65-66 Not in ibn Hisham al-Tabari vol.7 p.69 Hind bint ‘Utbah was the wife of Abu Sufyan al-Tabari vol.7 p.75 footnote 130 It is OK to torment people of other religions. al-Tabari vol.7 p.78,80 ‘Umar al-Tabari vol.7 p.80-81 Distinguish among the prophets - Sura 8:67f al-Tabari vol.7 p.82 Why it was OK to attack the Jews Mohammed had made a treaty with: because they had said, "Muhammad has not met anyone who is good at fighting. Had he met us, he would have had a battle which would be unlike a battle with anyone else." They also infringed the contract in various [unspecified] ways. al-Tabari vol.7 p.85 Battle of Banu Qaynuqa’, and their expulsion al-Tabari vol.7 p.85-87 Assassination of ibn al-Ashraf al-Tabari vol.7 p.95 Assassination of Abu Rafi’. al-Tabari vol.7 p.99-100 Assassination of Abu Rafi’ Sallam bin Abi Al-Huqayq al-Tabari vol.7 p.101-103 Example of not killing women and children. al-Tabari vol.7 p. 102,104 Hafsa was a widow al-Tabari vol.7 p.105 Calling to al-Lat and al-‘Uzza al-Tabari vol.7 p.114,126 [Assurance] Not sure of forgiveness al-Tabari vol.7 p.119 Mohammed was wounded. al-Tabari vol.7 p.120 Miracle of Mohammed healing a warrior’s eye. al-Tabari vol.7 p.121 The idol Hubal al-Tabari vol.7 p.126,131

Mohammed was heavy when he got older al-Tabari vol.7 p.126 Mohammed said, "If God gives me victory over Quraysh at any time, I shall mutilate thirty of their men!" When the Muslims saw the grief and rage of the Messenger of God at what had been done to his uncle, they said, ‘By God, if one day we are victorious over them, we shall mutilate them in a way which none of the Arabs has ever mutilated anybody." … "God revealed concerning these sayings of the Messenger of God and his companions, ‘If ye punish, then punish with the like of that wherewith ye were afflicted. But if ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient…" … So the Messenger of God forgave, was patient, and forbade mutilation." al-Tabari vol.7 p.133,134 Quzman was a warrior for the Muslims who committed suicide on account of his wounds. His act of suicide proved true Mohammed’s prophesy that he was one of the people of the hell-fire. al-Tabari vol.7 p.135-136 Kill someone who refused to be a Muslim. al-Tabari vol.7 p.144 "The story of ‘Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri, when he was sent by the Messenger of God to kill Abu Sufyan bin Harb. When the men whom the Prophet had sent to ‘Adal and al-Qarah were killed at al-Raji’ and the news reached the Messenger of God, he sent ‘Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri and one of the Ansar to Mecca, ordering them to kill Abu Sufyan bin Harb…." They circumambulated the Ka’aba, using that ritual as a pretense that they came to Mecca to worship. The Meccans suspected them, and they were unsuccessful. al-Tabari vol.7 p.147-150 Mohammed married Zainab bint Khuzaymah. She was divorced from the Muslim Tufayl, then married his brother ‘Ubaydah. After ‘Ubaydah was killed at Badr Mohammed married her. al-Tabari vol.7 p.150 "Pleased with us" verse abrogated from the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.7 p.156 Expeditions al-Tabari vol.7 p.161 Some polytheist women killed in battle. al-Tabari vol.7 p.164 Mohammed told Zaid bin Thaybit to study the book of the Jews. al-Tabari vol.7 p.167

The History of al-Tabari volume 8
The Victory of Islam

(102 entries) Mu’tah, a battle in Byzantine territory where Byzantines and Arab allies defeated Muslims in August-September 629 A.D. al-Tabari vol.8 p.xi; p.xiii Juwayriyah was married in 5 A.H. according to al-Waqidi, or 6.A.H according to ibn Ishaq and Tabari. al-Tabari vol.8 p.xii, p.56 Description of Juwayriyah al-Tabari vol.8 p.xiii Other wives: Mariyah the Copy 6/7 A.H., Rayhana bint ‘Amr 5 A.H., Um Habibah bint Abu Sufyan 6/7 A.H. Safiyyah 7 A.H., Maymunah bint al-Harith 7 A.H. alTabari vol.8 p.xiii Uhud ended A.H. 3 , March 625 A.D. al-Tabari vol.8 p.xiv The Banu Mustaliq were along the coastal trade route to Syria. al-Tabari vol.8 p.xv Letters to various kings probably fictitious. They would be meaningless to the rulers. al-Tabari vol.8 p.xviii Tabari was born 224/225 A.H. 839 A.D. in the winter. He studied in Reyy, near Tehran. al-Tabari vol.8 p.xx Tabari had a version of Ibn Ishaq that was prior to the one in modern times. alTabari vol.8 p.xx Waqidi of Baghdad was thought not very reliable by Tabari. al-Tabari vol.8 p.xx Zayd was one of the commanders of the expedition to Mu’tah, and he did there. al-Tabari vol.8 p.2 One account of how Mohammed met Zainab. al-Tabari vol.8 p.2 A second account of Mohammed meeting Zainab, where he saw there the door when she was undressed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.4 Expedition against Dumat al-Jandal in A.H. 5 626/627 A.D. There was no clash with the enemy though. al-Tabari vol.8 p.4-5 Battle of the Trench al-Tabari vol.8 p.13 Treaty between the Muslims and Ghatafan for the Ghatafan to withdraw from the siege of Mecca. al-Tabari vol.8 p.17

Fighting the Banu Qurayzah al-Tabari vol.8 p.27 Hind bint al-Mughirah, wife of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.8 footnote 41 p.31. The verdict of Sa’d at Khaibar was suspect, as the verdict was delivered before Sa’d arrived. al-Tabari vol.8 p.34 600-900 Jews were beheaded. al-Tabari vol.8 p.35 One cheerful Jewish woman was also beheaded. It is claimed she killed a Muslim. al-Tabari vol.8 p.36,41 All males who reached puberty were killed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.38 At Khaibar, they knew the Jews would not eat camel meat. al-Tabari vol.8 p.38 Rayhana, Mohammed’s concubine, chose to remain a Jew. al-Tabari vol.8 p.39 At Uhud allegedly only 6 Muslims and 3 non-Muslims were killed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.40 The expedition against Banu Mustaliq in A.H. 6 was also called al-Murasi. alTabari vol.8 p.41 The Ghatafan raided Mohammed’s milch camels. al-Tabari vol.8 p.43 It was claimed the Muslims heard that the Banu Mustaliq were organizing to fight Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.51 A Muslim offered to kill his own father. al-Tabari vol.8 p.55 ‘Aisha took a dislike to Juwayriyah because she was sweet and attractive. alTabari vol.8 p.57 "The Affair of the Lie". The lie against ‘Aisha alleging sexual impropriety. alTabari vol.8 p.56 When Mohammed married Jawayriyah, a hundred Banu Mustaliq families were freed from slavery. al-Tabari vol.8 p.57 How Mohammed was inspired. al-Tabari vol.8 p.63 The accusers of ‘Aisha were flogged. al-Tabari vol.8 p.63 Mohammed gave Sirin, a Coptic girl, to Hasan. al-Tabari vol.8 p.66

Miracle of Mohammed getting water with an arrow. al-Tabari vol.8 p.73 Abu Bakr cursed non-Muslims with very dirty language. al-Tabari vol.8 p.76 ‘Urwah [a non-Muslim] said whenever Mohammed split phlegm, if it fell in the hand of one of his companions, the companion would wipe his own face and skin with it. al-Tabari vol.8 p.77 The Pledge of Ridwan al-Tabari vol.8 p.82 The Meccans did not object to invoking the God Allah. al-Tabari vol.8 p.85 Mohammed wrote the peace treaty document. al-Tabari vol.8 p.86 Mohammed returned a Muslim in chains to his polytheist Father in Mecca. alTabari vol.8 p.87 ‘Umar said that the blood of a polytheist is not more valuable than a dog’s. alTabari vol.8 p.87 Mohammed wrote, but he did not write well. al-Tabari vol.8 p.88 Muslims had some infractions on the Treaty of Hudaibya. al-Tabari vol.8 p.91-92 Zayd/Zaid bin Harith led a raiding party to al-Jamum. al-Tabari vol.8 p.93 Zayd/Zaid led a raiding party to al-‘Is in Jumada. al-Tabari vol.8 p.93-94 Other raids. al-Tabari vol.8 p.95 ‘Umar married Jamilah bint Thabit, but later divorced her. al-Tabari vol.8 p.94-95 Zayd/Zaid led a raiding party to wadi al-Qura in Rajab al-Tabari vol.8 p.95 ‘Ali and 100 men raided Falak. al-Tabari vol.8 p.95 Zayd/Zaid raided Umm Qirfah. Umm Qirfah was an elderly lady who was the leader of the tribe. She was killed very cruelly by having each leg tied to a camel. al-Tabari vol.8 p.95-96 Mohammed wrote letters to Caesar, the king of Persia, and the Negus of Abyssinia [Ethiopia]. al-Tabari vol.8 p.98 Jesus’ disciples could miraculously speak the language of the people to whom they were sent. [like Acts 2]. al-Tabari vol.8 p.99

The ruler of Alexandria gave Mohammed four slave girls, one of which was Mariya the Copt. al-Tabari vol.8 p.100 Heraclius allegedly discussed Islam and wanted to become a Muslim. However, there is absolutely no evidence of this in Byzantine literature. al-Tabari vol.8 p.102-105 The Negus {king of Abyssinia allegedly believed in Jesus but denied that Jesus was God. al-Tabari vol.8 p.109 Al-Majus is the usual Arabic name for Zoroastrians. al-Tabari vol.8 p.111 Mohammed supernaturally knew exactly when the Persian king Kisra would be killed by his son Shirawayh. al-Tabari vol.8 p.113 Dihyah did not get Safiyyah as a captive, so Mohammed gave her Safiya’s two cousins instead. al-Tabari vol.8 p.117 At Khaibar, ‘Umar carried the banner and the Muslims fled. ‘Ali came and had an inflamed eye with clothe over it. Mohammed spat in his eye, healed it, and ‘Ali carried the banner to victory. al-Tabari vol.8 p.119-120 Mohammed often had migraine headaches. al-Tabari vol.8 p.120 ‘Ali picked up a door to use as a shield; later seven men could not lift it. al-Tabari vol.8 p.121 Mohammed called a Jewish woman a she-devil for wailing over her slain men at Khaybar/Khaibar. vol.8 p.122 Mohammed gave orders for torture at Khaybar/Khaibar. According to Ibn Ishaq: Kinanah bin al-Rabi’ bin Abi al-Huqayq who had the treasure of the Banu alNadir, was brought to the Messenger of God, who questioned him, but he denied knowing where it [the treasure] was. Then the Messenger of God was brought a Jew who said to him, "I have seen Kinanah walk around this ruin every morning." The Messenger of God said to Kinanah: "What do you say? If we find it in your possession, I will kill you. "All right he answered. The Messenger of God commanded that the ruin should be dug up, and some of the treasure was extracted from it. Then he asked him for the rest of it. Kinanah refused to surrender it, so the Messenger of God gave orders concerning him to al-Zubayr bin al-‘Awwam, saying, "Torture him until you root out what he has." Al-Zubayr kept twirling his firestick in his breast until Kinanah almost expired [died]; then the Messenger of God gave him to Muhammad bin Maslamah, who behead him to avenge his brother Mahmud bin Maslamah." al-Tabari vol.8 p.122

The booty of Fadak belonged exclusively to Mohammed because they surrendered their wealth with "no horses or camels were spurred against it". alTabari vol.8 p.123,129 Zaynab bint al-Harith the wife of Sallam bin Mishkam poisoned Mohammed. alTabari vol.8 p.123 Mohammed eventually died as a martyr from the effects of the poison. al-Tabari The Messenger of God said during the illness from which he died - the mother of Bishr bin al-Bara had come in to visit him - "Umm Bishr, at this very moment I feel my aorta being severed because of the food I ate with your son [who also died of poisoning] at Khaybar." The Muslims believed that in addition to the honor of prophethood that God had granted him the Messenger of God died a martyr." al-Tabari vol.8 p.124 Mohammed had a slave boy who was killed by a stray arrow. The boy was thought by some to be a Muslim, but Mohammed said he would be in Hell for pilfering at Khaybar. al-Tabari vol.8 p.124-125 Some Muslim women present with Mohammed were given small gifts at Khaibar, but they were not assigned a shared of the booty. al-Tabari vol.8 p.126. A Muslim told a lie against a potential enemy in time of war. al-Tabari vol.8 p.126 Caliph ‘Umar was informed that Mohammed said "Two religions cannot coexist in the Arabian peninsula." He investigated the report, found it to be true, and expelled all the Jews who did not have a treaty with Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.130 The Muslim emissary Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah returned from al-Muqawqis [Egypt] with Mariyah [Mary the Copt], her sister Sirin, a female mule, sets of garments, and a eunuch. Hatib invited them to become Muslims, and the two women did so [according to Tabari]. Mariyah was beautiful, and Mohammed sent her sister Sirin to Hassan bin Thabit. Sirin and Hassan were the parents of ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Hassan. al-Tabari vol.8 p.66,131. ‘Umar and 30 men raided the "rear" of Hawazan at Turabah. The non-Muslims fled without any fighting. al-Tabari vol.8 p.131 Bashir bin Sa’d and 30 men raided the Banu Murah at Fadak. Bashir was wounded, and his companions were killed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.132. Note that on p.123,129 the booty became exclusively Mohammed’s because camels and horses had not been spurred against it.

Ghalib bin ‘Abdallah al-Kalbi raided the land of the Banu Murrah. They killed Mirdas, an enemy who when captured said there is no God but Allah. Mohammed reproved Usamah for that. al-Tabari vol.8 p.132 Ghalib bin ‘Abdallah and 130 men raided the Banu ‘Abd bin Thalabah at Banu ‘Abd by surprise. The Muslims drove off camels and sheep. al-Tabari vol.8 p.133 Bashir bin Sa’d raided the Ghatafan at Yumm and Jinab. This was prompted by Mohammed’s guide telling him that there was a large gathering of Ghatafan at alHinab was preparing to march against Mohammed. Notice that a raiding party was sufficient to defeat the allegedly "large" hostile gathering. al-Tabari vol.8 p.133 Mohammed married Maymunah bint Al-Harith in a state of ritual purity on the journey to Mecca. al-Tabari vol.8 p.136 When a sacrifice of camels was required, Mohammed permitted a sacrifice of cattle instead, since camels were scarce then. al-Tabari vol.8 p.137 The raid of Abi al-‘Awja al-Sulami. al-Tabari vol.8 p.138 Zaynab daughter of Mohammed died in 8 .A.H. 629/630 A.D. al-Tabari vol.8 p.139 "The Messenger of God made peace with them on condition that the Zoroastrians should be required [to pay] tax, that their sacrifices should not be eaten, and that one should not marry their women. In this year the Messenger of God sent ‘Amr bin al-‘As to Jayfar and ‘Abbad, the sons of Julanda, in ‘Uman. The two believed in the Prophet and affirmed what he had brought. He exacted the poor rate on their wealth and collected tax (jizyah) from the Zoroastrians." alTabari vol.8 p.142 Shuja’ bin Wahb and 24 men raided the Banu ‘Amir and took camels and sheep. "The shares [of booty] came to fifteen camels for each man." al-Tabari vol.8 p.143 A.H. 8 ‘Amr bin al-‘As and 300 men raided al-Salasil of the tribe of Quda’h. alTabari vol.8 p.146 Abu ‘Ubaydah bin al-Jarrah and 300 men raided the tribe of Juhaynah at alKhabat in A.H. 8. al-Tabari vol.8 p.146 Mohammed briefly had a "very beautiful" captive before he gave her to Mahmiyah bin Jaz’ al-Zubaydi. al-Tabari vol.8 p.151 8 men raided Idam for camels. al-Tabari vol.8 p.151-152

Aug/Sept. 629 A.D. 3,000 Muslims fought and lost against allegedly 100,000 Byzantines at Mu’tah. al-Tabari vol.8 p.152-153 Umm Salama was a wife of Mohammed p.160 The Quraysh allies, supplied by weapons from the Quraysh, fought Muslim allies. This was the occasion of Sura 60:1-8 "Take not the enemy as friends" al-Tabari vol.8 p.161 10,000 Muslims conquered Mecca. al-Tabari vol.8 p.168 Abu Sufyan, after he became a Muslim, said the pre-Islamic Quraysh cavalry were called the horsemen of al-Lat. al-Tabari vol.8 p.169 Mohammed first ordered the apostate ‘Amr bin Lu’ayy killed, but later pardoned him after ‘Uthman hid him from the others. al-Tabari vol.8 p.178-179 Mohammed ordered two singing girls killed who used to sing satire against Mohammed. One was killed and the other fled. The second was killed by being trampled by a horse much later. al-Tabari vol.8 p.179-180 It was Hind, Abu Sufyan’s wife and later wife of Mohammed, who before becoming a Muslim, mutilated dead Muslim warriors at the Battle of Uhud. alTabari vol.8 footnote 750 p.182 Mohammed married (married is the word in the text) Mulaykah bint Dawud alLaythiyyah, but when she was told that Mohammed was the one who had her father killed, she took refuge in Allah from Mohammed. So Mohammed separated from her. al-Tabari vol.8 p.189 Khalid destroyed the idol al-Uzza and killed the priestess. al-Tabari vol.8 p.187. The Quraysh, Kinanah, Banu Shayban, and all Mudar worshipped the idol ‘Uzza at Nakhlah/Nakhla. al-Tabari vol.8 p.187 Muslims destroyed the idols Suwa’ and Manat. al-Tabari vol.8 p.188 Khalid killed some of the men of Jadhimah after they surrendered. Mohammed disapproved and paid blood money to all of the survivors. al-Tabari vol.8 p.189191. Mohammed’s white shoulder could be seen when he prayed saying he was innocent of Khalid’s killing. al-Tabari vol.8 p.190

The History of al-Tabari volume 9

The Last Years of the Prophet (100 entries) The original of Ibn Ishaq’s work did not survive. What we have today is an abbreviated and annotated version by Ibn Hisham (died 218/833). We also have quotes and references from other writers. al-Tabari vol.9 p.xi Battle of Hunayn is mentioned in the Qur’an in Sura 9:25-26. al-Tabari vol.9 p.23 Sura 46 has funny letters at the beginning. al-Tabari vol.9 p.14 footnote 107 Mohammed gave a slave and slave girl to his non-Muslim foster sister. al-Tabari vol.9 p.19 One of the wives of ‘Umar was Umm Salama bint Abi Umayyah al-Tabari vol.9 p.23 A captive slave girl was for making pregnant. al-Tabari vol.9 p.25-26 The Meccan warriors were very eager for booty. al-Tabari vol.9 p.31 Beating: wealth: Mohammed hit a fellow Muslim with his whip. He later gave him 80 female sheep to make up for it. al-Tabari vol.9 p.35-36 Mohammed accepted Jizya tax from Zoroastrians. al-Tabari vol.9 p.39 Mohammed briefly married Fatima/Fatema/Fatimah bint al-Dahhak bin Sufyan (also called al-Kilabiyyah). al-Tabari vol.9 p.39 Mary the Copt gave birth to Mohammed’s son Ibrahim. al-Tabari vol.9 p.39 Mohammed gave a slave to Abu Rafi. al-Tabari vol.9 p.39 Mohammed’s wives "became very jealous" when Ibrahim was born. al-Tabari vol.9 p.39 Mohammed would not permit the Thaqif tribe of Tai’f to not demolish the idol alLat for any period of time. al-Tabari vol.9 p.44-45 The Battle of Tabuk was in A.H. 9 (630/631) al-Tabari vol.9 p.46-48,56-57 Mohammed said that ‘Ali was in the same relation to Mohammed as Aaron to Moses. al-Tabari vol.9 p.51 Al-Hijr was a formerly famous ruin. al-Tabari vol.9 p.52

Abdallah bin Mas’ud al-Tabari vol.9 p.56 ‘Ammar bin Yassar was one of the four pillars of Shi’ah who was killed at the Battle of Siffin (37 A.H. / 657 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.9 p.57 Context of Sura 9:65 was a band of hypocrites including Wadi’ah bin Thabit. alTabari vol.9 p.57 Battle of al-Yamamah against the false prophet Musaylimah. al-Tabari vol.9 p.58 In Mohammed’s lifetime the Muslims under Khalid bin al-Walid made a surprise attack on an unsuspecting Christian king [chieftain] of Dumah and he was killed. al-Tabari vol.9 p.58-59 The silk kerchiefs of Sa’d bin Mu’adh in Paradise are better than the silk on earth. al-Tabari vol.9 p.58-59 Context of Sura 9:107 al-Tabari vol.9 p.61 War: violence: Mohammed apparently was the first to order Muslims to burn down a mosque. He did it while Muslims were still in it. "The[n] the Messenger of God proceeded until he halted in Dhu Awan, a town an hour’s daytime journey from Medina. The people who had built the Mosque of Dissent (masjid al-dirar) had come to him while he was preparing for Tabuk saying, ‘O Messenger of God, we have built a mosque for the sick and needy and for rainy and cold nights, and we would like you to visit us and pray for us in it.’ [The Prophet] said that he was on the verge of traveling, and he was preoccupied, or words to that effect, and that when he returned, God willing, he would come to them and pray for them in it. When he stopped in Dhu Awan, news of the mosque came to him, and he summoned Malik bin al-Dukhshum, a brother of the Banu Salim bin ‘Awf, and Ma’n bin ‘Adi, or his brother ‘Asim bin ‘Adi, brothers of the Banu al-‘Ajlan, and said, ‘Go to this mosque whose owners are unjust people and destroy and burn it.’ They went out briskly until they came to the Banu Salim bin ‘Awf who were Malik bin al-Dukhshum’s clan. Malik said to Ma’n, ‘Wait for me until I bring fire from my people.’... Then both of them ran until they entered the mosque, its people inside, set fire to it and destroyed it and the people dispersed. Sura 9:107 speaks of this. al-Tabari vol.9 p.61. Footnote 425 on the same page says that Waqidi says the fire was set after the evening prayer. Mohammed could forgive someone, but they not be absolved from guilt. al-Tabari vol.9 p.62 Adi bin Hatim was half-Christian and half the Sabean (rakusi) religion. al-Tabari vol.9 p.65-66

In A.H. 9, Mohammed gave people who just embraced Islam valuable gifts. alTabari vol.9-10 p.72 Each Christian or Jew had to pay one dinar in tax. al-Tabari vol.9 p.75 In Mohammed’s presence, Thabit bin Qays bin Shammas said that "We are the Helpers of God and the viziers of His Messenger, and we fight people until they believe in God. al-Tabari vol.9 p.69 Al-Miqdad bin ‘Amr was one of the seven early converts and one of the four pillars of the early Shi’ah. He died in 33/653-654 A.D. al-Tabari vol.9 p.76 footnote 525. Mohammed’s daughter Umm Kulthum died in Sha’ban. al-Tabari vol.9 p.79 "Al-‘Uzza is an old Arabian goddess, whose name means ‘the Strong, the Powerful.’ Her main sanctuary was in the valley of Nakhlah. In Mecca, she forted a trinity with al-Lat and Manat and they were called the three ‘daughters of Allah.’" Wellhausen, Skizzen, III, 30-42. al-Tabari vol.9 p.81 footnote 563. Dimam bin Tha’labah came to Mohammed and asked questions about Islam. alTabari vol.9 p.80-81 War: Invite or fight. In A.H. 10, Mohammed sent Khalid bin al-Walid to Balharith to invite them to Islam for three days before he fought them. They converted and nobody died. al-Tabari vol.9 p.82 A Christian or Jew is not to be tempted/seduced from his religion. al-Tabari vol.9 p.75,87 Mohammed ordered Surad bin Abdallah to fight the polytheists from the tribes of Yemen. al-Tabari vol.9 p.88 A deputation came from the Yemenis, and Mohammed prophesied that that very day their people would be killed. al-Tabari vol.9 p.89 Musaylimah was actually a nickname meaning little Maslamah. al-Tabari vol.9 p.95 Mohammed was very serious about no silk. The Muslims were wearing Yemeni striped robes with bordered with silk. The Muslims tore the silk off their own robes and threw the silk away. al-Tabari vol.9 p.97 The first chapter of the Qurna, called the Umm al-Kitab (Kitab=book) was taught in Mohammed’s lifetime.

Zayd bin Harithah’s army raided al-Fadafid, rounded up the men and cattle, and killed al-Hunayd and his son and three others in 10 A.H. al-Tabari vol.9 p.100101. Musaylimah wrote to Mohammed saying he was his associate. al-Tabari vol.9 p.106-107 Sura 5:3 recited in A.H. 10 al-Tabari vol.9 p.108 ‘Ali was not tactful and had the army resent him. al-Tabari vol.9 p.111 No usury allowed. al-Tabari vol.9 p.112 Adding a month is an increase in unbelief. al-Tabari vol.9 p.112 "Now then, O people, you have a right over your wives and they have a right over you. You have [the right] that they should not cause anyone of whom you dislike to tread your beds; and that they should not commit any open indecency (fahishah). If they do, then God permits you to shut them in separate rooms and to beat them, but not severely. If they abstain from [evil], they have the right to their food and clothing in accordance with custom (bi’l-ma-ruf). Treat women well, for they are [like] domestic animals (‘awan) with you and do not possess anything for themselves." al-Tabari vol.9 p.113 War: Mohammed personally took part in 26 or 27 expeditions. al-Tabari vol.9 p.115-118 Mohammed’s slave Midan was killed. al-Tabari vol.9 p.118 War: 35 Total expeditions. al-Tabari vol.9 p.118 "It is reported about Yusayr bin Rizam, the Jew, that he was gathering Ghatafan in Khaybar to attack the Messenger of God, so the latter sent ‘Abdallah bin Rawahah with a number of his companions, among whom were ‘Abdallah bin Unays, an ally of the Banu Salamah." The urged him to come to Mohammed with them, which he started to do. On the way he regretted it, and they sensed it, so they attacked him and his Jewish companions and killed them. al-Tabari vol.9 p.120 "Between the battles of Badr and Uhud, the Messenger of God sent Muhammad bin Maslamah with his companions to Ka’b bin al-Ashraf, and they killed him. The Messenger of God sent ‘Abdallah bin Unays to Khalid bin Sufyan bin Nubayh alHudhali while he was in Nakhlah or ‘Uranah preparing to attack the Messenger of God and killed him." al-Tabari vol.9 p.121

"The Messenger of God called me and said, ‘It has reached me that Khalid bin Sufyan bin Nubayh al-Hudhali is gathering a force to attack me. He is either in Nakhlah or ‘Uranah, so go to him and kill him.’" al-Tabari vol.9 p.121 The expeditions of Salasil, Idam, al-Ghabah, al-Khabat (by the seashore). alTabari vol.9 p.123 19 Expeditions al-Tabari vol.9 p.124 18 expeditions. al-Tabari vol.9 p.125 Mohammed married 15 women and consummated his marriages with 13 alTabari vol.9 p.126-127 Sauda’s ex-husband, al-Sakran bin ‘Amr bin ‘Abd Shams became a Christian in Abyssinia and died there. al-Tabari vol.9 p.128 ‘Aisha was 6 (or 7) years old when she was married, and the marriage was consummated when she was nine years old. al-Tabari vol.9 p.129-131 According to Ibn Ishaq, Mohammed divorced Hafsa but then took her back. alTabari vol.9 footnote 884 p.131. Mohammed married al-Nashat bint Rifa’ah of the Banu Kilab bin Rabi’ah, allies of the Qurayzah. She was also called Sana. However, she died before the Prophet consummated his marriage with her. al-Tabari vol.9 p.135-136 Mohammed married al-Shanba bint ‘Amr al-Ghifariyyah; her people were allies of the banu Qurayza. When Ibrahim died, she said that if he were a true prophet his son would not have died. Muhammed divorced her before consummating his marriage with her. al-Tabari vol.9 p.136 Mohammed asked to marry Ghaziyyah on account of her beauty, but she declined. Tabari claims she was in a state of infidelity but provides no evidence. al-Tabari vol.9 p.136 Mohammed married Asma bint al-Mu’man bin al-Aswad bin Sharahil. However, she had leprosy, so Mohammed gave her money and divorced her. al-Tabari vol.9 p.137 Mohammed married al-‘Aliyyah, but then divorced her. al-Tabari vol.9 p.138 Mohammed married Qutaylah bint Qays but she died before they consummated the marriage. al-Tabari vol.9 p.138 Mohammed married Fatimah bint Shurayh. al-Tabari vol.9 p.139

Mohammed married Ghaziyyah bint Jabir. "When the Prophet went to her he found her to be an old woman, so he divorced her." al-Tabari vol.9 p.139 It is said that Mohammed married Khawlah bint al-Hudayl. al-Tabari vol.9 p.139 Layla clapped Mohammed’s shoulder from behind and asked him to marry her. Mohammed accepted. Layla’s people said she did a bad thing, so Layla returned to Mohammed and asked him to revoke [annul] the marriage and Mohammed complied. al-Tabari vol.9 p.139 Mohammed proposed marriage to, but ending up not marrying: 1) Umm Hani’ bint Abi Talib [Hind] because she said she was with child. 2) Duba’ah bint ‘Amir but she was too old. 3) Reportedly he proposed to Saffiyah bint Bashshamah, a captive. She was allowed to choose between Mohammed and her husband, and she chose her husband. 4) Umm Habib bint al-‘Abbas but since al-‘Abbas was his foster brother so it would not have been lawful so Mohammed backed out. 5) Jamrah bint Al-Harith. Her father falsely claimed she was suffering from something. When he returned, he found that she had already been afflicted with leprosy. al-Tabari vol.9 p.140-141 Mohammed had two concubines: Mariya bint Sham’un the Copt, and Rayhanah bint Zayd al-Quraziyyah of the Banu al-Nadir. al-Tabari vol.9 p.141 Mohammed had 14 slaves, which he freed by the time he died: Thawban, Shuqran, Ruwayfi, Salman al-Farisi, Safinah, Anasah, Abu Kabshah, Abu Muwayhibah, Rabah al-Aswad, Fadalah, Mid’am, Abu Dumayrah, Yasar, Mihran. al-Tabari vol.9 p.142-147. This does not include Mohammed’s slave girls, nor the slaves of his wives. Mohammed had four scribes: Ubayy bin Ka’b. Zayd bin Thabit, ‘Abdallah bin Sa’d bin Abi Sarh, Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, and Hanzalah al-Usayyidi. ‘Abdallah apostacized from Islam, but later returned after the conquest of Mecca. Mu’awiyah later became a caliph. al-Tabari vol.9 p.147-148 Mohammed had seven horses. al-Tabari vol.9 p.148-149 Mohammed had at least three mules and donkeys. al-Tabari vol.9 p.150 Mohammed had one riding camels and 20 milch camels. al-Tabari vol.9 p.150151 Mohammed also had seven other milch camels. al-Tabari vol.9 p.152 Mohammed had seven sheep and seven goats. al-Tabari vol.9 p.153.

Mohammed went to battle in not one but two coats of mail. al-Tabari vol.9 p.154155 Mohammed had a white complexion. al-Tabari vol.9 p.157,158 Al-Aswad (soothsayer and juggler) and Musaylimah were false prophets. alTabari vol.9 p.164-165 Mohammed ordered the assassination of al-Aswad al-Tabari vol.9 p.167 Mohammed prayed for the people in the cemetery. al-Tabari vol.9 p.169 ‘A’ishah could not bring herself to speak well of him [‘Ali bin Abi Talib] though she was able to do it." al-Tabari vol.9 p.170 Before he died Mohammed asked for a pen and paper so that he [himself] could write down something. al-Tabari vol.9 p.174 "The messenger of God’s pain became so severe that he said: ‘Give me [pen and paper] so that I may write a document for you and you will never go astray after me.’ His companions wrangled over it, and it did not befit them to carry on a dispute before a prophet. Some people said, ‘What’s the matter with him? Is he talking nonsense? Ask him for an explanation.’ [When] they went back, repeating [those remarks] to him, he replied, ‘Leave me [alone], the state I am in is better than that for which you are calling me.’ He charged them with three tings: ‘Expel the polytheists from the Arabian Peninsula; give presents to the delegation[s] as I used to do.’ [Sa’d bin Jubayr states that Ibn ‘Abbas] became silent about the third [command] intentionally, or that he said that he had forgotten it." al-Tabari vol.9 p.174-175 Mohammed said to expel the polytheists from the Arabian Peninsula. al-Tabari vol.9 p.175 Mohammed ordered some of his wives to take a medicine as a "retribution" for their forcing him to take it. al-Tabari vol.9 p.178 Mohammed was given the choice of living or dying. al-Tabari vol.9 p.179 Mohammed did not make anything lawful/unlawful except what was lawful/unlawful by the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.9 p.182 For those who worshipped Mohammed, know that Mohammed is dead. al-Tabari vol.9 p.185 Al-Zubayr drew his sword for ‘Ali against fellow Muslims. al-Tabari vol.9 p.186187

‘Umar said the verse on stoning adulterers was in the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.9 p.190-191 Abu Bakr did not let Fatimah or the rest of Mohammed’s family share in the spoils of Fadak and Khaibar’s tribute. al-Tabari vol.9 p.196 ‘Ali disliked that ‘Umar should come with Abu Bakr, for he knew ‘Umar’s rudeness. al-Tabari vol.9 p.197 After Mohammed died Abu Sufyan still caused trouble. al-Tabari vol.9 p.198-199 No other religion in the Arabian Peninsula. al-Tabari vol.9 p.206 Mohammed was either 60, 63, or 65 years old when he died. al-Tabari vol.9 p.206-208

The History of al-Tabari volume 10
The Conquest of Arabia (63 entries) After Mohammed’s death some tribes wanted to leave Islam, and some tribes wanted to remain Muslims, but they did not want to send Abu Bakr any taxes. alTabari vol.10 p.xii Ridda includes fighting those who did not repudiate Islam but resisted taxes and expansion. al-Tabari vol.10 p.xiii Volume 10 is 90% from Sayf bin ‘Umar. al-Tabari vol.10 p.xiv Islam = submission. al-Tabari vol.10 p.xxiii People were made to submit to Islam unwillingly. al-Tabari vol.10 p.2 Islam was spread by the sword. al-Tabari vol.10 p.6 "For you are more deserving of this authority than they are, as it was by your swords that those who were not yet converted came to obey this religion [Islam]. al-Tabari vol.10 p.6 In speaking to a Muslim "‘Umar said, ‘Then may God kill you!’ and (al-Hubab) replied, ‘Rather may He kill you!’" When Sa’d would not give allegiance to ‘Umar, ‘Umar said he intended to step on Sa’d’s arm until it was dislocated. al-Tabari vol.10 p.8

Abu Bakr did not did claim to be sinless. In fact, he said he had a Satan that takes possession of him. You should avoid Abu Bakr when Satan comes to him. al-Tabari vol.10 p.12 For each step a warrior takes, 700 beauties [women] are destined for him and 700 sins forgiven. al-Tabari vol.10 p.16 The army should not kill the young or the very old. al-Tabari vol.10 p.16 Dispersing of booty and raiding the tribe of Abil. al-Tabari vol.10 p.17 A general fighting the Muslims [al-Aswad] was given supernatural information; Satan told him of the Muslims plans. al-Tabari vol.10 p.26 Assassination of the non-Muslim general al-Aswad by Muslims while Mohammed was alive. al-Tabari vol.10 p.27-33 Both Muslim soldiers and al-Aswad’s men took hostages. al-Tabari vol.10 p.33 al-Aswad was a soothsayer who killed the king of Yemen and married his wife. al-Tabari vol.10 p.39 Mohammed’s daughter Fatima died when she was about 29 years old. al-Tabari vol.10 p.39 The first Ridda war was against al-‘Ansi in Yemen. The next was the war of Kharijah bin Hisn and Manzur bin Zabban bin Sayyar of Ghatafan. al-Tabari vol.10 p.41 Mention of the false prophets Musaylimah and Tulayhah. al-Tabari vol.10 p.41-42 The Tayya’, Asad, Ghatafan, Hazazin, both of Jalilah, a few Banu Sulaym apostatized. al-Tabari vol.10 p.42 An apostate named Mu’awiyah al-‘Udhriis is different from the future caliph. alTabari vol.10 p.43 Abu Bakr used the generals Talhah and ‘Ali al-Zubayr to guard the mountain passes. al-Tabari vol.10 p.46 Abu Bakr told the Muslims that they can kill the apostates by being burned with fire or slaughtered by any means. Accept nothing from them except converting to Islam. al-Tabari vol.10 p.57 700 Banu Fazarah apostacized and followed the false prophet Tulayhah. alTabari vol.10 p.65

Tulayhah also claimed that Gabriel came to him. al-Tabari vol.10 p.66 A miracle occurred when the sword of the Muslim al-Dirar shrank from Tulayhah. Mohammed died at that time. After that time people flocked to Tulayhah since they heard that weapons would not affect him. al-Tabari vol.10 p.67-68 ‘Uyaynah bin Hisn was captured with his hands bound to his neck with a rope. The boys of Medina used to prick him with palm branches. He claimed he never believed in God, and Abu Bakr spared his life. al-Tabari vol.10 p.72-73 After Tulayhah’s followers were defeated, Tulayhah became a Muslim. al-Tabari vol.10 p.74 A Muslim general under Abu Bakr burned some Muslims apostates who fought against Muslims with fire. al-Tabari vol.10 p.76 Salma was captured and made a slave of ‘Aisha. Later ‘Aisha set her free. Salma later apostacized and organized an army. The Muslims attacked them and killed her. Notice that they did not attack the Muslim settlements, rather the Muslims attacked them. al-Tabari vol.10 p.78-79 Abu Bakr ordered an apostate thrown into the fire. al-Tabari vol.10 p.80 Abu Bakr ordered a rogue commander burned with fire. al-Tabari vol.10 p.80 ‘Umar whipped a fellow Muslim, Abu Shajarah on the head after he became a Muslim and asked for alms. al-Tabari vol.10 p. Sajah was a prophetess who married Musaylimah. al-Tabari vol.10 p.92-94 Mention of Talhah bin ‘Ubaydallah. al-Tabari vol.10 p.97 Khalid summoned the people to become Muslims, and those who resisted were killed. al-Tabari vol.10 p.p.100 Claim that the Arabs used to find the taking of women abhorrent in war. However, what would they have thought of Mohammed frequently doing so? alTabari vol.10 p.102 "Now the men of the army used the heads [of the slain captives] to hold up their cooking-pots". al-Tabari vol.10 p.103 Khalid bin al-Walid killed a Muslim man and then married his wife. ‘Umar spoke to Abu Bakr repeatedly about him. Abu Bakr did not do anything to Khalid though. al-Tabari vol.10 p.104

[The false prophet] "Musaylimah used to treat everyone gently and be amicable with him, and it did not occur to the people to know evil from him." al-Tabari vol.10 p.107 Comparison of Mohammed’s miracles and Musaylimah’s non-miracles. al-Tabari vol.10 p.110 Mohammed said that the molar tooth of a man in the fire will be larger than Mount Uhud. In other words the body of an unbeliever will be enlarged so that he will suffer more. al-Tabari vol.10 p.114 and footnote 745. This hadith is in Sunan Ibn-i-Majah vol.5 book 37 no.4322 p.533. However, it is said to be da’if [weak]. Musaylimah is killed when the Muslims attacked them. 10,000 Muslims were killed in the battle. al-Tabari vol.10 p.116, 119-120, 125 Abu Bakr ordered that Khalid execute everyone of the Banu Hanifah over whose face had passed a razor. al-Tabari vol.10 p.131 Abu Bakr rebuked Khalid for marrying when the blood of 1,200 dead Muslim warriors had not yet dried. al-Tabari vol.10 p.133 ‘Umar was left-handed. al-Tabari vol.10 p.133 Brief mention of Abu Hurayrah [Abu Hurairah]. al-Tabari vol.10 p.143 A Muslim cut off a man’s leg in battle. The man begged for death, but the Muslim did not want the man to die until he had made him suffer. al-Tabari vol.10 p.145 Even though ‘Ali did not marry anyone besides Fatima, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib gained as booty girl of the tribe of Rabi’ah bin Bujayr. al-Tabari vol.10 p.152 In ‘Uman was the false prophet Laliq bin Malik al-Azdi al-Tabari vol.10 p.152 After al-Qadisiyyah, the Muslim army captured 2,000 noblewomen. They sent 1/5 to Mecca and distributed the rest among the Muslim warriors. al-Tabari vol.10 p.156 Mention of the apostate Al-Aswad being killed [he was assassinated] al-Tabari vol.10 p.158-159 Slaughtered of the Banu Shannuq tribe by Muslims. Only a few were left. alTabari vol.10 p.160 Abu Bakr revoked having two religions among the Najran. al-Tabari vol.10 p.163 Bishops and monks were allowed. al-Tabari vol.10 p.163

Mohammed cursed the four apostate kings of the Kindah tribe. al-Tabari vol.10 p.176 Mohammed ordered all the fighting men among the apostate Kindah tribe killed. al-Tabari vol.10 p.185 Asma bint al-Nu’man bin Abi al-Jawn of the Kindah tribe was married to Mohammed, but the marriage was never consummated. al-Tabari vol.10 p.185 and footnote 1131 p.185 Apostate women were given as captives. al-Tabari vol.10 p.186 After he became caliph, ‘Umar paid to have all slaves freed who were Muslims. That is, unless they were slave women who had borne children to their masters. al-Tabari vol.10 p.189 Al-Nu’man al-Jawn offered his daughter to Mohammed, but Mohammed declined. al-Tabari vol.10 p.190 There were two singing girls who sang reviling Mohammed. One had her hand cut off and her front tooth pulled out. Al-Mujahir did this, but Abu Bakr wrote that if he had not done this, Abu Bakr would have had her killed. Abu Bakr said that if anyone claiming to be a Muslim did this, they were actually an apostate. If any non-Muslim did this while claiming to be at peace with Muslims, they were actually at war with them and a traitor. al-Tabari vol.10 p.191-192

The History of al-Tabari volume 11
(80 entries) When we can crosscheck Tabari’s sources that he quoted, he quoted them almost verbatim. al-Tabari vol.11 p.xv Tabari was a second-period historian. The earlier first period historians included al-Waqidi, ibn-Ishaq, and Sayf bin ‘Umar. al-Tabari vol.11 p.xv Battle of al-Yarmuk in Syria in 636 A.D.. al-Tabari vol.11 p.xlii, xix Qa’a bin ‘Amr was a totally fictitious companion who [coincidentally] was a member of Sayf’s tribe. al-Tabari vol.11 p.xxi The Romans had a fake history in Historia Augusta. Muslim scholars almost universally rejected Sayf though. al-Tabari vol.11 p.xxvii Tabari also acknowledged that Sayf was a weak transmitter at times. al-Tabari vol.11 p.xxviii

The Jizyah was 3,000 dirhams for three towns. al-Tabari vol.11 p.3 A 90,000 dirham jizyah was collected. al-Tabari vol.11 p.4 A 190,000 dirham jizyah was collected. al-Tabari vol.11 p.6 Hatim al-Tai was a pre-Islamic poet known for his generosity. al-Tabari vol.11 p.11 footnote 8 Abu Bakr commanded that the warrior Jandal be given a girl from among the captives, and she later bore Jandal a child. al-Tabari vol.11 p.25 A jizyah of 190,000 dirhams was collected. al-Tabari vol.11 p.31 190,00 dirhams jizyah was paid annually. al-Tabari vol.11 p.35 A Muslim named Shuwayl let a captive be ransomed for 1,000 dirhams because he claimed he did not think any number was greater than 1000. al-Tabari vol.11 p.38 A jizyah tax of 10,000 dinars every year. al-Tabari vol.11 p.40 Two leaders made peace with the Muslims for one or else two million dirhams. al-Tabari vol.11 p.41 A fortress surrendered to Khalid, and he then beheaded all of the men. Khalid never received any rebuke or punishment from Abu Bakr for that. al-Tabari vol.11 p.55 The Banu Ghassan tribe of Arabs were Monophysite Christians. al-Tabari vol.11 p.51 footnote 320 Jabala bin al-Ayham al-Ghassani was the last ruler of the Banu Ghassan client state of the Byzantines. He was a Banu Ghassan chieftain who became a Muslim, but later went back to Christianity and retired to Cappadocia, where his descendants flourished. al-Tabari vol.11 p.58 footnote 326 After the Battle of Tabuk on 9 A.H. (637 A.D.) al-Sukuni al-Kindi was a Christian prince who had to pay tribute but fled. al-Tabari vol.11 p.58 footnote 327 Khalid allegedly tore out the gate of a city. al-Tabari vol.11 p.59-60 Khalid beheaded the leader al-Judi and purchased his daughter. al-Tabari vol.11 p.60

The wife of a non-Muslim named Hurqus bin al-Nu’man was killed. al-Tabari vol.11 p.63 Khalid and the Muslim army killed some Muslims who lived next to non-Muslims. Abu Bakr paid their blood money. al-Tabari vol.11 p.64 ‘Ali bin Abi Talib bought the daughter of Rab’iah for himself. She bore him a daughter named Umm Ruqayyah al-Tabari vol.11 p.66 Many Muslim veterans were ill-disposed towards Mu’awiyah. al-Tabari vol.11 p.70,111 ‘Ali married Umamah, the granddaughter of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.11 p.71 Khalid bin Sa’id was replaced as commander by Yezid bin Abi Sufyan. al-Tabari vol.11 p.74 When Khalid bin Sa’id came to Mecca wearing a silk robe, they tore it up. alTabari vol.11 p.75 ‘Um-wa was against Khalid bin Sa’id, because Khalid was for ‘Ali for caliph. alTabari vol.11 p.75 The caliph Abu Bakr would not replace Khalid bin al-Walid, despite his un-Islamic violence, because he "will not put away a sword that Allah has drawn against the unbelievers." al-Tabari vol.11 p.82 The caliph Abu Bakr did dispose Khalid bin Sai’d. al-Tabari vol.11 p.82 Christians were called polytheists by Abu Bakr according to Sayf. al-Tabari vol.11 p.85 ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Khalid bin al-Walid served under Mu’wayiah as governor of Hims, was at Siffin, and died of poison at in 46 A.H. (666 A.D.( al-Tabari vol.11 p.90 footnote 498 The 8th sura (al-Anfal) may have originally included the 9th sura (al-Tawbah). alTabari vol.11 p.94 footnote 525 At that time the people desired to wage jihad. al-Tabari vol.11 p.104 Sayf made up a Persian name, "Shahrbaraz bin Ardashir bin Shahriyar". alTabari vol.11 p.117 Abu Bakr died of illness. al-Tabari vol.11 p.121

Many Quraish from Mecca and Ansar from Medina died at the Battle of al-Harrah in 63 A.H. 683 A.D.. al-Tabari vol.11 p.121 footnote 654 After a fortress surrendered Khalid cut off the heads of the defenders. al-Tabari vol.11 p.122-123 The Muslim army under Khalid was cruel even to camels. They cut off the lips of some camels so that they could not ruminate. Later they would kill them and feed the water inside them to the horses. al-Tabari vol.11 p.124 Khalid attacked the inhabitants of the oasis of Suwa, while they were drinking wine. al-Tabari vol.11 p.125 A jizyah of a dinar, plus the wheat on 1528 square meters was paid per person per year. al-Tabari vol.11 p.128 Christians were called polytheists. al-Tabari vol.11 p.129 Abu Bakr died in 634 A.D. when he was 63 years old after being sick for 15 days. It was said that he was poisoned a year earlier by a Jew who put a slow poison, that took a year to work, in a grain of rice or else some porridge. al-Tabari vol.11 p.129 One of the most important women in Islam after A’isha was al-Khath’amiyyah. She was the wife of Hilali, ‘Ali’s brother Ja’far bin Ali Talib, Abu Bakr, and ‘Ali. Her two sons, Mohammed bin Abu Bakr and Mohammed bin Ja’far was involved in killing the caliph ‘Uthman. She was related through her sister to Khalid bin alWalid al-Tabari vol.11 p.133 footnote 719 ‘Abd al-Rahman was A’isha’s brother who fought for her at the Battle of the Camel. al-Tabari vol.11 p.134 The caliph ‘Umar ordered one of his men to go inside A’isha’s house, even after A’isha had forbidden it, to bring out a woman who was weeping for Abu Bakr, so that ‘Umar could whip her. (Women are not supposed to weep at funerals.) alTabari vol.11 p.137-138 Before he became a Muslim, Abu Bakr married Qutaylah bint ‘Abd al-‘Uzza bin ‘Abd bin As’ad. Their children were a son, ‘Abdallah and a daughter named ‘Asma. al-Tabari vol.11 p.140 After he became a Muslim, Abu Bark married two more women: Asma’ bint ‘Umays who used to be the wife of Ja’far bin Abi Talib, and Habibah bint Kharijah of the Khazraj. After Abu Bakr died, Habibah gave birth to Um Kulthum, who later married Talha bin ‘Ubaydallah. al-Tabari vol.11 p.141 and footnote 769

Abu Bakr also married Umm Ruman bint ‘Amir bin ‘Amirah. Their children were ‘Abd al-Rahman and ‘A’ishah. All four of his children were born in the pre-Islamic period. al-Tabari vol.11 p.141. Footnote 766 says this contradicts A’isha being 9 years old when her marriage was consummated with Mohammed. This statement would make her at least 13 years old. ‘Asma bint Abu Bakr married al-Zubayr. al-Tabari vol.11 p.141 footnote 764 Ja’far al-Tayyar, ‘Ali’s brother died in the battle of Mu’tah. al-Tabari vol.11 p.141 footnote 767 When Abu Bakr became caliph, "Abu ‘Ubaydah said to him, ‘I will take care of finance - meaning taxes (jiza’) - for you’. ’Umar said, ‘I will take care of judicial matters for you.’ Though ‘Umar stayed (in office) for a year, not even two men came to him." al-Tabari vol.11 p.142. Note that "finance" here was only jizya, which is collected only on non-Muslims. Note also the kind of man ‘Umar was. Out of all the Muslims, not a single one came in two years with a dispute. Al-Najjari al-Khazraji was a secretary of Mohammed, and worked on the ‘Uthmanic text of the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.11 p.142 footnote 773 Ta’if was one of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia, 90 kilometers by road east of Mecca. It was the capital of the Thaqif. al-Tabari vol.11 p.142 footnote 775 Hadrawmut was the name of East Yemen not only in Genesis 10:26, but also in Mohammed’s time. al-Tabari vol.11 p.143 and footnote 779. Al-Makhzumi al-Qurashi was the first cousin of Khalid bin al-Walid and the half brother of Umm Salaham. al-Tabari vol.11 p.143 p.776 The Plague at al-Uqhuwanah on Muslims in 18 A.H. 639 A.D. al-Tabari vol.11 footnote 784 p.143 In his last illness, Abu Bakr arranged for ‘Umar to become caliph after him. alTabari vol.11 p.145-147 Abu Bakr asked ‘Abd al-Rahman about the character of ‘Umar. He said "he is a better man than your opinion of him. But there is a roughness in him." Abu Bakr replied that when Abu Bakr got angry at ‘Umar, ‘Umar would then concur with Abu Bakr. But if Abu Bakr eased up toward ‘Umar, ‘Umar would show Abu Bakr vehemence over it. al-Tabari vol.11 p.146 On his deathbed Abu Bakr regretted burning al-Fuja’ah al-Sulami to death for treason. He said he should have either killed him quickly or let him go. al-Tabari vol.11 p.149

Habiba was a wife of Abu Bakr. al-Tabari vol.11 p.151-152 Talhah told Abu Bakr he was afraid ‘Umar would be too strict as caliph. al-Tabari vol.11 p.153 ‘Umar replaced Khalid al-Walid as commander of the army with Abu ‘Ubaydah. ‘Umar did not like Khalid. al-Tabari vol.11 p.160 Khalid al-Walid killed the gatekeeper of Damascus, and he and those with him cut the ropes and opened the locks of the city gate. al-Tabari vol.11 p.166-167 The jizyah of the non-Muslims of Damascus was one dinar per person. al-Tabari vol.11 p.167 The people of the city of Tiberias had to pay one dinar per person. al-Tabari vol.11 p.172 Al-Awzi collected the Qur’an. He was killed at al-Qadissah. al-Tabari vol.11 p.173 footnote 887 ‘Umar had all the non-Muslims from Najran forcibly evacuated (exiled but given compensatory lands) because of the command of the prophet during his last illness. Two religions cannot exist in the Arabian Peninsula. al-Tabari vol.11 p.175-176 There was a Persian Civil War from 591-601 A.D. al-Tabari vol.11 p.179 footnote 899, 183 footnote 923 Two more names probably made up by Sayf. al-Tabari vol.11 p.179 At the Battle of Qarqar in A.H. 13 (634 A.D.), 6K Persians and 4K Muslims were killed. The Persians won, but withdrew because they heard of a civil war. alTabari vol.11 p.189 ‘Umar decided to give one quarter of the fifth of booty (Khums) to some Muslims so they would fight in Persia, not Syria. al-Tabari vol.11 p.199 Al-Riyahi al-Tamami switched sides frequently in Muslim Civil Wars. He first served a false prophetess, then became a Muslim, and was a leader at al-Kufah. He supported ‘Ali against ‘Uthman, but after the Battle of Siffin became a Kharijite, fighting against ‘Ali at al-Nahrawan. Then he urged Husain to come to al-Kufah, but deserted him and fought against him. He lived until at least 68 A.H. (687/688 A.D), and seems to have died peacefully. al-Tabari vol.11 p.203 footnote 993

Reportedly, even some Christian Arabs fought alongside the Muslims against the Persians. al-Tabari vol.11 p.206 Sayf made up another Persian name. al-Tabari vol.11 p.207 The Muslim commander al-Muthanna conquered a wealthy city by treachery, after asking them for help to conquer a third city. al-Tabari vol.11 p.217 In another raid the Muslims killed all the men and took their booty. al-Tabari vol.11 p.217 ‘Umar had spies in every army. al-Tabari vol.11 p.221

The History of al-Tabari volume 12
The Battle of al-Qadisiyyah and the Conquest of Syria and Palestine (66 entries) Tabari in volume 12 takes his material predominately from Sayf bin ‘Umar. alTabari vol.12 p.xiii Exaggerations of bravery. For example, one guy lost his leg, and kept on fighting. A second guy lost three fingers on a hand and kept on using it. al-Tabari vol.12 p.xv Veneration of the rock is prohibited. al-Tabari vol.12 p.xvii Different pay for Muslim soldiers. 5,000 dirhams for those who were at Badr (2 A.H. 624 A.D.). 4,000 for those who were at al-Hudaybiyyah (6 A.H. 628 A.D.) alTabari vol.12 p.xx ‘Umar appointed Talha to command the vanguard, and al-Zubayr the wings. alTabari vol.12 p.4 The Hawazin were a large northern Arabian tribe subdued under Mohammed at the Battle of Hunain in January/February 630 A.D. (Shawwal 8 A.H.). al-Tabari vol.12 footnote 20 p.7 The Sakuni tribe of Muslims was hateful to ‘Umar. One of then, Sudan bin Humran killed the caliph ‘Uthman later. A confederate of theirs was Khalid bin Muljam, who killed the caliph ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.12 p.12 Mention of ‘Abdallah and Talhah. al-Tabari vol.12 p.17

‘Umar was willing to appoint from apostates to command up to ten men. al-Tabari vol.12 p.17 Saliman al-Farisi led the call to prayer for the army under ‘Umar. al-Tabari vol.12 p.19 At Dhu Qar pre-Islamic Arabs defeated the Persians. al-Tabari vol.12 p.20 The Muslims freely told the Persians that they were the attackers against them. al-Tabari vol.12 p.35-36 Pre-Islamic Arabs killed infant girls. al-Tabari vol.12 p.37 Abu Bakr was allegedly the first Muslim man after Mohammed. However, footnote 152 says that other traditions disagree. al-Tabari vol.12 p.38 Jizyah tax: Rustam [the Persian commander] asked: ‘What does ‘while being humiliated’ mean? Al-Mughirah said: ‘It means that a Persian will stand on his feet in order to pay the poll tax to one of us and will praise the Muslim for agreeing to accept it from him’" al-Tabari vol.12 p.74-75 Jizyah tax: One frequently mentioned way to implement humiliation for paying the poll tax is to have the payer stand while the payee is comfortably seated. alTabari vol.12 footnote 267 p.74-75 A boy participated in the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah after attaining puberty. al-Tabari vol.12 p.75 The Muslims were the attackers against the Persians. They would not relent unless the Persians became Muslims or paid the tax. al-Tabari vol.12 p.80,85 A Muslim should be willing to follow anyone the caliph appoints to lead them, even an Abyssinian slave. al-Tabari vol.12 p.84 Before the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah, they read Surat al-Jihad. There is no sura with that name today. Perhaps they meant Sura 9, or Sura 8/9 and 8 and 9 were combined at that time. al-Tabari vol.12 p.89-90 Tulahlah was prominent at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah. al-Tabari vol.12 p.93 Sa’ad’s wife criticized him for not participating in the battle because of his boils, so Sa’ad slapped her on the face. al-Tabari vol.12 p.96, vol.12 p.138 A disemboweled Muslim man had another Muslim help put his bowels back in, and kept on fighting! al-Tabari vol.12 p.101

A Muslim man was addicted to wine. He was imprisoned, but he was secretly set free so that he could fight against the Persians. al-Tabari vol.12 p.104-105 During the days of the battle, the women and children were there to dig graves for the dead. al-Tabari vol.12 p.107 Mention of Tulayhah. al-Tabari vol.12 p.116 Qays, a former leader of the apostates was in command of ‘Amr and over 100 men, even though former apostates should not command more than 100 men. alTabari vol.12 p.116 Dirar bin al-Khattab was a non-Muslim until the conquest of Mecca. After he became a Muslim, he boasted that in his pre-Islamic days he caused ten companions of the prophet to wed virgins in Paradise. al-Tabari vol.12 p.120 footnote 400 During caliph ‘Umar’s time, at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah (A.H. 14-15, 635/636 A.D.), reportedly, more than 6,000 Muslims and 30,000 Persians were killed. alTabari vol.12 p.124-125 The youngsters (children) in the Muslim army gave water to the wounded Muslims and finished off the wounded enemy. al-Tabari vol.12 p.127 Myth of Muslims at al-Qadisiyya calling individual Persians to come to them. The Persians would come and stand still while the Muslims killed them. Muslims would even call two Persians to kill each other, and they would do it! al-Tabari vol.12 p.130 At al-Yarmuk, at one point Muslim Qureshi women fought with swords. al-Tabari vol.12 p.133 Abu Sufyan bin Harb was at al-Yarmuk but he and his companions did not bother to fight. al-Tabari vol.12 p.133 At al-Yarmuk 20K Byzantines were reportedly killed. al-Tabari vol.12 p.134 A Muslim named Al-Mughirah bin Shu’ban said, "…We [all] entered his religion [Islam] either out of conviction or by coercion…" al-Tabari vol.12 p.137 ‘Umar did not want Muslims fighting at sea or crossing the Tigris River. al-Tabari vol.12 p.143 footnote 484 At al-Qadisiyyah the women and young children went on the battlefield after the battle and gave water to the wounded Muslims and finished off the enemy wounded. al-Tabari vol.12 p.146

Myth: The jinn brought news of the victory of al-Qadisiyyah to some Muslims. alTabari vol.12 p.147 Sa’d bin ‘Ubaid was a companion who was involved in collecting the Qur’an. alTabari vol.12 p.149 footnote 505 Muslim men married Christian and Jewish free women, but they would not have been permitted to marry Christian and Jewish slaves based on Sura 4:24. Footnote 544 says that while Tabari holds this view, other Muslim commentators disagree. al-Tabari vol.12 p.158 After the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah, the Muslims warriors married many Jewish and Christian women. Later some divorced the women and some did not. al-Tabari vol.12 p.158 Muslim commentators disagree on whether Muslim men can marry Christian and Jewish slave women. al-Tabari vol.12 footnote 544 p.158 ‘Umar wrote to a governor to divorce his wife from the People of the Book. In general it is permissible though. al-Tabari vol.12 p.158-159 Many Muslim warriors married non-Muslim women. al-Tabari vol.12 p.159 Even for dhimmis, they could be attacked and subjected to excesses by Muslim troops. al-Tabari vol.12 p.161 One year uncertainty on the date of al-Qadisiyyah. al-Tabari vol.12 p.161 Nonbelievers must pay the jizyah out of humiliation and lowliness. al-Tabari vol.12 p.167 If they refuse to pay the jizyah, let if be the sword without leniency. al-Tabari vol.12 p.167 A miracle of Persian’s heads falling off their bodies and striking the ground. alTabari vol.12 p.171 In 14 A.H. (635/636 A.D.) ‘Umar flogged his son ‘Ubaydallah, and his companions because they drank wine. al-Tabari vol.12 p.172 636/637 A.D. (15 A.H.) the Battle of Marj al-Rum. al-Tabari vol.12 p.174 The feet of some Persian miraculously fell off. al-Tabari vol.12 p.176 Khalid bin Walid at the Battle of Qinnasrin in 15 A.H. (636/637 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.12 p.178

Heraclius allegedly made of prophecy of the Dajjal. al-Tabari vol.12 p.182 In 9 A.H. (630/631 A.D.) ‘Alqamah bin Mujazziz went on a disastrous naval expedition to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) al-Tabari vol.12 footnote 682 p.183 Muslims are prophesied to kill the Dajjal (Antichrist) near the gate of Lydda. alTabari vol.12 p.189,190. ‘Umar took control of Jerusalem peacefully. al-Tabari vol.12 p.189 Sura 17: When ‘Umar took control of Jerusalem, he promised not to destroy any churches or crosses in Jerusalem. al-Tabari vol.12 p.191. So there was no church on the site of the mosque. ‘Umar cursed the trainer of a jade (horse). al-Tabari vol.12 p.193 ‘Umar read the beginning of Sura 17 right after he entered Jerusalem. Footnote 722 says Sura 17 is called both "The Night Journey" and "Sons of Israel". alTabari vol.12 p.194 ‘Umar said they are not to venerate the [Dome of the] Rock, but they were commanded to venerate the Ka’bah. al-Tabari vol.12 p.195 Sura 17: The site of the mosque in Jerusalem is where the Jewish Temple stood. At that time it was a rubbish heap. ‘Umar told the people to follow his example in clearing the rubbish away. al-Tabari vol.12 p.195-196 639-640 A.D. (18 A.H.) The plague of ‘Amwas (First Muslim Plague) in the province of Syria [actually Emmaus in Palestine]. al-Tabari vol.12 footnote 754 p.200. "They left for Syria with their families and continued to wage jihad until they were killed." al-Tabari vol.12 p.200 Caliph ‘Umar gave the widows of Mohammed 10,000 dirhams each, except those who were slave girls. Mohammed’s widows insisted the slave girls get the same too. al-Tabari vol.12 p.202 Quote of Sura 8:42 the fifth belongs to Allah and his Messenger. al-Tabari vol.12 p.207

The History of al-Tabari volume 13
(41 entries)

For volume 13 al-Tabari mainly used Sayf as his source. Many question the reliability of Sayf. Sayf’s numbers are all greatly inflated. The translator notices that if the numbers are divided by 100, they then become believable. al-Tabari vol.13 p.xiv Kufa has pebbles mixed with red sand. al-Tabari vol.13 p.3 Salman al-Farisi later served as a scout in the invasion of Persia. He also communicated terms to the Persians. al-Tabari vol.13 p.21 Battle of Jalula in 637 A.D. al-Tabari vol.13 p.36 Terms of the treaty. ‘Umar would protect them, though he was not responsible for what passing troops did. However, if they reviled a Muslim then they would be severely punished. al-Tabari vol.13 p.50 Battle of Takrit in 637 A.D. al-Tabari vol.13 p.52 Mariya was an um walid of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.13 p.58 Pressure was exerted to accept Islam only on the tribes in the Arabian Peninsula itself according to al-Tabari vol.13 p.62 Some in the Arabian Peninsula had no choice but to become Muslims. al-Tabari vol.13 p.90 The mosque at al-Kufah had supporting white pillars taken from Christian churches belonging to the king. al-Tabari vol.13 p.73 The Muslims coming to Iraq were organized by military units. al-Tabari vol.13 p.77 Paradise is guaranteed for martyrs who have never worshipped other gods. alTabari vol.13 p.84 The Muslim leader can dissolve a covenant with Dhimmis. al-Tabari vol.13 p.89 In 17 A.H. (638/639 A.D.) a plague broke out under ‘Umar in the garrison cities. al-Tabari vol.13 p.94 Iraq had a wickedness of the land (not just the people). al-Tabari vol.13 p.95 Plague of ‘Amwas in 639 A.D. al-Tabari vol.13 p.96 ‘Umar married Umm Kultum, the daughter of Fatima and ‘Ali in 638 A.D.. alTabari vol.13 p.109

One time ‘Umar fell asleep in the mosque, with his whip in his hand. al-Tabari vol.13 p.138 Al-Humuzun, a tricky guy, was given a choice between becoming a Muslim or execution. al-Tabari vol.13 p.139-140 ‘Umar threatened to chastise a Muslim, who said that ‘Umar had promised someone immunity. al-Tabari vol.13 p.139 Tradition that Daniel was buried in the city of Susa. al-Tabari vol.13 p.146 Fantastic tale of Daniel’s son throwing the Word of God into the sea, and the sea parting so that it could go below the sea floor. al-Tabari vol.13 p.147 Famine, drought, and plague in 69 A.D. In the epidemic 25K died. al-Tabari vol.13 p.159 ‘Umar said drinking wine is forbidden. al-Tabari vol.13 p.152-153 Saying drinking wine is OK would get you killed under ‘Umar. al-Tabari vol.13 p.152-153 Miracle of ‘Umar. He went to do the rain ceremony, prayed, and the drought suddenly ended. al-Tabari vol.13 p.156 Egypt was conquered either in 637, 646, or (probably) 641 A.D. al-Tabari vol.13 p.162-163 The ruler of Alexandria preferred paying the jizya tax to the Muslims than paying tax to the Byzantines or Persians. al-Tabari vol.13 p.164 Tradition that Hagar was a princess from the city of Memphis in Egypt. al-Tabari vol.13 p.168 Al-Zubayr was instrumental in conquering Egypt. al-Tabari vol.13 p.169-170 ‘Amr the Muslim general said to the Egyptians: "I am aware that you considered yourselves to have panache when you saw the frugality of the Arabs and their simple life style. But I feat lest you perish. Therefore, I wanted to show you what sort of people they really are, under what circumstances they lived in their own country, then what they have come to in yours, and how ready they are for war. They have defeated you, warfare is their life. al-Tabari vol.13 p.174 Note that is says "Arabs" not just those Arab soldiers. ‘Umar married Fatima bin Walid in A.H. 20 al-Tabari vol.13 p.176

In A.H. 20 ‘Umar expelled the Jews from Khaybar, wadi al-Qura, and Najran. alTabari vol.13 p.177 Unsuccessful Muslim punitive invasion of Ethiopia. al-Tabari vol.13 p.177 The major battle that defeated the Persians was at Nihawand. It was probably in A.H. 21 (641/642 A.D.), though it could have been in A.H. 18 (639 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.13 p.178 ‘Umar was concerned about losing the life of any Muslim soldier. al-Tabari vol.13 p.183 It was considered a curse to have too many children. (perhaps more mouths to feed than means). The governor Sa’d cursed Usamah bin Qatadah, and as a result he was cursed with ten daughters. al-Tabari vol.13 p.191 Government and religion: Governor Sa’d led the prayers, caliph ‘Umar relieved him of being governor because he recited the rakahs in the prayers in the wrong manner. al-Tabari vol.13 p.192 Character of al-Nu’man, the commander of the Muslim army. He compared his eagerness to a man besides a woman who is a prostitute. al-Tabari vol.13 p.199 ‘Umar considered the fifth of the booty as due to himself. al-Tabari vol.13 p.200 Non-Muslims who surrendered were granted protection as long as they paid the jizya tax, had good conduct, and kept the roads in good repair. Otherwise, the good conduct promise would lapse. al-Tabari vol.13 p.217

The History of al-Tabari volume 14
The Conquest of Iran (27 entries) Riddah wars = Wars of Apostasy al-Tabari vol.14 p.xiv ‘Umar was assassinated. al-Tabari vol.14 p.xvii ‘Umar "by natural disposition was rough and ready, eating at home inferior food with some greed and toting a stick or whip, which he was never afraid to use on a person. A blow dealt, however, might be regretted later and the victim of his brusque behavior eventually compensated in some way." alTabari vol.14 p.xviii, al-Tabari vol.14 p.120,139

Arabic has no indirect speech, meaning there was no way for the writer to distinguish between a quote and a rough paraphrase. al-Tabari vol.14 p.xix Ibn Mas’ud. al-Tabari vol.14 p.5,14 Habib bin Muslamah and ‘Uthman and Mu’awiya. al-Tabari vol.14 p.34 Armenia attacked in 645 or 652 A.D. al-Tabari vol.14 p.45 Muslims defeat the Persians in 637 A.D. al-Tabari vol.14 p.60 Raid on Iran in 638 A.D. al-Tabari vol.14 p.65. No killing minor children al-Tabari vol.14 p.84. ‘Umar’s wife was Umm Kulthum. [Different Umm Kulthum than Mohammed’s daughter who died] al-Tabari vol.14 p.85 ‘Umar was assassinated after 10 1/2 years. al-Tabari vol.14 p.90,95 Mohammed’s wife Zaynab bint Jahsh died 641 A.D. (20 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.14 p.97 footnote 442. ‘Umar also had both a wife and daughter named Zaynab. al-Tabari vol.14 p.97 footnote 442. ‘Umar’s wives al-Tabari vol.14 p.100 Umm Kulthum did not want to marry ‘Umar because "he leads a rough life and is severe with his womenfolk." al-Tabari vol.14 al-Tabari vol.14 p.101 ‘Aisha explained to the Caliph ‘Umar, "You are rough and ready. … How will it be with (Umm Kulthum) if she disobeys you on any matter and you punish her physically? al-Tabari vol.14 al-Tabari vol.14 p.102 ‘Umar said three times that everyone has a right to the booty except slaves. alTabari vol.14 p.118 ‘Umar used a whip. al-Tabari vol.14 p.120 ‘Umar whipped someone wrongly. al-Tabari vol.14 p.139 Qarqarat al-Kudr raid of Mohammed’s al-Tabari vol.14 p.140 In one case ‘Umar should have divorced his wife. al-Tabari vol.14 p.144

Five potential successors to ‘Umar. al-Tabari vol.14 p.145,146 ‘Ali appeared fatalistic. al-Tabari vol.14 p.153 Battle of Maj Rahib al-Fihra when the Umayyad caliph Marwan fought northern Arab tribes in 684 A.D. (64 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.14 p.155 footnote 752. ‘Ali was called deceitful. al-Tabari vol.14 p.161 Abu Lu’lu’ah, ‘Umar’s assassin, was killed. al-Tabari vol.14 p.163

The History of al-Tabari volume 15
The Crisis of the Early Caliphate (71 entries) Questions on Waqidi. al-Tabari vol.15 p.xvi "The events of ‘Uthman’s reign could be profoundly disheartening to Tabari’s own contemporaries, beset as they were by violence and sectarian conflict on every side." al-Tabari vol.15 p.xvii Fayruz killed the caliph ‘Umar. al-Tabari vol.15 p.4 Mohammed said unbelief comes from speaking Arabic badly. In other words, they mispronounce the Qur’an and then give innovative interpretations. al-Tabari vol.15 p.7 The sons of captive women growing up was a demographic issue. al-Tabari vol.15 p.7 Al-Wahid bin ‘Uqbah raided Adherbayjan [Azerbaijan] and Armenia when they stopped paying the Jizyah in either 24 A.H. or 26 A.H. al-Tabari vol.15 p.7-8. He was the governor of Kufah. al-Tabari vol.15 p.9 The Battle of Nihawand, where the Muslims defeated the Persians, was in 642 A.D. (21 A.D.). al-Tabari vol.15 p.8 Yazid bin Mu’awiyah killed Husayn (Husain), and was accused of sacking Medina and burning the Ka’ba in Mecca in 64 A.H. 683 A.D. al-Tabari vol.15 p.13 footnote 22. To enlarge the mosque in Medina, ‘Uthman demolished the houses of those who refused to sell their houses, and put the money he would have paid them into the

public treasury. When they protested he had them thrown in jail. Later someone interceded for them, so ‘Uthman released them. al-Tabari vol.15 p.14-15 The leader getting a portion of the booty was also practiced in pre-Islamic times, though the chieftain usually demanded one-fourth 1/4, and Mohammed said onefifth (1/5). al-Tabari vol.15 p.19 footnote 30 ‘Uthman recalled his relative whom Mohammed had exiled, named al-Hakim. Later his son Marwan seized the caliphate and founded the Ummayad Dynasty. al-Tabari vol.15 p.24 footnote 41. ‘Umar made up wild answers to questions the Byzantine Emperor allegedly asked him. al-Tabari vol.15 p.27-28 Cyprus had to pay the jizyah tax of 7,000 dinars every year, which was also the tribute they paid to the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.15 p.30 ‘Uthman married Na’ilah bint al-Farafisal, who was a Christian who became a Muslim. al-Tabari vol.15 p.31 In 29 A.H. the Kurds and the province of Fars rebelled against the Muslims. alTabari vol.15 p.34-35 ‘Uthman was considered blameworthy by some of Mohammed’s companions by praying two extra public prayers. al-Tabari vol.15 p.38-39 The Muslim general Sa’id accepted the surrender terms of a town, where he promised not to kill any man among them. He entered the city and killed every man except one, thus fulfilling the agreement! ‘Uthman did not punish or criticize him for that. al-Tabari vol.15 p.42 ‘Uthman removed Al-Walid bin ‘Uqbah as governor of Iraq in 30 A.H. al-Tabari vol.15 p.45 Hanafites vs. Malikites: views on blood money when they cannot find the murderer. al-Tabari vol.15 p.47 Al-Walid bin ‘Uqbah was falsely accused of drinking, but he only had grapes. alTabari vol.15 p.49-50, 120 Tension in Kufah between early and later converts. al-Tabari vol.15 p.57-58 and footnotes 95.96 Abu Dharr said he heard Mohammed say, Follow your leader, even if he is a crop-nosed slave / Abyssinian. The leader, a black named Mujashi, was one of the slaves but he was not crop-nosed. al-Tabari vol.15 p.67

"Mujashi and a man with a slave girl were saved (from the blizzards). He [the man] slit open the stomach of a pack camel, put (the girl) in it and fled. The next day he came back, found her alive, and carried her away. That castle was named Qasr Mujashi because his army perished in it…" al-Tabari vol.15 p.69 The Battle of the Masts in 31 A.H. (651/652 A.D.) The same year was the expedition against the blacks. al-Tabari vol.15 p.71,131 A Christian woman named Shirin was the wife of Khusraw, the Persian Emperor 592-628 A.D. al-Tabari vol.15 p.89 Mu’awihay had a wife named ‘Atikah bint Qurtah (=Fakhitah). al-Tabari vol.15 p.94 Salman al-Farisi was present at the Battle of Balanjar where the Muslim invaders were defeated. al-Tabari vol.15 p.95-96 Mention of ibn Mas’ud al-Tabari vol.15 p.100-101 The two main Zoroastrian festivals are the spring and fall festival. al-Tabari vol.15 p.107 Mu’awiyah excelled at insults. al-Tabari vol.15 p.115-116 ‘Uthman exiled Humran bin Aban to the city of Basrah for a while because he married a woman during her period of waiting. He made them separate and flogged the man. al-Tabari vol.15 p.127 Mu’awiyah was very wealthy and considered a pillar of Islam. al-Tabari vol.15 p.129 ‘While ‘Uthman married the prophet’s daughter Ruqayyah, "‘Umar had no such links, since Muhammad thought him too harsh for any of his daughters". al-Tabari vol.15 p.141 ‘Ali spoke to ‘Uthman about favoritism in appointing his relative, ibn ‘Amir. alTabari vol.15 p.142 ‘Ali said that ‘Umar would flog an appointed official if ‘Umar heard but a single word bad about him. al-Tabari vol.15 p.142-143 ‘Umar, not ‘Uthman, was the one who first appointed Mu’awiyah. al-Tabari vol.15 p.143 ‘Umar had a slave named Yarfa. al-Tabari vol.15 p.143

‘Abdallah bin Saba’ was 1/2 Jewish and 1/2 black who became a Muslim. He tried to lead Muslims into error by saying that since Jesus would return, Mohammed would return too. al-Tabari vol.15 p.145-147 al-Zubayr and Talha supported ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.15 p.150-151 The Qur’an used to have many different readings, but ‘Uthman got rid of all but one. al-Tabari vol.15 p.156 Some Muslims masqueraded as pilgrims to go to Medina and kill ‘Uthman. alTabari vol.15 p.159 Basrah supported Talhah and Kufah supported al-Zubayr. al-Tabari vol.15 p.159,160 Abu Hurayrah, Zaid bin Thabit, ‘Ali and Hasan were with ‘Uthman. al-Tabari vol.15 p.166 Jonah was called the ninth [the text reads al-sabi’ah, the seventh] chapter of the Qur’an; today it is the tenth. Footnote 298 says the text reads the seventh [not the ninth], and it says that presumably the first Sura was not counted in the earliest times. al-Tabari vol.15 p.167 and footnote 298. ‘Ammar poked a staff into a keyhole to poke Kathir’s eye, who was spying. Mohammed permitted poking someone’s eye looking through a keyhole. alTabari vol.15 p.174 Riders from Egypt came to present their grievances to ‘Uthman. He made promised to them which he did not intend to keep. The Egyptians found a letter on a slave riding after them, on ‘Uthman’s camel and sealed with ‘Uthman’s ring, telling the governor of Egypt to imprison and kill these people. They returned to Medina, besieged ‘Uthmans’ house, and then killed him. al-Tabari vol.15 p.165185 Na’ilah was one of ‘Uthman’s wives. al-Tabari vol.15 p.177,178,206,216 Variation of Sura 6:160a (vol.6 no.159a in Yusuf ‘Ali): "…sects, I am not of them in anything;" (in ‘Uthman’s time) vs. "…sects, thou hast No part in them in the least:" al-Tabari vol.15 p.181 and footnote 323. Mu’awiyah delayed sending troops to defend ‘Uthman, because he knew the companions were against ‘Uthman. ‘Uthman was aware of this delay and then asked for help from Yezid. al-Tabari vol.15 p.185 After ‘Uthman dealt deceitfully with the Medinans, they revolted against him. alTabari vol.15 p.185

The Egyptians who came to Mohammed had four chiefs: ‘Abd al-Rahman bin ‘Udays al-Balawi; Sudan bin Humran al-Muradi, ‘Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khuza’i, and Ibn al-Niba. al-Tabari vol.15 p.191 Murderers of ‘Uthman were Muhammad bin Abi Bakr al-Tabari vol.15 p.190191,205; ibn ‘Udays al-Tabari vol.15 p.193, Sudan bin Humran al-Tabari vol.15 p.200. Qutayrah al-Sakuni. al-Tabari vol.15 p.215-216, al Tujibi p.218, Kinanah p.219, Ibn Dhi al-Habakah p.230. The murderers are also listed in al-Tabari vol.15 p.202 Talhah saved Mohammed’s life at the Battle of Uhud. al-Tabari vol.15 footnote 375 p.202 A Muslim can only be put to death for three things. al-Tabari vol.15 p.222 Sura 5:37 was used to justify killing ‘Uthman. One can kill someone who spreads corruption in the land, the oppressor who fights to continue his oppression, and the man who prevents justice (al-haqq) in any way and resists it, then scornfully battles against it. al-Tabari vol.15 p.222 Some people started to get drunk under ‘Uthmans’ reign. al-Tabari vol.15 p.226 Ta’if was better watered and cooler than Mecca. al-Tabari vol.15 p.217 footnote 408. ‘Uthman struck a man who said bad things about Mohammed’s uncle. al-Tabari vol.15 p.262 Talhah distributed a lot of money in Medina. al-Tabari vol.15 p.236 ‘Ali was a friend of ‘Uthman’s, until ‘Uthman made him angry. al-Tabari vol.15 p.236 ‘Uthman said caliphs before him used to strike men wrongfully, and retaliation was not taken against them. al-Tabari vol.15 p.244 ‘Uthmans’ dead body was stoned by the crowds of Medina. al-Tabari vol.15 p.246 ‘Uthman had a long beard. His daughter was nearly stoned at his funeral. alTabari vol.15 p.247 Abu Jahm bin Hudhayfah was devoted to ‘Uthman and took his body to be buried. al-Tabari vol.15 p.248 Umm al-Banin was a wife of ‘Uthman. al-Tabari vol.15 p.248 footnote 452

‘Uthman reigned when he was 70-82 years old. He died 35/36 A.H, or 686/687 A.D. al-Tabari vol.15 p.252 ‘Uthman had hairy arms and a pockmarked face. al-Tabari vol.15 p.252 ‘Uthman was of medium height and had reddish brown hair. He was bald in front. al-Tabari vol.15 p.253 ‘Uthman married Ruqayyah, daughter of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.15 p.253 ‘Uthman married ‘Umm Kulthum, daughter of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.15 p.255 ‘Uthman had eight wives, including Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, Umm ‘Amr bint Jundab, and Fatimah bint al-Walid bin ‘Abd Shams. When he died, Ramlah, Na’ilah, Umm al-Banin, and Fakhitah were living with him. However, al-Mada’ini claims he divorced al-Banin while he was besieged. al-Tabari vol.15 p.254-255

The History of al-Tabari volume 16
The Community Divided [under ‘Ali] (61 entries) At the Battle of the Camel (12/4, or 12/9 656 A.D. (36 A.H.) Talhah and al-Zubayr were killed and A’isha was captured. ‘Ali had her taken under armed escort to Medina. al-Tabari vol.17 p.xvi At one time Kharijites and (Shi’ite) Qarmatians (3 centuries later) had control of Mecca and Medina. al-Tabari vol.17 p.xvi Al-Zubayr and Talhah at one time gave allegiance to ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.17 p.3 Some say al-Zubayr never gave allegiance to ‘Ali. Others says al-Zubayr and Talhah gave allegiance, but only unwillingly. al-Tabari vol.17 p.7,13,14,15,100,126 Talhah gave allegiance to ‘Ali while a sword was over his head. al-Tabari vol.17 p.9 ‘Ali claimed he was powerless to punish ‘Uthman’s murderers. al-Tabari vol.17 p.18 Mohammed said that "war is deceit." al-Tabari vol.17 p.24 Constantine, nephew of Heraclius was blinded by soap in the bath and then killed in 668 A.D.. al-Tabari vol.17 p.24-25

Mu’awiyah never obeyed ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.17 p.30 ‘Ali claimed he would stab ‘Uthmans’ murderers unless Allah willed otherwise. alTabari vol.17 p.31 The Muslims of Medina were very indecisive after ‘Uthman was killed. al-Tabari vol.17 p.40 ‘Umm Salamah had a son before she married Mohammed. Her son went with A’isha, al-Zubayr, and Talhah. al-Tabari vol.17 p.42 Sa’id and al-Mughira played both sides of the conflict with ‘Ali and A’isha before the Battle of the Camel. al-Tabari vol.17 p.43 Hasan rebuked his father ‘Ali for disobeying his advice. al-Tabari vol.17 p.48 After Mohammed died, ‘Ali said that no one was better fit for leadership than himself. al-Tabari vol.17 p.51 Talhah gave allegiance to ‘Ali with a sword against his neck. However, he said he would not rebel against ‘Ali if ‘Ali did not obstruct him from killing ‘Uthman’s murderers. al-Tabari vol.17 p.57,58 ‘Aisha originally supported those who wanted to kill ‘Uthman. She claimed ‘Uthman became a disbeliever. However, after ‘Uthman’s murder she changed her mind and wanted to avenge ‘Uthman’s killers. Another Muslim called her to task for that. al-Tabari vol.17 p.52-53 ‘A’isha had a strong, loud voice. al-Tabari vol.17 p.65 A’isha supported Talhah and al-Zubayr. They battled others inside of the mosque before the Battle of the Camel. al-Tabari vol.17 p.67 Mohammed prophesied that dogs would bark at one of his wives (a bad omen) but he wish he knew which wife [but he said he did not]. al-Tabari vol.17 p.50,68 Allegedly Hakim had his foot cut off, so he crawled until he reached his foot, threw it at his attacker which knocked the attacker down. Then he killed the attacker. al-Tabari vol.17 p.71,78 10/12 656 A.D. Battle in which A’isha’s forces won. al-Tabari vol.17 p.76 Talhah had a long beard. al-Tabari vol.17 p.79 ‘Ali also said Muslims would be split into 73 sects. al-Tabari vol.17 p.83

"Alif lam mim" in Sura 29:12 was quoted by ‘Ali in 36 A.D. before the Battle of the Camel. ‘Ali knew how to flatter the Kufans. al-Tabari vol.17 p.95-96 A’isha said they became angry at ‘Uthman for three things: he gave command to youths instead of older men [nepotism], he expropriated common property, and beating with whip and stick. al-Tabari vol.17 p.100 ‘Ali practiced nepotism too when he became caliph. al-Tabari vol.17 p.103 and footnote 673 p.103 Change in doctrine: Caliph ‘Ali said, "I hope that anyone who is killed, whether from us or from them, with a mind kept sincere to Allah will be admitted to paradise.". Later he was asked, "And if we are afflicted tomorrow, what will happen to those of us who get killed?" ‘Ali said "Whoever desires Almighty and glorious Allah, then it will be his benefit and his salvation." al-Tabari vol.17 p.108 Once ‘Uthman bin Affan wore a yellow cloth. al-Tabari vol.17 p.109 Talhah was one of the first to be killed. al-Tabari vol.17 p.111 ‘Umayr bin Jurmuz killed al-Zubayr al-Tabari vol.17 p.112 ‘Ali’s son Hasan and ‘Ammar bin Yasir went to mobilize troops. al-Tabari vol.17 p.113 ‘Amir bin Wathilah al-Kinani died when he was over 100 years old at the Battle of Siffin. He was the last surviving companion of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.17 footnote 730 p.113 Right before the Battle of the Camel, al-Zubayr promised ‘Ali he would not fight him. After he was rebuked for gathering an army and then not fighting himself, alZubayr thought it was fine to break his oath, if he freed one slave. al-Tabari vol.17 p.116-117 Many go forth for A’isha, right or wrong, because loyalty to the prophet’s family was all that mattered. al-Tabari vol.17 p.117,143 A’isha had 30,000 troops, ‘Ali had 20,000 troops, and many were neutral. alTabari vol.17 p.121 A’isha’s howdah had protective armor. al-Tabari vol.17 p.124 Talhah was killed by an arrow that hit his knee. al-Tabari vol.17 p.126,127,150

Abdallah bin al-Zubayr became anti-caliph during Yezid’s rule. al-Tabari vol.17 footnote 828 p.126 Both sides used messengers holding up the Qur’an urging the other side not to fight. al-Tabari vol.17 p.129,130,152 Ka’b was at the Battle of the Camel on A’isha’s side, holding up a copy of the Qur’an, but he was killed. al-Tabari vol.17 p.131 A’isha’s side started cursing ‘Uthman’s killers and their supporters, so ‘Ali’s side started cursing ‘Uthman’s killers and their supporters too. al-Tabari vol.17 p.132 At the Battle of the Camel both sides had armor, so both sides concentrated on hacking off limbs. al-Tabari vol.17 p.135 It was called the Battle of the Camel because ‘Ali’s forces thought the other side would retreat once A’isha’s camel was killed. al-Tabari vol.17 p.136 ‘Ali executed at least one prisoner because he had killed some of ‘Ali’s men in battle. al-Tabari vol.17 p.139 Some ‘Azdi tribesmen claimed that on the Day of the Camel the dung of A’isha’s camel smelled of musk (a perfume). al-Tabari vol.17 p.144 People knew the men who attacked ‘Uthman. One of them was named Hani bin Khattab. al-Tabari vol.17 p.148 War: Poetry about a Muslim killing another Muslim. "He was disheveled through spending nights reciting verses from his Lord. By all appearances he had done little harm and was a good Muslim. I ripped the neck opening of his shirt with a spear, and he fell down, dying his hands and face thrown to the ground. He was reminding me of the verse ha’ mim while the spear was driving. Why did he not recite ha’mim before coming out to fight?? [He fought me] over nothing, except that he was not a follower of ‘Ali. Those who do not follow the right regret it." Ha’ mim is Sura 41:1,16, where he was comparing his enemies to the people of "ad who were destroyed for being wicked. al-Tabari vol.17 p.148 A’isha sat in a red howdah, on a red camel, that looked like a hedgehog because of all the arrows stuck in it. al-Tabari vol.17 p.156 A’isha cursed one of the enemy Muslim soldiers from ‘Ali who took hold of her camel. ‘Aisha asked Allah to cut off his hand and expose his genitals. Later on A’isha’s curse was fulfilled. al-Tabari vol.17 p.157-158 After the battle ‘Ali called A’isha "mother", and they both asked Allah to forgive each other. al-Tabari vol.17 p.158

Ibn Jurmuz was pursuing al-Zubayr, and asked him to dismount so that they could do the prayer together. As they were praying, Ibn Jurmuz killed al-Zubayr. al-Tabari vol.17 p.159 A’isha said she wished she had died 20 years before the Battle of the Camel. alTabari vol.17 p.162 10K died at the Battle of the Camel. al-Tabari vol.17 p.164. p.171 mentions more than 6K killed, but does not list many of the tribes that participated. To A’isha a person telling her to "repent for you have made a mistake" was considered offensive. al-Tabari vol.17 p.165-166. He was punished with 100 lashes. After the Battle of the Camel the Khawarij faction began talking among themselves, because ‘Ali would not let his forces take booty from the defeated Muslims. al-Tabari vol.17 p.167 Mu’awiyah recognized that ‘Uthman had three shortcomings, but said they still did not have the right to kill the caliph. He blamed ‘Ali for the murder, but ‘Ali denied he had any part in it. al-Tabari vol.17 p.180-181 They usually ended letters with "peace", even the most hateful letters. al-Tabari vol.17 p.182,183,185 Mu’awiyah deceived ‘Ali to make him distrust Qays. Mu’awiyah falsified a letter from Qays. al-Tabari vol.17 p.184,185,188 A Jewish scholar allegedly made accurate prophecies about the death of Mohammed and the caliphs. al-Tabari vol.17 p.193

The History of al-Tabari volume 17
The First Civil War (69 entries) The First Fitnah = the First Civil War after ‘Uthman was killed in the summer of 656 A.D. al-Tabari vol.17 p.xi Ali killed many Kharijites at Nahrawan east of the Tigris River al-Tabari vol.17 p.xiii At the beginning of 661 ‘Ali was murdered in al-Kufah by Ibn Muljam to avenge ‘Ali’s killing of the Kharijites at Nahrawan.

Abu Mikhnaf was a collector of historical traditions who died 157/774 A.D. alTabari vol.17 p.xvi "yawn (day) is a common word for battle al-Tabari vol.17 p.7 After Al-Ashtar joined in with those who murdered ‘Uthman, he was in ‘Ali’s army. al-Tabari vol.17 p.10 Mu’awiyah said ‘Ali gave shelter to those who killed ‘Uthman. al-Tabari vol.17 p.23 ‘Ali said he would not answer on whether the killing of ‘Uthman was just or unjust. al-Tabari vol.17 p.26 Hatim al-Tai was very generous. He would let other Muslims take his share of the booty. al-Tabari vol.17 p.27 ‘Ali said after the battle do not harm the Muslim women on Mu’awiyah’s side because "women are weak of body and soul." al-Tabari vol.17 p.30 "Death is beneath the spears and Paradise between the flashing swords." ‘Ammar bin Yasir, a follower of ‘Ali quoted this at Siffin right before he died fighting against Mu’awiyah’s soldiers. Mohammed allegedly prophesied that ‘Ammar bin Yasir would be killed by usurpers. al-Tabari vol.17 p.65,68-69 Ibn Abi Mu’ayt was a wine drinker who had been flogged for that. al-Tabari vol.17 p.74 ‘Amr bin al-‘As proposed to Mu’awiyah to put copies of the masahif (Qur’an) on the end of their lances. al-Tabari vol.17 p.78 According to Abu Mikhnaf, Abu Musa was proposed as an arbitrator as Siffin. alTabari vol.17 p.83 The aribritators at Siffin were ‘Abdallah bin Qays for Mu’awiyah and ‘Amr bin al‘As al-Tabari vol.17 p.86 Umm Habibah, daughter of Abu Sufyan, was Mohammed’s wife. al-Tabari vol.17 p.88 ‘Amr bin al-‘as was the arbitrator for Mu’awiyah (Syria) and Abu Musa was an arbitrator for ‘Ali (Iraq). al-Tabari vol.17 p.90 The arbitration between ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah was for eight months. al-Tabari vol.17 p.93

‘The caliph Ali told a sick person "May God make your sufferings a decrease of your sins. There is no heavenly reward for illness, but it does decrease any sin that a servant of God incurs." al-Tabari vol.17 p.95 Honor of ancestry. al-Tabari vol.17 p.94,108 180 of one clan killed fighting for ‘Ali at Siffin. al-Tabari vol.17 p.97 ‘Ali cursed Mu’awiyah and vice versa. al-Tabari vol.17 p.110 Mention of al-Waqidi. al-Tabari vol.17 p.110 ‘Ali quoted Sura 16:91 with respect to the Kharaj. al-Tabari vol.17 p.111 ‘Ali quoted Sura 30:60. al-Tabari vol.17 p.113,113-114 The Kharijites quoted Sura 39:65 against ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.17 p.113 Bida’ means innovation, and hukm means authority. al-Tabari vol.17 p.114 Shi’ah means "supporters". al-Tabari vol.17 p.117 The Kharijites killed both a Muslm man and his pregnant concubine. al-Tabari vol.17 p.124 ‘Ali was against astrology. al-Tabari vol.17 p.126 ‘Ali told the Kharijites they should not rebel. al-Tabari vol.17 p.128 2,800 Kharijites remained to fight ‘Ali. The vast majority of them were killed. alTabari vol.17 p.131 Only seven of ‘Ali’s companions were killed fighting the Kharijites in 37/38 A.D. al-Tabari vol.17 p.135 ‘Ali said tha tone of his obligations to his men was to provide them with spoils. alTabari vol.17 p.137 Mu’awiyah sent al-Jayastar against ‘Ali’s newly appointed governor of Egypt. This Muslim man befriended the governor appointee and then murdered him with poison. al-Tabari vol.17 p.145-146 Mohammed bin Abi Bakr was killed for his part in killing ‘Uthman. al-Tabari vol.17 p.157. ‘Ali mourned him. al-Tabari vol.17 p.160-161 Muslims used siege weapons against eachother. al-Tabari vol.17 p.160

Mu’awiyah had Mohammed bin Abu Bakr executed for murdering ‘Uthman, then put his body in the carcass of a donkey, and then burned the donkey in 38 A.H.. A’isha mourned her half-brother greatly and made extra prayers for him. alTabari vol.17 p.158 ‘Ali’s supporters burned down a house to burn to death the Muslims inside who supported Mu’awiyah. al-Tabari vol.17 p.170 Anti ‘Ali Muslims captured an Ali’id Muslim and a dhimmi with him. The cut the Muslim to pieces but let the dhimmi go. al-Tabari vol.17 p.176 The word Kharaj came from the word "kasara" which means "to break" al-Tabari vol.17 p.183 footnote 725 The Kurds were in Iraq in ‘Ali’s time. al-Tabari vol.17 p.185 Kharijites: Many separted from ‘Ali because ‘Ali approved the choice of arbitrator, the arbitrator said ‘Ali was deposed. A second reason is that ‘Ali did not pursue ‘Uthman’s killers. al-Tabari vol.17 p.187 Apostacy: Some Christians who became Muslims then went back to Christianity, because Islam "does not stop them from shedding blood, terrifying the roads, and seizing properties". They were killed by Muslims. al-Tabari vol.17 p.187 Ma’qil, a Muslim against ‘Ali, promised paradise to his followers who were killed in battle fighting Muslims. al-Tabari vol.17 p.190 Apostacy: An old Christian, who had become a Muslim and then gone back to the religion of truth, had his head cut off by Ma’qil. al-Tabari vol.17 p.191 Apostacy: Muslims considered it their duty to kill apostates. For those who apostasized, they offered that they could return to Islam or else death. al-Tabari vol.17 p.191,192 The reference to jizyah echoes the subordinate status of non-Muslims in Sura 9:29. al-Tabari vol.17 footnote 755 p.192 A Christian envoy was sent from Syria with a letter to ‘Ali. ‘Ali cut off the hand of the Christian, and the Christian then died. ‘Ali received no punishment or reprimand. al-Tabari vol.17 p.195 ‘Ali had frequent revolts from Muslims who did not want to pay him tax. al-Tabari vol.17 p.p.203-204 Umm Salamah was a widow of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.17 p.207

Busr (who supported Mu’awiyah) killed two small sons too. al-Tabari vol.17 p.207 ‘Ali was assassinated with a poisoned sword when he entered the mosque in Ramadan 17th, 40 A.H.. He was killed by a Khairjite, Ibn Muljam, because he had previously killed many Kharijites in battle. al-Tabari vol.17 p.213-216 Based on Mohammed’s teaching, ‘Ali ordered Hasan not to mutilate anyone, even ‘Ali’s murderer. al-Tabari vol.17 p.222 ‘Aisha was joyous when ‘Ali was killed. al-Tabari vol.17 p.224 ‘Ali was caliph for 4 years 9 months plus a few days. al-Tabari vol.17 p.226,227 ‘Ali’s personal name was ‘ABd MAnaf bin ‘Abd Muttalib bin Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf. His mother was named Fatimah bint Asad bin Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf. alTabari vol.17 p.227 ‘Ali did not have any other wives while Fatimah lived. They had two sons, Hasan and Husain, and they might have had a third, Muhassin, who died while still a bably. They had two daughters, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum. al-Tabari vol.17 p.227-228 After Fatimah died, ‘Ali married Umm al-Banin bint Hizam, who bore him four sons, who were killed at Karbala’. Only al-‘Abbas had surviving children. alTabari vol.17 p.228 ‘Ali married Layla bint Mas’ud bin Khalid bin Malik bin Rib’i. They had two sons, ‘Ubaydallah and Abu Bakr. They had no descendents. al-Tabari vol.17 p.228 ‘Ali married Asma’ bint ‘Umays. They had two sons, Yahya and Muhammad. He is not to be confused with another son of ‘Ali’s by a concubine also named Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.17 p.228 After the raid on the Banu Taghlib at ‘Ayn al-Tamr, ‘Ali got a concubine named alSahba ( = Umm Habib bint Rabi’ah bin Bujayr bin al-Abd). By her ‘Ali had two children, ‘Umar, who lived to be 85 years old, and Ruqayyah. al-Tabari vol.17 p.228 ‘Ali married Umamah bint Abi al-‘Asi bin al-Rabi’ bin ‘Abd. Her mother was Zaynab, daughter of Mohammed. They had a son named Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.17 p.229 ‘Ali also had a son named Mohammed bin al-Hanifiyyah. His mother was Khawlah bint Ja’far bin Qays bin Maslamah. al-Tabari vol.17 p.229

‘Ali married Umm Sa’id bint ‘Urwah bin Mas’ud bin Mu’attib bin Malik al-Thaqafi. They had Umm al-Hasan and Ramlah the elder. al-Tabari vol.17 p.229 ‘Ali also had daughters names Umm Hani’, Maymunah, Zaynab the yunger, Ramlah the younger, Umm ulthum the younger, Fatimah, Umamah, Khadijah, Umm al-Kiram, Umm Salamah, Umm Ja’far, Jumanah, and Nafisah, by various concubines of his. al-Tabari vol.17 p.229 ‘Ali married Mahyat bint Imru’ al-Qays bin ‘Adi of the Kalb [dog] tribe. They had a daughter who died when she was young. ‘Ali had a total of 14 sons and 19 daughters. al-Tabari vol.17 p.229 al-Waqidi said that only five of ‘Ali’s sons had desecendnats: HAsah, Husayn, Muhammad bin al-Hanafiyyah, al-‘Abbas son of the Kilabi woman, and ‘Umar the son of the Taghlabi woman. al-Tabari vol.17 p.229 Hasan bin ‘Ali said that on the same night in Ramadan, Joshua, son of Nun, champion of Moses, was supposedly killed, Jesus was taken up into heaven, and the Qur’an came down.. al-Tabari vol.17 p.232

The History of al-Tabari volume 18
Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu’awiyah (66 entries) Over 60% of al-Tabari’s material in volume 18 came from the the earlier historians Abu Miknaf and ‘Umar bin Shabbah. His coverage of Mu’awiyah is relatively light. al-Tabari vol.18 p.1 Husain sold out to Mu’awiyah for 5 million dirhams. He was glad to be rid of the people of Iraq. al-Tabari vol.18 p.4-5 Jerusalem was called Illiya in Arabic, from Aelia Capitolinus. al-Tabari vol.18 footnote 30 p.6 Hassan was stabbed by Iraqis, but he recovered. al-Tabari vol.18 p.5,7,11 There was peace between Hasan and Mu’awiyah in 41 A.H (661 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.18 p.10-11 Mu’awiyah fought the Kharijites. al-Tabari vol.18 p.12 The Kurds had rebelled against ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.18 p.14

Insult: Ziyad derogatorily called Mu’awiyah the son of the eater of [human] livers, because his mother, Hind had eaten the liver of a dead Muslim soldier before they became Muslims. al-Tabari vol.18 p.17-18 Yazid bin Malik al-Bahili was called the Broken Nosed, because he had his nose broken in battle. He rebelled againt Mu’awiyah in Iraq. He killed ‘Ibadah bin Qurs al-Laythi, a companion of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.18 p.19 In 42 A.H. Muslamah raided the Alans (Ossetians) and Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.21 The Kharijites called other Muslims people of the Qiblah. al-Tabari vol.18 footnote 110 p.24 Should true Muslims kill a normal Muslim whom they think has wrongfully decided to follow someone else? Were the Kharijites right in doing so? al-Tabari vol.18 p.25-26 Khulafa’ [khilafa] means deputy. al-Tabari vol.18 p.29 In 43 A.H. (663/664 A.D.) Busr bin Abi Artat campaigned against the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.32 Khairjites rebelled in 11/8/663 A.D. al-Tabari vol.18 p.33 The key to defating the Kharijite’s guerilla movement was to convince the people not to shelter them. al-Tabari vol.18 p.39-41 ‘Ali’s supporters used dissimulation once Mu’awiyah had the upper hand. alTabari vol.18 p.44 Al-Mustawrid bin ‘Ullifah called himself the Commander of the Faithful. He did not acknowledge ‘Uthman and ‘Ali as legitimate. al-Tabari vol.18 p.46 Mention of dishonor al-Tabari vol.18 p.69 In 44 A.H. (664.665 A.D.) ‘Abdallah bin Amir was dismissed as governor of Basrah for being too easy-going. He would not cut off the hand of thieves. alTabari vol.18 p.71 Ziyad would order those who went out at night killed. He would execute someone for breaking into a house or grave. al-Tabari vol.18 p.80 Ziyad killed a beduoin who did not know this rule about killing those about at night. al-Tabari vol.18 p.82

45 A.H. (665/666 A.D.) ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Khalid bin al-Walid led a raid during winter against the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.87 Mu’awiyah wanted the Christian Ibn ‘Utbal to poison abd al-Rahman bin Khalid bin Walid. al-Tabari vol.18 p.88-89 In 46 A.H. 666/667 A.D. al-Khatim and Sahm binGhalid revolted. al-Tabari vol.18 p.89-90 49 A.H. 669/670 A.D. raid on the Byzantines and plague in Kufah. al-Tabari vol.18 p.94-95 50 A.H. Muslim raid on the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.96 50 A.H. Samurah bin Jundab, Mu’awiyah’s governor of Basrah, killed in one morning 47 men who had collected the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.18 p.99 Qarib and Zuhhaf revolted in 50 A.H. (670 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.18 p.100 Mu’awiyah apologized for transferring the pulpit. He added 2 steps. al-Tabari vol.18 p.101 A Muslim satirized two other Muslims to disgrace them. al-Tabari vol.18 p.104 In 50 A.H. Muslims were almost defeated when attacking al-Ashall. al-Tabari vol.18 p.119 Expedition against the Byzantines in 671/672 A.D. al-Tabari vol.18 p.122 Ziyad wore silk robes. al-Tabari vol.18 p.126 A’isha told Mu’awiyah he should be used more forebearance with Hujr rather than cutting off his head. al-Tabari vol.18 p.127 ‘Ali: Amr bin al-Hamiq cleiamed to have stabbed ‘Uthman nine times, so Mu’awiyah ordered him to be stabbed nine times. al-Tabari vol.18 p.137 Ziyad had someone beaten until he would curse ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.18 p.138-139 Mu’awiyah killed people if they would not denounce ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.18 p.149151 Yet Mu’awiyah said he did not kill Hujr and those loyal to ‘Ali, but rather it was the witnesses against them that caused them to be killed [executed]. al-Tabari vol.18 p.154

Four serious shortcomings of Mu’awiyah were listed: he appointed troublemakers rather than the remnant of the companions, appointing his son, a drunkard who wore silk and played a musical instrument, his allegation about the illegitimacy of Ziyad, and his killing of Hujr. al-Tabari vol.18 p.154 51 A.H. Muslims conquer Quhistan al-Tabari vol.18 p.163 52 A.H. Raid on the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.165 53 A.H. Rhodes Campagin and raid on the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.166 Ibn ‘Umar prayed against a Muslim governor, and he died of plague. al-Tabari vol.18 p.167 54 A.H. attacked the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.172 55 A.H. attacked the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.180 Mu’awiyah tried to set Sa’id bin al-As and Marwan bin al-Hakim against each other. al-Tabari vol.18 p.173 56 A.H. Muslim raid on the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.183 Ziyad said Yezid was easy-going, neglectful, and devoted to hunting. However, Yezid took these criticisms to heart and improved though. al-Tabari vol.18 p.185 There are two Nakhlat’s which are close to each other. Nakhlat Muhmud is the first stopping place from Mecca to al-Sadir and the other, Nakhlah/Nakhlah alYamaniyyah, is a valley south of Mecca where the battle of Hunain/Hunayn was fought. al-Tabari vol.18 p.186 footnote 522. Mu’awiyah used guile to get five holdout Muslims to agree to the succession of his son Yazid. al-Tabari vol.18 p.187 Allusion to being lead by an Abyssinian slave [black slave]. al-Tabari vol.18 p.187 Sa’id wanted retaliation for a man coming to him at night and causing is own slave girl to give birth prematurely and the boy died. al-Tabari vol.18 p.190 57 A.H. Muslim raid on the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.191 58 A.H. Muslim raid on the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.18 p.192 58 A.H. (678 A.D.) Some Kharijites rebelled. Their relatives were thrown in prison. al-Tabari vol.18 p.193,196

Governor ‘Ubaydallah not only killed a Muslim for revolting against him, but also sent for his daughter and had her killed too. al-Tabari vol.18 p.197 ‘Amr bin Murrah led the winter campaign against the Byzantines in the year 59 A.H. (678/679 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.18 p.199 Husain was killed October 10, 680 A.D. al-Tabari vol.18 p.200 footnote 545 60 A.H. (679-680 A.D.) Muslims fought the Turks. al-Tabari vol.18 p.202 60 A.H. (679-680 A.D.) Muslims raid Sawriyah. al-Tabari vol.18 p.208 Yazid worshipped Allah at his father’s grave, which is against the hadiths. alTabari vol.18 p.214 Yazid’s mother was named Maysun bint Bahdal. al-Tabari vol.18 p.215 Mu’awiyah’s wives including Fakhitah and Naiilah bint ‘Umarah al-Kalbi, and Katwah bint Qarazah, Fakhitah’s sister. al-Tabari vol.18 p.215-216 60 A.H. (679-680 A.D.) Muslims raid Cyprus. al-Tabari vol.18 p.216 60 A.H. (679-680 A.D.) Byzantines attack the Muslims. al-Tabari vol.18 p.221

The History of al-Tabari volume 19
The Caliphate of Yazid b. Mu’awiyah (52 entries) Fantastic stores were made up about Husayn. al-Tabari vol.19 p.x Mu’awiyah had a Christian advisor name Sarjun. al-Tabari vol.19 p.18,30 This was convenient as unpopular acts could be blamed on his advice. Abu Sufyan had a son named Ziyad, by a prostitute. al-Tabari vol.19 p.216 footnote 2 Mention of Sura 2:156 (151) by Mu’awiyah. al-Tabari vol.19 p.3,5 Al-Fur is a village between Mecca and Medina. al-Tabari vol.19 p.7 ‘Ali had a son by a Hanifite woman named Khawlah. al-Tabari vol.19 p.8 Mention of Sura 28:22 al-Tabari vol.19 p.10

The historian al-Waqidi died 207 A.H. 822/823 al-Tabari vol.19 p.10 footnote 34 Revolt of ‘Am ibn al-Zubayr. al-Tabari vol.19 p.13 Sarjun advised Yezid to appoint ‘Ubaydallah over Kufah. al-Tabari vol.19 p.18 Story of an unbeliever Mohammed executed. al-Tabari vol.19 p.20 Shabath b. Rib’i was an ‘Alid, then a Kharijite, then an ‘Alid, then a Kharijite again. al-Tabari vol.19 p.25 footnote 119 Al-Madiq is a village between Mecca and Medina. al-Tabari vol.19 p.28 footnote 129 Al-Mukhtar b. Abi ‘Ubayd controlled Kufah.for two years from 684-686 A.D.. alTabari vol.19 p.28 footnote 130. ‘Abdallah bin Mu’awiyah led a Shi’ite revolt in 746/747 A.D. (129 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.19 p.28 footnote 131 Governor ‘Ubaydallah threatened to kill or crucify anyone who does not turn in a rebel. al-Tabari vol.19 p.35 An example where is was OK for Shi’ites to have servant girls in the house. alTabari vol.19 p.37 Importance of honor to some Muslims. al-Tabari vol.19 p.44-45 The Battle cry at Badr was "Ye who have been promised victory, kill!" (ya Mansur amit) al-Tabari vol.19 p.48 An Umm Walid was a slave wife, more or less. al-Tabari vol.19 p.51 Example of insulting other Muslims. al-Tabari vol.19 p.59 Husain got pleurisy in Iraq. al-Tabari vol.19 p.71 Husayn had two sons, ‘Awn and Muhammad, that died with him. al-Tabari vol.19 p.73 At Karbala Husayn had 45 horsemen and 100 foot soldiers. ‘Umar did not want to kill al-Husayn, but ‘Ubaydallah gave him no choice and al-Husayn did not submit. al-Tabari vol.19 p.75

Ibn Ziyad took off the awning over a mosque, took off the reeds of the roof and set them on fire. He used the mosque as a place of defense. al-Tabari vol.19 p.78 Al-Hurr left his group to come to ibn Ziyad. At first they thought he was going to fight them, but then he turned his shield around to show he was peaceful. When he was very close he turned his shield around again and fought them and killed two of them. al-Tabari vol.19 p.79-80 In the time of Hasan and Husain, a man said he had obeyed his imam and been faithful to his oath of allegiance. A woman told him he had been disobedient to God and obeyed the imam in bringing destruction. "You have acquired shame and the punishment of Hell-fire. Indeed, God has said: ‘We have made them imams, who summon people to Hell-fire, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped.’ Your imam is one of those." al-Tabari vol.19 p.102 ‘Amr bin Hajjaj and 500 horsemen were along the river to prevent Husayn’s group from getting a drop of water. al-Tabari vol.19 p.107 The honor of ‘Ali’s followers was more important than their lives, in the case of certain death in a hopeless battle. al-Tabari vol.19 p.116 Husayn had 43 horsemen and 30 foot soldiers. al-Tabari vol.19 p.120 Mention of the hope of maidens of paradise after martyrdom. "Yet, by God, I feel happy for what we shall soon meet, for, by God, if all there is between us and the maidens of Paradise (ah-hur al-‘ayn) is that these people should come against us with their swords, then I want them to come against us with their swords." alTabari vol.19 p.121 Husayn’s camp started a fire so that the enemy would not come from that direction. One armored soldier, and armored horse, (armor-covred horse) came through and asked if Husayn was in such a hurry to meet Hell-fire. al-Tabari vol.19 p.122 The woman Umm Wahb wanted to fight for Husayn, but Husayn sent her back, saying it is not for women to fight. al-Tabari vol.19 p.131 Fatalism: Belief that God leads some people right, and leads others astray. alTabari vol.19 p.135 One of Yazid’s soldiers, Shamir bin Dhi al-Jawshan, was going to burn the tent and women inside it, but he was rebuked for wanting to doing so. al-Tabari vol.19 p.141

Al-Husayn wanted to borrow the head of a beheaded Sunni to put it on his horse and ride around camp so that people would think he killed him. Then he gave the head back to the man who actually did the killing. al-Tabari vol.19 p.143 al-Husayn had a silk cloak. al-Tabari vol.19 p.153,161 Had a son named ‘Abdallah by a woman named al-Rabah al-Tabari vol.19 footnote 498 p.154 Most of this part of al-Tabari’s account is implicitly but strongly pro-Shi’ite. It talks of the miraculous bad things that happened to those who killed various Shi’ite followers. al-Tabari vol.19 p.151-160 al-Husayn had a silk shirt. al-Tabari vol.19 p.159,160 After the battle of Karbala, the Muslim soldiers supporting Yazid forcibly disrobed the Muslim women supporting Husayn. al-Tabari vol.19 p.161 Zaynab was not killed after she rebuked the Syrians, because she was only a woman. al-Tabari vol.19 p.166 Muhammad bin ‘Ali bin Ali Talib was the son of a slave wife. al-Tabari vol.19 p.180 Abu Bakr bin al-Hasan bin ‘Ali bin Abi Talib was the son of a slave wife. al-Tabari vol.19 p.180 ‘Amr bin al-Hasan was not killed because he was considered too young. His mother was a slave wife. al-Tabari vol.19 p.181 Claim that Yazid drank wine, spent time with song girls, and other things, riled up the people of Medina against him. al-Tabari vol.19 p.198,199 Revolt in Medina started in 63 A.H., though there were 1,000 people in Medina who were still loyal to Yezid. al-Tabari vol.19 p.201 The Battle of Harrah, when Medina was plundered, was either 8/27/683 A.D. (p.208) or 8/28/684 A.D. (p.217). al-Tabari vol.19 The people of Medina threw a sack of tar into each well between Medina and Syria. However, God sent rain so that the Syrian army did not need the wells at all. al-Tabari vol.19 p.219 The Syrian Muslims set the Ka’aba on fire and cracked the black stone on 10/31/683 B.C.

Yezid died when he was 38/39 years old (p.225) or perhaps 35 years old (p.226). al-Tabari vol.19 Yezid had a number of slave wives. al-Tabari vol.19 p.227

The History of al-Tabari volume 20
The Collapse of Sufyanid Authority and the Coming of the Marwanids (39 entries) After Yezid/Yazid and the death of his son, Mu’awiyah II, was the time of the second fitnah. al-Tabari vol.20 p.xi Southern Arabs claimed they were descendants of Qahtan, which might be Joktan in the Bible. al-Tabari vol.20 p.xv The northern Arabian tribes, which claimed descent from Ishmael, were split into Mudar and Rabiah. Mudar tribes included Tamim, Qays, and Quraish. al-Tabari vol.20 p.xv-xvi Yazid died in November 683 A.D. al-Tabari vol.20 p.11 There was an argument and a murder in a mosque, and the others in the mosque killed the murderer. al-Tabari vol.20 p.25 In 64 A.H. 13K Khwaraj (Kharijites) were killed and 4K imprisoned. al-Tabari vol.20 p.38 It is a great dishonor not to avenge. al-Tabari vol.20 p43 Another fight in the mosque in Syria. al-Tabari vol.20 p53,64 64 A.H. (683/684 A.D.) at Marj Rahit, Marwan and his army killed al-Dahhak bin Qays. al-Tabari vol.20 p54 It was said that Ibn al-Zubayr was a hypocrite [mundafiq] who rejected two caliphs: Yazid and Mu’awiyah bin Yazid and "broken the staff of the Muslims." alTabari vol.20 p58 Fatalism: Marwan would only get the caliphate if Allah gave it to him, and not get it otherwise. al-Tabari vol.20 p59 Zafar made a deceptive promise. al-Tabari vol.20 p63

After Majh Rahit, some women of the Qays tribe were made violable [i.e. violatable]. al-Tabari vol.20 p.67 Yazid was accused of drunkenness. al-Tabari vol.20 p71 The fickle Shi’ah thought they committed a serious offence by inviting al-Husayn to receive their support, and then standing by and doing nothing when he was killed. For the sake of their honor, they thought all they could do now was either kill those who killed al-Husayn or else die in the attempt. al-Tabari vol.20 p.80 Khalid bin Sa’d bin Nufayl would have killed himself if he knew it would release him from his sin and please Allah, but he testified that it was prohibited, so he did not. al-Tabari vol.20 p.84 Fatalism: Brief mention of destiny. al-Tabari vol.20 p.88 Effective, emotional Shi’ite speech. al-Tabari vol.20 p.91 ‘Ali had a son by a woman from Hanifah. al-Tabari vol.20 p.93 footnote 395 Abida bin Hilal was a Kharijite (Khwaraj) who said that Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were good caliphs. However, ‘Uthman "created reserve areas, favored kinship, appointed youths to positions of authority, abolished the lash and laid aside the whip, destroyed the Book, shed the blood of the Muslim,…" al-Tabari vol.20 p.99100 Muslims were not to marry polytheist women until they believed. al-Tabari vol.20 p.103. Of course, Mohammed had a Christian concubine though. Christians sometimes are called polytheists, and sometimes not. Muslim tradition says Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem and killed 70,000 Jews because the Jewish king killed John the Baptist. (The chronology is as hopelessly mixed up as Moses killing the killers of Jesus.) al-Tabari vol.20 p.110 Desire of a Muslim prisoner. al-Tabari vol.20 p.122 In the year 64 A.D. (683-684 A.D.) "Ibn al-Zubayr demolished the Ka’bah. Its walls had bucked as a result of the catapult stones which had been fired at it." alTabari vol.20 p.122 Mention of a wild fight of Muslims with each other, then they would break off for prayer, then fight again. al-Tabari vol.20 p.144 Jihad means fighting. al-Tabari vol.20 p.148

An Iraqi Muslim was angry that the opposing Syrians considered the Iraqi Muslims polytheists. al-Tabari vol.20 p.149 A an Iraqi man who was among his Syrian relatives would rather die for a hopeless cause than accept safe conduct. al-Tabari vol.20 p.151-152 Muslims were told not to weep for someone killed in the pursuit of error. al-Tabari vol.20 p.156 When caliph Mu’awiyah bin Yazid was about to die, he refused to appoint anyone after him. So authority went to Marwan with the understanding that after him the authority would go to Mu’awiyah’s younger brother, a minor named Khalid. Marwan married Khalid’s mother, but would denigrate Khalid by calling him the son of a whore. Khalid told his mother, who said not to worry about it. Some time later in April-May 685 A.D., when Marwan was sleeping with her, she suffocated Marwan with a pillow. al-Tabari vol.20 p.160-161 A plague broke out in Basra called the plague of al-Jarif in 65 A.H. (664-665 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.20 p.163 In 65 A.H. (684/685 A.D.) when the Syrians failed to take Medina, Abbas cut off the heads of 500 prisoners. al-Tabari vol.20 p.163 Reference that the Magians (Zoroastrians) married their sisters. al-Tabari vol.20 p.170 Abidah the Kharijite called the Sunni leader "Satan’s wazir" al-Tabari vol.20 p.170 685/686 A.D. (65 A.H) 7,000 Kharijite Muslims killed fighting in Khurasan. alTabari vol.20 p.175 685/686 A.D. (65 A.H) Banu Tamim Muslims in Khurasan revolted against ‘Abdallah bin Khazim. al-Tabari vol.20 p.177-181 Around 686 A.D. Zaid bin Qudomah saw the deceiving plot of another and quoted "God is the best of plotters" (Sura 3:54) al-Tabari vol.20 p.188 Al-Mukhtar’s Shi’ite revolt in al-Kufa October 18 or 19 685 A.D. al-Tabari vol.20 p.188-203 Shi’ites claimed the opposing Sunnis "waded in the blood of the family of the messenger of God." al-Tabari vol.20 p.203

The History of al-Tabari volume 21

The Victory of the Marwanids (35 entries) 66-73 A.H. (685/6-692/3 A.D.) has been called the time of the Second Civil War al-Tabari vol.21 p.xvi Succession was Mu’awiyah, Yazid/Yezid I, Mu’awiyah II (a thirteen year old boy who only ruled for 40 days), and then Marwan b. al-Hakim, a cousin of the first Mh’awiyah. al-Tabari vol.21 p.xiii-xiv Damascus revolts 69/70 A.H. or 689 A.D. al-Tabari vol.21 p.xv At the Battle of Marj Rahit in 64 A.H. July 684 A.D. Marwan’s army defeated a Syrian army loyal to al-Zubayr. al-Tabari vol.21 p.3 footnote 13. Among Muslims the Battle of al-Madhan in 686 A.D. Mecca besieged and al-Zubayr killed in 73 A.H., 693 A.D. Azariqah Kharijites rampage in Iraq in 686/687 A.D. al-Tabari vol.21 p.xv The Tawwabun were Shi’ite penitents who did nothing when Husayn was killed, so now they wanted to fight for revenge against Husayn’s killers. al-Tabari vol.21 p.2 footnote 8. Muslim armies would fight each other, then mutually break for prayer, then resume and fight each other again. al-Tabari vol.21 p.9 Victorious Shi’ites beheaded 300 Muslim prisoners in 66 A.H. (686 A.D.) alTabari vol.21 p.9 Tabari shows his bias against those who killed Husayn. al-Tabari vol.21 p.23-24. It was alleged (but not generally believed) that angels on piebald horses fought against an army of Muslims to help another army of Muslims. al-Tabari vol.21 p.28 The plant wars plus oil were used to provide protection against sunburn. alTabari vol.21 p.33 footnote 138 ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ash’ath rebelled against the Umayyad al-Hajjaj in Iraq in 83 A.H. (702 A.D.) al-Tabari vol.21 p.44 footnote 175 and p.115 footnote 419. Shi’ites under al-Mukhtar burned to death a killer of Husayn. al-Tabari vol.21 p.42-43

Shi-ite general Al-Mukhtar went to battle using a chair ‘Ali had used as a relic. alTabari vol.21 p.44-45 Al-Mukhtar bribed an enemy Muslim general to withdaw tih 70,00 dirhams. He also had 500 armored horsemen in case he did not accept. al-Tabari vol.21 p.54 Zubayr bin Dhu’ayh said he would divorce his wife if he retreated before breaking the enemy Muslim army’s battle lines. al-Tabari vol.21 p.63 Military weapons: Muslim soldiers knew to put hooks on spears against armored opponents. al-Tabari vol.21 p.64 A lot of killing in battle was just for revenge. al-Tabari vol.21 p.106,184 "But the said, ‘By God, you insist upon holding people back from the family of Muhammad and commending Na’thal, who rent the books of the Qur’an. [Continuing, he said]: I said, ‘People of Hamdan, I tell you only what my ears have heard and my heart remembers from ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (peace be upon him!). I heard him say, ‘Do not call ‘Uthman ‘him who ripped up the books of the Qur’an’; by God he ripped them up only after consultation with us, the companions of Muhammad. Had I come across them, I would have done to them as he did.’" They said, ‘God! You heard this from ‘Ali?’ I said, ‘By God, I heard it from him." [It is unclear whether the anonymous speaker, talking with Shi’ites, really heard this from ‘Ali, or he was inventing this to try to get the Shi’ites to become Sunnis.] al-Tabari vol.21 p.114 64 A.H. 683 A.D. Kharijites temporarily capture Basra. al-Tabari vol.21 p.122 footnote 437 Kharijites killed women and children Muslims as well as men. [It would be safer to be a non-Muslim falling into the hands of the Kharijites than a non-Kharijite Muslim.] al-Tabari vol.21 p.125 68 A.H 687 A.D. Drought in Syria restricts Umayyad Muslims. al-Tabari vol.21 p.134 Syrian Muslims made peace with the Byzantine Empire and paid the Byzantines 1,000 dinars a week. 70 A.H. 689-690 A.D. al-Tabari vol.21 p.169 Ibn al-Zubayr’s brother Musab spoke to other Muslims in an extremely dishonorable way. al-Tabari vol.21 p.176 Muslims could take slave girls as they wanted, whether it was rape or not. "Then one of the Syrians came, entered his [general Mus’ab’s] camp, and took out a slave girl. She shouted, ‘Alas my humiliation!’ Mus’ab looked at her and then paid no further attention to her." al-Tabari vol.21 p.186

"Whoever tastes war, finds its taste bitter, and it leaves him in rough country." alTabari vol.21 p.187. Footnote 667 says this verse quoted by ‘Abd al-Malik was originally penned by pre-Islamic poet Abu Qays bin al-Aslat. Variants are "imprisons him" and "makes him kneel down" instead of "leaves him". In 71 A.H.690/691A.D. Syrian Muslims conquered Caesarea from the Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.21 p.197 The wife of a Muslim who fled was auctioned off by Kharijites to the highest bidder. One man bid 100,000 dirhams, but another Kharijite was indignat they should pay so much attention to her, so he immediately beheaded the innocent woman on the spot. al-Tabari vol.21 p.200 In 72 A.H 691/692 A.D. the Kharijite Abu Fudayk rebelled and captured Bahrain. al-Tabari vol.21 p.206 The scribes of Mohammed were ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan, Ubayy bin Ka’b [Ub’ai bin Ka’b], and Zayd bin Thabit. Khalid bin Sa’id bin al-As, and Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan wrote concerning Mohammed’s personal affairs. ‘Abdallah bin al-Arqam and al-Ala’ bin. ‘Uqbah wrote amongthe people about their affairs. ‘Abdallah bin al-Arqam wrote to kings from the prophet. al-Tabari vol.21 p.214 Military technology: The Umayyad Muslims used a trebuchet (manjaniq) against the city of Mecca in 73 A.H. 692/693 A.D. al-Tabari vol.21 p.225 There was a six-month war between ibn al-Zubayr in Mecca and al-Hajjaj alTabari vol.21 p.224-225 Mohammed bin Marwan defeated the Byzantines, and ‘Uthman bin Walid defeats the Byzantines in Armenia in 73 A.H. 692-693 A.D. al-Tabari vol.21 p.233-234

The History of al-Tabari volume 22-38 – not started

al-Tabari also wrote that i.e. "All four of his [Abu Bakr’s] children were born of his two wives -- the names of whom we have already mentioned -- during the preIslamic period." (Tarikhu'l-umam wa'l-mamlu'k, Al-Tabari, vol.4, p.50, Arabic, Dara'l-fikr, Beirut, 1979. al-Tabari vol.11 p.141 also mentions this, with a footnote saying al-Tabari has a conflict here.

The History of al-Tabari volume 39
Biographies of the Prophet’s Companions and Their Successors (181 entries) Volume 39 was written by Tabari, but collected by someone else. al-Tabari vol.39 p.xix Volume 39 had an introduction that is now missing. al-Tabari vol.39 p.xix Tabari thought that everyone who contradicted his school of law was an infidel. al-Tabari vol.39 p.xix Yet Tabari esteemed Abu Hanifah. He would not accept Qadari, Kharijite, or Shi’ite sources. But he accepted some Shi’ite quotes though. al-Tabari vol.39 p.xix Tabari used al-Waqidi’s Tabaqat as a source. al-Tabari vol.39 p.xxiv Tabari also quoted ibn Sa’d, ibn Ishaq, and seven others. al-Tabari vol.39 p.xxiv Three of the other historians were Khalifah bin Khayyat (died 240/854); Ahmad bin Yahya al-Baladhuri (died 279/892) and Ibn Hibban al-Busti (died 354/965). alTabari vol.39 p.xxv The full name of Mohammed’s first wife was Khadijah, daughter of Khuwaylid bin Asad bin. ‘Abd al-‘Uzza bin Qusayy. al-Tabari vol.39 p.3 Zayd was born a free person, who was enslaved when the horsemen of Banu alQayn raided the tents of the Banu Ma’n, when Zaid and his mother were visiting their mother’s clan. Zaid was sold in the market of Ukkaz, Hakim bin Hizam bin Khuwaylid bought him for Khadijah for 400 dirhams. Khadijah gave Zaid as a marriage gift to Mohammed. Later Mohammed freed Zaid and adopted him (as a grown man) as his son. al-Tabari vol.39 p.6 Zaid was ten years younger than Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.10 Fatima died when she was around 29 years old. al-Tabari vol.39 p.12 ‘Ali bin Abi Talib married Umamah after Mohammed died. al-Tabari vol.39 p.13 Mohammed said a non-Muslim was not lawful for his daughter Zaynab. al-Tabari vol.39 p.15

A camel raid sent by Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.14 Battle against the Byzantine of Ajnadayr after Mohammed’s death in 34 A.H. (The date and place are disputed though.) al-Tabari vol.39 p.19 Halimah was Mohammed’s wet nurse. al-Tabari vol.39 p.21 Abu Sufyan wrote poetry against Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.21 Sa’d was one of the six collectors of the Qur’an al-Tabari vol.39 p.22 Mary the Copt died in 637/638 A.D. al-Tabari vol.39 p.22 ‘Umar "stabilized" the Qur’an in 644 A.D. al-Tabari vol.39 p.22-23 al-Abdas (ancestor of the Abbasids died in 653 A.D. al-Tabari vol.39 p.24-25 Talhah and al-Zubair/al-Zubayr were killed in 656 A.D. al-Tabari vol.39 p.27-28 Al-Zubayr became a Muslim when he was 16. He was extremely wealthy. He had 40 million [dirhams]. Al-Zubayr was the 4th or 5th convert to Islam. al-Tabari vol.39 p.27-28 Al-Zubayr died when he was 50-odd years old (p.27), or he died at 64 years old (p.28). al-Tabari vol.39 p.27-28 Ammar bin Yasir was given a slave girl in marriage named Sumayyah. After Yasir’s death Sumayyah was given in marriage to al-Azraq. al-Tabari vol.39 p.2829 ‘Uqbah bin ‘Amir had a version of the Qur’an different from ‘Uthman’s. Arthur Jeffery does not record this one. al-Tabari vol.39 p.32 footnote 144 ‘Ali had his own version of the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.39 p.37 ‘Ali bin Abi Talib had a dark brown complexion, heavy eyes, was big-bellied, and rather short. He died in 46 A.H. 666/667 A.D.. al-Tabari vol.39 p.37 Hasan bin ‘Ali had been poisoned a few times, but always escaped death except for the last time when his liver was weakened. al-Tabari vol.39 p.39 The Fijar Wars occurred before Mohammed between the Quraysh and other tribal groups. al-Tabari vol.39 p.41 footnote 189 Mohammed gave Makhramah 50 camels after the Battle of Hunain camels. alTabari vol.39 p.43

Mohammed had a slogan when inviting other tribal leaders to join Islam: "embrace Islam and you will be safe." al-Tabari vol.39 p.45-46 footnote 206 After Ibn ‘Umar became a Muslim, Mohammed asked for a loan of 40,000 dirhams, and Ibn ‘Umar lent it to him. al-Tabari vol.39 p.45-46 ‘Uthman bin al-Arqam claimed his father was the seventh to embrace Islam. alTabari vol.39 p.47 Hasan bin Thabit was a poet for Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.49 footnote 222 Umm Ishaq bin Talhah bin ‘Ubaydallah was married to Hasan when he was about to die, and Hasan told Husain/Husayn to marry her, and Husain did. She bore Fatimah bint Husain. al-Tabari vol.39 p.49 Abu Huraira had a high regard for Husain. al-Tabari vol.39 p.50 Shi’ite Muslims must love ‘Ali’s descendants. al-Tabari vol.39 p.50 Husain was killed 10/10 680 A.D.. His head was the first put on a spar. al-Tabari vol.39 p.50-51 Sinan bin Anas killed Husain. He went mad later. al-Tabari vol.39 p.51 Ibn ‘Abbas was 13 years old and near puberty when Mohammed died. al-Tabari vol.39 p.55 Mohammed himself led the raid on the Banu Mustaliq tribe. al-Tabari vol.39 p.57 Abu Sa’d al-Khudri was 15 years old when he went on a raid of the Banu Mustaliq with Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.57 Abu Sa’id did not participate at Uhud when he was 13 years old because he was too young. al-Tabari vol.39 p.57 Jabir bin ‘Abdallah said Mohammed went on 27 raids. Jabir personally went on 16 raids with Mohammed, starting with Hamra’ al-Asad (3 A.H. 625 A.D.) until Mohammed died. al-Tabari vol.39 p.58 699/700 A.D. A flood swept away the pilgrims and camels at Mecca. al-Tabari vol.39 p.59 Some say Zaid bin Harith was the first converted to Islam. al-Tabari vol.39 p.65 A Muslim was named Abu Rafi. al-Tabari vol.39 p.65-66

‘Ubaydallah bin Abu Rafi was a scribe of ‘Ali’s. al-Tabari vol.39 p.66 al-Walid bin al-Walid bin al-Mughirah bin ‘Abdallah was a brother of Khalid alWalid. They were both Qureshi’s. al-Tabari vol.39 p.67 footnote 311 Khalid al-Walid was of the same clan as Umm Salamah. al-Tabari vol.39 p.68 footnote 316 Somehow Dihyah was said to resemble the angel Jibril (Gabriel). (Does not say Mohammed ever said this.). al-Tabari vol.39 p.71 60-year old men such as the coward Hasan bin Thabit were expected to fight too. al-Tabari vol.39 p.72 ‘Arabah bin Aws, 14 years 5 months old, was considered too young to fight at Uhud and sent back. al-Tabari vol.39 p.74 Habab bin al-Aswan killed Mohammed’s daughter Zaynab. Mohammed said anyone could kill him. Later he became a Muslim and Mohammed forgave him. al-Tabari vol.39 p.77-79 Hind was a boy’s name too. al-Tabari vol.39 p.79 Al-Muhajir was Umm Salama’s brother. Umm Salama was a wife of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.80 ‘Abdallah bin Sa’d got a booty of 100 camels after Hunain. al-Tabari vol.39 p.82 ‘Umar invited poets to recite their poetry. al-Tabari vol.39 p.83-84 At the Battle of Nahrawan In Iraq, 37 A.H. 658 A.D., ‘Ali defeated the Kharaj. alTabari vol.39 p.86 footnote 412 ‘Adi lived to be 120 years old, and ‘Amr bin al-Musabbih allegedly lived to be 150 years. al-Tabari vol.39 p.86-87 Mohammed said "we do not trace our pedigree through our female line, and we shall not disown our male ancestors." al-Tabari vol.39 p.90 ‘Amr bin a;-Hamiq was known to be one of those who killed ‘Uthman, and he fought on ‘Ali’s side. He was later killed by Ibn Umm al-Hakam. ‘Amr’s head was the first head carried to a ruler. al-Tabari vol.39 p.92 al-Aswad bin Ka’b of Yemen claimed be was a prophet. Fayruz bin al-Daylami killed hum. al-Tabari vol.39 p.94

‘Amwas (ancient Emmaus was the site of a major Muslim army camp. There was a plague there in 18 A.H. 639 A.D. al-Tabari vol.39 p.95 footnote 464 When Mohammed got angry his face reddened and the vein between his eyes filled with blood. He was angry when Ibn ‘Abbas complained the Quraysh were cheerful among themselves, but not others. al-Tabari vol.39 p.97 Abu Rafi was the name of a freed slave of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.99 ‘Uqbah bin al-Harith was beaten with shoes and palm branches I Mohammed’s presence for drinking wine. al-Tabari vol.39 p.103 ‘Utbah was an early convert who went to Abyssinia. Later he selected the site of Basrah. al-Tabari vol.39 p.104 al-Zubayr was the 4th or 5th convert. He went to Abyssinia twice. al-Tabari vol.39 p.105 Hakim died in Medina at the age of 120 years. al-Tabari vol.39 p.106Shaybah the Hajib (doorkeeper) became a Muslim at the battle of Hunain. Footnote 502 says many Qureshi’s fought for Mohammed without having become Muslims first. alTabari vol.39 p.106 ‘Umar dismissed the general Khalid bin al-Walid. al-Tabari vol.39 p.111 Sa’id bin Zaid was a convert was a convert before Mohammed preached at the house of al-Arqam. al-Tabari vol.39 p.118 Mohammed said it is more appetizing and wholesome to eat meat with your front teeth. al-Tabari vol.39 p.118 Mohammed said paraphrased traditions were OK, as long as the did not make unlawful things lawful or vice versa. al-Tabari vol.39 p.120 Muslims should observe five prayers. al-Tabari vol.39 p.121 David, Moses, and Mohammed were shepherds of sheep. al-Tabari vol.39 p.123 Muslims should say "peace be upon you" for the living, and "May peace be upon you" for the dead. al-Tabari vol.39 p.124 Mohammed said the tenth was obligatory for Jews and Christians, but not for Muslims. The circumstances of this were the Banu Taghlib tribe. They remained Christian Arabs, but refused to pay the jizyah, because it involved humiliation. So Mohammed had them pay a tenth instead. al-Tabari vol.39 p.129 and footnote 599.

Beware of the prayer of the wronged, for it is carried by the clouds [to God]. alTabari vol.39 p.131 Brief mention of Mohammed’s attack on the Banu Qurayzah. al-Tabari vol.39 p.130 Mohammed believed in the evil eye, and there were charms against it. al-Tabari vol.39 p.134 Prayer does not count if it has the wrong mechanics. al-Tabari vol.39 p.135 Mohammed said Jews and Christians read the Bible and the gospel, but do not keep what is in them. The implication is that some Muslims can be the same with the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.39 p.136 "Tabari was not sure about it", so some people besides Tabari wrote this down. al-Tabari vol.39 p.136 Mohammed miraculously made an ewe give lots of milk. al-Tabari vol.39 p.139,142-144 Very flattering physical description of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.143 Mohammed said, whoever harms ‘Ali harms me. al-Tabari vol.39 p.146 Mohammed said to lead a harsh life, wear coarse clothes, and walk barefoot. alTabari vol.39 p.146 Mohammed prophesied that Muslims would drink wine, calling it by another name, and play musical instruments, and God would cause the earth to swallow them and turn them into monkeys and pigs. al-Tabari vol.39 p.147 Mohammed and ‘Ali together seized the javelin and together sacrificed the camels during the farewell pilgrimmage. al-Tabari vol.39 p.149 Mohammed prohibited eating carrion meat. al-Tabari vol.39 p.151 Mohammed’s mother’s brother was Umayr bin Wahb. al-Tabari vol.39 p.152 God takes away one sin for each prostration. al-Tabari vol.39 p.153 Every morning Mohammed came outside the house of ‘Ali and Fatimah and told them it was time to pray. al-Tabari vol.39 p.155 Hypocrite in Arabic is munafiqat. al-Tabari vol.39 p.156

A definition of sunnah: "Sunnah is a term indicating all the customs and practices of the Prophet considered to be the paradigm of a good Muslim’s behavior." alTabari vol.39 p.157 footnote 707 Predestination: Jibril [Gabriel] told Mohammed to seek refuge from, among other things, the evil that Allah created. al-Tabari vol.39 p.159 Do not ask too many questions. al-Tabari vol.39 p.160 Khadijah died at 63 years old. She had a son from a previous marriage. Her husband was Abu Halah al-Tamimi. al-Tabari vol.39 p.161 ‘Uthman married Ruqayyah, daughter of Mohammed, but she\died while Mohammed was at Badr. al-Tabari vol.39 p.162 ‘Ali bin Abi Talib married Zainab, daughter of Mohammed, after Fatimah died. alTabari vol.39 p.162 ‘Uthman married Umm Kulthum, Mohammed’s daughter, after Ruqayyah died. alTabari vol.39 p.163 Mention of Mohammed’s wife Zainab Khuzaymah. al-Tabari vol.39 p.163-164 Rayhana bint Zayd of the Banu Qurayzah. Mohammed set her free and then married her. al-Tabari vol.39 p.164-165 Mulaykah bint Ka’b was married very briefly to Mohammed. A’isha asked her if she wanted to marry the man who killed her husband. She "took refuge in God" from Mohammed, so Mohammed divorced her. al-Tabari vol.39 p.165 Mohammed married Sana bint al-Salt, but she died before he reached her. alTabari vol.39 p.166 Khawla bint al-Hudayl, wife of Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.166 Fatima was 18 at Badr and born 5 years before Mohammed started his mission. al-Tabari vol.39 p.167 Fatima died at age 29 or so. al-Tabari vol.39 p.167 Fatima died 8 months after Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.168 Mention of Safiyyah. al-Tabari vol.39 p.169 Mention of Sauda/Sawda. al-Tabari vol.39 p.169-

Aisha died in June-July 678 A.D. (A.H. 58) at the age of 66. That would make her born in 610 A.D.. It says she consummated her marriage with the prophet when she was nine years old. al-Tabari vol.39 p.171,173. A’isha died when she was 77 years old. al-Tabari vol.39 p.173 Hafsa, wife of Mohammed, died when she was 60 years old. al-Tabari vol.39 p.174 Umm Salamah’s real name was Hind bint Abi Umayyah al-Tabari vol.39 p.175 Umm Salamah’s first husband went to Abyssinia. al-Tabari vol.39 p.175 Umm Habiba and her first husband ‘Ubaydallah were Muslims who went to Abyssinia. ’Ubaydallah converted to Christianity. al-Tabari vol.39 p.177 Mention of Zainab bint Jahsh. al-Tabari vol.39 p.180-182 Alleged statement that Zaid first divorced his wife Zainab just in case Mohammed would marry her. al-Tabari vol.39 p.180-182 Salma was Mohammed’s servant girl. al-Tabari vol.39 p.181 Zainab bint Jahsh died when she was 53 years old. al-Tabari vol.39 p.182 Juwayriyyah bint al-Harith bin Abi Birar bin Habib, great grandson of Jadhimah al-Mustaliq of the Khuza’ah group, was taken as booty when Muslims raided the al-Mustaliq tribe. Her husband, Musafi’ bin Safwan Dhu al-Shuir bin Abi Asrb bin Malik bin Jadhimah was killed in the battle. She was a prisoner of war who agreed to marry Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.182-183 Juwayriyyah was captured at the Battle of al-Muraysi [against the Banu Mustaliq]. al-Tabari vol.39 p.183 Juwayriyya married Mohammed when she was 20 years old. al-Tabari vol.39 p.184 Safiyya was 17 when she married Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.184 Safiyya’s father, brother, and husband were killed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.185 Maymuna had been divorced once, and widowed before marrying Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.185 Maymuna was 80/81 when she died. al-Tabari vol.39 p.186

Mention of Fatimah bin al-Dahhabi, Aliya bint Zahyah, Sana bint Sufyan al-Tabari vol.39 p.186 Mohammed consummated his marriage with "the Kilabiyyah". This would be Fatimah bint al-Dahhak bin Sufyan or ‘Aliyah bint Zabyan bin ‘Amr bin ‘Awf or Sana bint Sufyan bin ‘Awf. al-Tabari vol.39 p.187 Mohammed divorced a woman because she had leprosy. al-Tabari vol.39 p.187 Mohammed divorced an unnamed woman because she would peek at those leaving the mosque. al-Tabari vol.39 p.187 Mention of Mohammed’s brief marriage with Sana bint Sufyan. al-Tabari vol.39 p.188 Mohammed divorced ‘Amrah bint Yazid because she had leprosy. al-Tabari vol.39 p.188 Mohammed stayed with ‘Aliyah bint Zabyan bin ‘Amr bin ‘Awf bin Ka’b a while, then divorced her. al-Tabari vol.39 p.188 ‘Asma bint al-Nu’man was a widow Mohammed married Either Hafsa or A’isha tricked ‘Asma by telling her Mohammed would be pleased if she said she took refuge in Allah from Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.188-190 Some thought Mohammed married al-Ash’ath, but that is false according to alTabari vol.39 p.190 Mention of ‘Asma bint Nu’man. al-Tabari vol.39 p.190 Mary/Mariyah the Copt was from the governor of Alexandria. al-Tabari vol.39 p.193 Claim that Mary became a Muslim, but Mohammed still kept her as a slave rather than a regular wife. al-Tabari vol.39 p.194 Mohammed "had intercourse with her [Mary] by virtue of her being his property." al-Tabari vol.39 p.194. Footnote 845 explains, "That is, Mariyah was ordered to veil herself as did the Prophet’s wives, but he did not marry her." Mohammed asked forgiveness for sins. al-Tabari vol.39 p.195-196 Umm Hani is inconsistent on whether of not she became a Muslim before or after Mohammed asked her to marry him. al-Tabari vol.39 p.197 and footnote 857 p.197

Some people were converted to Islam against their will when Mecca was conquered. al-Tabari vol.39 p.197 Mohammed definitely had a sense of humor. Umm Ayman, the Prophet’s client [i.e. slave whom it was lawful for him to spend the night with]. According to alHusayn … Umm Ayman: [One] night the Prophet got up and urinated in the corner of the house into an earthenware vessel. During the night I got up, and being thirsty, I drank what was in the vessel, not noticing [anything]. When the Prophet got up in the morning he said ‘O Umm Ayman, take that earthenware vessel and pour away its content.’ I said ‘By God, I drank what was in it.’ The Prophet laughed until his molar teeth showed, then said ‘After this you will never have a bellyache.’" al-Tabari vol.39 p.199 Umaymah heard Mohammed say, "wine is the mother of all sins." al-Tabari vol.39 p.200 Umm al-fadl, Maymunah’s sister, was the first woman to embrace Islam afte Khadijah. al-Tabari vol.39 p.201 Khalid bin al-Walid’s mother was Lubabah. al-Tabari vol.39 p.202 A woman who takes off her clothes anywhere but in her home (such as a public bath) disgraces herself before God. al-Tabari vol.39 p.205 Once ‘Ali had a sickness and Mohammed visited him. al-Tabari vol.39 p.206 702/703 A.D. (83 A.H.) death of ibn al-Ash’ath at the Battle of Maskan. al-Tabari vol.39 p.209 Shamir bin Dhi al-Jawshan was one who killed Husayn. Yet he was considered a Successor and traditions were transmitted from him. al-Tabari vol.39 footnote 912 p.211 Muslims also believed that Pharaoh killed the Israelite boys and let the girls live. al-Tabari vol.39 p.212 The Saffriyah were a Kharijite sect. al-Tabari vol.39 p.217 Once after Yemen suffered from a great flood, they found a great tomb of a man. al-Tabari vol.39 p.219 Yunus burned all of Hasan’s writings, except for one notebook. al-Tabari vol.39 p.225 Al-Hasan believed in free will and others quarreled with him. al-Tabari vol.39 p.226-227

Malik bin Dinar of Kabul made copies of the Qur’an for a living. al-Tabari vol.39 p.237 ‘Asim bin Abi al-Najud al-Asadi (=’Asim bin Bahdalah) "was a reliable [transmitter] (thiqah), but he erred a lot." Footnote 1048 says he did not intend to lie, which makes him a reliable transmitter. al-Tabari vol.39 p.238 Yahya bin Abi Athir used "tadlis". Tadlis was tampering with chains of transmission (isnad), such as hiding the name of the source, citing someone without having heard him, or changing names. al-Tabari vol.39 and footnote 1056 p.240 Opposition to the Hanafites. al-Tabari vol.39 p.252-253 Al-Bahili was not a trusted transmitter. al-Tabari vol.39 p.256 Reliability: Umma: Ja’far al-Mansur said, "I have decided to take the books you have written’ - meaning the Muwatta - ‘and have several copies made of them. I shall then send a copy to every Islamic city and order the people to acdt according to what is written in this book, not to turn from it to any other, and to abandon everything else of this science [of religious law], which is innovation. For I have come to realize that the authentic knowledge [of religious law] is that possessed and transmitted by the people of Medina. I [Malik] said: ‘ O Commander of the Faithful, do not do this, for [various] views and traditions [ahadith] have already reached the public, and people have transmitted material in various ways. Eveyr community adheres to those of the different opinions and lessons that have reached it first; it follows thses and holds them. It is difficult to make people renounce their beliefs, so leave them as they are, and let the people of every city choose for themselves.’ Al-Mansur said, ‘Upon my soul, had you agreed with me in this, I would have ordered it.’" al-Tabari vol.39 p.262 ‘Abdalah bin al-Mubarak said, "We transmit what the Jews and the Christians say, but we cannot transmit what the Jahmiyyah [or Djahmiyya] say." While Muslims acknowledge that God sits on a throne above seven heavens, the Jahmiyyah denied that God has a local presence, and said God is everywhere. al-Tabari vol.39 and footnote 1173 p.263-264 ‘Abd al-Rahman admitted that he began to hate ‘Ali when ‘Ali doled out allowances and did not give him any. al-Tabari vol.39 p.270 Kumayl was one who besieged ‘Uthman. al-Tabari vol.39 p.270 Abu Nadrah participated in the revolt of Ibn al-Ash’ath. al-Tabari vol.39 p.271 Al-Musayyib died in the battle of ‘Ayn al-Wardah with the Repenters (tawabun) who had repented of deserting al-Husayn bin ‘Ali. al-Tabari vol.39 p.274

Wives: ‘Ali and a concubine of his had a daughter named Fatimah. al-Tabari vol.39 and footnote 1264 p.278 Mohammed’s daughter Zaynab was married to Abu al-;As bin al-Rabi. al-Tabari vol.39 p.282 Thabit bin Zayd bin Qays, of the Banu al-Harith of the al0Khazraj was one of the six who collected the Qur’an. al-Tabari vol.39 p.284 Mention of Umm Salamah bint Abi Umayyah bin al-Mughirah, Umm Hani’ bint Abi Talib bin ‘Abd al-Muttalib., Umm Habibah, Umm Sharik, Umm Ayman (=Barakah), a client (slave-girl) of the prophet. al-Tabari vol.39 p.287 Ubayy bin Ka’b (Ubai bin Ka’b) was a secretary of Mohammed’s who had a knowledge eof the ancient scriptures (i.e. the Old Testament and Gospels). alTabari vol.39 footnote 1309 p.289 Mention as a historical person of Adi bin Hatim al-Jawad (the generous) al-Ta’i. (Hatim Ta’i). al-Tabari vol.39 p.297 A client is like a slave but voluntary. al-Tabari vol.39 p.300 Al-Tabari mixed up two different people here. al-Tabari vol.39 p.310 Talhah’s son, named Mohammed, was also killed at the Battle of the Camel. alTabari vol.39 p.315 ‘Ata bin Yasar was a man who was a client of Maymunah. al-Tabari vol.39 p.317 Clients of Umm Salamah were Nabhan (=Abu Yahya) and Ma’in bin Ujayl(=Abu Qudamah) al-Tabari vol.39 p.320 There were at least five other Muslims In Abu Bakr’s time and later called Abu Bakr. al-Tabari vol.39 p.324,326,326,333,334


								
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