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RESISTANCE EXERCISES

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          Healthy Weigh Club

RESISTANCE EXERCISES
Muscle strength and tone are very important components of overall fitness. This can be gained through
resistance training.
Muscle burns up 25 times more energy than fat and is therefore important in maintaining a good
metabolism and managing body weight. It is also integral for balanced and correct posture, disease
prevention (eg. osteoporosis) and injury prevention.
It is best to perform a 5 - 10 minute warm up (jogging or cycling is best) and some flexibility exercises
before starting resistance exercises. Failing to do an adequate warm up will increase the potential for
injury and muscle soreness the following day(s). Therefore, remember to ease into your strength
exercise session with a gradual warm up and then finish with a gradual a cool down afterwards.


Following are some guidelines for different goals of strength programs:

                             # of Repetitions         # of Sets        Rest between        # Sessions per
                                                                           Sets                Week
Muscular Fitness                         15 – 20             3–5                       -               3–6
Muscle Toning                             8 – 12             2–3             2 – 3 mins                2–5
Muscle Hypertrophy                         2–6               2–3             3 – 5 mins               3 only



Regardless of what training effect you are aiming for (fitness/toning/hypertrophy), the number of
repetitions is determined by the load (weight) that you are working with. By the last few repetitions you
should be struggling with the load so that it is almost too difficult to complete. That is, if you cannot
complete the last repetition(s) then the load is too heavy for you and you need to decrease it. However,
if it is too easy to complete all the repetitions then you need to increase the load.


Beginners: Perform each exercise 12 - 15 times (repetitions). After completing all exercises, repeat in
same order. All exercises should be performed in a slow and controlled manner. This not only reduces
the risk of injury but also provides maximum benefit from each exercise. If unsure about an exercise,
leave it out of your program until you can get a qualified person to help you with correct technique.


Intermediate: After 2 - 4 weeks you will have become familiar with the exercises, as have your
muscles. Therefore it becomes necessary to change the resistance and/or number of repetitions of your
program. This change will depend on your progress and your aims and goals relating to the resistance
program.
Resistance Exercises Stretches                                                                   Page 2



    1. BENCH PRESS (Pectorals)

•   Lying flat on a bench with knees bent, press the lower
    back into the bench
•   Holding weights at chest level, press up and then lower
    to chest level
•   DO NOT lock elbows in arm extension movement.
    Always keep the elbows slightly bent allowing the
    muscles rather then the joints to support the weight




                                                     2. SQUAT (Quadriceps)

                                           •    Stand with feet slightly wider than shoulder width apart
                                           •    Ensure the back is supported by tensing the abdominal
                                                muscles
                                           •    Bend the knees, lowering body weight, ensuring the
                                                knees are following the line of the toes
                                           •    Do not bend beyond 90° at the knee joint
                                           •    Knees should always be at least slightly bent.
                                                DO NOT lock knees in upward movement




3. ONE ARM DUMBELL ROW (Upper back)

•   Place one leg on flat bench
•   Bend at waist and support upper body weight with
    hand bent at wrist
•   The back should be parallel with the floor and arm
    extended towards the ground
•   Pull the dumbbell up to the side of your body,
    bending the elbow
•   Squeeze the shoulder blade and maintain tight
    stomach muscles
Resistance Exercises Stretches                                                                    Page 3


4. CALF RAISES

•   Stand with feet shoulder width apart and maintain
    correct posture
•   Raise upwards onto your toes; legs straight
•   Lower yourself back to starting position
•   The addition of weights to the ankles will increase
    the intensity of the workout




                                                      5. BICEPS CURL

                                            •   Stand with feet shoulder width apart, arms extended by
                                                sides
                                            •   With the elbows tucked into the waist, flex the forearm,
                                                alternating right and left
                                            •   The upper arm is stationary




6. LEG EXTENSION (Quadriceps)

•   Sit back in a chair, feet shoulder width apart,
    knees directly above feet
•   Place a rolled up towel under knees; toes
    should just touch the floor
•   Raise your leg until the knee is straight, keep
    your toes pointed toward your body
•   Pause for a second
•   Relax ankle so toes are no longer pointed and
    slowly lower leg
•   Lift legs alternately
Resistance Exercises Stretches                                                                     Page 4



    7. TRICEPS EXTENSION

•   Place one leg on flat bench
•   Bend at waist and support upper body weight
    with hand bent at wrist
•   The back should be parallel with the floor and
    stomach muscles held tight
•   With the weighted arm bent at the elbow and
    tucked in by the side, extend the arm so it is fully
    by the side of the body
•   Return back to starting position




                                                              8. ABDOMINAL CRUNCH

                                                  •   Lie on back with head and shoulders on the floor
                                                  •   Ensure lower back is pressed into floor
                                                  •   For beginners, place hands on thighs
                                                  •   For intermediate, rest hands behind ears and
                                                      ensure elbows stay out throughout the exercise
                                                  •   Contract abdominals and lift shoulders off floor,
                                                      keeping eyes fixed on the ceiling
                                                  •   DO NOT pull on back of the neck
                                                  •   Perform approx 20 repetitions
Resistance Exercises Stretches                                                                         Page 5



STRETCHING
Often overlooked, flexibility is important to reduce the risk of injury and enjoy freedom of movement of
your muscles and joints. You must prioritise the importance of stretching if you want to remain injury
free. Therefore it would be best to incorporate flexibility exercises into your regular exercise program.
Flexibility has a great effect on posture and can help to prevent postural abnormalities, which can lead
to musculoskeletal problems such as lower back pain.

After your warm up perform some general stretches to prepare your muscles for the main exercise
session. Then after your workout perform all of your stretches. Hold the stretches for 15 - 20 seconds,
and do them at least 2 times through.


Guidelines for safe and effective stretching exercises:
• Stretch to a position where only mild tension is felt. If pain is felt relax slightly until a safer tension is
   found.
• Always hold the stretch in a stationary position. This is called static stretching. It is unsafe to
   'bounce' when stretching.
• When stretching always maintain a good posture and ensure your back is supported.
• Stretching after exercise is the most effective time to improve your flexibility as the muscles are
   very warm and maximum benefits can be gained.




    1. NECK FLEXION

•   Tuck chin in and relax shoulders
•   Gently bend the head forward




                                                   2. NECK EXTENSION

                                                           •   Relax shoulders
                                                           •   Gently took up to the ceiling
                                                           •   DO NOT drop head back onto shoulders
Resistance Exercises Stretches                                                                      Page 6


    3. QUADRICEP STRETCH

•   Hold foot with one hand and pull towards the
    buttocks
•   Keep back straight and knees together
•   Tilt hips forward whilst holding the foot
•   Repeat on other leg




                                                    4. TRICEP STRETCTH

                                                •    Place one hand up and behind the neck
                                                •    Bring the other hand up onto the bent elbow
                                                •    Gently push the elbow down until a
                                                     stretch is felt




5. SHOULDER STRETCH

•   Reach one arm across the body at shoulder height
    with elbow bent
•   Place the other hand on the back of the elbow
•   Gently push on the elbow until you feel a
       stretch




                                                       6. CALF STRETCH

                                                •    Face a wall/tree/chair with one foot forward
                                                •    Keeping hip and knee in a straight line and heels
                                                     flat on the ground lean forward
                                                •    Stretch each leg separately
Resistance Exercises Stretches                                                                     Page 7


7. ACHILLES STRETCH

•   In the same position as for calf stretch, bend
    the back knee
•   Keep hip and knee in a straight line and lean
    forward




                                                          8. HAMSTRINGS STRETCH

                                                 •   Place one foot against the inside thigh of the other
                                                     outstretched leg
                                                 •   Rest both hands on the straight leg
                                                 •   Gently reach forward towards toes
                                                 •   Do not just curve the head and shoulders, lean
                                                     whole upper body towards toes




9. INNER THIGH STRETCH

•   Sit with soles of feet together and back
    straight
•   Gently rest elbow on inside of knees
•   Gently press knees towards the floor until
    stretch is felt




                                                           10. BACK STRETCH

                                                      •    Lying flat on the floor lift one leg up and over
                                                           the other
                                                      •    Place the opposite hand on top of the knee
                                                      •    Gently press the knee towards the floor
                                                      •    Other arm should be outstretched and head
                                                           should be looking at this arm
                                                      •    DO NOT do this stretch if you have back
                                                           problems

				
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