Introduction to psychology What is the science of psychology Psychology is scientific study of behavior and mental processes, encompassing not just what people do ,but their biological activities ,feeling, perception, memory,reasonig and thoughts. PSYCHOLOGY Thescience that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it; and Theprofession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems Numerous areas of psychology Experimental and physiological psy ; Developmental, social, and personality psy Abnormal, Clinical and counseling psy; School and educational psy; Industrial and engineering psy; Legal,political,and military psy psychology is one of the behavior, or social science Psychology Sub-fields Clinical Psychology: study, assess, treat troubled people with behavioral modification; administer testing and therapy for psychological disorders and dysfunctions Psychiatry: more physically intrusive psychotherapy through prescription drugs, surgical or more medical treatments Psychology Areas of Study Sports Psychology: the fields of motivation, dedication, focus, commitment and reduction of pain as applied to athletic performance of the individual and teams. Social Psychology: the interactions of individuals in groups, group processes, persuasion and group fidelity. Ethology: study of the behaviors of animals; it’s ecological influences and origins. Animal behavior and comparative psychology are sub-sets Psychology touches almost every aspect of our lives . What child rearing methods produce happy and effective adults? How can mental illness can be prevented? What family and social conditions contribute to aggression and crime? What is best treatment for smoking and obesity? Can memory be improved by the use of drugs? How effective is psychotherapy in Psychology also affects our lives through its influence on laws and public policy. Law concerning discrimination, pornography, sexual behavior, and conditions under which individuals may be held legally responsible for their actions are influenced by psychological theories and research. The effect of TV violence on children is of concern to psychologist. only after studies provided evidence of harmful effects of such programs has it been possible to modify TV programming policies. The schools of psychology Structuralism focused on the basic element that constitute the foundation of perception, consciousness, thinking, emotions, and other kinds of mental states and activities. Introspection; a procedure used to study the structure of the mind , in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to stimulus. Functionalism; an early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does- the function of mental activity – and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environment. Gestalt psychology; a school that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking In a whole sense , rather than on the individual elements of perception. Psychology's PERSPECTIVES - 1 Psychoanalytic unconscious motives and experiences in early childhood govern personality and mental disorders Humanistic humans are free, rational beings with the potential for personal growth, and they are fundamentally different from animals Psychology's PERSPECTIVES - 1 Biological an organism’s functioning can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behavior Behavioral only observable events can be studied scientifically Cognitive human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store and process information Psychology's PERSPECTIVES - 2 Neuroscience (biological) How the body and brain create emotions, memories and sensory experiences Evolutionary How natural selection favors traits that promote the perpetuation of one’s genes Behavioral genetics How much do our genes and our environment influence individual differences in behavior Behavior How we learn observable responses? Cognitive How we acquire, process, store and retrieve information in the brain Socio-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures Approaches to psychology Neurobiological approach considers how people function biologically; how nerve cells joined together, how the inheritance characteristics from parents other ancestors influence behavior, how the functioning of body affects hopes and fears, it also study heredity and evolution and how it might influence behavior The psychodynamic approach The basic assumption of Freud's theory is that much of our behavior stems from processes that are unconscious. these are thoughts, fears, and wishes a person is unaware of but which nevertheless influence behavior .these unconscious impulses find expression in dreams, slips of tongue, mannerisms, and symptoms of mental illness as well as through such socially approved behavior as artistic or literary activity Cognitive approach Is concerned with the way the brain actively processes incoming information by transforming it internally in various ways. it focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world. The emphasis is on learning how people comprehend and represent the outside world within themselves, and how our thinking about the world influence our behavior. Behavioral approach A person eats breakfast, rides a bicycle, talks, blushes, laughs, and cries. all these are forms of behavior, those activities of an organism that can be observed. with this approach ,psychologist studies individuals by looking at their behavior rather than their internal workings. Focuses on those external activities of the organism that can be observe and measured. Humanistic approach Contends that people can control their behavior and that they naturally try to reach their full potential .the emphasis of his approach is on free will, the ability to freely make decisions about ones own behavior and life. Research methods in psychology Experimental method ;psychologist use the experimental method to ensure that their claims are correct and reliable. this require a testable hypothesis, which allows the researcher to specify the results that confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis. When designing an experiment, an investigator must specify the independent and dependent variables. The independent variable is the variable whose nature is changed in accord with the experimental manipulation. The dependent variable is what the investigator measures to determine whether the experimental manipulation has had the hypothesized effect. Observational method In this method the independent and dependent variables are observed rather than manipulated .the investigator simply observe some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation .the researcher is passive and simply records that what occurs. Survey method Research in which people chosen to represent some large population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts ,and attitudes .an adequate survey requires a carefully pretested questionnaire,interveiwers trained in its use and appropriate methods of data analysis, so that the results can be properly interpreted. Test methods The test is an important research tool in psychology. It is used to measure all kinds of abilities, interest, attitudes, and accomplishments. Case histories Scientific biographies, know as case histories, are important source of data for psychologist studying individuals. it is an in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or a small group of people.
Pages to are hidden for
"Introduction to psychology"Please download to view full document