Introduction to psychology by veeru5656


									Introduction to
       What is the science
       of psychology
Psychology is scientific study of
behavior and mental processes,
  encompassing not just what
 people do ,but their biological
 activities ,feeling, perception,
memory,reasonig and thoughts.
 Thescience that studies behavior
 and the physiological and cognitive
 processes that underlie it; and

 Theprofession that applies the
 accumulated knowledge of this
 science to practical problems
        Numerous areas of
 Experimental and physiological psy ;
 Developmental, social, and personality
 Abnormal, Clinical and counseling psy;
 School and educational psy;
 Industrial and engineering psy;
 Legal,political,and military psy
   psychology is one of the
    behavior, or social science
       Psychology Sub-fields
 Clinical Psychology: study, assess,
  treat troubled people with behavioral
  modification; administer testing and
  therapy for psychological disorders
  and dysfunctions
 Psychiatry: more physically intrusive
  psychotherapy through prescription
  drugs, surgical or more medical
          Psychology Areas of Study
   Sports Psychology: the fields of motivation,
    dedication, focus, commitment and reduction
    of pain as applied to athletic performance of
    the individual and teams.
   Social Psychology: the interactions of
    individuals in groups, group processes,
    persuasion and group fidelity.
   Ethology: study of the behaviors of animals;
    it’s ecological influences and origins. Animal
    behavior and comparative psychology are
Psychology touches almost every
aspect of our lives .
      What child rearing methods produce
       happy and effective adults?
      How can mental illness can be
      What family and social conditions
       contribute to aggression and crime?
      What is best treatment for smoking and
      Can memory be improved by the use of
      How effective is psychotherapy in
              Psychology also affects our
              lives through its influence on
              laws and public policy.
   Law concerning discrimination,
    pornography, sexual behavior, and
    conditions under which individuals may be
    held legally responsible for their actions are
    influenced by psychological theories and
   The effect of TV violence on children is of
    concern to psychologist. only after studies
    provided evidence of harmful effects of
    such programs has it been possible to
    modify TV programming policies.
         The schools of
   Structuralism focused on the basic
    element that constitute the foundation
    of perception, consciousness, thinking,
    emotions, and other kinds of mental
    states and activities.
   Introspection; a procedure used to
    study the structure of the mind , in
    which subjects are asked to describe in
    detail what they are experiencing when
    they are exposed to stimulus.
 Functionalism; an early approach to
  psychology that concentrated on what
  the mind does- the function of mental
  activity – and the role of behavior in
  allowing people to adapt to their
 Gestalt psychology; a school that
  focuses on the organization of
  perception and thinking In a whole
  sense , rather than on the individual
  elements of perception.
Psychology's PERSPECTIVES - 1

 Psychoanalytic
    unconscious motives and
    experiences in early childhood govern
    personality and mental disorders
 Humanistic
    humans are free, rational beings with
    the potential for personal growth, and
    they are fundamentally different from
Psychology's PERSPECTIVES - 1
     Biological
         an organism’s functioning can be explained in
         terms of the bodily structures and
         biochemical processes that underlie behavior
     Behavioral
      only observable events can be studied
     Cognitive
         human behavior cannot be fully understood
         without examining how people acquire, store
         and process information
Psychology's PERSPECTIVES - 2
   Neuroscience (biological)
       How the body and brain create emotions, memories and
       sensory experiences
   Evolutionary
       How natural selection favors traits that promote the
       perpetuation of one’s genes
   Behavioral genetics
       How much do our genes and our environment influence
       individual differences in behavior
   Behavior
         How we learn observable responses?
   Cognitive
         How we acquire, process, store and retrieve information in
         the brain
   Socio-cultural
         How behavior and thinking vary across situations and
         Approaches to
   Neurobiological approach considers how
    people function biologically; how nerve
    cells joined together, how the
    inheritance characteristics from parents
    other ancestors influence behavior, how
    the functioning of body affects hopes
    and fears, it also study heredity and
    evolution and how it might influence
          The psychodynamic
   The basic assumption of Freud's theory is
    that much of our behavior stems from
    processes that are unconscious. these are
    thoughts, fears, and wishes a person is
    unaware of but which nevertheless influence
    behavior .these unconscious impulses find
    expression in dreams, slips of tongue,
    mannerisms, and symptoms of mental illness
    as well as through such socially approved
    behavior as artistic or literary activity
         Cognitive approach
   Is concerned with the way the brain
    actively processes incoming information
    by transforming it internally in various
    ways. it focuses on how people think,
    understand, and know about the world.
    The emphasis is on learning how people
    comprehend and represent the outside
    world within themselves, and how our
    thinking about the world influence our
         Behavioral approach
   A person eats breakfast, rides a bicycle,
    talks, blushes, laughs, and cries. all
    these are forms of behavior, those
    activities of an organism that can be
    observed. with this approach
    ,psychologist studies individuals by
    looking at their behavior rather than
    their internal workings. Focuses on
    those external activities of the organism
    that can be observe and measured.
         Humanistic approach
   Contends that people can control their
    behavior and that they naturally try to
    reach their full potential .the emphasis
    of his approach is on free will, the
    ability to freely make decisions about
    ones own behavior and life.
          Research methods in
   Experimental method ;psychologist use
    the experimental method to ensure that
    their claims are correct and reliable. this
    require a testable hypothesis, which
    allows the researcher to specify the
    results that confirm or disconfirm the
    hypothesis. When designing an
    experiment, an investigator must
    specify the independent and dependent
 The independent variable is the variable
  whose nature is changed in accord with the
  experimental manipulation.
 The dependent variable is what the
  investigator measures to determine
  whether the experimental manipulation has
  had the hypothesized effect.
             Observational method
   In this method the independent and
    dependent variables are observed rather
    than manipulated .the investigator simply
    observe some naturally occurring behavior
    and does not make a change in the
    situation .the researcher is passive and
    simply records that what occurs.
         Survey method
   Research in which people chosen to
    represent some large population are
    asked a series of questions about their
    behavior, thoughts ,and attitudes .an
    adequate survey requires a carefully
    pretested questionnaire,interveiwers
    trained in its use and appropriate
    methods of data analysis, so that the
    results can be properly interpreted.
          Test methods
   The test is an important research tool in
    psychology. It is used to measure all
    kinds of abilities, interest, attitudes, and
         Case histories
   Scientific biographies, know as case
    histories, are important source of data
    for psychologist studying individuals. it
    is an in-depth, intensive investigation of
    an individual or a small group of people.

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