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					ERGONOMICS
              OBJECTIVES
Provide basic training regarding the
 identification, evaluation, and control of
 ergonomic exposures and hazards.


This will include:
  The role of ergonomics
  Ergonomics-related injuries and their
   causes
  Proper workstation arrangement
  Controlling ergonomic hazards
           ERGONOMICS
    The word Ergonomics comes from the Greek
    words “Ergos”--(work) and “Namos”--
    (natural law).
         ERGONOMICS
Definition:
  Ergonomics is an interdisciplinary
   approach toward adapting the manmade
   environment around man, rather than man
   around the environment.
      ERGONOMICS
Definition:
  Ergonomics is the study of the
   relationship between the employee and
   the work place. It is a developing body
   of knowledge whose goal is to provide
   and maintain a healthy “user friendly”
   environment. Properly applied,
   ergonomic principles support each
   person's desire to find a zone of
   individual comfort.
     ERGONOMICS
Definition:
  Ergonomics is the study of how human
   beings relate to their work environment.
   The result of ergonomics is the
   adaptation of the workstation design
   and work tools to suit the individual
   performing a particular job function.
   The application of ergonomic principles
   to workstation design can result in
   increased effectiveness, work quality,
   health and safety, and job satisfaction.
         ERGONOMICS
Why should we be interested?

                  The Worker (%)
           Men..........................34
           Women......................65

           Under 25 years.............11
           25 to 54 years...............80
           55 years and over...........7

           Under 1 year of service...18
           1 to 5 years..................35
           5 years or more.............36
           Not reported.................64
   ERGONOMICS
(Repetitive Stress Injuries)
      Affected Body Part


     Shoulders
        6%
                     Wrists
     Other           51%
     37%

             Hands
              6%
                              ERGONOMICS
                              Percent of Total CTDs in US Industry


General Manufacturing
      Electronic Equip.
  Transportation Equip.
               Apparel
         Food Products
Wholesale, Retail Trade
           Food Stores
        Health Services
        Other Services
                 Other

                          0       5        10        15        20    25   30
     MANUAL HANDLING
91% of the total cost of Nelco Product’s WC
 claims for 4/93 through 4/94
Only 42 % of the frequency
    This means when MH losses occur, they are usually very
     severe and costly
      OCCUPATIONAL
      BIOMECHANICS
Definition:
  Biomechanics uses laws of physics and
   engineering concepts to describe motion
   undergone by the various body segments
   and the forces acting on these body parts
   during normal daily activities.
  CUMULATIVE TRAUMA
   DISORDERS (CTD’s)
Definition: Disorders that are caused or
 aggravated by repeated exertions or
 movements of the body.
 ERGONOMICS-RELATED
      INJURIES
 Strains/Sprains   Epicondylitis
  (difference?)     Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
 Low Back Pain
                    DeQuervain’s Syndrome
  (LBP)
                    Ganglionic Cysts
 Herniated Disc
                    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
 Tendinitis
                    (CTS)
 Tenosynovitis
                    Eye Fatigue
CAUSES OF ERGONOMIC-
  RELATED INJURIES
Posture
Force
Repetition
Low temperature
Contact points
Vibration
   CUMULATIVE TRAUMA
Most back injuries are the result of everyday
 wear and tear rather than a single traumatic
 event. The cause is generally not a single lift
 but damage done over time.
Causes:
    Repeated twisting
    Awkward postures
    Heavy lifting
    Prolonged vibration
   CUMULATIVE TRAUMA
Once back pain is experienced, the chances
 of it recurring increase greatly.
Back injuries from slips, trips, and falls can
 sometimes be prevented by good
 housekeeping. Proper storage of material
 and regular cleanup of debris can improve
 access not only for workers, but for materials
 handing equipment.
To reduce back injuries on the job, a
 preventive program is necessary. An
 effective program should cover factors such
 as anatomy, work place posture, lifting
 techniques, ergonomics, and exercises.
Ramazzini in 1700’s wrote:
   Manifold is the harvest of diseases reaped by
    craftsman... As the...cause I assign certain
    violent and irregular motions and unnatural
    postures... by which... the natural structure of
    the living machine is so impaired that serious
    diseases gradually develop. (Tichauer, 1978)
ANATOMY
   SPINAL COLUMN AND
        MUSCLES
Made up of bones called vertebrae
Divided into five areas:
    Cervical (neck)
    Thoracic (upper back)
    Lumbar (lower back)
    Sacrum
    Coccyx
The spine provides protection to the spinal
 cord
The spinal cord has nerves that branch off
 and send messages to various parts of the
 body as well as bring back information on
 conditions throughout the body
 VERTEBRAE AND DISCS
 Vertebrae     are the bones that make up the
  spine.
    Provide support
    Offer protection

 Intervertebral     Discs are made up of two parts.
    Outer part (fibrous ring)
    Inner part (soft, gel-like center)

 The  discs are firmly attached to vertebrae, so
  cannot “slip.”
 If outer fibrous ring gets damaged, part of the
  gel part can start protruding out, called a disc
  protrusion or herniation.
VERTEBRAE AND DISCS
80-85% of people over 30 have protruded or
 herniated discs. However, the majority do not
 have pain. Why?
Many theories exist, but the most widely
 accepted is that pain is felt when a
 protrusion or herniation occurs at the point
 where the nerve exits the spinal column.
Age has an effect.
    Degenerative disc disease
    May cause flattening and hardening of discs and wears
     on the facet joints
  SPINAL DISCS UNDER
        LOADS
Discs are continually being compressed by
 the effects of gravity.
   our upper body
   loads we might be carrying

Discs may become damaged when:
   carrying uneven loads (compression) or
   twisting combined with carrying (torsion)
      SPINAL MUSCLES
Movement controlled by muscles
 contracting and relaxing.
Rope-like ligaments join bone ends to
 support and strengthen joints and prevent
 abnormal movements
Interwoven sheath of muscle and ligaments
 across abdomen and lower back provide
 support. For this reason, it is important to
 keep them in good condition.
 WORKPLACE POSTURE
Dynamic vs. static
Back muscles vs. stomach muscles
   back--short, small very strong
   stomach--large, broad
   when imbalance occurs, back muscles can become
    overloaded.
   thus, important to maintain health and good posture by
    using stomach muscles.
   Unbalanced pelvis
   stomach protruded
   pelvis tilted down
   back curve increases
   stresses lower back
   makes back vulnerable to injury
   tightening stomach muscles will straighten pelvis, lowing
    spine
     CORRECT POSTURE
 Natural alignment, follows natural curves.
 Lordosis (sway back)
    inward curve
        neck
        low back
    outward curve (kyphosis) in upper back
    jams vertebrae together
    causes lower back muscles and ligaments to tighten and leads
     to low back pain
 Kyphosis (flat back)
    puts extra pressure on front of discs
    may contribute to low back pain

 Keeping spine aligned reduces everyday stresses on
  the back and minimizes the effects of the normal aging
  process on the spine.
                     LIFTING
H = The horizontal distance
When H is increased, the crane’s capacity to
 lift the load is decreased.
       This is true with our bodies as well
       It is critical to lift and carry the load as close as
         possible




                                                 H
     H
         PROPER LIFTING
   Plan your move
     – Size up the load and make sure your path is clear.
     – Get help as needed.
     – Use a dolly or other materials handling equipment if possible.
   Use a wide, balanced stance with one foot slightly
    ahead of the other.
   Get as close to the load as possible.
   Tighten your stomach muscles as the lift begins.
   When lifting, keep your lower back in its normal arched
    position
   Pick up your feet and pivot to turn. Don’t twist your
    back.
   Lower the load slowly, maintaining the curve in your
    lower back.
           LIFTING GRIP
Use entire palm, not just the fingertips.
       LIFTING DO’S AND
            DON’TS
DO:
   Push rather than pull.
   Keep a good grip.
   Maintain clear vision between
    the object and your destination.
   When lowering an object, try and keep the
    natural curve of your back.
   Place the load on the edge (tailgate) and
    push it back.
DON’T:
   Lift above shoulder height.
   Catch falling objects.
                   TWISTING
 Repeated    twisting of the lower back during
  lifting (or shoveling) is a common mistake. It
  can contribute to lower back pain and
  disability. Instead, lift your feet and turn you
  whole body.
 Lifting and placing palletized/stacked
  materials
   – lift object with feet and body in same direction
   – pick up feet and turn with feet and body together
   – don’t twist
       MORE LIFTING TIPS
 Transferring     weight
   – pull object towards you while transferring your weight to
     the lift side
   – lift only to the level required
   – shift your weight to the other leg while pushing the object
     into position.
   – do not twist
 Lifting   heavy bags
   –   put one knee down against bag
   –   pull bag up leg
   –   rest bag on edge of knee
   –   stand upright
   –   pull bag to waist height
            LIFTING OVER
              BARRIERS
 Many  back injuries result from repeated use
  of poor lifting techniques. Often a simple
  change in how we use our body to perform
  routine tasks can prevent back injuries and
  make work easier at the same time.
 One-handed lifts
   – Lifting with the back rounded and knees straight places
     great stress on the spine, making the lower back more
     susceptible to injuries
 Two-handed      lifts
   – Again, avoid rounding the back
   – Move the object as close to the body as possible
   – Bend at the hips, while keeping the back in the normal
     arched position
  MATERIALS HANDLING
      EQUIPMENT
Different types of equipment have been
 designed and manufactured to lift and move
 loads of various shapes, sizes, and weights.
 This equipment can not only save time and
 labor---it can save your back!
Rollers, wheelbarrows, carts, dollies, and
 rolling tables and scaffolds can be used to
 handle material efficiently and reduce the risk
 of back injury.
  WORK TECHNIQUES
Benches
 For bench work the right height is vital to
  reduce the risk of back injury or pain.
  Ideally the bench (work surface) should
  keep the work between waist and shoulder
  height.
Tools
 Choose the proper tools for the job and
  repair or discard badly worn or damaged
  tools.
 Never use cheater bars for extra leverage
  on a wrench. Use the right length of
  wrench.
            DIPLOMA
94


     ERGONOMICS TRAINING

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