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					            PERMANENT COUNCIL OF THE                                           OEA/Ser. G
         ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES                                       CP/CSH-830/07
                                                                               2 March 2007
       COMMITTEE ON HEMISPHERIC SECURITY                                       Original: Spanish

Meeting to Review Progress by
Member States in implementing the
Declaration on Security in the Americas
March 20, 2007
Washington, D.C.




        REPORT ON MEASURES AND ACTIVITIES RELATED TO THE IMPLEMENTATION
                 OF THE DECLARATION ON SECURITY IN THE AMERICAS

                             (Presented by the Inter-American Defense Board)
                 ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
                  INTER-AMERICAN DEFENSE BOARD

     REPORT OF THE IADB ON THE REVIEW OF PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTING
             THE DECLARATION ON SECURITY IN THE AMERICAS


                              CONTENTS


1.   BACKGROUND

2.   CLAUSES OF THE DECLARATION ON SECURITY IN THE AMERICAS THAT
     CONCERN THE IADB

     a.   CONNECTED WITH CONFIDENCE- AND SECURITY-BUILDING
          MEASURES (CSBMS)

     b.   CONNECTED WITH ANTI-PERSONNESL LANDMINES

     c.   CONNECTED WITH TRAINING IN HEMISPHERIC SECURITY

     d.   CONNECTED WITH TRAINING IN MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISSUES

          1)    ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN FIREARMS, AMMUNITION, EXPLOSIVES,
                AND OTHER MATERIALS
          2)    DESTRUCTION OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION
          3)    NATURAL DISASTERS

     e.   CONNECTED WITH INSTITUTIONS

3.   ACTIVITIES CONNECTED WITH:

     a.   CONFIDENCE- AND SECURITY-BUILDING MEASURES

     b.   ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES

     c.   TRAINING IN DEFENSE AND HEMISPHERIC SECURITY

     d.   MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISSUES

          1)    ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN FIREARMS, AMMUNITION, EXPLOSIVES,
                AND OTHER MATERIALS
          2)    DESTRUCTION OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION
          3)    NATURAL DISASTERS

     e.   INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF THE IADB
1.      BACKGROUND

         In June 2003, the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) contributed to the examination of
new approaches to the threats and challenges to peace and security in the Hemisphere. In that
context the IADB prepared document T-863-S of June 2003, the purpose of which was to provide
advice to the OAS on the efforts it has been pursuing in the identification, classification, and
definition of new security and defense challenges to the inter-American system that threaten the
values and principles that underpin hemispheric security.

        In October 2003, the Special Conference on Security was held in Mexico and gave rise to the
"Declaration on Security in the Americas," which ushered in a new concept on hemispheric
Security and expanded the traditional vision through the inclusion of political, social, health, and
environmental aspects. The Declaration observes that the security of the Hemisphere is affected in
different ways by traditional and new threats, as well as other challenges of a diverse nature.

        This diverse nature has meant that the concept of security in the Hemisphere has acquired a
“multidimensional” scope and tackling these threats requires the cooperation of the specialized fora
of the OAS, as well as other inter-American and international fora, based on applicable instruments
and mechanisms.

         Today, the Inter-American Defense Board, as an entity of the OAS, is in a stronger position
to meet these different threats and help member states to take steps to consolidate peace and stability
in the region.


2.      CLAUSES OF THE DECLARATION ON SECURITY IN THE AMERICAS THAT
        CONCERN THE IADB

        a.      CONNECTED WITH                CONFIDENCE-          AND      SECURITY-BUILDING
                MEASURES (CSBMs)

        15. We reaffirm our commitment to continue to strive to limit military spending while
        maintaining capabilities commensurate with our legitimate defense and security needs and
        fostering transparency in arms acquisitions. Continued implementation of confidence- and
        security-building measures is conducive to the creation of a favorable environment for this
        purpose.

        17. We reiterate that, as stated in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador and the
        Consensus of Miami, confidence- and security-building measures increase transparency and
        understanding among the states of the Hemisphere and directly bolster regional stability. We
        affirm that the implementation and further development of confidence- and security-building
        measures, within the constitutional framework of each state, contribute to peace in the
        Hemisphere. We will build mutual confidence by implementing, as appropriate, confidence-
        and security-building measures identified in the aforementioned instruments and those
        established under bilateral and multilateral instruments and other arrangements.
                                        -2-


51. We recommend that, periodically, the Committee on Hemispheric Security meet as the
“Forum for Confidence- and Security-Building Measures” in order to review and
evaluate existing confidence- and security-building measures and, if appropriate, consider
new measures that will make it possible to ensure progress in this area.

b.      CONNECTED WITH ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES

20. We reaffirm our support for establishing the Hemisphere as an anti-personnel-landmine-
free zone. We welcome the cooperative approach and efforts of all states as well as those of
the Organization of American States Mine Action Team to support humanitarian de-mining,
mine risk education, landmine victim assistance and rehabilitation, and socio-economic
recovery. We highlight the importance of the Ottawa Convention and its universalization and
support State Parties to this Convention in their efforts to implement it to rid their territories
of anti-personnel landmines.

c.      CONNECTED WITH TRAINING IN HEMISPHERIC SECURITY

21. We recognize that our Hemisphere is in a position to contribute to global peace and
security and, with this in mind, we agree to collaborate on training and organization for
peacekeeping missions, so that each state, according to its capabilities and should its
domestic legal system permit, may participate in operations of this sort conducted by the
United Nations.

32. We underscore the role of education for peace and the strengthening of democracy in
our Hemisphere as a region where tolerance, dialogue, and mutual respect prevail as
peaceful forms of coexistence. We recommend that both in each state and in the
corresponding inter-American instances, particularly the Inter-American Education
Committee, actions be taken to promote democratic culture in keeping with the provisions of
the Inter-American Democratic Charter.

33. We agree, in the context of our commitment to a democratic culture, to strengthen civil
society participation in considering, developing, and implementing multidimensional
approaches to security.

d.      CONNECTED WITH TRAINING MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISSUES

1)      ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN FIREARMS, AMMUNITION, EXPLOSIVES,
        AND OTHER MATERIALS

28. We are convinced that the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms,
ammunition, explosives, and related materials are a threat to hemispheric security and,
when these are used by terrorists and criminals, undermines the rule of law, breeds violence
and, in some cases, impunity, exacerbates conflicts, and represents a serious threat to human
security. We reiterate the need for effective cooperation to prevent, combat, and eradicate
this threat and we recognize the value of the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit
                                       -3-


Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related
Materials (CIFTA).

2)      DESTRUCTION OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION

29. We shall combat the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, ammunition,
explosives, and other related materials by, among other actions, destroying excess stocks of
firearms designated by each State, securing and managing national stockpiles, and regulating
firearms brokering, including sanctions for illicit arms brokering for the purpose of avoiding
their diversion through illicit channels and their proliferation. Likewise, we shall strengthen
efforts at bilateral and multilateral cooperation and, in particular, coordination and
cooperation among the Consultative Committee of the CIFTA, CICAD, CICTE and the
United Nations.

3)      NATURAL DISASTERS

39. We express our concern over natural and man-made disasters that afflict states of the
Hemisphere and cause greater devastation in the most vulnerable states that have not yet
developed adequate prevention and mitigation capabilities. We pledge to strengthen the
existing inter-American mechanisms and develop new cooperation mechanisms to improve
and broaden the region‟s response capability in preventing and mitigating the effects of these
disasters. We will effectively and swiftly address natural disasters by strengthening existing
bilateral, subregional, and multilateral actions and institutions, such as the Inter-American
Committee for Natural Disaster Reduction and, when possible, using technology and
scientific resources to prevent their occurrence, as well as taking adaptive measures to
mitigate their effects in order to avoid or reduce damage to the environment, productive and
critical infrastructure our heritage, and, most importantly, our peoples.

e.      CONNECTED WITH INSTITUTIONS

49. We reiterate the need to clarify the juridical and institutional relationship between the
Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) and the OAS. Thus, we recommend that the
Permanent Council, through the Committee on Hemispheric Security, taking into account
what is stated in Article 54, subparagraphs (a) and (b) of the OAS Charter and in accordance
with the criteria set forth in the General Assembly resolutions on this matter, in particular
resolution AG/RES. 1240 (XXIII-O/93) -- “advice and the delivery of consultancy services
of a technical-military character which in no case may have an operational nature”--;
resolution AG/RES. 1848 (XXXII-O/02) -- “including the principle of civilian oversight and
the democratic formation of its authorities”--; and AG/RES. 1908 (XXXII-O/02) and
AG/RES. 1940 (XXXIII-O/03) -- “to provide the OAS with technical, advisory, and
educational expertise on defense and security issues”--, complete the analysis of the
relationship between the IADB with the OAS and that it submit recommendations to the
thirty-fourth regular session of the General Assembly so that it can determine the norms that
govern that relationship and the mandate of the IADB. The Permanent Council through the
Committee on Hemispheric Security will maintain regular contact with the authorities of the
IADB for the purposes of this paragraph.
                                             -4-


3.   ACTIVITIES CONNECTED WITH:

     a.      CONFIDENCE- AND SECURITY-BUILDING MEASURES (CSBMs)

     In recent years fundamental events and transformations have occurred in the international
     and regional contexts, which have facilitated increased cooperation and contributed to the
     strengthening of collective measures for the benefit of peace and security in the Hemisphere.
     Moreover, with the Declaration on Security in the Americas, the countries of the Hemisphere
     have opted for a multidimensional approach that has led to transparent policies and specific
     tasks of a bilateral, regional, and hemispheric nature, which, at the same time, mirror the
     commitment to search for peaceful solutions to disputes and conflicts; as well as introducing
     methods and mechanisms designed to generate confidence in defense and security policies.

     Confidence and security building measures (CSBMs) in the inter-American framework are,
     therefore, particularly important in as much as they are a mechanism to attain the objectives
     for contributing to the security and stability of states by dispelling distrust and hostility in
     areas where threats may still exist. For that reason they must be voluntary, transparent, and
     seek to create a more secure climate of mutual cooperation.

     In this context, and in keeping with clauses 15, 17, and 51, which concern the IADB, the
     following activities have been carried out:

     1)      With respect to Clause 15, regarding transparency in arms acquisitions and military
             spending as the continuous implementation of confidence- and security-building
             measures, the IADB prepared a study entitled "Limitation of Military Spending and
             the Promotion of Greater Transparency in Conventional Arms Acquisition –
             Summary of documents in the possession of the OAS, UN and other organizations.
             Suggestions.” This study was submitted as document JID S-2911 to the General
             Secretariat of the OAS, and presented and distributed at the Meeting on Limitation
             of Military Spending and the Promotion of Greater Transparency in the Acquisition
             of Arms held at the headquarters of the OAS in December 1, 2006.

     2)      The following activities have been carried out under Clause 17, regarding the
             CSBMs expressed in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador and the
             Consensus of Miami; and under Clause 51, which recommends “that, periodically,
             the Committee on Hemispheric Security meet as the „Forum for Confidence- and
             Security-Building Measures‟ in order to review and evaluate existing confidence-
             and security-building measures and, if appropriate, consider new measures that will
             make it possible to ensure progress in this area”:

             -       In December 2003, the IADB prepared the Consolidated Report on
                     Implementation of CSBMs by the Countries of the American Hemisphere in
                     2000, 2001, and 2002.

             -       August 2004 saw the preparation and presentation to the OAS of the Update
                     of Inventory of the Confidence- and Security-Building Measures applied in
                          -5-


    2003 by the States of the American Hemisphere and in other regions of the
    world. The two reports were submitted to the General Secretariat of the
    OAS as document JID T-874-S.

-   In October 2004 the IADB prepared a Compendium of Documents on
    Policies and Doctrines of Defense (White Papers) in order to present an
    overview of the current status of the white papers under preparation by the
    member states.

-   The IADB participated as observer and speaker in the First Meeting of the
    Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures held by the
    Committee on Hemispheric Security on April 25 and 26, 2005. The paper
    presented and distributed at the meeting was the Update of the Inventory of
    the Confidence- and Security-Building Measures applied in 2003 by the
    States of the American Hemisphere and in other regions of the world, which
    had been previously submitted to the OAS General Secretariat as document
    JID T-874-S.

-   In December 2005 the IADB updated the inventory of CSBMs implemented
    in the Hemisphere in 2004, based on reports provided by the member states.
    It also prepared an update of the inventory of CSBMs implemented in other
    regions of the world. Both reports were submitted to the General Secretariat
    of the OAS as document C-3183-S with a view to their presentation to the
    Committee on Hemispheric Security in due course.

-   The IADB participated actively as observer and speaker in the Second
    Meeting of the Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures
    organized by the Committee on Hemispheric Security from November 29 to
    December 1, 2006. As a speaker it presented the Inventory of CSBMs
    Implemented in the Hemisphere in 2004 based on the reports of eight
    member states, together with an updated inventory of CSBMs implemented
    in other regions of the world. The two reports were submitted to the OAS
    General Secretariat as document JID S-2903, which was presented and
    distributed at the meeting.

-   A comparative study was made of all the CSBMs contained in the three
    documents with a view to proposing the unification of CSBMs to the OAS.
    This study was submitted as document JID S-2908 “Review of the
    Implementation of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs)
    in the Region (Unification of CSBMs)”, to the General Secretariat of the
    OAS and was presented and distributed at the Second Meeting of the Forum
    on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures in November 2006. This
    review was carried out in preparation for the High-Level Meeting on
    CSBMs to be held in the framework of the OAS in 2008.
                                       -6-


        In a separate context, it should be mentioned that the IADB was represented by its
        Chairman at the Sixth and Seventh Conferences of Ministers of Defense of the
        Americas, held in Quito, Ecuador, and Managua, Nicaragua, in 2004 and 2006,
        respectively. At the latter meeting discussions were held with the Ministers of
        Defense and they were informed about the modernization of the Board and its
        readiness to cooperate with the member states and with the OAS in the framework of
        the new statutes. The occasion also saw the approval of a proposal to examine the
        creation of a permanent organ to follow up on Conference initiatives. Furthermore,
        a motion was passed in recognition of the successful efforts of the OAS and the
        IADB in the area of humanitarian demining.

b.      ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES

The Inter-American Defense Board (IADB), through its Humanitarian Demining Division
and in direct coordination with the OAS, has implemented the following measures and
activities:

The IADB has oriented and maintained international personnel in its Humanitarian
Demining Division, which has as its chief assigned function the coordination of the presence
of military personnel with the appropriate technical, administrative, and managerial expertise
in the different humanitarian demining missions of the OAS, in order to provide training and
certify the monitoring of clearance operations in accordance with international standards.
This function is carried out to support implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition
of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their
Destruction of 1997, known as the Ottawa Convention, as well as in support of the
Declaration on Security in the Americas of 2003. The Division performs its activities in
accordance with the policies and resolutions that emanate from the OAS, the supervising
organization for humanitarian demining programs; pursuant to the requirements specified by
the national authorities in each recipient country; in keeping with international standards;
and in line with the capacities of each defense entity represented on the IADB.

Since their inception, activities in support of humanitarian demining programs have been
intense. We draw attention to the work of the Assistance Mission for Mine Clearance in
Central America (MARMINCA), which has its headquarters in Managua, Nicaragua; the
mine clearance operations in Suriname; the work of the Assistance Mission for Mine
Clearance in South America, headquartered in Quito, Ecuador; and the creation of a Group
of Inter-American Monitors in Bogota, Colombia.

The IADB coordinated and organized the military monitoring personnel to establish
MARMINAS in Quito, Ecuador in May 2003. Since then, the IADB has been coordinating
training and capacity building activities for national deminers and international monitors to
carry out clearance work in Loja and Oro provinces. At present, monitoring continues of the
efforts to remove mines in the Cordillera del Condor on both Ecuadorian and Peruvian
sides of this border region.
                                      -7-


In June 2004, Honduras was declared landmine-free thanks to the efforts of national
agencies, the international community, and the OAS program in Central America, to which
the IADB provided support through the deployment of 124 international military monitors
over the 10-year period for which MARMINCA operated in that country.

From February to April 2005, the IADB adopted measures in response to the request from
the OAS to provide technical assistance for the clearance of the last minefield in Suriname,
specifically in the community of Stolkertsijver, Comewijne District. This support provided
by the IADB to the Program for Comprehensive Action against Antipersonnel Mines
(AICMA) of the OAS, enabled the government of Suriname to complete its obligations
under the Ottawa Convention and, subsequently, to declare the country landmine-free.

On December 15, 2005, the IADB took part in the official ceremonies to declare Guatemala
landmine-free. The removal of mines and explosive devices in Guatemala, monitored by
international military personnel under MARMINCA, made it possible to discharge the
guarantees for the resettlement of communities and so contribute to the fulfilment of the
“Agreement on Resettlement of the Population Groups Uprooted by the Armed Conflict” in
the framework of the Peace Agreements.

The Group of Inter-American Monitors was created on March 1, 2006, to provide support,
along with the AICMA program of the OAS, for the national demining plan in Colombia.
Before that date, these activities counted on the assistance of two officers from Honduras
under MARMINAS, and one officer from Nicaragua. The activities carried out by the
Group of Inter-American Monitors were initially of an administrative and preparatory nature,
to provide training and capacity building in the area of humanitarian demining for national
personnel in keeping with the Demining Protocol of the Republic of Colombia.

After one year of work, the Group of Inter-American Monitors has provided training to
Colombian personnel to carry out programmed clearance operations and to respond to
humanitarian emergencies caused by mines. The group has also monitored the clearance of
two minefields and is currently at work on a third.

Despite its limited budget but motivated by the conviction that its efforts contribute to
security in the Americas and the well-being of the population, the IADB continues to
implement measures and activities in the area of humanitarian demining to support the
Dclaration on Security in the Americas. It is a source of pride that the efforts of the IADB
since 2003 to support implementation of the Declaration on Security in the Americas have
made a direct contribution in enabling three countries in Central America to declare
themselves landmine-free (Honduras, Guatemala and Suriname), and three other countries
in South America (Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia) to benefit from its monitoring of their
national programs. To that end, the IADB will continue to assign personnel to its
Humanitarian Demining Division in order to operate under the appropriate guidelines and
directives.
                                        -8-


c.      TRAINING IN HEMISPHERIC SECURITY

In the area of education, the Inter-American Defense College (IADC), with regard to the
commitment to revitalize and strengthen the organs, institutions, and mechanisms of the
inter-American system related to the various aspects of hemispheric security within their
areas of competence, has taken the following steps to improve the capacity of member states
to tackle traditional and new threats, concerns, and other security challenges in the
Hemisphere:

The College completed its 45th Advanced Course on Hemispheric Defense and Security for
senior military officers, civilian officials, and security personnel. This is a very high level,
non-operational, political-strategic course that imparts broad expertise in the areas of
International Relations, the inter-American system, International Instruments and
Institutional Leadership, Civilian-Military Relations, the Media and the Military, Analysis of
the Global and Hemispheric Scenarios, Peacekeeping Operations, Complex Emergencies and
Disasters, the Art of Negotiation, Crisis Management and Conflict Resolution, Armed
Forces Transformation, Defense and Security Policies, Scientific Research Techniques,
Strategic Information, and Threats, Concerns and Other Challenges to Hemispheric Security.

This course is geared to senior-level military and civilian officials who go on to hold high
government positions in their countries and delivers expertise and analysis tools that help
member states to improve their capacities for tackling threats, concerns and other challenges
to hemispheric security.

One very significant aspect is the increased participation of students in the optional Master‟s
programs offered in cooperation with American University and Universidad del Salvador,
which translates into an optimum skills acquisition at the higher education level that benefits
the students as well as the countries who make use of the academic services provided by the
Inter-American Defense College.

The curriculum changes at the IADC have been welcomed with satisfaction by the
diplomatic missions of several countries to the OAS, and the opportunity has arisen to design
a special two-day workshop on the Inter-American system geared to diplomatic staff at the
Permanent Mission of El Salvador to the OAS. This workshop, which is a pilot project,
reflects the desire of the IADC to respond in a proactive way to requests for educational
support from the member states and other OAS entities, in keeping with the College's
mission and legal functions.

The IADC curriculum covers the threats, concerns, and challenges to hemispheric security
already identified by the OAS General Assembly in Mexico, in 2003, and addresses both
broad and specific issues, examining first the global scenario and then the hemispheric
scenario. Furthermore, information that was previously scattered has now been brought
together in four seminars designed for countries unable to send students on the annual
course.
                                      -9-


The course has also succeeded in attracting more civilian and security officials, as well as
including seminars on specific themes during study trips.

One very significant accomplishment has been to renew certification of the curriculum by
the American Council on Education, the organization that reviews institutes of advanced
studies in the United States, which means that graduates receive postgraduate-level
recognition for 12 hours per semester in International Relations, Comparative Policy,
Intercultural Communication/Negotiation and Leadership Studies, respectively.

The IADC has become an academic institution whose evolution is closely followed by high-
ranking national dignitaries and other institutes of advanced studies and war colleges in the
Hemisphere, as evinced by the distinguished visitors the College frequently receives, most
notably the Secretary General of the OAS and the Minister of Defense of Spain as well as
representatives from the Air War College of Brazil, the Military College for Strategic
Studies and the Institute of Advanced Military Studies of the Dominican Republic, the Army
War College and the Institute of Advanced Military Studies of Uruguay, the National War
College of Argentina, the Center for National Defense Studies of Guatemala, and the
National War College of Chile.

Finally, it would be timely to draw attention to the academic results of the students of the
IADC, in particular the academic research projects mentioned in Annexes 1 and 2, which
are closely connected with the multidimensional issues that affect hemispheric security.

d.      MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISSUES

        1)      ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN FIREARMS,                          AMMUNITION,
                EXPLOSIVES, AND OTHER MATERIALS

        With respect to Clause 28, firearms in the hands of terrorists and criminals
        constitute a threat to hemispheric security and undermine the rule of law. In this
        context and bearing in mind the comments of the Secretary General of the OAS on
        the issue of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), the Sub-Secretariat
        for Advisory Services of the IADB gave a presentation to the Council of Delegates
        and special guests to demonstrate the scope of the existing threat. Support also
        continued to be provided to the Committee on Hemispheric Security for the special
        meeting to be held on March 8, 2007, on “Effective Strategies to Mitigate the Threat
        Posed by the Use of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) by Non-State
        Actors”, at which a representative of the IADB will give a presentation on inventory
        management and stockpile control in connection with this threat.

        2)      DESTRUCTION OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION

        With respect to Clause 29 concerning the destruction of excess stocks of firearms,
        ammunition and explosives, the IADB works in support of the AICMA program of
        the OAS, which, among other fields of action, covers the “Destruction of explosive
        remnants of war, ammunition, and small arms” prompted by the fact that cached
                              - 10 -


conventional ammunition and explosives may represent a danger to nearby
communities, and that management and security measures at many government
depots are inadequate, which increases the risk of explosion, sabotage, and theft.

In respect of the latter, on June 8, 2004, the General Assembly of the Organization
of American States adopted resolution AG/RES. 1997 (XXXIV-O/04) on
Proliferation of and Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons, in which it
decides in operative paragraph 13 “[t]o request that the Inter-American Defense
Board, with the assistance of its College, prepare a handbook for the Member Sates
on best practices for identification, collection, management, security, and
destruction of stockpiles of small arms and light weapons, taking into account
similar activities in other regional fora, and submit it to the Permanent Council,
through the Committee on Hemispheric Security, in the first quarter of 2005.”

To that end, the IADB prepared a “Handbook on Small Arms and Light
Weapons” and placed it at the disposal of the member states. The Handbook
supplements the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and
Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials
(CIFTA), the Model Regulations for the Control of the International Movement of
Firearms, Their Parts and Components, and Ammunition prepared by CICAD.
These three documents constitute, for the member states, the core reference trilogy
for consultations on firearms.

In 2006, the IADB took part in the “Seminar on Management of Arms in Custody
and Destruction of Stockpiles” organized by the OAS and the Latin American
Faculty for Social Sciences (FLACSO), and held in Santiago, Chile. The subject of
the presentation given by the officer from the Sub-Secretariat for Advisory Services
of the IADB was the “Arms Storage Process and Destruction of Stockpiles:
Contribution of the IADB.”

As regards Destruction of Ammunition, the IADB supports the AICMA program in
its new area of action in the pilot project on “Elimination of explosive remnants of
war and ammunition.” In that connection, in February 2007, a member of the IADB,
along with OAS experts, provided assistance to Nicaragua in carrying out a technical
assessment and drawing up a timetable of activities to be carried out over the next
six months.

With respect to Destruction of Firearms, the OAS Mission to Colombia was
formed in December 2006 to support the activities of the Mission to Support the
Peace Process (MAPP) and plan with the Colombian authorities the destruction of
war weaponry and ammunition in the framework of the peace process that the
government undertook with the so-called self-defense groups, which surrendered
their arms nation-wide. A follow-up on the process is planned for mid-March 2007.
                              - 11 -


3)     NATURAL DISASTERS

In relation to Clause 39, concerning natural disasters, although the IADB does not
have an express mandate, it contributes through its participation and the technical
advisory services it supplies to the OAS, a summary of which is as follows:

2003

      Preparation of a "Compendium of Natural Disasters" to collect information
       contained in diverse documents from different organizations that tackle the
       challenges of natural disasters, in order to provide the Council of Delegates
       with guidelines to provide the OAS with the best possible advice.

      Preparation of a glossary of terms used in natural disasters

      Lessons learned to facilitate natural disaster management, 2003

      IADB guidelines on international search and rescue programs

2004

      Participation in the Fourth Annual Conference of the Global Disaster
       Information Network held in Washington, D.C. in March 2004

      Preparation of the “Manual on the Use of Armed Forces in Response to
       Natural Disasters in the American Hemisphere”

2005

      Participation in the Seminar on "Lessons Learned between Hurricanes" held
       in Washington, D.C. in March 2005.

      Compendium of documents on Lessons Learned by the Armed Forces in
       Natural Disaster Mitigation Measures

2005

      Participation in the First Meeting of the Inter-American Network for
       Disaster Mitigation held on December 3, 2006 at Santa Cruz de la Sierra,
       Bolivia. The IADB took part as rapporteur of the panel on “Contingency
       and humanitarian assistance preparedness and planning” and, based on these
       presentations, it was suggested that the IADB take part in this organization,
       bearing in mind its capacity for coordination with the Armed Forces in the
       countries of the Hemisphere.
                                      - 12 -


        By the same token, the Inter-American Defense College organizes an annual
        Seminar on Natural Disasters which makes a significant contribution by providing
        training for civilians and military personnel from different organizations in the
        Hemisphere, enabling them to assess and reach consensus on measures to be adopted
        by all agencies responsible for security.

e.      INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

Clause 49 concerns institutional matters, concretely the legal and institutional relationship
of the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) with the OAS.

The Inter-American Defense Board formally became an entity of the Organization of
American States (OAS) on March 15, 2006, following the adoption of its Statutes by the
thirty-second special session of the General Assembly of that hemispheric forum.

Since its establishment as an agency of the OAS there have been several changes to its
organization and rules of procedure, in order to align them with the new legal framework.
The main measures adopted as part of these changes include the following:

       Drafting of “Transitional Provisions” and their approval by the Council of
        Delegates of the IADB on May 30, 2006.

       Preparation of the new “Rules of Procedure of the IADB” provisionally adopted at
        the meeting of the Permanent Council on June 15, 2006, for one year as of that date.
        Those rules of procedure provide for a new organizational structure, which created
        the need for a transitional period that included an election process to select the
        present and future officers of the IADB.

       The Rules of Procedure of the IADB, regulations derived therefrom, and directives,
        rules, and/or standards produced during the transitional period entered into force
        provisionally; their definitive entry into force will require approval by the Council
        of Delegates, to be given at its regular meeting of June 2007.

       The Transitional Period runs from the entry into force of the new Statutes (March
        15, 2006) until the Rules of Procedure receive definitive approval, expected in
        June 2007. The approved document envisioned the following actions for the
        transition period:

               Adoption of the organizational structure established in the Statutes;
                organization of the new Secretariat under the director general;
                reorganization of the Inter-American Staff to assume the functions of the
                Sub-Secretariat for Advisory Services as of July 1, 2006.

               Election of the chair and the director general of the IADB, who would begin
                their terms on July 1, 2006.
                                     - 13 -


              Venezuela was confirmed as Director of the Sub-Secretariat for Advisory
               Services through July 2007.

              The United States was confirmed as Director of the Sub-Secretariat for
               Administrative and Conference Services through July 2007.

              Honduras was confirmed as Vice-Director of the Sub-Secretariat for
               Advisory Services through December 2007.

              Trinidad and Tobago was confirmed as Vice-Director of the Sub-Secretariat
               for Administrative and Conference Services through April 2007.

              The holders of the posts of Director of the IACD (United States), Vice-
               Director of the IACD (Argentina), and Chief of Studies of the IACD
               (Dominican Republic) will remain in those posts until the terms to which
               they were appointed have expired.

      The IADB proceeded with the elections for its new officers, who will take up their
       duties in June 2007. For that purpose, three electoral acts were held in June,
       September, and December 2006, and all the new officers were elected except for the
       Director of the College.

This legal relationship has made it possible to blend military technical expertise with the
political and diplomatic culture of the other OAS organs, brought together on the issues of
Defense and Hemispheric Security in the IADB's area of competence, which has led to
greater and more effective coordination of efforts between the two world‟s oldest agencies
(OAS and IADB), so that they can carry out programs and projects to confront the threats
that concern the member states.
                                                     - 15 -



                                                  ANNEX 1

                                           MASTER’S THESES, CLASS 45

                      THESIS                                                   AUTHOR
Las fuerzas armadas y la seguridad pública en casos       Lieutenant Colonel Fide! Mondragón Rivera (México)
de desastres naturales
Principais problemas da Amazônia Brasileira com           Colonel José Luiz Jaborandy Júnior (Brazil)
repercussao internacional - seus riscos para a
soberania do Brasil e para a segurança hemisférica
Establecimiento del tratado de libre comercio de las      Colonel Migdalia De Jesús (USA)
Américas y su papel en el fortalecimiento de la
seguridad hemisférica
Deuda Externa en América Latina: caso Venezuela           Colonel Jesús Antonio Alonzo Ramírez (Venezuela)
La aplicación de la sociología militar ante las           Lieutenant Colonel Walter Mauricio Arévalo Gavidia
amenazas y otros problemas estratégicos emergentes        (El Salvador)
de la sociedad democrática de El Salvador
El incremento de los índices delictivos en los países     Colonel Nelson Aníbal Arguello Rodríguez (Ecuador)
de la comunidad andina es pluricausal afectando a la
seguridad hemisférica
Aplicación de mecanismos de seguridad y defensa en        Captain Mario Alberto Bernal Torres (Colombia)
su crecimiento económico caso Colombia
Cambios en la profesión militar desde la perspectiva      Carolina Busco Ramírez, Sociologist (Chile)
de las operaciones internacionales
El narcotráfico el medio ambiente y la seguridad          Colonel Fernando Cárdenas Vélez (Colombia)
hemisférica consecuencias de la actividad ilegal del
narcotráfico en la estabilidad del medio ambiente
How can the International Community Promote               Minister Counselor Leon Charles (Haiti)
Security and Democracy in Haiti
Rol de las fuerzas armadas de los países de la            Commander César F. Cier Sáenz (Peru)
comunidad andina frente al narcotráfico y el terrorismo
Inserción del desarrollo alternativo a procesos de        Juan Carlos Duran Machicado (Bolivia)
globalización de los mercados: caso Bolivia
Las amenazas transnacionales en el mar: una forma         Captain Rigoberto Espinoza Posadas (Honduras)
cooperativa de enfrentarla en Centroamérica
El proceso desmovilización de los paramilitares: una      Colonel Oscar Gamboa Argüello (Colombia)
tensión entre la criminalidad y las políticas de la
seguridad ciudadana
Crisis petróleo y su impacto en la seguridad              General Hugo Rafael González Borrel (Dominican
hemisférica: caso República Dominicana                    Republic)
FARC y ELN organizaciones narcoterroristas agentes        Colonel Alonzo Emilio Herrán Martínez (Colombia)
de inseguridad hemisférica análisis de su presencia
en Internet
El campo espacial en el Perú: políticas espaciales que    Colonel Jorge Raúl Larrea Castellano (Peru)
sustenten, a largo plazo, el desarrollo de un pIan
espacial nacional
Empleo de la hidroestrategia en la cuenca Amazónica,      Captain Oscar Medardo Martínez Torres (Colombia)
como contribución a la derrota del narcoterrorismo
La interoperabilidad de los contingentes de la            Colonel Ismar Aldor Méndez (Guatemala)
conferencia de las fuerzas armadas centroamericanas
(CFAC) para su participación combinada en las
                                                      - 16 -


operaciones de paz de la ONU
Incidencia de la violencia de pandillas en la seguridad     Colonel Guillermo Moncaleano Arciniegas (Colombia)
nacional de los países del hemisferio

La arquitectura de la seguridad hemisférica: una            Guillermo Alfredo Pacheco Gaitán (Guatemala)
perspectiva a partir de la conferencia especial sobre
seguridad
El terrorismo biológico en Latinoamérica: un estudio        Colonel Héctor Julio Pachón Cañón (Colombia)
para la defensa y seguridad hemisférica
La globalización y su impacto en Centroamérica              Commander Julio César Pescina Avila (Mexico)
América Latina y el analfabetismo tecnológico en la         Colonel Carlos Humberto Ramos (Honduras)
era de la información
Las dimensiones de la seguridad hemisférica: el rol         Colonel Antonio Romanelli (Uruguay)
del sistema interamericano
El rol de la fuerza armada del Perú dentro del contexto     Carlos Javier Romero Van Bancels (Peru)
de la globalización
La relación entre la seguridad del hemisferio y la          Lieutenant Colonel Armando Mauricio Silva Espinosa
energía: perspectiva de la capacidad energética de la       (Ecuador)
región y sus consecuencias en el desarrollo y la
seguridad de los países del hemisferio
Identificación de los países latinoamericanos que           Commander Diego Ramiro Sosa Ocampo (Ecuador)
cuentan con las democracias mas estables de la
región y determinación de los factores comunes que lo
han permitido
La integración subregional frente a la integración          Minister Plenipotentiary Raúl Alejandro         Sosa
hemisférica: el MERCOSUR frente al ALCA                     (Argentina)
La desmovilización de grupos armados ilegales y la          Colonel José Enrique Tirado Vélez (Colombia)
seguridad hemisférica: caso colombiano
Vínculo grupo terrorista FARC con el narcotráfico en        Colonel Henry Vargas Balcazar (Colombia)
Colombia una amenaza a la seguridad hemisférica
Identificación de las tareas militares para enfrentar las   Colonel Gustavo Eduardo Villalba Oñate (Ecuador)
nuevas amenazas, preocupaciones y otros desafíos a
la seguridad de los estados del hemisferio
La seguridad aérea en los países de la cuenca               Colonel Tito Rolando Vintimilla Zea (Ecuador)
Amazónica
Delincuencia organizada transnacional y el uso de           Lieutenant Colonel Milton Gustavo Zárate Barreiros
armas de fuego. Nueva amenaza para la seguridad             (Ecuador)
hemisférica y sus desafíos para combatirla (caso
ecuatoriano)
Los gastos en defensa en los países sudamericanos           Captain Rafael Francisco Alberto Zariquiey Núñez
y su influencia en el ambiente de la seguridad y            (Peru)
defensa
La organización de los estados americanos,                  Commodore Atilio Victorio Zattara (Argentina)
expectativas y necesidades de continuidad para la
próxima década frente a las nuevas amenazas que
acosan aI hemisferio
                                                  - 17 -



                                               ANNEX 2

                                     MONOGRAPHS, CLASS 45

                     MONOGRAPH                                                    AUTHOR
China: An emerging superpower and its influence on           Lieutenant Colonel Acevedo, Deiby (USA)
Latin America. Ramifications for security in the
Western Hemisphere
Reducing the risk of natural disasters: through              Lieutenant Colonel L Bonano, Jaime (USA)
prevention/mitigation
Military support/assistance to civil authorities: Shifting   Lieutenant Colonel Concha, Abel (USA)
of civil-military relations as part of the fabric of
Western Hemisphere strategic culture
A troca multilateral de inteligéncía financeira no           Captain Dibo, Rodolfo Federico (Brazil)
combate ao crime organizado
The UN commander and the law of armed conflict               Colonel Fleury, Jean-Guy (Canada)
Multilateral cooperation: a new look at information          Lieutenant Colonel Garcia, Sarah L. (USA)
sharing
Como ha influido el derecho internacional publico            Colonel   Gómez,     Dagoberto           Antonio   Cabral
americano en el desarrollo de los estados de América         (Dominican Republic)
desde 1890 – 2005
Migración en el caribe (caso tensiones étnicas de la         Colonel Jiménez, Juan Manuel García (Dominican
migración haitiana hacia la Republica Dominicana             Republic)
Breaching the gap: modernization of the Inter-               Lieutenant Colonel Medeiros, Stephen A (USA)
American Defense College
Orígenes, ramificaciones y consecuencias del lavado          Lieutenant Colonel Medina-Lamela, Juan (USA)
de dinero y como este mal afecta la seguridad de
nuestro hemisferio
Conditions affecting innovation in Brazil and Mexico         Lieutenant Colonel Nugent, James (USA)
Amenazas no tradicionales: el narcotráfico una gran          Colonel Paulino, Carlos Rafael Rojas (Dominican
amenaza para la seguridad de! Caribe (caso                   Republic)
Republica Dominicana)
What role for the military in multidimensional security?     Colonel Peña, Paul (USA)
Cyberterrorism - a rising threat in the Western              Lieutenant Colonel Rodriguez, Carlos A. (USA)
Hemisphere
La seguridad marítima y el sistema Interamericano            Captain    Rodriguez,    Oscar     Mauricio        Berna!
                                                             (Colombia)
The relationship between transnational organized             Lieutenant Colonel Walker, William (USA)
crime, drug traffickers and terrorist groups in the
Western Hemisphere
Hurricane Katrina: Consequences and lessons learned          Mr. Ward, Robert (USA)
Forças armadas brasileiras na Amazônia: fator de             Colonel Zanetti, Maricio Joao (Brazil)
integraçao, desenvolvimento e segurança no contexto
regional
Western Hemisphere regionalization: the change is            Commander Zolla, Matthew (USA)
upon us




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