AUDIT AND TLC by mifei

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                                                                                     Robin Dissin Aufses
                                                                                     English Department
                                                                               J.F. Kennedy High School


Dear AP* English Language and Composition Teacher,
         At this busy time of year you are no doubt working, as I am, on a syllabus to submit
to the College Board AP audit. You are probably also deciding on a book to use next year. I
want to provide some help and reassurance for those of you who are interested in using our
book, The Language of Composition.
         When we began planning and writing The Language of Composition—well before the
College Board unveiled its audit plan—we knew we wanted it to be a book that a veteran or
novice AP teacher could depend on to create a solid, challenging, and interesting full-year
AP English Language and Composition course. The Language of Composition contains college-
level reading material and, with it, a wealth of instructional material and suggestions for
discussion, close reading, and writing. It is, in fact, a complete curriculum for an AP English
Language course, with a clear and accessible structure that you can rely on to create a
successful syllabus for your course. Its flexible features, approaches, and diverse readings will
help you tailor your syllabus to the unique qualities of your school and students.
         As you will see in the accompanying material, The Language of Composition fulfills all of
the English Language and Composition course requirements as outlined by the College
Board. For example, the AP English Language course must teach students to ―write in
several forms (e.g., narrative, expository, analytical, and argumentative essays) about a variety
of subjects (e.g., public policies, popular culture, personal experiences).‖ Here are two
writing assignments that fit the bill. Each is based on one of the book’s Central essays.


         1. After reading the first two chapters of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring, consider
         that it was written more than forty years ago. Write an essay explaining whether



*AP and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board, which
was not involved in the publication of and does not endorse this product.
        we should be optimistic or pessimistic in our attitude toward the preservation of
        the natural world. As you develop your essay, consider what has changed since
        Carson’s time in our approach toward the environment.
        2. After reading and discussing David Denby’s “High-School Confidential: Notes
        on Teen Movies,” write an essay answering Denby’s rhetorical questions: “Do
        genre films reflect reality? Or are they merely a set of conventions that refer to
        other films?” Use your own experiences and teen movies you have seen as
        evidence.



        Another requirement of the audit is that the AP English Language course must teach
students to ―analyze how graphics and visual images both relate to written texts and serve as
alternative forms of text themselves.‖ Each chapter in The Language of Composition has several
visual texts, and each is approached both rhetorically and in relation to other texts. For
example, as part of the study of Asher B. Durand’s painting Kindred Spirits, in which Thomas
Cole and William Cullen Bryant appear, we suggest that students close read and discuss the
painting, then read Bryant’s poem ―Thanatopsis‖ and consider how the painting illustrates
Bryant’s words.
        The newest course requirement is the teaching of research skills, particularly the
―ability to evaluate, use, and cite primary and secondary sources.‖ AP English Language
courses must assign projects such as the ―researched argument paper, which goes beyond
the parameters of a traditional research paper by asking students to present an argument of
their own that includes the analysis and synthesis of ideas from an array of sources.‖ We
dedicate one of our three opening chapters to the subject of synthesizing sources, and each
chapter of The Language of Composition includes a Conversation section in which students are
presented with a collection of sources to read, evaluate and then use to support an argument.
The assignment below is typical of how we ask students to research and synthesize sources:

        1. Read, study and synthesize the five texts in the Conversation on Television:
        “Watching TV Makes You Smarter,” “The Argument against TV,” “He Doesn’t Like
        to Watch,” TV Turnoff Week (detail from a poster), “Is Media Violence Free
        Speech?” (a debate). Use at least three of those sources, in addition to your own
        observations and experiences, to write an essay explaining whether you view
        television as beneficial or detrimental to society.
        Please take a look at the enclosed table. The first column states the curricular
requirements of the AP English Language course. The second column aligns the book’s
contents with the audit requirements, explaining how, for example, each chapter’s Grammar
as Rhetoric and Style section provides instruction on stylistic issues at the sentence level. The
next two columns present at least two assignments, lessons, or suggestions that fulfill each
AP English Language and Composition course requirement.
        As an experienced AP English teacher, I was deeply committed to writing a book
that I would use in my own classes. The Language of Composition’s three opening chapters—
with clear instructional material on Rhetoric, Close Reading, and Synthesizing Sources—and
its ten chapters of readings offer you the chance to create syllabi that will satisfy the
requirements of the AP audit. More important, because every year and every class is
different, they will be syllabi tailored to your professional requirements and the needs of
your special and ever-changing AP course.


Very truly yours,




Robin Dissin Aufses
 Using The Language of Composition to Satisfy the AP English Language and Composition Curricular Requirements

 Below is a list of the AP English Language and Composition curricular requirements, followed by a description of The Language of Composition’s approach to fulfilling that requirement, and
 then two sample assignments demonstrating the approach—one from Chapter 11, Pop Culture; and one from Chapter 12, Nature.



Audit Requirements                          The Language of Composition’s                       Chapter 11 Popular Culture                      Chapter 12 Nature
(from AP Central)                           Approach

1. ―The course teaches and requires         Suggestions for Writing that follow the             After reading and discussing David Denby’s      After reading the first two chapters of Rachel
students to write in several forms          central and classic essays, as well as at the end   ―High-School Confidential: Notes on Teen        Carson’s Silent Spring, consider that it was written
(e.g., narrative, expository, analytical,   of each chapter, call for writing in a range of     Movies,‖ write an essay answering Denby’s       more than forty years ago. Write an essay
and argumentative essays) about a           forms, from personal narratives to                  rhetorical questions: ―Do genre films reflect   explaining whether we should be optimistic or
variety of subjects (e.g., public           interpretative essays to researched arguments       reality? Or are they merely a set of            pessimistic in our attitude toward the preservation
policies, popular culture, personal         to reflections. These assignments often             conventions that refer to other films?‖ Use     of the natural world. As you develop your essay,
experience)‖                                include specific contexts, such as writing a        your own experiences and teen movies you        consider what has changed since Carson’s time in
                                            letter-to-the-editor regarding an                   have seen as evidence.                          our approach toward the environment.
                                            environmental problem in a local community.
2. ―The course requires students to         Suggestions for Writing include revision            Read student writer Emily Fine’s analysis of    After reading Daniel Glick’s essay ―GeoSigns: The
write essays that proceed through           strategies. Student Writing sections include        Mark Tansey’s painting The Innocent Eye Test.   Big Thaw‖ about climate change, read the Daniel
several stages or drafts, with revision     examples of more than one draft of the same         Answer question #3 by rewriting the essay’s     Glick on Writing interview in which he discusses
aided by teacher and peers.‖                essay.                                              introduction and conclusion using ―I.‖          revision. Consider the follow-up questions and
                                                                                                Work with a partner to discuss how this         choose one of Glick’s techniques to try the next
                                                                                                change strengthens or weakens the essay.        time you write.
3. ―The course requires students to         Suggestions for Writing after Central and           After reading Danyel Smith’s ―Dreaming in       Read Joyce Carol Oates’ ―Against Nature‖ and
write in informal contexts (e.g.,           Classic essays often include journal                America,‖ listen to an assortment of music by   write at least three journal entries of nature
imitation exercises, journal keeping,       assignments. Suggestions for Writing at the         the artists she mentions. Create a CD of the    memories. Compare your memories to the
collaborative writing, and in-class         end of each chapter include ideas for               music and write the liner notes.                memories Oates recounts.
responses) designed to help them            collaborative assignments. Grammar as
become increasingly aware of                Rhetoric and Style sections include imitation
themselves as writers and of the            exercises. The Writer on Writing interviews
techniques employed by the writers          include discussions of the writing process
they read.‖                                 with follow-up questions asking students to
                                            reflect upon (and write about) their own
                                            processes.
4. ―The course requires expository,         Readings range from the 17th to the 21st            Expository: After reading and discussing        Expository: After reading and discussing the first
analytical, and argumentative               century and include a wide range of genres          Mark Twain’s ―Corn-Pone Opinions,‖ find         two chapters of Silent Spring, consider Carson’s
writing assignments that are based          (e.g., letters, editorials, scientific writing,     examples of prose that are ornate and diffuse   statement: ―If the Bill of Rights contains no
on readings representing a wide             satire…) with writing suggestions that ask          and examples that are compact and simple.       guarantee that a citizen shall be secure against
variety of prose styles and genres.‖        students to explain and apply ideas from the        Write an essay in which you compare and         lethal poisons distributed either by private
                                            readings, to analyze the techniques and             contrast the effects of the two types of        individuals of by public officials, it is surely only
                                            strategies of the writers, to critique those        language.                                       because our forefathers, despite their considerable
                                            techniques and strategies, and to develop a                                                         wisdom and foresight, could conceive of no such
                                            position on issues raised by the writers or on      Analytic: After reading and discussing Brent    problem.‖ Write an essay explaining how the
                                            the issues themselves.                              Staples op-ed piece, ―Godzilla vs. the Giant    framers of the Constitution might protect the
                                                                                                Scissors: Cutting the Antiwar Heart out of a    environment if they were writing the Constitution
                                                                                         Classic,‖ write an essay in which you discuss   today.
                                                                                         Staples’ assumption that popular culture can
                                                                                         communicate an important message.               Analytic: After reading, annotating, and
                                                                                                                                         discussing the first three chapters of Emerson’s
                                                                                         Argumentative: After reading and discussing     ―Nature,‖ reread paragraphs one and two. In an
                                                                                         the selection from We Talk, You Listen, by      essay consider how Emerson uses comparisons
                                                                                         Vine DeLoria Jr., write an argumentative        and distinctions to characterize nature and how
                                                                                         essay in which you agree or disagree that the   the characterization helps him achieve his
                                                                                         use of Indian names and images for sports       purpose.
                                                                                         teams is unacceptable.
                                                                                                                                         Argumentative: After reading, annotating, and
                                                                                                                                         discussing the first three chapters of Emerson’s
                                                                                                                                         ―Nature,‖ consider this statement: ―The
                                                                                                                                         production of a work of art throws a light upon
                                                                                                                                         the mystery of humanity. A work of art is an
                                                                                                                                         abstract or epitome of the world.‖ Write an essay
                                                                                                                                         that supports, qualifies or refutes its assertion. Use
                                                                                                                                         evidence from your reading, as well as your own
                                                                                                                                         knowledge and experience to support your
                                                                                                                                         position.

5. ―The course requires nonfiction      The readings include classics such as ―Letter    Readings in Chapter 11:                         Readings in Chapter 12
readings (e.g., essays, journalism,     from Birmingham Jail,‖ ―Civil                     David Denby, ―High-School                      Rachel Carson, From Silent Spring
political writing, science writing,     Disobedience,‖ ―A Modest Proposal,‖ and              Confidential: Notes on Teen Movies‖          Ralph Waldo Emerson, From Nature
nature writing, autobiographies/        ―Politics and the English Language.‖ Classic      Mark Twain, ―Corn-Pone Opinions‖               Terry Tempest Williams, ―The Clan of the
biographies, diaries, history,          writers include Thomas Carlyle, Mark Twain,       Brent Staples, ―Godzilla vs. the Giant            One-Breasted Women‖
criticism) that are selected to give    Virginia Woolf, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.             Scissors: Cutting the Antiwar Heart Out      Chief Seattle, ―Message to President Franklin
students opportunities to identify      More contemporary readings by writers                of a Classic‖                                   Pierce‖
and explain an author’s use of          recognized for both their intellectual and
                                                                                          Vine DeLoria, ―We Talk, You Listen‖            Wendell Berry, ―An Entrance to the Woods‖
rhetorical strategies and techniques.   stylistic excellence, including Rachel Carson,
If fiction and poetry are also          David Denby, Gay Talese, Steven Pinker,           Danyel Smith, ―Dreaming America‖               Wangari Muta Maathai, ―2004 Nobel Peace
assigned, their main purpose should     Francine Prose, Chinua Achebe, Annie              Scott McCloud, From Show and Tell                 Prize Speech‖
be to help students understand how      Dillard, Richard Rodriguez, Amy Tan,                 (Graphic Essay)                              Joyce Carol Oates, ―Against Nature,‖
various effects are achieved by         Geoffrey Nunberg, Sven Birkerts, Jamaica          Teresa Wiltz, ―Popular Culture in the          Sarah Orne Jewett, ―A White Heron‖
writers’ linguistic and rhetorical      Kincaid, and Wole Soyinka – writers diverse          Aftermath of Sept.11 Is a Chorus                (Fiction)
choices.‖ (Note: The College Board      in viewpoint, background, ethnicity, and             without a Hook, Movie without an             William Wordsworth, ―The Tables Turned‖
does not mandate any particular         nationality.                                         Ending‖                                         (Poetry)
authors…)                                                                                 Hans Ostrom, ―Emily Dickinson and
                                        All classic and central essays have extensive        Elvis Presley in Heaven‖ (Poetry)
                                        questions that focus on rhetorical strategies     Nikki Giovanni ―Sanctuary: For Harry
                                        and techniques.                                      Potter the Movie‖ (Not-Quite-Poetry)

                                        Fiction and poetry included with each chapter
                                        contribute to the thematic complexity;
                                        questions focus on close reading of how the
                                        writers’ choices serve purpose, and achieve
                                        meaning and effect.
6. ―The course teaches students to          Every chapter has at least one visual –            After reading the selection from the graphic      After ―close reading‖ and discussing Kindred
analyze how graphics and visual             including photographs, magazine covers,            essay Show and Tell, by Scott McCloud, note       Spirits, a painting by Asher B. Durand, read
images both relate to written texts         paintings, sculpture, and visual display of        that he begins with a series of panels about a    William Cullen Bryant’s poem ―Thanatopsis‖ and
and serve as alternative forms of           quantitative data. Questions direct students to    boy demonstrating how his toy robot turns         consider how the painting illustrates Bryant’s
texts themselves.‖                          an understanding of these texts as visual          into an airplane. Though six of the panels        words.
                                            rhetoric.                                          have no words, the vignette appeals to both
                                                                                               pathos and ethos. Discuss how McCloud
                                                                                               accomplishes this; consider the words and
                                                                                               drawing separately first, and then together.

7. ―The course teaches research             Chapter 3 is a guide to the use and integration    Read, study and synthesize the five texts in      Read, study and synthesize the six texts in
skills, and in particular, the ability to   of sources in a student’s own argument.            Conversation: Focus on Television. Use at         Conversation: Focus on Climate Change. Use at
evaluate, use, and cite primary and                                                            least three of those sources, in addition to      least three of the sources to write an essay
secondary sources. The course               Each chapter includes a Conversation section       your own observations and experiences, to         explaining whether global warming is a scientific
assigns projects such as the                that provides students practice in developing      write an essay explaining whether you view        or political issue.
researched argument paper, which            a documented essay that presents their own         television as beneficial or detrimental to
goes beyond the parameters of a             viewpoint supported by the analysis and use        society.
traditional research paper by asking        of multiple sources.
students to present an argument of
their own that includes the analysis        In addition, Suggestions for Writing at the
and synthesis of ideas from an array        end of each chapter can be used as large-scale
of courses.‖                                synthesis projects drawing upon all of the
                                            readings in the chapter.

8. ―The AP teachers provides                a) Questions for each reading call attention       a) After studying the explanation and             a) Read the selection from Rachel Carson’s Silent
instruction and feedback on                 to the choices the writer makes at the word        examples of Modifiers in the Grammar as           Spring, and then respond to the following
students’ writing assignments, both         level, specifically as those choices appeal to a   Style and Rhetoric section, do exercise 5: look   question: Why does Carson call the problem a
before and after the students revise        specific audience.                                 at examples of authors’ skillful use of           ―train of disaster‖ (para. 23)? What is the effect of
their work, that help the students                                                             modifiers, both single words and phrases.         this metaphor?
develop these skills:                       Grammar as Rhetoric and Style specifically         Identify the modifier or modifiers in each and
                                            addresses using modifiers effectively; using       discuss their effect. Write a sentence or
a) ―A wide ranging vocabulary used          precise, direct, and active verbs; and using       passage of your own, emulating the author’s
appropriately and effectively…              concise diction.                                   technique.

b) ―A variety of sentence structures,       b) Questions for each reading focus on             b) In paragraph 2, of ―A White Heron,‖            b) After studying the explanation and examples of
including appropriate use of                stylistic issues at the sentence level.            Sarah Orne Jewett writes, ―The good woman         cumulative, periodic, and inverted sentences in the
subordination and coordination…                                                                suspected that Sylvia loitered occasionally on    Grammar as Rhetoric and Style section, do
                                            Grammar as Rhetoric and Style specifically         her own account; there never was such a           Exercise 5: Read the examples of sentences using
                                            addresses different sentence patterns              child for straying about out-of-doors since       unusual sentence patterns. Choose two or three
                                            including short sentences, coordination,           the world was made!‖ In terms of the voice,       and write your own sentences, using the examples
                                            subordination, cumulative and periodic             what is the relationship between the two          as models.
                                            sentences, inversion, and appositives.             clauses that make up this sentence?

                                            Suggestions for Writing and Grammar as
                                            Rhetoric and Style Exercises give students the
                                            opportunity to try out different sentence
                                            structures in their own work and consider the
                                            effect.
c) ―Logical organization, enhanced    c) Chapter 1 discusses the patterns of             c) Read David Denby’s ―Notes on Teen              c) Read ―The Clan of One-Breasted Women,‖ by
by specific techniques to increase    development as rhetorical strategies for           Movies,‖ and then respond to the following        Terry Tempest Williams. Why does Williams put a
coherence, such as repetition,        organizing an argument.                            question: What is Denby’s central argument?       section break between paragraphs 29 and 30? Why
transitions, and emphasis…                                                               What are his secondary arguments? How             is there no smooth transition from the Supreme
                                      Questions for Discussion, Questions on             does he bring them together?                      Court case to Mormon culture?
                                      Rhetoric and Style, and Exploring the Text
                                      questions ask students to examine the
                                      organization of readings as well as ways the
                                      writer achieves a desired purpose and effect
                                      through repetition, transitional words and
                                      phrases, and devices for emphasis (e.g.,
                                      anaphora, sentence fragments, analogy).

                                      Student Writing sections often ask students
                                      to revise the student paper by improving
                                      organization and coherence.
d) ―a balance of generalization and   d) Chapter 3 includes a discussion of              d) In ―You Talk, We Listen,‖ Vine Deloria Jr.     d) In the selection from Silent Spring, why doesn’t
specific illustrative detail…         different types of specific detail students can    introduces his subject by reviewing the           Carson mention her ―contention‖ until she is
                                      use in their own writing.                          stereotyping of minorities in the films of the    nearly finished with the piece? Is her argument
                                                                                         1940s and 1950s. How does this lay the            inductive or deductive? How do you know? Also,
                                      Questions following each of the readings           groundwork for his argument? Why is this          why does she tell the reader what her
                                      guide students as they explore ways writers        rhetorical strategy effective?                    ―contentions‖ aren’t before stating what they are?
                                      support generalizations with different types                                                         What response from her readers might she
                                      of specific detail (such as anecdote, facts,                                                         anticipate at this point in their reading?
                                      statistics, personal experience) or develop
                                      generalizations from concrete detail.
e) ―an effective use of rhetoric,     e) Chapter 1 presents an overview of rhetoric      e) Read Teresa Wiltz’s ―Popular Culture in        e) How do Carson’s tone, style, and purpose
including controlling tone,           and models effective use of rhetoric. Chapter      the Aftermath of Sept.11 …‖ The tone of the       change in paragraphs 9 and 10 of Silent Spring?
establishing and maintaining voice,   2 analyzes style, including tone, in the context   essay shifts several times. Find the transition   Why do they change? How does Carson’s voice
and achieving appropriate emphasis    of achieving a specific effect, meaning, and       points, and consider why Wiltz might have         change from ―A Fable for Tomorrow‖ to ―The
through diction and sentence          purpose. These chapters as well as                 shifted the tone at each spot.                    Obligation to Endure‖? How does the difference
structure.‖                           Suggestions for Writing throughout the text                                                          serve the writer’s rhetorical purpose?
                                      include opportunities for students to explore
                                      how their own writing might change as the
                                      context and audience changes. Throughout
                                      the text, questions and writing assignments
                                      emphasize the development and importance
                                      of tone.

								
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