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Bird Control and Reduction

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					Egyptian Civil Aviation Authority                                                    EAC 139-20




                                         Chapter 1

                                           General

1.1 HISTORY

1.1.1 Birds have been a potential hazard to aircraft since the beginning of air travel. Bird
strikes were a minor risk in the early days as there were few aircraft in the sky travelling at
relatively low speeds. Damage to aircraft was, therefore, limited to shattered windshields,
dented leading edges, and some damage to the fuselage. The cost of repairs was small and
aircraft operators and airport authorities accepted bird strikes as a normal hazard of flying.

1.1.2 In time, the speed of aircraft increased and engine noise levels dropped with the
development of newer generation turbine engines. Aircraft simply became too quick and
too quiet for birds to sense and avoid. Birds inadvertently became a serious threat to aircraft
safety as strikes became more frequent and more serious.

1.1.3 In one incident, for example, a Boeing-747 on take-off developed a violent vibration
in the number two engine. The compressor stalled and the engine shut down. The aircraft,
with 270 passengers aboard, made a smooth landing at a nearby airport. The carcass of a
Glaucous winged gull (Larus glaucescens) was found on the runway at the latter airport.
Also found were several pieces of metal. Upon inspection of the departure airport, guIl-type
remains were found along with an extensively damaged engine and wing parts. Damage
was estimated at U.S.$1.4 million. The examination of the bird remains, through the use of
electropherosis identification, confirmed that it was a Glaucous-winged gull.

1.1.4 Damage to aircraft inflicted by a bird strike is usually minor; however, some strikes
can cause aborted take-offs and precautionary landings and can result in a crash. For
instance, in one case a Herring gull (Larus argentatus)      was ingested by an engine on a
Boeing-737. The affected engine lost power at which point the pilot decided to abort the
take-off. The pilot applied the brakes at the last minute and tried to stop the aircraft. As a
result, the aircraft skidded off the runway and sank to a halt in a swampy area. Fifty-eight
passengers were evacuated. The costs of lifting the aircraft out of the mud and getting it
back into service were estimated at over U.S.$1.5 million.

1.1.5 The costs of down-time for inspection and repair of aircraft following bird damage, or
suspected bird damage, aborted flights, rescheduling of aircraft passengers and air cargo,
transfer of passengers to alternative means of transport, overnight accommodation at the
expense of the aircraft operator and the deleterious effects on schedules of connecting
flights can often be very significant and damaging to airline operating budgets and public
goodwill.

1.1.6 The ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS) provides analyses of bird strike
reports received from States. An analysis of over 35 000 bird strikes contained in IBIS
reveals the following:

- the total number of significant bird strikes (occurrence resulting in substantial damage to
aircraft, precautionary landing or aborted take-off, etc.) reported was 1 924 (or 5 per cent of
the strikes);




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    - 69 per cent of the strikes occur during daylight hours; while 15 per cent occur during night
    time with the remainder occurring at dawn and dusk;

    - 65 percent of the strikes involve a turbo fan (over 27 000 kg) aircraft classification;

    - 29 percent of the strikes occur during approach while a further 25 per cent occur during
    the take-off run phase;

    - 51 percent of strikes occur below 100 ft; and

    - In 92 percent of the strikes the pilots were not warned of bird activity.

    1.1.7 The analysis of bird strike data can reveal trends which will help airport authorities
    recognize areas of concern which should be addressed through a well managed bird control
    programme. The bird strike statistics can also be analyzed to determine those times of year
    or day when bird control is needed the most.




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                                     Chapter 2




                                    ( RESERVED )




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                                             Chapter 3

                      Roles and Responsibilities of a Control Programme

    3.1 GENERAL

    3.1.1 A good organizational structure can make dealing with bird strike hazards much
    simpler. It also makes policy implementation much easier. Effective wildlife control
    policies and programmes should be centrally administered by the national authority
    responsible for airports.

    3.2 THE ROLE OF HEADQUARTERS

    3.2.1 The authority responsible for airport operations should develop policies, standards
    and     guidelines in consultation with corresponding regional authorities and the national
    bird strike committee.

    3.2.2 All birds on the airport and in its vicinity are a threat to aircraft safety, but it is
    difficult to remove all birds from airports. The bird population can be reduced by biological
    and biotechnical provisions, especially by habitat management on the airport and in its
    vicinity. The development of such environmental programmes should be set at a national
    level, with site visits included in the responsibilities of headquarters to ensure that sites
    conform to the various national policies. Along with policy direction, headquarters should
    set up the national bird strike committee and be responsible for the development and
    implementation of training programmes for bird control.

    3.3 ROLE OF THE REGIONAL OFFICE

    3.3.1 Depending on the administrative situation, each regional office should act as an
    intermediary between headquarters and airport personnel. Weaknesses in a bird control
    programme may then be noted and improved upon. Maintaining contact between the
    responsible government department and the committees at the sites is important for
    fostering co-operation in the implementation of a local management plan.

    3.3.2 Long term activities such as building modifications, drainage and changes to
    vegetation will have to be planned and budgeted for as part of the planning process at the
    site. Recommendations for the development and implementation of control activities are
    identified at the site with assistance from the regional office.

    3.3.3 The regional offices can help direct airport resources where they are needed and             the
    effectiveness of bird control activities can be measured. The continued operation of               the
    wildlife control/environmental authorities co-ordinator, reporting procedures, and                 the
    wildlife control/environmental authorities committee will ensure that problems                     are
    identified and corrected.

    ROLE OF THE AIRPORT MANAGER

    3.4.1 Because of the importance of bird control, each airport manager is given the
    responsibility to take any action deemed necessary to implement this policy and minimize
    the bird strike rate at the airport. This includes the development and implementation of an
    airport wildlife control programme.
    3.4.2 Each airport is to implement a program tailored to conditions on the site, with
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assistance from headquarters, regional offices, or other outside agencies. The airport
manager should appoint an airport wildlife coordinator, bird hazard control officer and a
wildlife control committee (bird hazard control co-ordinating committee) which will
develop and implement the specific programme.

3.5 ROLE OF THE WILDLIFE CO-ORDINATOR AND THE AIRPORT
WILDLIFE CONTROL COMMITTEE

3.5.1 The wildlife control committee is to include those offices involved in bird control or
airport planning and operators that may affect bird control. This may include airport
maintenance, air traffic services, flight services, rescue and fire fighting services, security,
duty managers, marketing, planning, finance, etc. The committee must review strike reports
and daily activity records to determine effective control measures.

3.5.2 The airport wildlife co-ordinator should establish the responsibilities of the various
offices involved. The officer's responsibilities must permit the time required to co-ordinate
and be involved in bird control and reporting. The bird hazard co-ordinator at the site must
review strike reports, daily activity records and maintenance reports to determine the
requirement for short or long term control programmes. Proper cost-effective control
measures need proper reporting.

3.6 THE IMPORTANCE OF REPORTING

3.6.1 A good bird control programme depends upon goreporting. It is the basis of any bird
control programme. Data may come from bird sightings, maintenance problems, strikes,
and bird control activities. Reporting must also involve pilots and aircraft operators as well
as those at the site. Review of this data identifies problems at the site and may indicate the
effectiveness of current bird controls. The report of near-misses is important as well since it
can represent a situation as serious as an actual strike. The report of a near-miss indicates
the presence of birds in the area of operating aircraft. The concern that States have should
not be whether a strike occurred, but rather that birds are near operating aircraft.

3.6.2 Determination of the reporting procedure should be co-ordinated by one office so that
there is proper review. This procedure should be familiar to all airport personnel. All
reports should be directed to the wildlife control co-ordinator who forwards them to the
regional office or Headquarters.

3.6.3 Good reporting at the site reduces the airport's liability in the event of an aircraft
accident resulting from a significant bird strike. Proper reporting indicates that a bird
control programme is in place and that airport management takes action to reduce the
number of bird strikes at the site (see also Chapter 6).

3.6.4 Although reporting of bird strikes is done at national level, effective results are also
achieved through an international programme. An international programme permits
comparison of strike rates in different areas and also provides for information on a strike
incurred by an aircraft operator operating in a foreign State to be returned to that State. For
this purpose, ICAO has organized the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS). This
system consists of the report forms shown in Figures 3-1 and 3-2, computer storage of
strike reports and analysis of strike data.


3.6.5 Authorities are requested to report all bird strikes to aircraft, using the forms in
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    Figures 3-1 and 3-2. To implement a reporting system an office in the administration should
    be charged with the responsibility of distributing strike report forms, collecting completed
    forms and forwarding them to ECAA . The report form has been designed for reproduction,
    but it should be noted that the addresses to which the form is to be returned, as well as the
    address to which bird remains should be sent, need to be shown. A complete description of
    IBIS will be found in the Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS)
    (Doc 9332).




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                                    Figure 3-1. Bird Strike reporting form




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                      Figure 3-2. Supplementary Bird Strike reporting form




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                                         Chapter 4

                  How to Organize an Airport Bird Strike Control Programme

4.1 An integrated approach is necessary for a successful bird control programme. The
airport ground staff who operate the programme (at most airports) should ensure that all
parties involved in airport use are informed of operations. The concern for bird control
should be made aware to those in air traffic control (ATC), airport maintenance, planning,
finance, marketing, as well as aircraft operators.

4.2 Often ATC personnel will be responsible for requesting that ground staff clear certain
areas of the airport of birds. ATC must be kept up to date on the control initiatives in place.
All field personnel must be aware of the control programme and the techniques in use.
These people should be in contact with ATC so that if there is a problem on the field, they
can tell ATC about it and take appropriate action.

4.3 Those responsible for project planning and budgeting at the airport must realize the
importance and seriousness of the bird strike hazard. Planned projects must be carefuly
reviewed to ensure that they are not attractive to birds during and after construction. The
determination of crop types as well as the practice of grassland use by mowing or cutting is
important for projects involving agricultural leases of airport lands. Crops and land uses
attractive to birds should not be approved.

4.4 Financial personnel and project planners will, no doubt, find problems in assessing
costs and finding funds for specific projects. Balancing of expenditures with the need for
improved airport facilities can be a problem. This can cause delays in the implementation of
important wildlife control recommendations. It will soon become evident that while some
of the recommendations can occur very readily without additional funds or equipment,
others will require major modifications. It is therefore important that planning personnel be
informed regularly of the requirements for projects to reduce the attractiveness of the
airport to birds, and to stay abreast of work needed and changing conditions.

4.5 Finally, the aircraft operators should be informed of airport policy and operations
regarding birds and mammals. Aircraft operators may be able to offer their expertise and to
advise field personnel in control matters. Pilots should use landing lights on take-off and
approach as this may help to lower the risk of a bird strike. The aircraft operators should
stress the importance of notifying ATC of all bird strikes or near-misses. The aircraft
operators should also report all bird strikes through the ICAO bird strike reporting
programme.

4.6 In summary, a very integrated approach should evolve and develop to control birds at
airports. Field and ATC personnel must communicate to ensure proper control. Planning
and financial personnel at sites should ensure that planned projects do not attract birds and
compound the problem. The allocation of monies for bird control should be a regular
operating cost and procedure. Finally, aircraft operators using the airport facilities should
be aware of control procedures and should agree to assist.




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                                              Chapter 5

                                         Aircraft Operators

    5. 1 Different aircraft can be more at risk to bird strikes. As aircraft fly faster and more
    quietly, bird strikes become more of a problem. New generation aircraft with high by-pass
    engines seem more susceptible to damage.

    5.2 It is the responsibility of the aircraft operators to participate in the national wildlife
    control programmes since it is the aircraft and the travelling public that the airport
    authorities are protecting. Through the operating of wildlife control programmes, airport
    authorities are assisting in making air travel safer.

    5.3 The majority of bird strikes reported to ICAO are strikes to an airline-operated aircraft
    and, in some States, these airline strikes account for 90 per cent of all bird strikes. Airports
    however should not overlook the effect that bird strikes may have on the general aviation
    community as well since at some airports these represent the majority of the aircraft
    movements.

    5.4 In some cases, it is believed that an absence of bird strike reports is not due to strikes
    not occurring but is because fixed base aircraft operators, and the general aviation
    community, are failing to report them. Efforts to increase the involvement of the aircraft
    operators in bird strike reporting programmes will help increase reported strikes.




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                                               Chapter 6

                              Classification of Birds as a Potential Hazard

6.1 It is difficult to establish whether a species of bird is a hazard to aircraft. The way to do
this is to count the number of a certain species which is present and prevalent. The number
of birds which pass over the site during migration is also a factor as well as bird populations
and their movements in the area of the airport itself and in its vicinity. Bird species
inhabiting the open landscape are a greater hazard to aircraft than species living mostly in
woodland areas.

6.2 Any bird, even a small one, has the potential to cause major damage to an aircraft. The
larger the bird, the greater the damage is expected to be from a single strike There is also a
greater likelihood of a strike if there is a great number of birds of the same species. Birds
that fly at high altitudes are still a threat since their point of arrival or departure may be near
the airport site. Therefore, birds which represent a great threat to aircraft are large birds and
flocking birds, while large, flocking bird species are the greatest threat.

6.3 While it is difficult to drive all birds from an airport at all times, every reasonable effort
to do so is crucial. Any bird is a potential hazard. This is especially true as bird numbers
and bird size increase and as the faster and quieter new generation turbine-engine aircraft
become more numerous. Airport personnel and committee members must examine bird
strike records so that the determination of the high risk species at the site is possible.

6.4 The collection of all available statistics for the site is important, including bird strike
reports, type of aircraft, and number of aircraft movements. By analysing this data, the
determination of the bird species most hazardous will occur. The reporting of bird strikes
and the preparation of a summary of the reports must occur as well.

6.5 In a large portion of bird strike reports, there is no mention of the species. This is often
because no remains are found for identification. If a strike has occurred, the pilot can
usually give some idea of the size of the bird involved be it small (sparrow), medium (gull),
or large (goose). This information can assist in identifying the hazard. Identification of
birds by an ornithologist is possible from even quite small specimens of feather.
Universities and museums can usually assist in the identification of birds from the remains.
It is therefore important for pilots, airport ground staff, aircraft maintenance staff, etc. to
ensure that any remains, including feathers, are properly identified.




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                                              Chapter 7

                        Environment Management and Site Modification

    7. 1. Birds occur on airport property for a variety of reasons; however, they are usually
    attracted by such essentials to life as food, water and shelter, often to be found on or in the
    vicinity of an airport.

    7.2 Modifications to the airport environment can remove or limit the attractiveness of an
    airport to birds, thus eliminating a large part of the hazard. Environment management is
    integral to bird control as it offers effective, long-term measures for reducing the numbers
    of birds that will come to an airport. If direct action against birds is necessary it is usually
    because environment management has not yet been fully implemented or further measures
    are not cost effective.

    7.3 Before undertaking an actual programme of environment management, it is important to
    first carry out an ecological survey of the area so that the plan can deal with specific trouble
    areas. These areas will be directly related to the problem bird species at the site. Good
    reporting programmes can provide the basis for an ecological survey. From this,
    prioritization of activities or projects within the plan may then occur. There are many bird
    attractants that an environment management plan may control.

    FOOD

    7.4 It is difficult to remove all food sources for birds on airports. As grass is the common
    vegetation on an airport, grassland management has an important influence on food
    available to birds. All agricultural measures like mowing or hay making attract birds
    because of the disturbance of soil animals.

    7.5 Birds may enter airport lands in order to feed on mice, moles, earthworms, insects and
    spiders as well as on berries, seeds or agricultural crops. These sources of food are very
    attractive to a variety of birds. Chemicals may be used on airport lands to reduce the foods
    available to birds.

    7.6 Agriculture. Airport land that is not used for airport operations is often leased for
    agricultural production. This is done to generate revenue and minimize maintenance.
    However, because most agricultural crops, at some stage of their growth cycle, will attract
    birds, there is a need to understand which crops attract which bird species, when, and to
    what extent. Cultivation of airport lands will, no matter what the crop type, attract birds.

    7.7 Chemical spraying should, as far as allowed by national laws, be carried out at suitable
    intervals keeping in mind the type of grassland, plant species, animals, hydrological
    situation, ground water and environmental conditions.

    7.8 Refuse dumps. If a dump is in the vicinity of an airport, there may be a requirement to
    provide bird control at the dump site to reduce its attractiveness to birds. Whether or not a
    refuse dump attracts birds that are a potential threat to aircraft depends on the location of
    the dump in relation to the airport, the type of refuse, and the types of birds expected in the
    vicinity. Dumps which take only refuse such as building waste, with nothing to attract
    birds, will not be a hazard.


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7.9 It is desirable to bring about national and local legislation which will establish firm
procedures prohibiting the establishment of new dumps close to airports and provide for the
closure of existing ones if this can be proved to be necessary. It is suggested that dump
sites be no closer than 13 kin from airport property. The proper siting of dumps can reduce
any hazard they might create near airports. The opening of a dump even under strict control
in the immediate vicinity of an airport can create a hazard and therefore its location should
be carefully analysed by a group of specialists on bird problems.

7.10 Very few methods are available for preventing birds from feeding at refuse dumps.
Scaring techniques are of only limited value, and it is impossible to bury refuse sufficiently
rapidly to prevent birds gaining access to some of it. The only method likely to be
acceptable is to cover the tipping area by wires or a bird-proof net.

WATER

7.11 Surface water is attractive to birds, and on airport property it should appear as little as
possible. Pits or depressions filled with water should be drained and clogged waterways
should be cleared. By covering necessary water bodies, such as lagoons, with wires or
netting, birds are inhibited from landing.

7.12 Drainage ditches clog up with vegetation or eroded soil and the flow of water is
impeded. Insect and aquatic life flourish in clogged ditches. Clearing the ditches at regular
intervals is important. They should be graded so that the water will run off as rapidly as
possible and help keep them clear. Grass and other vegetation should be cut on the sloping
banks. Bank slopes of drainage ditches should permit mowing with conventional equipment
to reduce cover. Where practicable, the situation can be improved by replacing ditches with
buried drain pipes.

7.13 In the vicinity of airports, artificial and natural lakes increase the bird strike hazard
depending on the size and the shape of the lake, its trophological state and the surroundings.
In every case an ornithologist/biologist should evaluate the ecological conditions of the
whole vicinity as well as migration in the area, possibly by special radarornithological
studies. The bird strike hazard can be reduced if the lake is made smaller and the shores
steeper, and if fishing, hunting and water sports are forbidden. Filling a lake with soil or
covering the surface with wires and nets are two of the better solutions to the problem.

SHELTER

7.14 Birds often seek shelter on airport property, usually in hangars and in nooks of other
buildings. Birds also seek the open spaces on airport property for safety; this gives birds a
clear view of their surroundings in all directions. Nesting will usually occur about the
buildings on the airport, and it may also occur in shrubbery or forested areas or on the
ground.




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    7.15 Vegetation. Trees provide food, protection, and nesting sites for birds and serve as
    look-out perches for predatory birds. Trees should be cut back to at least 150 m from the
    runway or taxiway centre line. The prevalent species of tree or type of forest determine
    what kinds of birds will be attracted to an area. Woodland areas, for instance, attract few
    birds of the open landscape. Planting trees, shrubs and hedgerows may, therefore, reduce
    the bird strike hazard. It is important, however, to choose plant species that do not provide
    seeds or berries that attract birds or that provide ample shelter, roosting and nesting sites. It
    may be necessary to check with an expert for the ones best suited to the task. In every case
    the ecology of the area must be taken into account.

    7.16 Ground cover. Some form of grass is commonly used as ground cover at most
    airports and there has been discussion regarding the height at which the grass should be cut.
    The height will vary depending upon which type of bird is a problem. Most birds dangerous
    to aircraft prefer short grass; there is only a small percentage of bird species which prefer
    long grass, e.g. partridges, pheasants and some small birds with low weights.

    7.17 It is recommended that grass be maintained at a height of 20 cm or more. Gull-type
    birds often rest on short grass where they can see danger approaching; they also forage for
    food in short grass. By allowing grass to grow to a height of 20 cm or more, birds do not
    have good visibility and feeding is hindered. The only difference between the long and
    short grass technique is the way it is cut.

    7.18 It is possible to use special seed mixtures when planting new grassland areas .Such
    mixtures can limit the grass length to medium heights and the frequency of mowings can be
    reduced.

    7.19 The application of organic and inorganic fertilizers as well as compost materials
    should be reduced to the minimum so as to decelerate the growth of the grass and reduce
    the frequency of mowings required.




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                                         Chapter 8

                                     Dispersal Methods

8.1 GENERAL

8.1.1 After environmental modifications of the site are complete, the dispersal of birds from
the airport may still be necessary. There are various dispersal methods with varying levels
of success. Depending upon the situation at a particular site, many methods may have to be
used once one loses its effectiveness. In most cases it is effective to use a combination of
more than one method and by varying the approach used and the combination of scare
techniques, effectiveness can be increased. Continual harassment has been found to greatly
reduce the bird population on airports.

8.1.2 Once a method has been chosen, it is necessary to note the response of the birds to
dispersal. The success of the method is known immediately. Scare tactics can include
pyrotechnic devices, gas cannons, light and sound, chemicals, trapping and falconry.

8.2 AUDITORY DETERRENTS

8.2.1 Auditory deterrents include:

          a) gas cannons;

          b) pyrotechnics;

          c) distress calls;

          d) alarm calls; and

          e) calls of predators.

8.2.2 The above auditory deterrents include both natural and man-made sounds used to
disperse birds. Natural sounds that may be useful in dispersing birds include calls given by
birds when they are alarmed or in distress, and calls of predators. Man-made sounds may
include gunfire sounds produced by gas cannons or shell crackers, and abstract sounds
produced electronically. It is important to develop well devised strategies before using
scaring devices to avoid having panic stricken birds fly into aircraft during landing or take-
off operations.

8.2.3 Although auditory deterrents are extensively used to disperse birds from airports, and
can be effective, habituation is a problem. Habituation is the reduction of responsiveness to
loud noises that occurs when birds learn that there is no danger. Birds are less likely to
habituate to natural sounds that have meaning to them, such as calls of a flockmate in
distress or calls of a predator, however, habituation will occur even to these sounds. To
reduce this problem, the change in location of the sound source must be frequent, and the
killing of birds must occur to convince the others that the sound really is dangerous.
Auditory deterrents are more effective against occasional visitors or transient birds than
against resident birds.




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    8.3 VISUAL DETERRENTS
    .
    8.3.2 The effectiveness of visual deterrents has been assessed primarily in terms of
    reduction of damage to crops; however, the techniques may also work in an airport
    environment. Habituation is a problem with visual deterrents as well as with the auditory
    deterrents.

    8.3.3 Transient birds are more likely to be scared by visual deterrents since the chance to
    habituate to these tactics does not arise. The problem remains with resident birds that are
    attracted to the airport by its permanent features. A combination of visual and auditory
    deterrents (usually exploders) sometimes has increased effectiveness.

    8.4 BARRIERS

    8.4.1 Airports provide the necessities of life - food, water, and shelter - for many wildlife
    species. If a species cannot gain access to these necessities, they will be less likely to be a
    problem on airport property. Use of physical barriers to prevent access can be a permanent
    solution to a wildlife problem.

    8.4.2 Physical barriers that are useful against birds include several devices that prevent
    birds from roosting or nesting in or on buildings and ledges. Netting, for example, can
    prevent birds from nesting on buildings and may also prevent birds from feeding on crops
    on airport agricultural leases. Barrier systems work by deterring birds from landing rather
    than physically excluding them. This system consists of a grid of fine wires stretched above
    the surface of the feature, such as a ledge or a food or water source, that is attracting birds.
    Buildings and other structures designed to preclude the existence of convenient nesting or
    roosting places for birds, or using plastic or metal surface materials that prevent nesting are
    other examples of the use of barrier methods.

    8.5 LETHAL CHEMICALS

    8.5 Chemicals to kill birds fall into three categories:(1) acute toxicants which kill shortly
    after ingestion of a single lethal dose, (2) anticoagulants and decalcifers which usually
    require ingestion of several doses over a period of days, and (3) fumigants which suffocate
    burrowing animals and can also kill birds in confined areas.

    8.5.2 The most common methods to poison birds include:

               a) poison perches; and

               b) bait stations.

    8.5.3 It is to be noted that poisoning of birds is forbidden in some States, with the exception
    of the calamitious occurrence of pest birds.




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8.6 REPELLENT CHEMICALS

8.6.1 Chemicals may also be used to repel birds at some airports. The success of application
is controversial and dubious. In some States these repellents are forbidden by law. Most
often, chemicals are used to foul an area that a species of bird finds most attractive. By
spraying the area with certain chemicals, birds will stay away; however, certain chemicals
may only be successful on certain bird species. Once again, it is important to ensure that the
use of any chemical repellents be safe to the environment and to non-target species, and not
pollute runoff or nearby watersheds. There are two types of repellent chemicals, i.e. tactile
and behavioural.

8.6.2 TACTILE REPELLENTS

8.6.2.1 There are several kinds of chemical repellents that may be useful in bird control on
airports. The most common type for birds are tactile repellents which are sticky substances
that deter birds from roosting on ledges and other flat surfaces. Although application of the
repellent is fairly labour intensive, the treatment is effective for up to one year.

8.6.2.2 The most common commercial tactile repellents are:

          a) Tacky- Toes Bird Repellent Paste;

          b) Bird Tanglefoot,. and

          c) Shoo Bird Repellent Paste.

8.6.3 BEHAVIOURAL REPELLENTS

8.6.3.1 These repellents can cause visible symptoms of stress in birds. Unaffected members
of the flock are frightened by the behaviour of the affected individuals and disperse. The
chemical must be placed in bait and eaten by the birds. Avitrol is the most common
behavioural repellent.

8.7 THIRD-PARTY CHEMICALS

8.7.1 These chemicals eliminate bird attractants on airport property. It may include any
pesticide to control insects or mammals that birds eat, or any growth-inhibiting herbicide
for grass or defoliant to control weeds, seeds, or berries that birds enjoy. Third-party
chemicals should be used carefully and applied by trained personnel to ensure minimal
environmental disruption. In some States these chemicals are forbidden by law.

8.8 TRAPS

8.8.1 Traps can kill or capture birds alive for transport to a release area off the airport.
Since live-trapping is time consuming and costly, it is commonly used for protected species
or for species with a high public profile. Live trapping of birds that are not protected can
readily be undertaken by airport personnel. In some States all bird species are protected by
law and therefore trapping is allowed only on the basis of special regulations.

8.8.2 Trapping many species of wildlife requires knowledge of the animals' habits and skill
in placement of traps and use of baits. In many cases the knowledge and skill required are
fairly easy for airport staff to develop.
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    8.8.3 Traps that may be used for birds include:

               a) live traps; and

               b) raptor traps.


    8.9 MISCELLANEOUS TECHNIQUES

    8.9 There are other bird control techniques. Benomy and /or Kainite          can control the
    earthworm population on airport lands, especially along runways and taxiways. Ornitrol can
    reduce the fertility of birds and ultimately reduce the population. Methiocarb is a chemical
    applied on vegetation to deter birds from feeding, however high concentrations are
    necessary. In some States these chemicals are forbidden by law.

    8.9.2 Falconry is in use in some States. This involves the use of predatory birds such as
    falcons, hawks, or owls to drive birds away. The technique is considered highly expensive
    due to the planning, strategy, etc. required. In some States falconry is rejected as a bird
    control technique, usually because falcons and other raptors are threatened by extinction
    and it is not possible to breed them efficiently in captivity.

    8.9.3 Research in the area of dispersal of birds from an airport should continue, to ensure
    that the most up-to date dispersal and detection techniques are used. As present techniques
    become inadequate, new technologies should be available as suitable replacements. Policy
    makers should realize the importance of on-going research in this field and should allot
    funds accordingly.




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                                              Chapter 9

                               Staffing Airport Bird Control Programmes

9.1 The first consideration in a bird control programme should be to implement
environmental modifications make the airport unattractive to both birds and mammals.
Over time it will be most effective to apply a combination of environment management
programmes and special scaring techniques.

9.2 At some airports, birds may pose a problem only for a short period of time due to
migration or a temporary attraction at the airport. Agricultural activity, weather or food may
attract large numbers of birds that have to be scared off the airport until the attraction is
removed or goes away. This is usually for a short period of time ranging from a few hours
to a few weeks or a month. On the other hand, at the larger, busier airports, bird scaring
goes on every day, all year to ensure that large numbers of birds are not present on the
airport.

9.3 Bird scaring is usually conducted by airport staff. Staff from airport maintenance,
rescue and fire fighting personnel, or security will undertake the task as required. As the
amount of time required increases, it becomes more difficult to allocate these human
resources from within airport personnel. When it is not possible to allot the required
resources, the contracting out of airport wildlife control becomes a cost effective
alternative.

9.4 The contracts should include the provision of personnel and equipment to be used for
the control of birds. It should also specify that personnel have specific knowledge of airport
bird problems and control measures.

9.5 When setting up a contract, it is necessary ensure that the contract addresses the
following:

          a) hours of operation;

          b) species to be controlled;

          c) level of service;

          d) equipment to be provided by the contractor;

          e) accountability of contractor's staff;

          f) deviation from the contract;

          g) tendering process deficiencies; and

          h) documentation of deficiencies.

9.6 The effectiveness of the use of a contractor to control birds can be seen in the reduction
of the number of birds constituting a potential hazard to aircraft operations at an airport.




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                                                    Chapter 10

                                 Incompatible Land Use Around Airports

    10.1 The concept of compatible land use planning is an outgrowth of the focus of attention
    on the environmental relationship between airports and their community neighbours. This
    planning concept is relatively simple and the results can be impressive but the
    implementation requires careful study and co-ordinated planning. Land use around airports
    can influence restrictions on aircraft flights as well as affect aircraft safety.

    10.2 Some communities and airports have reached the point where the effect of land use
    planning guidelines may be minimal. However, there are still instances where their use will
    result in more compatible airport and community development. Implementation may take
    the form of aviation system plans, legislation for compatible land uses, easements or land
    zoning.

    10.3 It has long been recognized that land use around the airport can influence bird strikes
    to aircraft. Birds can be attracted to areas near the airport and in turn go to the airport for
    food, water, resting or shelter. Some birds may also be struck outside airport property, over
    a land use that attracts them. In fact, 21 per cent of bird strikes reported to the ICAO IBIS
    system occurred "off airport". An "on airport" bird strike is that which occurs between 0 to
    60 m (0 to 200 ft) (inclusive) on landing and 0 to 150 m (0 to 500 ft) (inclusive) on take-off.

    10.4 Land uses which have caused specific problems airports are:

               a) fish processing;

               b) agriculture;

               c) cattle feed lots;

               d) garbage dumps and landfill sites;

               e) factory roofs and parking lots,

               f) theatres and food outlets;

               g) wildlife refuges;

               h) artificial and natural lakes;

               i) golf-, polo-courses, etc.;

               j) animal farms; and

              k) slaughter-houses.




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10.5 In applying the guidelines on incompatible land use, one must consider the location of
a proposed land use in relation to the airport. The location of attractive land use beyond the
recommended distance could still create flyways over the airport or through flight paths at
the airport. In some cases more than one possible use of an area may have to be considered
to ensure that bird hazards will not be increased at or near the airport.

10.6 Regulations should be placed on the use of lands surrounding airports to reduce their
attractiveness to birds. These regulations should be directed at all land uses mentioned
above. Prior planning is necessary to ensure that incompatible land uses are not allowed to
become established.




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                                              Chapter 11

                           Evaluating the Wildlife Control Programme

    11. 1 The following questions are directed at airport management - specifically the airport
    manager - and are designed to assist in determining if there is an effective bird control
    programme in place at an airport.

    1. Has a wildlife control programme been developed?

    2. Has the wildlife control programme been implemented?

    3. Has a wildlife control officer at the site been appointed and responsibilities assigned?

    4. Has a training programme been developed to train those involved in the bird control
    programme?

    5. Has a wildlife control co-ordinating committee been established with well defined
    responsibilities?

    6. Has a reporting procedure been developed covering all aspects of the bird control
    programme?

    7. Has a land use plan been established with regard to effective land use on and off the
    airport as it pertains to the bird control programme?

    8. Has a list of all bird attractants at the site been completed?

    9. Has a list of all bird attractants surrounding the airport been completed?

    10. Have bird control methods been researched and implemented at the airport?

    11. 2 If the answer to any one of these questions is "NO", an effective bird control
    programme may not be in place at the airport. The airport bird control programme is only
    one aspect of a national programme.




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                                        Appendix

                                        References

          1. ICAO publications:

          Manual on the 1CA0 Bird Strike Information System
        (IBIS) (Doc 9332)

          2. Other publications:

          Handbook of Wildlife Control Devices and Chemicals
          (AK09-170), Transport Canada

          Green Booklet, Bird Strike Committee Europe (BSCE)



                                         - END -




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