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Africanized Honey Bees Know the

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					Dangerous Critters
   in Florida
             By
       Martha Thomas
 Lake County Livestock Agent
Protecting Farm Workers
   Educate employees about critters
                of animals in the
     Description
      environment and what to do if
      spotted.
 Know if employee has a health issue and
  have on record.
 Buy sting kits and put in an accessible
  location (Work Trucks, Tractor, Barn)
Keeping Area Safe
   Know where critters
    are hiding!
   Investigate sightings
   Take occasions to
    hunt them down and
    exterminate.
   If it is dangerous you
    may need to call an
    exterminator.
Poisonous Spiders
 There are five species of venomous
  spiders in Florida.
 The four widow species are all about ½”
  long with legs extended.
 Females lay about 250 eggs in a pear-
  shaped egg sac that is about ½” to 5/8” in
  diameter.
 The eggs hatch in about 20 days.
Southern Black Widow
   Most widespread in Florida. It is glossy
    black with a complete hourglass marking
    on the underside of the abdomen.

   Found under rocks and boards and around
    old buildings.
Symptoms of Bite
   Bite feels like tiny pin prick.

   Initial pain disappears rapidly, leaving
    local swelling and two tiny red marks.

   Muscular cramps, pain in abdomen,
    nausea, sweating, and difficulty breathing.

   Death can occur depending on victims
    physical condition.
Red Widow


 Black abdomen and reddish-orange head,
  thorax and legs.
 Top of abdomen usually has a row of red
  spots with yellow borders. This spider
  lacks a complete hourglass on the
  underside of the abdomen and instead
  usually has one or two small red marks.
Red Widow Habitat
   Red Widow’s construct their webs in palmettos and
    has been found primarily in sand-pine scrub
    habitats in central and southeast Florida.
Brown Widow
 This spider varies from light
  Gray to light brown to black.
 Abdomen has variable markings of black,
  white, red and yellow.
 The underside has orange or yellow
  hourglass.
Brown Widow Habitat

   Found most often south of
    Daytona Beach along the coast.

   It usually makes its web on buildings in
    well-lighted areas.
Brown Recluse Habitat
 Found in sheds, garages or
  areas of homes that are
  undisturbed and contain a supply of
  insects to serve as food.
 Persons bitten usually do not feel pain for
  two to three hours.
 Blister arises at the site of the bite,
  followed by inflammation. Skin dies and
  takes six to eight weeks to heal.
 Not an established species in
  Florida.
 Recognized by the distinctive dark violin-
  shaped mark located on the head and
  thorax.
 1/4” to ½” long light tan to deep reddish-
  brown.
If Bitten
    Preserve spider in rubbing alcohol for
     positive identification.

    If you suspect it was a venomous spider
     get medical attention immediately.
Venomous Snakes in Florida
   Six Species

   Vipers have vertical (cat-like)
    pupils and a deep facial pit
    between each eye and nostril.
    They have blocky, triangular
    shaped heads that are broader
    than their necks.
Cotton Mouth/Water Moccasin
 Most aquatic of Florida’s venomous snakes
  and occur throughout the state.
 About 3’ long.
 Adults are dark-colored and may have a
  faint cross band pattern or be a uniform
  black.
Copperhead
   Small area in
    Panhandle west of
    Tallahassee. Primarily
    along Apalachicola
    River and its
    tributaries.
   <3’ long with light
    brown to grey and
    dark brown colors.
   Hourglass shape that
    makes exceptional
    camouflage in forests.
Eastern Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake
   Very Dangerous
   Florida’s largest venomous snake may exceed 6’ in
    length.
   Lives in dry habitats such as pinelands, scrub, and
    golf courses.
   Some individuals may not rattle, even when they
    are poised to strike.
Timber Rattlesnake
(Canebrake Rattlesnake)

    Only found in Northern Florida as far south as
     Gainesville and in limited portions of the
     Panhandle.
    Prefers moist pinelands, river bottomlands,
     and hammocks.
    Pinkish-gray to tan body color with prominent,
     irregularly-shaped, dark marks and bands.
    Large thick heads and there may be a band
     running from each eye to the rear of the
     head.
Pygmy Rattlesnake
   Smallest of Florida’s venomous snakes, exist in
    the entire state except the keys. Rarely exceed
    20” in length.
   Live in pine flatwoods, oak scrub, open pinelands,
    and palm hammocks.
   Bodies are covered with numerous dark blotches
    with a row of darker blotches running down the
    middle of the snake’s back.
Coral Snake

 Many habitats throughout the state but
  are seldom encountered because they are
  quite secretive and spend much of their
  lives underground.
 Rarely longer than 30” and no bigger
  around that a quarter.
 Red and Yellow Will Kill a Fellow
  Red and Black Friend of Jack
Africanized Honey Bees (AHB)
   Most noticeable characteristic is that it responds
    quickly to disturbances by people and animals 50
    feet or more from the nest.

   AHB can sense vibrations from power equipment
    100 feet or more from the nest.

   AHB will chase enemy up to a mile or more.
Apiculture Activity
 In Africa they use bee hunting rather than
  bee keeping. Therefore, bees became
  more aggressive to protect themselves
  and therefore are unpredictable in
  behavior.
 European honey be population in the U.S
  has been selected by beekeepers for
  manageable traits (gentleness, reduced
  swarming, high honey hoarding.
AHB Characteristics
   Smaller than European bee and constructs
    cone with smaller cells.
   Nest in smaller cavities and sometimes
    underground.
AHB Affect on Public
 Decreased recreation and tourism
 Liability issues in judicial system and
  insurance industry.
 Loss of honey bees for crop pollination
  which are vital to our economy and food
  supply.
 Reduced availability and higher costs of
  certain foods may result.
Protecting Farm From AHB
 Remove potential nesting site
 Inspect exterior walls and eaves
 Seal openings > 1/8”
 Install screens over vents, rain spouts,
  utility boxes and tree cavities
 Inspect area for bee activity during peak
  swarming season (spring through fall)
Bee Safety Precautions
 Listen for buzzing and look for bees
  entering or leaving an area, indicating a
  nest or swarm
 Carefully enter areas where bees might be
  nesting
 Examine area before using noisy
  equipment or penning livestock
 Never disturb a swarm or colony of bees
  contact pest control company to remove
Locating Colony
   Stay Away

   Protect face and eyes

   Take Shelter in enclosed area (Vehicle,
    house) Not water source they will wait

   Contact Pest Control Company
If Stung
 Scrape stingers from skin with a blunt
  object as soon as possible. If not done,
  venom will continue to be injected over
  time.
 Wash with soap and water and apply ice.
 If allergic reaction occurs seek medical
  attention immediately.
AHB Effects
 AHB brought disaster to South and Central
  America beekeeping. Beekeepers were
  not prepared for the large, wild population
  of AHB which invaded their area.
 They saw their own bees change rapidly
  and could not cope with the intense
  stinging behavior.
U.S. Bee Industry
 Beekeepers must exterminate wild bee
  nests to protect their managed bees from
  resource competition.
 Where wild populations of AHB build up,
  there will be reduction in forage
  availability.
 Frequent re-queening, loss of apiary
  locations, and resource competition will all
  add to the cost and labor of beekeeping
  operations
Lyme’s Disease
   Lyme disease is caused by the
    bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

   This bacterium is transmitted
    between mammals by the black-
    legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, which
    is also called the deer tick.
Deer Tick
3 Host Life Cycle
Symptoms of Lyme’s Disease
 Rash, around the site of the tick bite that
  appears within 3 days to 3 weeks after the
  bite.
 The rash expands into a bull's eye pattern.


   Other symptoms include fever, flu-like
    symptoms, chills, headache, and extreme
    fatigue.
Symptoms of Lyme’s Disease
   These may appear weeks to months after
    the initial symptoms

       Joints - arthritis in the knee, elbow and
        wrist

       Nervous system - headache, stiff neck,
        facial paralysis

       Heart - myocarditis, heart block
Protection
   There are many cases
    each year that cannot
    be attributed to out of
    state travel.
   Best protection is
    wearing insect
    repellent containing
    DEET concentration at
    10-15%
   Check self, children,
    and pets after being in
    tick habitat and
    remove promptly.
References
   Venomous Spiders in Florida D.E. Short and J.L. Castner
   Recognizing Florida’s Venomous Snakes Steve A. Johnson and Martin
    B. Main
   Lyme Disease in Florida1 Cynthia C. Lord and C. Roxanne Rutledge
    Connelly2
Thanks



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