Introduction to Radio Communication Systems by klm15038

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									             223361 Communication
             Electronics

      Introduction to Radio
      Communication Systems

MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
Homepage: http://kmitnb05.kmitnb.ac.th/~mts
E-mail: mts@kmitnb.ac.th
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  Outline
              Introduction
              Network Theory
              Modulation
              Receivers
              Transmitters
              Conclusions




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                                                                              1
 Introduction
    Communication systems transmit information
    from one place to another
    The actual frequency limit depends upon whether
    the circuit is realized with discrete components or
    as an integrated circuit
    Integrated circuits have simplified the system
    design, but the communication system designer
    still needs to be familiar with many circuit
    techniques

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 Introduction
    The designer is often faced with a choice
    between using an IC or a discrete component
    version of the same circuit
    The decision is based on many factors
        Cost
        Size
        Power consumption
        Noise
        Distortion

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Designation of frequencies




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   Introduction
                     1906
                    1906                                       1947
                                                              1947




             Audion (Triode), 1906        First point contact transistor (germanium), 1947
                Lee De Forest                     John Bardeen and Walter Brattain
                                                         Bell Laboratories


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   Introduction
                     1958
                    1958                                                1997
                                                                       1997




  First integrated circuit (germanium), 1958
        Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments
                                                           Intel Pentium II, 1997
   Contained five components, three types:                     Clock: 233MHz
     transistors resistors and capacitors                Number of transistors: 7.5 M
                                                             Gate Length: 0.35
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   Trends in transistor count
                                                            42 M
                                                            transistors
    Number of transistors doubles every 2.3 years
    (acceleration over the last 4 years: 1.5 years)



                     Increase:
                     ~20K




2.25 K
transistors


                                               (From:
                                               http://www.intel.com)


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                                                                                             6
   Trends in clock frequency

                                                                   2 GHz




                                             Intel Labs
                                             Sub-ps switching transistor
                                             µP clock > 20 GHz
                                             Gate length: 20nm
                                             Gate oxide: 3 atomic layers
                                             In production: 2007 !




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   Trends in feature size




               Intel Labs
               Sub-ps switching transistor
               µP clock > 20 GHz
               Gate length: 20nm                                           0.13 µm in
               Gate oxide: 3 atomic layers                                 production
               In production: 2007 !




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                                                                                             7
   2002 and beyond ?
   Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) Road Map, 1998
      Update
                                          1999 2002 2014
   Technology (nm)                        180       130       35      IEEE Spectrum, July
                                                                      1999
   Minimum mask count                     22/24 24            29/30
                                                                      Special report: “The
   Wafer diameter (mm)                    300       300       450     100-million transistor
                                                                      IC”
   Memory-samples (bits)                  1G        4G        1T
   Transistors/cm2 (? P)                  6.2M      18M       390M
   Wiring levels (maximum)                6-7       7         10
   Clock, local (MHz)          1250       2100      10000
   Chip size: DRAM (mm2)                  400       560       2240
   Chip size: µP (mm2)                    340       430       901
   Power supply (V)                       1.5-1.8 1.2-1.5 0.37-0.42
   Maximum Power (W)                      90        130       183
   Number of pins (?                      700       957       3350
   These scaling trendsP) allow the electronics market to growth at 15% / year
                        will

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Network Theory




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Example 1.1 Determine the
transfer function




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Example 1.2 Determine the
frequency response




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                                                                             0
                                                                             1
Example 1.3 Calculate poles and
zeros




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   Modulation
      Analog Modulations
             Amplitude Modulation (AM)
             Frequency Modulation (FM)
      Digital Modulations
             Analog as an information signal
             Digital as an information signal
             Analog as a carrier signal
             Digital as a carrier signal



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Satellite Communications Channel




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  Receiver




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An Integrated Circuit FM Receiver




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    Transmitters




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