Physical Science in Action Elements, Compounds, and by kkt11597


									Physical Science in Action: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 5th grade

The Following Curriculum comes from the Library Video website: Teacher Guides
K7L2WWDMX9BSPA9R91 None of the materials were altered in content. They have
simply been adjusted in font/layout for your convenience. More teacher guides are
available at this link                             Wanda Albrecht- Librarian

Program Summary
All the substances in the world are made of a limited number of basic
ingredients called elements. These elements, over one hundred in all,
combine in different ways to produce millions of different compounds
and mixtures. Every element is made up of atoms, and every atom in an
element contains the same number of protons. For example, every
atom of pure copper has 29 protons in its nucleus, while every atom of
sulfur contains 16 protons. Each element has its own set of properties
based on its own unique atoms. It is these properties that make elements
useful in many way s . In 1869, a Russian chemist, Dmitri
Mendeleev, designed the Periodic Table of Elements, an ingenious way
of organizing every known element according to its atomic structure .
Although scientists have made changes and added to this list over time,
we still use this helpful tool today.
When two or more elements combine to form a compound, a chemical
bond occurs . This bonding is precise; each molecule of a compound is
made up of the same number of atoms chemically bonded together. It is
important to note that compounds have properties different from
those elements they are made of.
A mixture is another way to physically combine elements and compounds.
However, with a mixture, t h e re is no chemical bonding to
change the separate ingredients . In mixtures, the ingredients can be
physically separated , even after being mixed together. Solutions are
liquid mixtures, in which one substance is dissolved when combined
with another.
The following words are included for teacher reference or for use with
students. They are listed in the order in which they appear in the
element —A unique and pure substance that is comprised of atoms,
each having the same properties and the same number of protons in
each nucleus. Everything is made up of some combination of elements.
nucleus —The center of every atom, containing positively charged
protons and neutrally charged neutrons. The number of protons in a
given nucleus distinguishes one element from another.
electrons —The negatively charged particles which orbit around the
nucleus of every atom.
properties —The characteristics of a given element, such as color,
smell, hardness, shape and texture.
Dmitri Mendeleev — (1834 – 1907 C.E.) The Russian chemist who
created the first Periodic Table of Elements.
Periodic Table of Elements —The arrangement of all elements into
a logical grouping, based upon the number of protons and other basic
characteristics of each element.
compound —A substance formed by the joining of two or more elements
together through chemical bonding. Every molecule of a compound
is the same.
chemical bonding —The process that changes two or more elements
into a compound by changing the electron configuration.
mixture —The combining of elements or compounds without any
chemical bonding, meaning that they can be separated by physical
heterogeneous mixture —A mixture with a composition that is not
uniform. Separate parts of a heterogeneous mixture can usually be
seen. All portions of this type of mixture are not the same.
homogeneous mixture —A mixture with a uniform composition.
The separate parts of a homogeneous mixture usually cannot be seen.
All portions of this type of mixture are the same.
solution —A well-mixed homogeneous mixture, in which a solute,
like sugar, is completely dissolved in a solvent, like water.
alchemists — Early scientists who tried to use chemical reactions to
turn one element, like lead, into another element, like gold.
Pre-viewing Discussion
Before students generate their list of ―Everything We Think We Know
About…‖ for this topic, stimulate and focus their thinking by raising
these questions so that their list will better reflect the key ideas in this
1.What is an element? How many elements can you name?
2.What is a chemical compound?
3. How are compounds different from mixtures?
After the class has completed their ―Everything We Think We Know
About…‖ list, ask them what other questions they have that they hope
will be answered during this program. Have students listen closely to
learn if everything on their class list is accurate and to hear if any of
their own questions are answered.

Focus Questions
1. About how many known elements are there on Earth? Are they all
naturally made?
2. What are the main parts of an atom? Where are they located
within the atom?
3. What makes one element different from another?
4. How many protons are in a copper atom?
5. What is a property of copper that makes it useful to people?
6. How many substances are known to exist on Earth?
7. Who was Dmitri Mendeleev? What did he develop?
8. How is the Periodic Table of Elements organized? What determines
where an element is placed on the table?
9. What is the most common element in the universe?
10. What are the most common elements found in the Earth?
11. What is a compound? How is it different from an element?
12. What is a chemical bond?
13. What is the difference between a mixture and a compound?
14. What is a heterogeneous mixture? What are some examples?
15. What is a homogeneous mixture? What are some examples?
16. How does something dissolve?
17. What is a solution?
18. What are alchemists known for?
19. How is glass made? From what element is most glass formed?
Follow-up Discussion
Research indicates that students will retain their previous misconceptions
about a topic, in preference to new information, until they
actively recognize and correct their own errors. Therefore, it is
important to have your students re-examine the facts/beliefs they
put on their ―Everything We Think We Know About…‖ list. It might
also be helpful to review the list by marking each entry with a ―+‖
or ―-‖ to show which facts were correct and which were incorrect.
Discussions that ensue from thought-provoking questions provide a
good way to assess the overall depth of student understanding. The
following are some suggested discussion questions.
1. Talk about the meaning of the following:― Elements are like ingredients
in a recipe.‖ Discuss the many things that can be made
from basic ingredients like flour and sugar.
2. Review the program’s investigation and discuss how the unique
properties of salt and sand allowed them to be separated.
3. Discuss why the properties of a material are often very different
from those of the elements, compounds & mixtures that make up
the material .

Follow-up Activities
• Have students make a ―Common Hydrogen‖ bulletin board, listing
the element and its properties, as well as illustrations and descriptions
of compounds and mixtures that contain hydrogen, making
sure to showcase the unique properties of the materials that make
them useful.
• Ask students to use magnifiers to inspect a number of substances
such as sand, talcum powder, baking soda, table salt and soil. Using
graduated cylinders and metric balances, have students measure 5
ml of each substance and weigh it, observing and noting differences
in weight, color, texture, and size and shape of particles.
Have them present their data in a chart.
• Research the history of glass-blowing from its beginning to the
present day, finding out what different elements and compounds
have been used successfully throughout time. Discuss the properties
of glass that make it useful to people.
Suggested Internet Resources
Periodically, Internet Resources are updated on our web site at
This award-winning site explains elements, compounds and
mixtures in depth.
A brief overview of elements, compounds and mixtures from a
hypermedia textbook developed at NYU.
A high-quality source of information relating to elements and their
placement on the Periodic Table.

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