Physical Science in Action: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 5th grade The Following Curriculum comes from the Library Video website: Teacher Guides http://www.libraryvideo.com/supplemental_content/guides.asp?mscssid=0BVJ26504NL08H K7L2WWDMX9BSPA9R91 None of the materials were altered in content. They have simply been adjusted in font/layout for your convenience. More teacher guides are available at this link Wanda Albrecht- Librarian Program Summary All the substances in the world are made of a limited number of basic ingredients called elements. These elements, over one hundred in all, combine in different ways to produce millions of different compounds and mixtures. Every element is made up of atoms, and every atom in an element contains the same number of protons. For example, every atom of pure copper has 29 protons in its nucleus, while every atom of sulfur contains 16 protons. Each element has its own set of properties based on its own unique atoms. It is these properties that make elements useful in many way s . In 1869, a Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev, designed the Periodic Table of Elements, an ingenious way of organizing every known element according to its atomic structure . Although scientists have made changes and added to this list over time, we still use this helpful tool today. When two or more elements combine to form a compound, a chemical bond occurs . This bonding is precise; each molecule of a compound is made up of the same number of atoms chemically bonded together. It is important to note that compounds have properties different from those elements they are made of. A mixture is another way to physically combine elements and compounds. However, with a mixture, t h e re is no chemical bonding to change the separate ingredients . In mixtures, the ingredients can be physically separated , even after being mixed together. Solutions are liquid mixtures, in which one substance is dissolved when combined with another. Vocabulary The following words are included for teacher reference or for use with students. They are listed in the order in which they appear in the video. element —A unique and pure substance that is comprised of atoms, each having the same properties and the same number of protons in each nucleus. Everything is made up of some combination of elements. nucleus —The center of every atom, containing positively charged protons and neutrally charged neutrons. The number of protons in a given nucleus distinguishes one element from another. electrons —The negatively charged particles which orbit around the nucleus of every atom. properties —The characteristics of a given element, such as color, smell, hardness, shape and texture. Dmitri Mendeleev — (1834 – 1907 C.E.) The Russian chemist who created the first Periodic Table of Elements. Periodic Table of Elements —The arrangement of all elements into a logical grouping, based upon the number of protons and other basic characteristics of each element. compound —A substance formed by the joining of two or more elements together through chemical bonding. Every molecule of a compound is the same. chemical bonding —The process that changes two or more elements into a compound by changing the electron configuration. mixture —The combining of elements or compounds without any chemical bonding, meaning that they can be separated by physical means. heterogeneous mixture —A mixture with a composition that is not uniform. Separate parts of a heterogeneous mixture can usually be seen. All portions of this type of mixture are not the same. homogeneous mixture —A mixture with a uniform composition. The separate parts of a homogeneous mixture usually cannot be seen. All portions of this type of mixture are the same. solution —A well-mixed homogeneous mixture, in which a solute, like sugar, is completely dissolved in a solvent, like water. alchemists — Early scientists who tried to use chemical reactions to turn one element, like lead, into another element, like gold. Pre-viewing Discussion Before students generate their list of ―Everything We Think We Know About…‖ for this topic, stimulate and focus their thinking by raising these questions so that their list will better reflect the key ideas in this show: 1.What is an element? How many elements can you name? 2.What is a chemical compound? 3. How are compounds different from mixtures? After the class has completed their ―Everything We Think We Know About…‖ list, ask them what other questions they have that they hope will be answered during this program. Have students listen closely to learn if everything on their class list is accurate and to hear if any of their own questions are answered. Focus Questions 1. About how many known elements are there on Earth? Are they all naturally made? 2. What are the main parts of an atom? Where are they located within the atom? 3. What makes one element different from another? 4. How many protons are in a copper atom? 5. What is a property of copper that makes it useful to people? 6. How many substances are known to exist on Earth? 7. Who was Dmitri Mendeleev? What did he develop? 8. How is the Periodic Table of Elements organized? What determines where an element is placed on the table? 9. What is the most common element in the universe? 10. What are the most common elements found in the Earth? 11. What is a compound? How is it different from an element? 12. What is a chemical bond? 13. What is the difference between a mixture and a compound? 14. What is a heterogeneous mixture? What are some examples? 15. What is a homogeneous mixture? What are some examples? 16. How does something dissolve? 17. What is a solution? 18. What are alchemists known for? 19. How is glass made? From what element is most glass formed? Follow-up Discussion Research indicates that students will retain their previous misconceptions about a topic, in preference to new information, until they actively recognize and correct their own errors. Therefore, it is important to have your students re-examine the facts/beliefs they put on their ―Everything We Think We Know About…‖ list. It might also be helpful to review the list by marking each entry with a ―+‖ or ―-‖ to show which facts were correct and which were incorrect. Discussions that ensue from thought-provoking questions provide a good way to assess the overall depth of student understanding. The following are some suggested discussion questions. 1. Talk about the meaning of the following:― Elements are like ingredients in a recipe.‖ Discuss the many things that can be made from basic ingredients like flour and sugar. 2. Review the program’s investigation and discuss how the unique properties of salt and sand allowed them to be separated. 3. Discuss why the properties of a material are often very different from those of the elements, compounds & mixtures that make up the material . Follow-up Activities • Have students make a ―Common Hydrogen‖ bulletin board, listing the element and its properties, as well as illustrations and descriptions of compounds and mixtures that contain hydrogen, making sure to showcase the unique properties of the materials that make them useful. • Ask students to use magnifiers to inspect a number of substances such as sand, talcum powder, baking soda, table salt and soil. Using graduated cylinders and metric balances, have students measure 5 ml of each substance and weigh it, observing and noting differences in weight, color, texture, and size and shape of particles. Have them present their data in a chart. • Research the history of glass-blowing from its beginning to the present day, finding out what different elements and compounds have been used successfully throughout time. Discuss the properties of glass that make it useful to people. Suggested Internet Resources Periodically, Internet Resources are updated on our web site at www.LibraryVideo.com • www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_intro.html This award-winning site explains elements, compounds and mixtures in depth. • www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/compounds.html A brief overview of elements, compounds and mixtures from a hypermedia textbook developed at NYU. • www.webelements.com A high-quality source of information relating to elements and their placement on the Periodic Table.
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