Unequal Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor by xxk47264

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									      34             12                                                                                                                           2008  6
    Vol.34          No.12                                        Computer Engineering                                                              June 2008

    ·                    ·                                       1000   3428(2008)12 0088          03                          A                             TP312




                                                                  1,2        2             1                1,2


                             (1.                                         417000     2.                                                  410082)




                                                     LEACH                                         25%




              Unequal Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network
                                                 YUAN Hui-yong1,2, LI Xiao-long2, DAI Jing-guo1, YI Ye-qing1,2
                        (1. Department of Computer Science, Hunan Institute of Humanities, Science and Technology, Loudi 417000;
                                          2. College of Computer and Communication, Hunan University, Changsha 410082)

     Abstract      Communication modes of sensor network can be categorized into two types: multi-hop and single-hop. If the previous is adopted,
cluster heads closer to the base station tend to die earlier because more data packets are needed to transmit. If all cluster heads transmit data packets
directly to the base station, nodes further from the base station will die much more quickly than those closer to the base station. To address the
problems, this paper proposes an unequal clustering algorithm. The algorithm enables that clusters closer to the base station have bigger size. In
addition, it presents a method to compute the size of clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms LEACH with
prolonging the network lifetime by over 25%.
     Key words       sensor network; data gathering; unequal clustering; lifetime


1

                                                                                                   [6]

                                                      [1]

                                                                                                        [5-6]


                                                                                     2
                                         [2-6]
                                                                                     2.1
             [2]                                                                                           n
                                                                                           a



             [3]
                                                                                                                                                     [6]
                                                                                                                                     k bit
                                                                                           Etrans ( k , d ) = kEelec + kEamp d   2
                                                                                                                                                                 (1)

                                                                                           E rec = kEelec                                                        (2)
             [4]
                                                                                               k                  d                      Eelec


                                                                                                                                                  (06B047)


                                                                                                                (1967   )


             [5]                   [4]
                                                                                                    2007-06-30              E-mail     hnldyhy@126.com

    88
                                                                                                                                                            ⎛ n∆ 2 ⎞
                                                                                                                    Enode _ i = ( 2kEelec + kEamp ∆ m 2 ) × ⎜ 2i − 1⎟
                   Eamp

                                                                                           PEGASIS                                                          ⎝ a     ⎠

                                                                       nk ⇒ k              n
                                                                                                                                                                    2
                                                       k                                                             Ecluster _ i = kEelec + kEamp d i
2.2

                                                                                                                     Eaverage _ i = ( Enode _ i + Ecluster _ i ) / ⎜ 2i ⎟ = ( node _ i cluster _ i )
                                                                                                                                                                   ⎛ n∆ 2 ⎞  E        +E             a2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ( 3)
                                                                                                                                                                   ⎝ a ⎠              n∆ i 2



                                                                                                                                                j
                                                                                                                                                                  ⎛ n∆ 2 ⎞ ( E      + Ecluster _ j ) a 2
                                                                                                                    Eaverage _ j = ( Enode _ j + Ecluster _ j ) / ⎜ 2j ⎟ = node _ j                                 (4)
                                                                                                                                                                  ⎜ a ⎟             n∆ j 2
                                                                                                                                                                  ⎝      ⎠
2                                                                                                                                               Eaverage _ i = Eaverage _ j                                 di > d j
          (1)
                                                                                                                    (3)               (4)                       ∆i < ∆ j

          (2)
                                                                                                          3.1                                       r1                                     ∆m
                                                                                                                                      [4]                  n                                                    a
3
                                                                                                                                                                              1− ε                                     R
                                                            LEACH

                                                                                                                                            1 n
                                                                     hello                                          R       rm = a           ln( )                                                                  (5)
                                                                                                                                            n ε

                                                                                      m                                                                                                                ∆m        rm
                                                       ∆i                                            ri
                                                                                                            ∆ m = rm                                                         k bit
1     i     m
                                                                                                                     Enode = 2kEelec + kEamp ∆ m                2



                                                                                                                                            k bit
                                                                             1                                       Ecluster = kEelec + kEamp a 2


                                                                                                                                 π∆ m 2   ∆ 2
                                                                                                                    n1 = n              =n m
                                                                                                                                  πa 2     a2


                                                   a                                                                           (n1 − 1) Enode + Ecluster
                                                                                                                    Em =                                                                                            (6)
                                                                      r2                                                                  n1

                                                                BS
                                                                      r1
                                                                                                                     E 1 = kE elec + kE a m p r1 2                                                                  (7)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (5)~
                                                                                                            (7)                  r1

                                                                                                                                            a ⎛ ⎛ n ⎞ ⎞ a Eamp − Eelec
                                                                                                                                             2                      2
                                                                                                                                Eelec
                                                                                                                    r1 =                +      ⎜ ln ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎟ +                                                      (8)
                                                                                                                                Eamp        n ⎝ ⎝ε ⎠ ⎠                 ⎛n⎞
                                                                                                                                                               Eamp ln ⎜ ⎟
                                                                                                                                                                              ⎝ε ⎠
                                                                                                                                                                        r1
                                                   1
                                                                                                          3.2                                       r1              ∆i
                                                                                                                           ∆i               i                                                               i

                      1                        i            j                               di       dj                         r1              i                                    ri = ri−1 + ∆ i

                                                                           ∆i    ∆j       di > d j              2
                                                                                                                           2                                             k bit
∆i < ∆ j
                                                                                                                                                            2
                                                                                                                     E node = 2 kE elec + kE amp ∆ 2
                                                                                      i
                                                                                                                                            k bit
                                                                                                                                                                               2
                      i                                                                                              Ecluster = k × Eelec + k × Eamp × ( r + ∆ 2 )
                                                                                                                                                          1


                                  n∆ i
                                           2
           n
                   × ( π∆ i ) =
                          2


          πa
               2
                                   a
                                       2
                                                                                                                                     π∆ 22    ∆ 2
                                                                                                                    n2 = n                 = n 22
                                                                                                                                     πa 2      a

                                                                                                                                                                                                                89
                     2                                                                                                    3                                  1− ε
                     ( n 2 − 1) E node + E cluster
          E2    =                                                                                       (9)
                                   n2
                E1 = E2             (7)              (9)          ∆2                r2 = r1 + ∆ 2
r2                                                          ∆i    ri
3.3                                                                                                                                 0.87
                                                                                                                        600
          ∆i                                                                   pi

                    πa 2    1      a2                                                                                   500
          pi =           ×       =                                                                     (10)
                     n     π∆ i 2 n∆ i 2
                                                                             2pi                                        400

∆i        pi




                                                                                                                    /
                                                                                                                        300


                                                      i
                                                                                                                        200
     ∆i                                                                                       ∆i

                                                                                                                        100


                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                              0.0          .2
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                                                                                                                                                                    .6         .8
                                                                                                                                                                               0         .0
                                                                                                                                                                                         1


                     2                                                                               O(n)
                                                                                                                                       3
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                                                                                                               5

                                                 O(n)


4

                          400                                                              100 m
                                                            1 J        Eelec        Eamp
      50 nJ/bit             10 pJ/bit/m2                                            2 000 bit
                          100                                                                                 [1]              ,       ,        ,        .
                 2                                          0.9                                                                        [J].                   , 2006, 32(24): 104-106.
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                                                                                                                    121-145.
          500                                                                                                 [3] Perillo M, Zhao Cheng, Heinzelman W. On the Problem of
                                                                                                                    Unbalanced Load Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks[C]//
          400                                                                                                       Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM’04. [S. l.]: IEEE Press, 2004.
                                                                                                              [4] Mhatre V, Rosenberg C. Design Guidelines for Wireless Sensor
          300
                                                                                                                    Networks: Communication, Clustering and Aggregation[J]. Ad Hoc
     /




                                                                                                                    Networks, 2004, 2(1): 45-63.
          200                               LEACH
                                                                                                              [5] Olariu S,. Design Guidelines for Maximizing Lifetime and Avoiding
                                                                                                                    Energy Holes in Sensor Networks with Uniform Distribution and
          100
                                                                                                                    Uniform Reporting[C]//Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM’06. Barcelona,

           0
                                                                                                                    Spain: IEEE Press, 2006-04-06-25.
                0            100         200          300   400        500          600        700      80    [6] Soro S, Heinzelman W. Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor
                                                              /                                                     Networks via Unequal Clustering[C]//Proceedings of the 19th IEEE
                                           2
                                                                                                                    International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium. [S. l.]:
                             1− ε                                                                                   IEEE Press, 2005: 236-240.




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