Chapter 7: The New Political Order, 1776–1800 Questions and terms for review while completing the reading: Creating Republican Constitutions, 1776-1787: - Popular sovereignty - republicanism - unicameral legislature - Thoughts on Government - mixed government - bicameral legislature - representative government - qualifications to vote - political status of women - Abigail Adams - Judith Sargent Murray - Articles of Confederation - Powers of the Government under the Articles of Confederation - Westward land claims - Robert Morris - The Bank of North America - Northwest Territory - The Ordinance of 1784 - The Land ordinance of 1785 - The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 - Shay’s Rebellion 1. How did the colonial experience affect the structure of the state governments as they were organized during and after the Revolutionary War? In general, were they more republican or democratic? 2. Why were the rights of women ignored during a revolution that was fought for the liberty, freedom, and equality of all? 3. How did the Articles of Confederation allow for a weak central government? The Constitution of 1787: - Nationalists - Annapolis Convention, 1786 - The Philadelphia Convention - James Madison - Alexander Hamilton - George Washington - The Virginia Plan - William Patterson - The New Jersey Plan - Robert Yates and John Lansing Protest against the Philadelphia Convention - The Great Compromise – The Connecticut Compromise - Suffrage - Electoral college - Gouverneur Morris - George Mason - Debate over slavery - “all other persons” - Three-fifths compromise - “Supreme” Law of the Land - Ratification - The Antifederalists - Patrick Henry - Samuel Adams - John Hancock - The Federalists - John Jay - The Federalist - New Hamsphire’s role in ratification - Washington and Adams - Washington’s Cabinet: Jefferson, Knox, Hamilton - Judiciary Act of 1789 - The Bill of Rights 1. What did the nationalists, who later called themselves Federalists, hope to achieve by revising the Articles of Confederation and establishing a new central government based on the Constitution of 1787? 2. Why might the Antifederalists have lost the ratification debates of 1787 and 1788? 3. In The Federalist, No. 10, what did James Madison argue was the value of a large republic? The Political Crisis of the 1790s: - “Report on Public Credit” - speculators - national debt - Assumption of State war debt - Strict v. loose interpretation of Constitution - National Bank debate - Excise tax - Tariffs - Jefferson’s vision v. Hamilton’s vision - Factions - Federalists v. Democratic-Republicans - Notes on the State of Virginia - The French Revolution - Proclamation of Neutrality - The Whiskey Rebellion - Jay’s Treaty - Party system - The XYZ Affair - The Naturalization Act - The Alien Act - The Sedition Act - Kentucky and Virginia Resolution - States’ rights - Election of 1800 - Aaron Burr - The Twelfth Amendment - “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” 1. Why did Washington and Adams as well as the Republicans consider it imperative to remain neutral and avoid war with either France or Britain in the 1790s? Given this party consensus, how do you account for the acrimony of the political debates of the 1790s? 2. Was the "Revolution of 1800" really a revolution? In what ways was it not a revolution? 3. How did Thomas Jefferson's vision of the future differ from Alexander Hamilton's? Questions to be able to answer upon studying the entire chapter: 1. How and why did Americans devise a representative system of government between 1776 and 1800? 2. Analyze the debate over the ratification of the Constitution; compare and contrast the positions of both Federalists and Antifederalists. 3. What were the differences between Hamilton’s and Jefferson’s visions of the operation and the role of government? 4. What effects did the French Revolution have on American policy and decision making?