AP US HISTORY ELMORE FALL 2007 UNIT THREE: THE BIRTH OF A NEW COUNTRY The US Constitution is one of the most influential documents in the history of modern governance. The system of government established by the writers of this document not only reflected and helped to ensure the hopes and desires of many citizens of the newly independent American state, but, perhaps more importantly, this system has served as a dramatic symbol for those people throughout the world who have struggled against tyranny and oppression ever since. This document has also served as a model for the creation of new governments over the past two hundred years. Nevertheless, some scholars, including Howard Zinn and Charles Beard, who wrote An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, contend that this document is not the democratic mantra that its supporters proclaim it to be. These critics argue that the Constitution was designed primarily to protect the economic interests of the aristocracy, not only from the tyranny of the government, but also from the political pressures of the lower classes. They point to the ideas of the separation of powers, federalism, and checks and balances as being primarily ways in which the elites of American society could insulate themselves from the will of the common people rather than efforts to protect against tyrannical government. These scholars also look to the writings of James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton in The Federalist Papers to support their contentions. Finally, they look to the actions of some of the founding fathers, like Washington, Hamilton, Adams, and even Jefferson to find support for this theory. During this unit, we will examine this evidence in order to assess the validity of this theory as compared to the more traditional views of most Americans. As always, finding the truth requires a delicate balance of inquisitiveness, interpretation, speculation, and appreciation for subtlety. There are seldom absolute or simple answers to these complex problems. In this unit, we will continue to examine both political documents and political events with an eye toward addressing, albeit not definitively, this complex issue. In addition, we will trace the important formative events in the early history of this newly-founded country leading up to the most important political transformation in our early history: the election of Andrew Jackson. EXAM DATE: Monday, October 22nd (100 points) QUIZZES: 1) Thursday, October 4th (25 points): Brinkley, Chapter 6 2) Tuesday, October 9th (15 points): “Shay’s Rebellion: The First American Civil War” 3) Wednesday, October 10th (25 points): Brinkley, Chapter 7 4) Tuesday, October 16th (25 points): Brinkley, Chapter 8 UNIT SKILLS 1) Conflict and Compromise 2) Using and Constructing Maps 3) Library and Internet Research 4) Understanding Domestic and Foreign Policy 5) Constitutional Analysis and Interpretation READING ASSIGNMENTS: 1) Brinkley, Ch. 6, 7 & 8 2) “Shay’s Rebellion: The First American Civil War” by Stephen Gillon in Unit Planner 3) The Constitution and the first twelve amendments, pgs. A-12- A-19 KEY TOPICS 1. Opportunities and Obstacles in Post-War America 2. The Constitutional Convention and the US Constitution 3. Federalists, Anti-federalists, and the Fight for Ratification 4. Washington, Hamilton, Adams and the Federalist Government: Domestic Policy 5. Washington, Hamilton, Adams and the Federalist Government: Foreign Policy 6. Jefferson, Madison, and the Republican Opposition 7. The Revolution of 1800 8. Cultural Nationalism & Industrialism 9. Jefferson’s Domestic Policy and Foreign Policy 10. The War of 1812 11. American Nationalism, Economic Growth and Expansion 12. The Era of Good Feelings 13. John Marshall and the Supreme Court 14. Western Expansion and the Missouri Compromise 15. The “Corrupt Bargain” Election of 1824 and the Adams Presidency WRITING ASSINGMENTS: 1) Map Assignment (20 pts.) Due Monday, October 15th Complete the map assignment in the Unit Planner. You will need to fill out the map completely, accurately, and neatly. You may use the map provided. However, you may earn up to five extra credit points if you make the map larger (up to 11” by 14”- but no larger) and five extra credit points if you do the map in color. This means you can earn a total of 10 extra credit points for this assignment. 2) Primary Source Document Analysis (30 pts.) Due Monday, October 22nd Complete the attached Primary Source Document Analysis Worksheet with a primary source that you have found relating to your NHD project. Your analysis should reflect how you would use this document in your project. EXAM REVIEW SHEET KEY TERMS Confederation Congress Annapolis Convention Newburgh Conspiracy George Washington Alexander Hamilton Articles of Confederation James Madison Philadelphia Convention Shay’s Rebellion Benjamin Franklin Edmund Randolph Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan Great Compromise Connecticut Compromise bicameral legislature Three-fifths Compromise federal government sovereignty The Constitution Baron de Montesquieu Charles Beard An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution separation of powers checks and balances federalism The Federalist Papers Federalists John Jay Antifederalists ratification Bill of Rights Judiciary Act of 1789 George Mason Henry Knox Bank of the United States Washington, D.C. assumption of debt funding the debt protective tariff “Report on Manufactures” excise tax Republicans Whiskey Rebellion strict construction vs. broad construction new states Citizen Genet French Revolution Neutrality Act Jay’s Treaty Farewell Address Pinckney’s Treaty James Monroe John Adams Thomas Pinckney Thomas Jefferson Eleventh Amendment Twelfth Amendment Prince Talleyrand XYZ Affair Quasi-War with France Aaron Burr Alien and Sedition Acts Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions nullification Revolution of 1800 political parties Judiciary Act of 1801 cultural nationalism virtuous citizenry public schooling private schools republican mother Judith Sargent Murray noble savages state universities Benjamin Rush Noah Webster Washington Irving Mercy Otis Warren Deism Second Great Awakening John Wesley universalism/Unitarianism The Age of Reason Thomas Paine revivalism Gabriel Prosser Handsome Lake Samuel Slater Eli Whitney cotton gin interchangeable parts James Watt steam engine Robert Fulton steamboat Robert Livingston Clermont turnpike era Pierre L’Enfant White House Charles Pinckney Albert Gallitin Barbary Pirates pasha of Tripoli tribute John Marshall Marbury v. Madison midnight appointments William Marbury judicial review Samuel Chase Napoleon Bonaparte New Orleans Toussaint L’Ouverture Louisiana Purchase Meriwether Lewis George Clark Sacajawea Zebulon Pike Burr Conspiracy Northern Confederacy James Wilkinson Continental System orders in council blockade impressment Chesapeake-Leopard incident Embargo of 1807 peacable coercion Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 Macon’s Bill No. 2 Tecumseh William Henry Harrison assimilation policy the Prophet Battle of Tippecanoe war hawks Henry Clay John C. Calhoun Florida War of 1812 Battle of Horseshoe Band Oliver Hazard Perry Andrew Jackson Siege of Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key “The Star Spangled Banner” Battle of New Orleans Daniel Webster Hartford Convention Rush-Bagot agreement Treaty of Ghent textile industry Second Bank of the US infant industries protectionism internal improvements Cumberland (National) Road Lancaster Turnpike James Monroe Great Migrations John Jacob Astor plantation system mountain men Far West Era of Good Feelings John Quincy Adams Rufus King Virginia Dynasty Goodwill Tour The Seminole War Adams-Onis Treaty Andrew Jackson Panic of 1819 Missouri Compromise sectionalism Tallmadge Amendment DeWitt Clinton Jesse Thomas Fletcher v. Peck (1810) Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) Cohens v. Virginia (1821) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Johnson v. McIntosh (1823) Worcester v. Georgia (1832) Monroe Doctrine Corrupt Bargain Election of 1824 King Caucus Tariff of Abominations the American System William Crawford Election of 1828 ESSAY QUESTIONS: 1) “Initially, ratification of the Constitution was highly unlikely, and only after a fierce debate did a combination of factors bring about its adoption by the thirteen states.” Assess the validity of this statement with reference to the roles and influences of the following: (a) Anti-federalists; (b) The Federalist Papers; and (c) compromise on the Bill of Rights 2) “America’s first foreign policy, formulated by presidents Washington and Adams, had as its primary goal the avoidance of war at all cost.” Assess the validity of this statement in terms of THREE of the following: (a) Citizen Genet controversy; (b) Jay Treaty; (c) Proclamation of Neutrality; (d) XYZ Affair 3) “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Assess this statement by President Jefferson with respect to (a) his domestic policies and (b) his foreign policies. 4) “The early part of the 19th Century was marked by strong pressures to force Native Americans from their lands along the western frontier of the United States.” Assess the validity of this statement with reference to THREE of the following: (a) Andrew Jackson, (b) Tecumseh, (c) Lewis and Clark expedition, (d) William Henry Harrison 5) Explain the influence of THREE of the following on the US decision to go to war in 1812: (a) embargo policies of Jefferson and Madison, (b) British impressment of American seaman, (c) settler’s conflicts with the Native Americans, (d) expansionist goals of the war hawks 6) “The genius of the Constitution is found in the series of compromises which made it acceptable to so many.” Assess the validity of this statement with respect to how the delegates dealt with: (a) representation; (b) the presidency; and (c) slavery. 7) Explain how THREE of the following helped to bring about a shift from agricultural to an industrial economy in the US in the early 1800s: a) commercial farming; b) factory system c) inventions; d) labor; e) transportation 8) Although the power of the national government increased during the early republic, this development often faced serious opposition. Compare the motives and effectiveness of those opposed to the growing power of the national government in TWO of the following: Whiskey Rebellion, 1794; Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798-1799, or Hartford Convention, 1814-1815. 9) Analyze the contributions of TWO of the following in helping establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, or George Washington. 10) Analyze the impact of the American Revolution on both slavery and the status of women in the period 1775-1800. 11) To what extent was the election of 1800 aptly named “The Revolution of 1800”? Respond with references in TWO of the following areas: economics; foreign policy; judiciary; politics. 12) Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 as the Era of Good Feelings. Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of both nationalism and sectionalism. 13) To what extent was the United States Constitution a radical departure from the Articles of Confederation? 14) “The United States Constitution of 1787 represented an economic and ideological victory for the traditional American political elite.” Assess the validity of this statement for the period 1781-1789.