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Baroque Treasures

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									Baroque
Treasures
The Apartments of Prince Eugene and Maria Theresa in Schloss Hof
April 10 to November 1, 2009
    Cabinet Room                                Dressing Room                  The Baroque garden

                                                                                    Cabinet I
                                                                                                    Cabinet II


     Bedchamber                                                                                                  Chapel



Audience Chamber




    Antechamber
                                                                                                                 Great Hall




 The Dining Room




     Coffee Room                     Anteroom
                                                                                                                 Antechamber



Lady’s Guest Room
                                                                                                                 Audience Chamber



                                                                                                                 Sitting Room



                                                                                                                 Bedchamber

                                                                                                                 Retirade
                                                                                                                 Servant’s Room




                                                   Prince Eugene’s Apartment

                                                   Maria Theresa’s Apartment




           Hof Palace, Ground plan of the first floor
SCHLOSS HOF


Schloss Hof on the River March is a unique estate, and one of great artistic and cultural
importance. The magnificent house is surrounded by an extensive garden on seven
terraces, immediately next to which are the buildings of the large estate farm.
   This much-admired stately home was created from 1725 onwards by Prince Eugene of
Savoy, with Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt as his architect. The prince was fond of spend-
ing time at Schloss Hof, where he hunted, held “private” parties, or simply sought rest
and recreation from his many duties. He often celebrated his birthday at Schloss Hof with
his closer friends. In 1755 Maria Theresa bought the property from Prince Eugene’s heirs,
and it was adapted to suit the requirements of the imperial family. In the 1770s the house
was extended vertically through the addition of one further floor. The rooms on the piano
nobile were redecorated, with the apartment of Maria Theresa – by this time a widow –
being turned into a veritable “Gesamtkunstwerk” in the Neoclassical style. After Maria
Theresa’s death Schloss Hof gradually lapsed into oblivion, and in 1898 it was handed over
to the military to house a training school. At this point the fittings and furnishings were
brought to Vienna, where they were used in other properties or simply put into storage.




                                                                                              3
PRINCE EUGENE’S APARTMENT


In 1775 Prince Eugene’s original apartment was subjected to radical alterations. The old
fixtures – the headpieces above the doors, for instance – were replaced by ones reflecting
the new decorative forms of Neoclassicism. The original headpieces, panelling, and wain-
scoting had been wood-brown with partial gilding, but now the wood was hidden from
view with a white ground, likewise decoratively gilded. However, not everything was
changed: certain very important fixtures such as the fireplaces and the relief panels
above them were left intact, as were the stuccoed ceilings by Alberto Camesina and
Santino Bussi.
    The inventory of Schloss Hof drawn up only a few days after Prince Eugene’s death in
1736 offers a revealing picture of the sumptuousness of the interiors and of the wealth of
luxury items with which Schloss Hof was furnished.
    Prince Eugene’s private apartment consisted of the following rooms: the Antechamber
( “ Ante Camer ” ), the Audience Chamber ( “Audienz Zimmer”), the Bedchamber ( “Schlaff
Zimmer” ), the Cabinet Room ( “Cabinet” ), and the Dressing Room ( “Garderobe” ).
Immediately before the apartment were rooms with social functions: the Anteroom
( “Vorzimmer” ), the Coffee Room ( “Caffee Zimmer” ), and the Dining Room (the “Taffel
Stuben” ). In addition to this apartment Prince Eugene had a state apartment
( “Paradeappartement” ) situated in the south wing. Further rooms were available to
accommodate guests.


The furniture in Prince Eugene’s apartment
Most of Prince Eugene’s furniture (console tables, seating furniture, fireplace screens, and
wood trestles) was made of walnut. A very large number of the tables and chairs derive
their particular appeal from the members that make up their massive frames: arched or

4
s-shaped wooden crosspieces ( “stretchers” ) ending in flowing scrolls, or extravagantly
curvilinear legs with scroll feet. In order to give the interiors a unified character, the
furniture was stylistically matched to the rooms and their fittings. Particular mention
should be made of three motifs which recur on so many of the furnishings: the shell, the
acanthus, and the so-called “Laub- und Bandelwerk” (leaf- and strapwork), a decorative
element that was particularly widespread in the German-speaking world in the first quar-
ter of the eighteenth century. The marble tops of the console tables were in colours
matching the furnishings and fittings of the rooms in which they stood.
    The sets of seating furniture are usually composed of settees, chairs, and stools,
which either have canework seats and backs or are upholstered. The materials that have
been used for the re-upholstering of the furniture are very largely the same, and in the
same colours, as those originally used by Prince Eugene at Schloss Hof.
    Typical of what is probably the earliest group of chairs and stools (to be seen in the
Coffee Room and the Dining Room) are the legs and crosspieces incorporating the curva-
ceous mouldings known as “Schafsknochen” ( “sheep’s bones” ). A number of these pieces
are also carved with acanthus decoration. Fireplace screens were considered an integral
part of the furniture and were designed to match the chairs and wall decoration.
Many of the Schloss Hof fireplace screens from Prince Eugene’s time still have the original
fabric coverings, some in painted, printed, or embroidered Chinese silk.




                                                                                             5
                                                 Objects
ANTEROOM
                                                 PHILIPP FERDINAND DE HAMILTON,
                                                 F. DAVID UND ANONYM
Objects                                          Depictions of animals
                                                 ca. 1700
LANTERN                                          KHM, Gemäldegalerie
Vienna, beginning of eighteenth century
Glass, lead, brass                               In Prince Eugene’s day, the Coffee Room con-
MAK                                              tained fifty-three paintings with depictions of
                                                 animals. In 1766, these pictures were taken to
TRANSPORT CHESTS                                 Ofen Castle in Budapest; a few years later, some
Nineteenth century                               found their way to Pressburg (now Bratislava).
Wood, metal, iron fittings, leather, paper       It has not yet been possible to establish exactly
BMobV                                            which paintings were at Schloss Hof.

TWO-ARMED WALL-SCONCE                            CONSOLE TABLE
Vienna, eighteenth century                       Vienna, ca. 1730
Bronze, gilded                                   Walnut, carved; marble top (not original)
BMobV                                            ÖBF

                                                 CHAIRS
                                                 ca. 1710

COFFEE ROOM                                      Walnut, carved;
                                                 Textile coverings (not original)
                                                 BMobV
When Prince Eugene was away from Schloss
Hof, his precious works of art and furnishings   TRANSPORT CHESTS
were protected as well as possible. The inven-   Second half of nineteenth century
tory of 1736 mentions covers in “Engelsaath”,    Wood, metal, iron fittings, leather, paper
a light woollen material. These protective       BMobV
covers were in colours matching the materials
in the room concerned. The inventory states      CENTREPIECES
that the covers for the Coffee Room were         Nineteenth century
in green.                                        Bronze, gilded
                                                 BMobV




6
                                                   of furniture in the transition style between
LADY’S GUEST-ROOM                                  Rococo and Classicism. These pieces have rec-
                                                   tilinear forms and ornamental borders, and are
A room with a varied history                       decorated in white, gold, and grey.
In Prince Eugene’s time, the “Dame Zimmer”         During the reign of Emperor Ferdinand I,
was used as a guest-room, and the stucco           around 1840, the south wing of Schloss Hof
relief in the central panel of the ceiling dates   was subjected to a comprehensive refurnish-
from this period. The wall-hangings were in        ing. Newly made furniture in the late Bieder-
white, with a flower pattern. The wainscoting      meier style was introduced, with veneers in
and the headpieces over the doors were             cherry, ash, and mahogany, and with upholst-
decorated with gilding.                            ery in wool materials in red, blue, and green.
During the extensive alterations to Schloss Hof    When the house was taken over by the army
in the years 1773 to 1775 an apartment was         training school for riding and driving in 1898,
created for Emperor Joseph II, and this room       all the fittings and furnishings were removed
became his bedroom. The stucco relief on the       and another refurnishing took place, a notable
ceiling was given a new surround and the           element in which was the use of bentwood
chimneypiece – likewise re-decorated in the        furniture.
Neoclassical style – was embellished with a
relief depicting Gaius Mucius Scaevola. The
wainscoting and headpieces were in white and       Objects
gold, and the walls were hung with yellow
satin.                                             SETTEE, STOOL
In 1898, Schloss Hof became the home of an         ca. 1720/30
army training school for riding and driving,       Walnut, carved; upholstered
and this room was used by the officers for         ÖBF
billiards. The furniture and fittings were
removed, including the wall-hangings.              TABLE
                                                   Vienna, ca. 1750/60
Fashions in interior décor                         Yew veneer on pine and beech, with ribbon inlay
Rooms at Schloss Hof changed their appear-         in various woods
ance regularly. Prince Eugene’s rooms derive       BMobV
their particular character from their white
stucco ceilings, splendid stoves, richly-          SOFA
coloured damask wall-hangings, and massive         Vienna, ca. 1750
walnut furniture.                                  Beechwood, with gilding; canework seat
Maria Theresa and Franz Stephan preferred          BMobV
lighter furniture, partially gilded or in white
and gold, with curvaceous legs and surfaces
and yellow, red, or green silk upholstery. The
refurnishing around 1775 saw the introduction                    Prince Eugene’s apartment

                                                                                                 7
CONSOLE TABLE, BEDSIDE TABLE
Vienna, ca. 1775                                THE DINING ROOM
Beech, in white and grey
BMobV                                           “The Baroque Table”
                                                The expression “the Baroque table” (“die
ARMCHAIR, CHAIR                                 Barocke Tafel”) is used to refer to the grand
Vienna, ca. 1840                                dining tables of the princes and nobility. The
Ash, poplar, and cherry veneers on softwood,    table was an integral part of Baroque festivities:
upholstered                                     after all, the Baroque festivity was a Gesamt-
BMobV                                           kunstwerk incorporating all the arts, conceived
                                                by artists (the servants on duty at these occa-
BENCH, CHAIR                                    sions were only there to turn the artists’ inven-
Vienna, ca. 1900                                tive ideas into reality) with a view to providing
Solid bentwood beech, seat and back laminated   the nobility with as much diversion and amuse-
BMobV                                           ment as possible. The lavishly decorated table
                                                played just as important a role in the festivities
SCHLOSS HOF, BILLIARD ROOM                      as did music, fireworks, illumination, park deco-
from the photograph album                       ration, and costumed extras. And it was not just
“Schloss Hof 1910–11”                           that the table was decorated: the food was also
Photograph, ca. 1910                            designed to correspond thematically with what
ÖSTA, KA                                        was being celebrated. Pâtés lent themselves
Reproduction                                    particularly well to artistic invention: they could
                                                easily be decorated with coats-of-arms, crowns,
SCHLOSS HOF, BILLIARD ROOM                      monograms, animals, hunting scenes and
From the photograph album of Fritz Jiresch,     mythological figures. Splendid dining services in
lieutenant of dragoons                          gold, vermeil (gilded silver), silver, and porcelain
Photograph, ca. 1930                            were typical of the heyday of the service à la
Privately owned                                 française and were quite in tune with the spirit
Reproduction                                    of an age in which the nobles set great store by
                                                show and the pleasures of the table: “Luxury
SCHLOSS HOF, DINING HALL                        has become very much the norm in Vienna, and
From the photograph album                       increases from year to year. One imitates all
“Schloss Hof 1910–11”                           that is French ... In Vienna, the sphere in which
Photograph, ca. 1910                            excess is most conspicuous is that of eating and
ÖSTA, KA                                        drinking ... and for the greater part of the day
Reproduction                                    there is not thought to be any better way of
                                                passing the time than at table drinking wine.”
                                                The masters of the kitchens drew up table-plans
                                                so that the tableware would always be laid in
                                                the same symmetrical order according to the


8
course. By this period, goings-on at table had      (biscuits, cream cakes, sponge cakes etc.), cold
become much more refined than they had been         entremets (jellied apples, redcurrant jelly, green
before. The table was covered with a cloth of       peas, artichokes, spinach, green beans, broccoli,
linen damask, every guest was provided with a       tongue, crème de café, sweetbread of veal, egg
napkin of his or her own, and thanks to the         custard, coxcombs etc.), and the roasts (such as
spread of “Tischzuchten” (table manners) from       turkey, venison, pheasant, partridge, goose,
the sixteenth century onwards, guests at the        boar, chicken, capon and poulard). Finally came
“barocke Tafel” could be relied upon to behave      dessert: “This time the dessert was a represen-
more or less decently. Cutlery had been per-        tation of the twelve months of the year, each
fected, and the fork formerly disapproved of by     one with an item of its own, and as the whole
the Church as being a thing of the devil was        thing was made in pure sugar to look like the
now a familiar sight at table. The blade of the     finest picture imaginable, it called forth excep-
table-knife had furthermore lost its sharp point    tional applause.”
in favour of an ever more rounded end. Since        The fare was served with wines from the Rhine,
the seventeenth century there had been              Greece, Italy, and Malaga. Wines from Hungary
instructions for the fancy folding of napkins to    (Tokay, Menes) were also much liked at the time.
form swans, peacocks, fish, butterflies, and the    At the beginning of the eighteenth century,
like, used to decorate the table and not laid at    when the taste for things French began to make
the guests’ places. Another indispensable ele-      itself felt in Austria, wines were also imported
ment in the Baroque dining hall was the carving     from Burgundy, Bordeaux and Champagne.
cutlery, as the best roasts were not carved in                                        (Ingrid Haslinger)
the kitchen but at table. Carving the roast was a
fine art that all young noblemen had to learn.
We unfortunately have no records of the repasts     Objects
with which Prince Eugene regaled his guests at
Schloss Hof. Most were probably banquets, but       TUREENS, BOWLS
he will also have hosted hunting lunches. We        Vienna Porcelain Manufactory, Du Paquier
know that the victuals “were quite sumptuous        period, 1718–1744
and served with a great range of foreign wines”.    Porcelain, glazed, Schwarzlot with gold
But what was actually served on these occasi-       highlights
ons? The first “course” consisted of soups (meat
or vegetable), “saddled” dishes (pheasant with      PLATTERS
sauerkraut, cabbage with meat from the belly,       Vienna Porcelain Manufactory, before 1750
pot-au-feu of chicken, and so on), entremets        Porcelain, glazed, Schwarzlot with gold
(crab pâtés, sausages, olives – “paupiettes” – of   highlights
veal, sweetbread of lamb, chicken in tarragon       “Bindenschild” shield-mark, impressed
sauce, turkey in aspic, goose with green peas,
capon sausages, and the like), two bowls of
(boiled) beef and further supplies of soup. The
second course saw the serving of confectionery                    Prince Eugene’s apartment

                                                                                                      9
BOWLS                                                NAPKINS FOLDED AS ANIMALS
Vienna Porcelain Manufactory, ca. 1750               Done from historic patterns by Margarita Gruber
Porcelain, glazed, Schwarzlot with gold              and Ingrid Salzer
highlights
Shield-mark in underglaze blue                       GLASS GOBLET WITH THE ARMS OF PRINCE
                                                     EUGENE OF SAVOY
LIDDED GOBLET (without lid)                          Bohemia, first quarter of the eighteenth century
Bohemia, ca. 1720                                    Colourless glass, cut and engraved; the coat-of-
Colourless cut glass with gold and ruby spirals      arms engraved on the side of the bowl
in the stem and knop                                 MAK

KNIFE, SPOON, FOUR-PRONGED AND                       This is a typical example of the classical
TWO-PRONGED FORKS, KNIFE REST                        Bohemian goblet from around 1720/30, and was
Johann IV. Beckert                                   in Prince Eugene’s collection at Schloss Hof. The
Augsburg 1732/33                                     side of the bowl shows the Prince’s coat-of-
Gilded silver, fork and blade in iron                arms: the cross of Savoy with the princely
                                                     crown, and the chain and insignia of the Order
KNIFE, SPOON, TWO-PRONGED FORK                       of the Golden Fleece. The arms are surrounded
Master 'M.A.C.'                                      by trophies of war and flanked by the cross of
Naples, 1702                                         Savoy and the imperial double eagle. The round,
Silver                                               slightly upward-sloping foot of the goblet has a
                                                     rosette in its underside and supports an eight-
HUNTING CUTLERY IN AN ÉTUI                           bevel baluster. The slightly convex base of the
Upper Austria, eighteenth century                    conical bowl is cut with a distinctive array of
Wood, brass, leather, blade and fork in iron         ten polished tongues. Under the lip of the glass
                                                     is a frieze of olives.
FOLDING CUTLERY
Germany, first half of eighteenth century            The Homage Banquet
Iron, silver, tortoiseshell                          “For the king, the coronation banquet signified
                                                     his taking possession of his kingdom, and for
THREE KNIVES, THREE TWO-PRONGED                      his guests their express recognition of the
FORKS                                                king.” Much the same was true of the homage-
Scandinavia (or England?), seventeenth century       paying ceremonies in which the Estates of the
Blade and fork in iron, handle in ivory, blade and   duchy in question took their oaths of allegiance.
handle partially etched and gilded                   In the case of the duchy “below the river Enns”
                                                     (present-day Lower Austria), the archducal
All tableware: MAK                                   crown was brought from Klosterneuburg, and
                                                     the Estates processed from the Hofburg along
                                                     the Graben to high mass at Saint Stephen’s
                                                     Cathedral. A delegation of the Estates then made


10
their way to the Ritterstube and took their oaths          Instructions for the fancy folding of napkins
of allegiance. After a Te Deum in the Hofburg              and cutting of fruit for table decoration
chapel, there were festive banquets to which               From: Andreas Glorez, Vollständige Hauß- und
the Estates and highest dignitaries were invited.          Land-Bibliothec (Regensburg, 1701)
                                      (Ingrid Haslinger)   Reproductions

BANQUET ON THE OCCASION                                    Instructions for the fancy folding of tablecloths
OF THE HOMAGE CEREMONIES                                   and napkins
FOR EMPEROR KARL VI                                        From: M. Giegher, Li tre trattati (Padua, 1639)
I. I. Fluerer del Graechi., I. H. Störcklin                Reproductions
Engraving
Privately owned                                            Service à la française table plans for the first
Reproduction                                               and second courses from: V. Corrado, Il Cuoco
                                                           Galante … (3rd edition, Naples, 1786; 1st edition:
Karl was to have become regent in Spain, but he            1778)
had to return to Vienna following the sudden               Reproductions
death of his brother Emperor Joseph I (1678–1711).
Homage was paid to him as Emperor Karl VI in               Instructions for the creative presentation of
1712. Only members of the imperial family ate at           pâtés and sweetmeats: duck pâté, peacock pâté,
the public table.                                          wire support for pâtés, fish pâté, pâté with room
                                                           for a coat-of-arms ad libitum, “lion pâté” (in the
FREY TAFFEL DER N. Ö. DREY OBERN                           shape of a lion), stuffed pâté, double-decker
HN. STÄNDTEN                                               sweetmeats stand from: Conrad Hagger, Neues
(The three most senior members of the Estates              Salzburgisches Koch=Buch, (Augsburg, 1719)
of Lower Austria as guests at table)                       Reproductions
Engraving
Privately owned                                            ANTONIO JOLLI
Reproduction                                               Cycle of views of Naples
                                                           ca. 1766
In spite of the tense political situation and the          Oils on canvas
court being in mourning at the death of Karl VI,           KHM (Gemäldegalerie)
the ceremony of homage took place promptly in
November 1740. The picture shows the Lower                 CONSOLE TABLES
Austrian Estates as guests at the festive ban-             Vienna, ca. 1730
quet. The table is considerably more lavishly              Walnut, carved, marble top (not original)
laid than in 1712. Table services had changed and          BMobV
now contained an increasingly large number of
dishes, casseroles, and tureens.

                                                                          Prince Eugene’s apartment

                                                                                                                11
FIREPLACE SCREEN                                    drawn up by the civil engineer Johann Georg
Vienna, ca. 1730                                    Windpässinger from Breitenbrunn. The plan is a
Walnut, carved; damask (not original)               rendering of Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt’s
ÖBF                                                 design as it was actually executed. Quite apart
                                                    from the plan’s interest to the architectural
CHAIRS                                              historian, its high level of detail makes it an
ca. 1710                                            important source for the restoration work cur-
Walnut, carved; fabric covering (not original)      rently in progress.
BMobV and MAK
                                                    SALOMON KLEINER
                                                    “Wunder würdiges Kriegs- und Siegs-Lager ...”
                                                    1731–1740
                                                    Engravings
ANTECHAMBER                                         ÖNB
                                                    Reproductions
An eighteenth-century noble apartment con-
sisted of a minimum of three rooms – the            The ten-part series “Wunder würdiges Kriegs-
antechamber, the audience chamber, and the          und Siegs-Lager deß Unvergleichlichen Heldens
bedchamber – plus a servant’s room and              Unserer Zeiten Eugenii Francisci Hertzogen zu
dressing room. By “antechamber” is meant            Savoyen und Piemont” (“The most admirable
an anteroom or vestibule with a ceremonial          war and victory camp of the incomparable hero
function. According to the status of the visitor,   of our times, Eugene Francis Duke of Savoy and
the audience was either held straightaway in        Piedmont”), which was devoted to the Prince’s
the antechamber, or further on in the audience      summer residence, the Belvedere Palace in
chamber.                                            Vienna, was published between 1731 and 1740 in
                                                    Augsburg. The drawings by Salomon Kleiner (b.
                                                    Augsburg 1700, d. Vienna 1761) are engraved by a
Objects                                             number of different hands and depict both the
                                                    Upper and Lower Belvedere with their outhouses
JOHANN GEORG WINDPÄSSINGER                          and the garden. Together with the volume of
Axonometric view of the house, garden and           engravings devoted to the menagerie and the
estate farm at Schloss Hof                          exotic plants, Kleiner’s “inventory” of the
Schloss Hof (?), between 1726 and 1729              Belvedere runs to 140 plates in all.
Pen-and-ink and watercolours, paper on
canvas                                              CONSOLE TABLE
ÖNB (Kartensammlung)                                ca. 1720/30
Reproduction                                        Walnut, carved; marble top (not original)
                                                    BMobV
This overall plan from the time of Prince Eugene
of Schloss Hof including its estate farm was


12
ARMCHAIR, CHAIRS, STOOLS                             MAP SHOWING PRINCE EUGENE’S
ca. 1720/30                                          PROPERTIES
Walnut, carved;                                      Production: Thomas Reinagl
textile coverings (not original)                     Pictorial sources: Albertina, HKA,
BmobV                                                Marktgemeinde Obersiebenbrunn, ÖNB

FIREPLACE SCREEN                                     JOHANN BERNHARD FISCHER VON ERLACH
ca. 1720/30                                          Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Walnut, carved; Chinese silk, painted and printed    Prince Eugene’s palais with the arrival of the
MAK                                                  Turkish embassy
                                                     from: Entwurff einer historischen Architectur …
                                                     (Vienna, 1721)
                                                     Engraving by Johann Adam Delsenbach
                                                     ÖNB
AUDIENCE CHAMBER                                     Reproduction

The textile wall-hangings, curtains, and seating     As President of the Court Council of War, Prince
furniture coverings in the Audience Chamber          Eugene had since 1703 been responsible for
were in yellow and white silk. The wood of the       the imperial court’s diplomatic relations with
wainscoting and carved door-headpieces was           the Ottoman Empire. His many duties included
partially gilded. All that remains of the original   receiving and bidding farewell to the Turkish
room is the relief in the centre panel of the        ambassadors. On April 9, 1717, a new Turkish
ceiling.                                             ambassador arrived at Prince Eugene’s palais
                                                     in the Himmelpfortgasse for the first audience
                                                     of his mission to the court in Vienna. Prince
Objects                                              Eugene’s architect Johann Bernhard Fischer
                                                     von Erlach chose to depict the palais at this
JOHANN KUPETZKI (?)                                  particular moment in order to illustrate the
Prince Eugene of Savoy                               great importance of his patron.
ca. 1715
Oils on canvas
MRB

GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF PRINCE EUGENE
After: Max Braubach, Prinz Eugen von Savoyen,
vol. 1 (Vienna, 1963)
Production: Thomas Reinagl
Pictorial sources: MRB and ÖNB

                                                                   Prince Eugene’s apartment

                                                                                                    13
SALOMON KLEINER
“Wunder würdiges Kriegs- und Siegs-Lager ...”     BEDCHAMBER
1731–1740
“Parade und Audienz-Zimmer” (“State Audience      Prince Eugene’s bedchamber had particularly
Chamber”), “Conferenzzimmer”                      splendid furnishings and decoration. The wain-
Engravings                                        scoting, headpieces, and window niches were
ÖNB                                               decorated with gilding, and the wall-hangings
Reproductions                                     were in blue damask. Crowning the fireplace
                                                  was a chimney piece with carved and gilded
Having been appointed President of the Court      trophies and a large mirror, one of the most
Council of War and member of the “secret          coveted luxury items of the time. The prince’s
conference”, Prince Eugene began to exert         large state bed had hangings in hand-embroid-
increasing personal influence on the political    ered yellow silk, a costly import from China.
fortunes of the Habsburg empire. He had by now    All the seating furniture likewise had yellow
begun to build up the secret diplomatic network   silk coverings, with blue satin trimmings.
that was to make him into the best-informed
man at the court of Vienna.
                                                  Objects
CONSOLE TABLE
ca. 1720/30                                       COSTUME WORN BY THE
Walnut, carved; marble top (not original)         “BELLE CHOCOLATIÈRE”
MAK                                               Clothing reconstructed after Jean Étienne
                                                  Liotard, La belle chocolatière (pastel, 1743/44)
SETTEE, CHAIRS, STOOLS                            MRB
ca. 1720/30                                       Reconstruction: Caterina Marchettini, Angelika
Walnut, carved; canework seats and backs          Stifter, Caroline Strasser and Sophie Tschank
BMobV, MAK and ÖBF                                (Fachschule “Die Herbststrasse”) Vienna 2007/08;
                                                  shoes: Sarah Juniper, Woodmancote 2007/08
FIREPLACE SCREEN
Vienna, ca. 1720/30                               Worn over the chemise, the stays and hoop
Walnut, carved; Chinese damask                    skirt (demi-panier) shaped the narrow-waisted
MAK                                               silhouette that was fashionable at the time.
                                                  Over this, serving girls at the imperial court in
AUDIO-INSTALLATION                                Vienna – like Nanette Baldauf, here portrayed
Source: Andreas Gugler                            as the Belle Chocolatière – wore a short, tight-
Speaker: Toni Slama                               fitting jacket, an ankle-length skirt (jupe) and
Production: Norbert Novak & Florian Schäfer       an apron. The decolleté was concealed beneath
                                                  a fichu or kerchief, while the hair was covered
                                                  by a lace-trimmed cap. The shoes, which are
                                                  made of silk, were fastened with a buckle.


14
PAIR OF LADIES’ STOCKINGS                           BOURDALOU
Beau Hill (USA), 1807                               Meissen, ca. 1735
Cotton                                              Porcelain
Private collection                                  Klauda Collection
                                                    Inscription: Aux Plaisirs de Dames, mirror
LACE TRIMMING
France, ca. 1770                                    „MARIE ANTOINETTE“ BOURDALOU
Cotton                                              Paris, ca. 1780
Private collection                                  Porcelain
                                                    Klauda Collection
BONING FOR STAYS
France, end of 18th century                         This bourdalou once belonged to Marie
Whalebone, linen; original set of 12                Antoinette and bears her initials.
Private collection
                                                    „DELFIN“ BOURDALOU
LADIES' SHOE BUCKLES, WITH CASE                     Meissen, 1774-1816
2nd half of 18th century                            Porcelain
Silver, paste; case: stamped leather                Klauda Collection
Private collection
                                                    “GUELDER ROSE PATTERN” BOURDALOU
Bourdalous                                          Meissen, 1745-1750
The bourdalou is a type of chamber pot. The         Porcelain
name refers to Louis Bourdaloue, a Jesuit           Klauda Collection
preacher at the court of Louis XIV. His long dis-
courses, sometimes lasting for hours, allegedly     BOURDALOU
fascinated the ladies at court, and to avoid        Italy, 18th century
interruptions they carried receptacles for          Faience
relieving themselves. At first sauce boats were     Klauda Collection
used for this purpose. The porcelain manufacto-
ries reacted to this custom by designing and        BOURDALOU
producing small-sized oval receptacles.             Holitsch, ca. 1770
These “pots de chambre ovales” soon became          Faience
generally known as bourdalous. In the 18th and      Klauda Collection
19th centuries the bourdalou was very popular
among society ladies. With increasingly ornate      1In 1752 Emperor Franz Stephan of Lorraine
decoration featuring delicate details and ins-      acquired a large estate at Holitsch in the king-
criptions, the bourdalou was produced as a          dom of Hungary. The estate included the
luxury item by the manufactories.

                                                                   Prince Eugene’s apartment

                                                                                                       15
Holitsch majolica manufactory, which had been       The dish was used as a receptacle for accesso-
established around 1743. For almost eight deca-     ries and utensils, the brush for cleaning articles
des it was one of the most important manufac-       of dress and the lockable boxes for keeping
tories of this kind in Europe and supplied virtu-   valuable items of jewellery.
ally the entire demand within the Habsburg
monarchy during this time. The manufactory          LIDDED BOX
closed in 1825.                                     Georg Kaspar Meickl
                                                    Vienna, 1714
CHILD’S CHAMBER POT                                 Silver
China, ca. 1750                                     MAK
Porcelain
Klauda Collection                                   LIDDED BOX
                                                    South Staffordshire or Battersea, 1765-1775
This chamber pot was part of the cargo of the       Copper-gilt, gold relief, opaque enamel, enamel
Geldermalsen, a merchant sailing vessel of the      painting
Dutch East India Company. Carrying export           MAK
goods for Europe, the ship sank in the South
China Sea on 3 January 1752; the cargo was sal-     SCENT BOTTLE
vaged by a team of American divers in 1985.         Bilston, 1765-1770
                                                    Copper-gilt, opaque enamel, enamel painting
CHAMBER POT WITH COVER                              MAK
Canton, Qing dynasty, Quianlong period, ca. 1750
Porcelain                                           BOX WITH POWDER-PUFF
Klauda Collection                                   England, ca. 1800
                                                    Wood; powder-puff: bone, swan’s feathers
COMMODE                                             Private collection
ca. 1800
Wood, paper, leather; pottery                       POT À MOUCHES
Klauda Collection                                   End of 18th century
                                                    Ivory, ruby, mounted stones
BASIN AND EWER                                      Private collection
China, Qing dynasty, 18th century
Porcelain                                           A small box for patches (mouches) worn as
MAK                                                 “beauty spots” on the face. These were punched
                                                    out of black or red taffeta and attached with
PARTS OF A TOILET SET                               gum arabic dissolved in water.
(DISH, BRUSH, BOXES)
Berlin, ca. 1720
Silver-gilt, enamel painting, gold relief
MAK


16
NÈCESSAIRE                                            WIG-MAKER FROM THE
1750-1760                                             “CRIES OF VIENNA” SERIES
Silver, shagreen, ivory, steel                        3rd quarter of 18th century
MAK                                                   Vienna Porcelain Manufactory
                                                      Porcelain, glazed, unpainted
“UNMASKING”, TWO-FIGURE GROUP                         MAK
Vienna, 3rd quarter of 18th century
Vienna Porcelain Manufactory                          Clothed in breeches, an apron and a jacket, the
Porcelain, glazed, polychrome painting,               wig-maker presents his work: a wig with a pig-
gold decoration                                       tail on a dummy and a second wig on a tall wig-
MAK                                                   block. A powder-bag lies at the foot of the wig-
                                                      block. Behind the wig-maker are two boxes in
At Schloss Hof, Maria Theresa had a whole range       which he keeps his products.
åof items at her disposal for her morning toilet.     The craft of wig-making had become established
The inventory taken in 1793 lists the following       around the middle of the 17th century. The
items for the dressing room in Maria Theresa's        scope of the wig-maker’s activities also included
apartment: 1 silver basin, 1 hand-basin of the        the sale, care and styling of his products. Wigs
same, 1 mouth-basin of the same, 2 cups of            were combed and cut, curled and pomaded,
the same, 1 gold spatula, 1 tortoise-shell box        perfumed and powdered.
mounted in silver, 1 mirror with a black painted      The “Cries of Vienna” series depicts the life and
frame, 2 hand-mirrors with black frames, 8 black-     work of vendors and artisans in realistic detail.
painted boxes for night things complete with
appurtenances, 1 round gilt box with integrated       WIG
mirror. A toilet rug of grey taffeta. also served     Human hair
to protect the floor while the hair was being         Private collection
powdered. Maria Theresa was not easy to please        Reconstruction after an original from the 2nd
when it came to dressing her hair, a fact atte-       half of the 18th century, on a reproduction
sted to by the accounts of her lady-in-waiting,       wig-stand
Charlotte von Greiner: “[…] Her Highness plucked
and picked at it [the coiffure] for so long, alter-   WIG HOLDER
ing it so much that it was quite spoiled and had      England, ca. 1800
to be made anew, which, given the style of coif-      Wood, brass
fure customary at that time, usually meant that       Private collection
the whole structure had to be dismantled, the
hair combed out and not infrequently to be put
back in curling papers.”




                                                                    Prince Eugene’s apartment

                                                                                                      17
BELLOWS FOR WIG POWDER                                  The housecoat displayed here was made to
End of 18th century                                     designs featured in Histoire du costume by
Wood, leather                                           Maurice Leloir published in 1935-1939 which
Private collection                                      contains illustrations of 17th- and 18th-century
                                                        costume.
FLEA-SCRATCHER
2nd half of 18th century                                STOCK BUCKLE
Ivory                                                   2nd half of 18th century
Private collection                                      Silver, paste
                                                        Private collection
FLEA-SCRATCHER
1st half of 18th century                                The stock buckle was used to fasten the stock
Wood, bone                                              or neck-cloth at the nape of the neck and was
Private collection                                      mostly worn by men. They were less common in
                                                        women’s clothing but were worn for example
CUP AND SAUCER                                          with riding habits.
Vienna, 3rd quarter of 18th century
Vienna Porcelain Manufactory                            NEWSPAPER LXXXVII. Neue Zeitungen von
Porcelain, glazed, polychrome painting                  Gelehrten Sachen Auf das Jahr 1731.
MAK                                                     Leipzig, den 29 Octob. 1731
                                                        Paper
MANNEQUIN DRESSED IN A HOUSECOAT                        Private collection
AND GENTLEMAN’S SHIRT
Cotton, linen, lace                                     PAIR OF SPECTACLES WITH CASE
Private collection                                      End of 18th century
Reconstruction after historical models:                 Tortoiseshell, blued glass;
Olivia Schmidt, Vienna 2008/09                          case: tortoiseshell, mother-of-pearl inlay, velvet
                                                        Private collection
The cut of this cotton and linen housecoat de-
rives from a type of Indian coat called a banyan.
It has a close-fitting upper part, flaring, gusset-
ed skirts and inserted sleeves. The shirt has a
jabot or lace ruffle sewn on to either side of the
breast opening. Worn by men, housecoats of this
kind developed as a result of two contemporary
trends: the predilection for all things oriental and
the pleasure in comfortable clothing in contrast
to the tight-fitting justaucorps (tailcoat) worn out-
side the home. Likewise, the wig was replaced
by a cap when a gentleman was at home.


18
                                                    In this letter Prince Eugene declares his interest
CABINET ROOM                                        in acquiring the “Tabula Peutingeriana”.
                                                    This road-map of the Roman Empire from the
The “Cabinet” was a withdrawing-room where          12th/13th century was copied from a lost
the prince could be free from disturbances. It      fourth-century original and was part of the
contained a writing desk of elaborate design,       library of the Augsburg town clerk and humanist
a set of seating furniture, and one of Schloss      Konrad Peutinger. By his own account, Prince
Hof’s three precious Chinese lacquer tables.        Eugene succeeded in acquiring the “Tabula
Like the Bedchamber, the Cabinet was decor-         Peutingeriana” from an antiquary in Leipzig
ated in gold, blue, and yellow, and also had a      for 100 ducats.
fireplace with a carved and gilded chimney
piece incorporating a mirror.                       LETTER FROM PRINCE EUGENE to the comte
                                                    de Chorcé
                                                    Vienna, May 13, 1724
Objects                                             MRB

PRINCE EUGENE’S WRITING DESK                        Prince Eugene expresses to Count Chorcé his
(Austria, ca. 1730; war loss)                       pleasure at having been able to give the latter’s
Photographs from around 1930                        son a place in the “Regiment de Lanthien”.
BMobV
Reproductions                                       LETTER FROM PRINCE EUGENE to the comte
                                                    de Vettes
According to the inventory of 1736, Prince          Vienna, November 16, 1735
Eugene’s study contained “a writing desk-cum-       MRB
cabinet for keeping papers, inlaid in walnut and
other woods, with brass and gilded fittings, with   This letter was Prince Eugene’s reply to the
a blue protective cover in Engelsaath [a light      count’s request to be appointed to the rank of
woollen material]“. In accordance with the usual    “Generalleutnant”. Prince Eugene informs Vettes
form of the English writing desk, it had a lower    that his promotion will depend on the agree-
part fitted out with drawers, an upper part con-    ment of the emperor, but assures him of the
sisting of a case with shallow shelves, and the     support of the Council of War.
desk in the strict sense of the word in the
middle with a fall-front.                           LOUIS LIGER, La nouvelle maison rustique ou
                                                    économie generale de tous les biens de cam-
LETTER FROM PRINCE EUGENE OF SAVOY                  pagne, vols. 1 and 2, (Paris, 1755)
to the court antiquary Karl Gustav Heraeus,
Semlin, September 20, 1717
ÖNB, Handschriften-, Autographen- und
Nachlasssammlung
Reproduction                                                      Prince Eugene’s apartment

                                                                                                    19
J. F. LIPPOLD, Neues Handbuch des verstän-
digen Gärtners, vol. 1, 2nd edition (Stuttgart     DRESSING ROOM
and Tübingen, 1831)
                                                   The Baroque Garden
ISIDORUS ANTHOPHILUS, Wohlbewährtes
Garten=Buch, worinnen nicht nur von vielen         Reproductions on cloth of:
seltenen Geheimnissen sondern auch von den         CODEX MINIATUS 53, Vol. X. Recueil des
Pflanzen, Blumen, und andern Garten=Gewäch-        plantes, Paris, third quarter of the seventeenth
sen, auch der Baum=Zucht, von allerhand ordi-      century
nären, wie auch besonders von Zwerg=Bäumen         ÖNB (Handschriften-, Autographen- und
nützliche Anzeige und gründliche Nachricht         Nachlasssammlung)
ertheilet wird (Lucerne and Strasbourg, 1758)
                                                   The ten-volume work Recueil des Plantes culti-
All books: MRB                                     vées dans le Jardin Royale à Paris, part of the
                                                   Codex Miniatus 53, was drawn up by Nicolas
CHINESE FOLDING TABLE                              Robert and a number of collaborators on a com-
Kangxi period, 1662–1772                           mission from Colbert. Prince Eugene acquired
Softwood, Chinese black lacquer                    the work in 1728 for 12,000 livres through the
BMobV                                              good offices of Jean-Pierre Mariette.

This piece of lacquered furniture is remarkable    Flowers shown: tulips, Turk’s-cap lily, clematis,
in that the lower part of the table was also       African marigold, peonies, sunflowers,
imported from China. At that time it was usually   anemonies.
the case that Chinese lacquered elements (often
taken from paravents) were combined with           The Tulip
table-frames of European origin. The tabletop      The first descriptions of the tulip are to be
has a landscape scene executed using sprinkled     found in Turkish writings from the fifteenth
gold powder, and two oversize warriors. The bor-   century. After the conquest of Constantinople,
der running around the panel, and the knobs on     Mohammed II (r. 1451–1481) took a great deal of
the frame were done in nashiji, using silver       trouble over the reconstruction of old gardens
powder. The claw-feet are European.                and the creation of new gardens, in the course
                                                   of which he gave a boost to tulip cultivation
VIDEO                                              and breeding generally.
Sources: Letter from Prince Eugene to the impe-    The golden age of the Ottoman Empire, the
rial court antiquary Karl Gustav Heraeus,          reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566),
Semlin, 20 September, 1717, ÖNB                    is also known as the Tulip Period. As early as
Production: Norbert Novak & Christoph Tilley       1555, we find Ferdinand I’s ambassador to the
With the kind support of the Hofmobiliendepot,     Ottoman court in Constantinople, Ghislain de
Vienna – Bundesmobilienverwaltung                  Busbeqc, making reference to the “Tulipa
                                                   Turcarum” in his letters to Vienna.


20
Among the items that he sent to Vienna were         trelliswork garden pavilions, the foundations of
plants, flowers, bulbs and seeds: tulips, orange    which have been archaeologically excavated.
lilies, hyacinths, lilac, and edible and horse
chestnuts, to name only a few varieties. These      PLAN OF THE WHOLE ESTATE
precious items were entrusted to the care of        OF SCHLOSS HOF
Carolus Clusius (Charles d’Ecluse, 1526–1609),      Mid-eighteenth century
director of the “Hortus botanicus medicinae” at     Pen-and-ink, watercolour
the court of Emperor Maximilian II. Clusius was     MRB
forced to leave Vienna for reasons of religion      Reproduction
and became director of the “Hortus botanicus
medicinae” in Leyden in 1592. He was one of the     This is a very detailed plan of the whole estate
most celebrated botanists of his time and the       at Schloss Hof, including not only the estate
first to cultivate tulips in the Netherlands.       farm, kitchen gardens, orchards, and vineyards,
As a result of his work Europe succumbed to a       but also the meadows, arable land, and tracks. It
veritable “tulipomania”, with the tulip becoming    was probably drawn up for a presentation.
the most important and most expensive               Particularly important is the detailed represen-
fashionable flower of the time. It soon attracted   tation of the fifth and sixth terraces as it consti-
the interest of profiteers in the Netherlands,      tutes the only existing documentation of the
who enjoyed a heyday in the seventeenth             broderie parterres, and also that of the seventh.
century dealing in tulip bulbs.                     The plan also shows hitherto unknown design
                                                    variants for the boskets on these terraces.

                                                    BERNARDO BELLOTTO
                                                    Views of Schloss Hof
                                                    1759/60
                                                    Oils on canvas
„GARTENSAAL”                                        KHM (Gemäldegalerie)
                                                    Reproductions
PLAN OF THE HOUSE AND GARDEN AT
SCHLOSS HOF                                         During his stay in Vienna in 1759/60, Bernardo
Plan of the house and garden at Schloss Hof         Bellotto (b. Venice 1722, d. 1780 Warsaw, other-
Anton Zinner                                        wise known as Canaletto) painted thirteen views
ca. 1726/30                                         of Vienna and of grand houses in the surround-
Pen-and-ink, watercolour                            ing country. Commissioned by Maria Theresa,
MRB                                                 the series included three views of Schloss Hof,
Reproduction                                        which constitute a particularly important source

The plan shows Anton Zinner’s design for the
gardens. It has provided critical information for
the reconstruction of the garden and of the                                  The Baroque garden

                                                                                                      21
today as they show the property before the          fourth and fifth garden terraces. In the distance
extensive alterations and the addition of an        one can see to Hainburg, Theben, and to the
extra floor around 1773/75.                         River March. The angle and the sunlight bring
The view from the west focuses on the cour          out the fortress-like character of the property
d’honneur, with the foreground showing the          as a whole. As Hildebrandt wrote, “I have done
Neptune fountain that was recently uncovered        everything according to the manner of fortres-
by archaeological excavations. The spectacular      ses, in case it should ever be subjected to an
findings from these excavations made it pos-        enemy attack.”
sible for the fountain ensemble to be restored –
to a very large extent – to its original glory.     DOUBLE-BARRELLED FLINTLOCK GUN
Sadly, the Neptune figure had disappeared, but      BELONGING TO DUKE FRANZ STEPHAN
the two original lions were returned to their       OF LORRAINE
places, and copies of the two “Hercules and         François Aubert, Luneville, c. 1725
Antaeus” groups to theirs. In the background,       Iron, blued, hammered gold tausia work, bare
there is a far-flung view to the ruin at Theben     iron, partly incised, with gold ground, partly
and over the “Auen” (uncultivable floodlands        engraved, wood, carved
typical of this part of the Danube basin) of the    KHM, Hofjagd- und Rüstkammer
River March.
                                                    LADY’S FLINTLOCK GUN
The view of Schloss Hof from the east is the        De Sainte, Versailles, c. 1770/80
most famous picture in the series, showing as       Walnut, horn, velvet, iron
it does the complete series of seven terraces       KHM, Hofjagd- und Rüstkammer
in all their magnificence and splendour. Prince
Eugene collaborated closely on the garden with      This flintlock belongs to a set of twelve ladies’
his architect Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt and      flintlock rifles which probably arrived at the
his garden-designer Anton Zinner. The house is      Viennese court from Paris as a gift from the
seen from the last terrace, with the middle axis    French queen Marie Antoinette to her mother,
being given particular emphasis by the render-      Maria Theresa. They were last used by Maria
ings of the fountains and cascades. Sets of         Ludovica, the third wife of Emperor Franz II (I).
steps, wrought-iron gates, ornamental borders,      For comfort of use, the bottom of the stock is
espaliered fruit-trees, pergolas, and hedged        covered in green velvet. The blued barrel dis-
labyrinths make this a typical Baroque garden.      plays slightly prominent damascening in Louis
Also visible in the picture is the huge farm-       Seize style. The guns were made by the guns-
building situated to the north. On closer examin-   mith De Sainte, who was in service at the French
ation, one can also make out the east green-        court from 1763 to 1793.
house – currently being restored – with its
glassed south front.

The view from the north shows Schloss Hof as
seen from the farm-building, taking in the third,


22
CHILD’S FLINTLOCK GUN BELONGING TO                 CYCLE OF PHOTOGRAPHS BY JOSEF WLHA
ARCHDUCHESS MARIA THERESA                          Schloss Hof, ca. 1885–90
Josef Hamerl, Vienna, c. 1725                      ÖNB
Iron, blued, engraved and partly damascened in     Reproductions
gold, bare iron, engraved, wood, horn, brass,
fire-gilt                                          The photographs by Josef Wlha provide us
KHM, Hofjagd- und Rüstkammer                       with valuable information about numerous
                                                   items from Schloss Hof that have long since
PAIR OF FLINTLOCK PISTOLS                          been lost to the estate.
BELONGING TO EMPEROR FRANZ STEPHAN                 These include the numerous pieces of wrought
OF LORRAINE                                        iron work that were brought in their entirety to
Christoph Ris, Vienna, c. 1750                     Vienna from Schloss Hof in 1898. Among those
Iron, blued, gold damascening, bare iron, engra-   that returned to Schloss Hof in the course of the
ved, wood, carved, brass, fire-gilt, engraved      twentieth century were the two monumental
KHM, Hofjagd- und Rüstkammer                       gateways situated to the east of the house.
                                                   The gates shown in the photographs are: the
                                                   west gate, gate and staircase grilles of the
                                                   fountain grotto, the March gate, the north-east
                                                   gate, the grand doorway to the staircase, and
CABINET I                                          the gate in the estate farm.

Wrought iron grille-work
Schloss Hof was fitted out with a great deal of
items in wrought iron, principally gateways and
grilles, both inside and outside the house.        CABINET II
Three monumental gateways led the way into
important areas in the complex: the original       MASCAROON
main entrance to the west (the grille of which     ca. 1730
is no longer in place), the one leading into the   Reconstituted limestone
“Brunnengrotte” or fountain grotto in the centre   MRB
of the garden, and finally the “Marchtor” or
River March gateway at the eastern end of this     The object on display is a fragment of the large
same axis. These outstanding examples of           mascaroon which originally adorned the Small
wrought iron work were executed by Christian       Cascade between the sixth and seventh terrace
Kremer and Johann Georg Oegg.                      of the gardens at Schloss Hof.

FRAGMENTS OF WROUGHT IRON WORK
Christian Kremer and Johann Georg Oegg
ca. 1730
MRB                                                                       The Baroque garden

                                                                                                 23
Photographs from drawings by J. W. van der
Auwera (Würzburg, Martin von Wagner Museum)        CORRIDOR
“Hercules Fighting with Antaeus”, “Hercules
Overcoming Antaeus”, “Sphinx”,                     CHAIR
“Summer/Apollo”, “Autumn/Bacchus”                  Vienna, ca. 1745
                                                   Beechwood in brown and gold;
Among the criteria on which a Baroque garden       upholstery (not original)
was judged was the quality of its sculptures.
Of the great wealth of sculptures formerly at      CHAIR
Schloss Hof many pieces are only extant in         Vienna, after 1750
fragments, and as great a number again have        Beechwood in white and gold;
been lost entirely.                                canework seat and back
The most important source for the reconstruc-
tion of the sculptures is the sketch-book of the   CHAIR
Würzburg sculptor Johann Wolfgang van der          Vienna, after 1750
Auwera, who did drawings of the Schloss Hof        Beechwood in brown and gold;
sculptures in the period around 1730/35.           upholstery (not original)
The two “Hercules and Antaeus” groups were
part of the Neptune fountain in the cour           CHAIR
d’honneur. Sphinxes – as man-and-beast hybrids     Vienna, after 1750
– have been archetypal guardian figures since      Beechwood in white and gold;
time immemorial, and are often to be seen in       canework seat and back
Baroque gardens. At Schloss Hof they watch
over the entrance to the Grotto.                   CHAIR
Divinities of antiquity symbolize the four         Vienna, after 1760
seasons, the sun-god Apollo standing for the       Beechwood in white and gold;
summer, and Bacchus the god of wine for the        canework seat and back
autumn.
                                                   All chairs: BMobV




24
                                                      Objects
CHAPEL
                                                      CONSOLE TABLES
The two-storey domed chapel is an absolutely          ca. 1720/30
integral part of the architecture of Schloss Hof.     Walnut, with carving; marble top (partially
The cupola fresco is by Carlo Innocenzo Carlone.      not original); painting in green and gold
Allegories of Christian virtues in alto rilievo are   from ca. 1775
set into the walls in the galleries; the magni-       BMobV and MAK
ficent stuccoes were the work of Alberto
Camesina and Santino Bussi.                           BENCHES, CHAIRS
The altar painting by Francesco Solimena is of        Vienna, ca. 1773/75
the deposition of Christ from the cross. The          Beechwood in white, canework seats and backs
original painting was acquired for the imperial       BMobV
collections in Vienna around 1775, a copy being
made for Schloss Hof.                                 MANNEQUINS WITH RECONSTRUCTED COSTUMES
                                                      AND COIFFURES
                                                      Use was made of the following paintings: Queen
                                                      Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI of France

GREAT HALL                                            and Archduke Maximilian on the latter’s journey
                                                      to Paris (1778) by Joseph Hauzinger.
                                                      Reconstructions by: Anneke Melis, Hainburg
The Great Hall was completely redecorated in          (Marie Antoinette); Monika Brandstätter, Vienna
the course of Emperor Joseph II’s alterations         (Archduke Maximilian)
around 1773/75. The fine stuccoes were the            2007/8
work of Karl Martin Keller. The original furnish-     MRB
ings consisted of ten benches, twenty-four
chairs, four console tables and several large         Fabrics: Jil-Silk, Dietmanns; Wilhelm Jungmann &
games tables. In addition to the sconces now          Neffe, Vienna; Josef Pirmann, Vienna; Heinrich
reconstructed upon the walls, there were also         Klos, Vienna; Tuchlauben 17, Vienna.
three large glass chandeliers. Illuminated by         Passementerie: M. Maurer, Vienna.
140 candles, the Great Hall was a splendidly          Lace: Böhi Stickereien, Lustenau.
lustrous setting for court festivities.               Shoes: Sarah Juniper, Woodmancote.
A remnant from Prince Eugene’s time is the            Buckles: Holger Ratsdorf, Mertesheim.
relief in the central panel of the ceiling,           Coiffures: Daniela Skala, Vienna.
depicting the glorification of Diana as goddess
of the hunt.




                                                                              The Baroque garden

                                                                                                    25
MARIA THERESA’S APARTMENT


Maria Theresa’s apartment is an outstanding illustration of the décor favoured for living
quarters at eighteenth-century courts. While the imperial apartments in the Hofburg in
Vienna and at Schloss Schönbrunn have been altered, the apartment at Schloss Hof has
not, and now constitutes the only ensemble of rooms from the Vienna court of this time
to have survived very largely in its original state.
     In the course of altering and refurnishing Schloss Hof between 1773 and 1775, Maria
Theresa had the whole apartment completely redesigned and redecorated. She took the
rooms in the south tract that had originally housed Prince Eugene’s state apartment, and
commissioned Franz Anton Hillebrandt to act as her chief architect. The décor and
furnishings were inspired by the French style of the day. The colours chosen reflect Maria
Theresa’s personal situation at the time: ever since her husband’s death in 1765 she had
preferred black and grey for her apartments.
     The inventory from the year 1793 ( “Inventarium Uiber die k.k. Schloß-Gebäude
Schloßhof und Niederweiden vom lezten May 1793 anfangend”, HHStA) lists all the interior
rooms’ furnishings and wall fittings, and thus provides the most important source for the
reconstruction of the interiors and their restoration to their original state. The actual
pieces of furniture used by Maria Theresa and the paintings which she commissioned for
her private living quarters have now returned to Schloss Hof.
     The apartment consists of four principal rooms, the Antechamber (“Antecamer”),
the Audience Room (“Empfangszimmer”), the Sitting Room (“Sitzzimmer”), and the
Bedchamber (“Schlafzimmer”), and three smaller side-rooms, the “Retirade” , the Dressing
Room (“Garderobe”), and the Servant’s Room (“Dienstbotenzimmer”).
     The original furnishings from Maria Theresa’s time include items from three phases.
The marble-topped console tables date from around 1720/30 and were part of Prince

26
Eugene’s furniture. These solid walnut wall-tables have carved decoration with Laub- und
Bandelwerk (leaf- and strapwork), large-leafed acanthus, and tassel-like flower-blooms.
The large glass chandeliers were also originally introduced by Prince Eugene. Chandeliers
of this kind, which can be fitted with up to twelve arms, were installed in almost all of
Prince Eugene’s first-floor rooms at Schloss Hof. In the inventory of 1736 they are usually
referred to as “Englisch Glöserne Hang Leuchter” ( English glass chandeliers).
    The veneered tables from the period around 1750/60 were introduced by Maria
Theresa and Franz Stephan. Some were fitted with drawers and they were often used as
games tables. The curvaceous s-shaped legs are integrated into the frame and stand on
so-called “Geißfüße” (goats’ feet).
    The ensembles of seating furniture specially made for the refurnishing of Schloss Hof
around 1773/75 are made up of settees, chairs, and stools. They are decorated either in
white, white and grey, or white and gold, and are in beechwood with canework seats and
backs. The coverings of the cushions and upholstery are in grey silk taffeta. Inspired by
French originals from roughly the same period, these pieces are examples of the trans-
ition style between Rococo and Neoclassical and some cases incorporate forms that are
purely the latter. The decoration of this set of furniture is at one with that of the interior
as a whole and in accord with the Neoclassical canon of forms, using rosettes and braided
ribbons, and laurel-leaf and scale-like (“imbricate”) ornamentation.




                                                                                             27
                                               Retreat of the French from the bridgehead at
ANTECHAMBER                                    Aschaffenburg, 1745
                                               Reproduction
Coming from the Great Hall, one proceeds
straight into the state antechamber (the       The Battle of Nordheim 1745
“Antecamer”), which with its three windows     Maria Theresa inspects the army encampment
is the largest room in the whole apartment.    at Heidelberg, 1745
A series of battle paintings by artists from   Reproduction
the school of August Querfurth shows the
military successes of the House of Habsburg-   This cycle originally consisted of eight oil paint-
Lothringen. It was quite customary to hang     ings and was produced specially for Schloss Hof.
battle paintings in antechambers used for      The paintings were incorporated into the panel-
ceremonial purposes and had also been the      ling of the Antechamber.
norm at Schloss Hof in Prince Eugene’s day.    The subject of this series of battle paintings is
In addition to the furniture standing in the   Grand Duke Franz Stephan of Lorraine in his
antechamber today, the room also contained     capacity as supreme commander of the imperial
a simple bed for the valet de chambre, which   army, a role which he performed a number of
was hidden during the day under a cloth-       times: first of all in the Turkish wars from 1737
covered stand. Neither the bed nor the frame   to 1739, then in the early phase of the War of
have survived to the present day.              Austrian Succession, and then finally from
                                               1744 to 1745. The event shown in the painting
                                               “Maria Theresa inspects the army encampment
Objects                                        at Heidelberg” took place immediately before
                                               the coronation of Franz Stephan of Lorraine as
SCHOOL OF AUGUST QUERFURTH                     supreme head of the Holy Roman Empire of the
Series of battles in which Franz Stephan of    German Nation, in which capacity he was known
Lothringen acted as supreme commander of       as Emperor Franz I. Maria Theresa had come to
the imperial army                              attend the imperial coronation in Frankfurt am
ca. 1750                                       Main, and it was on September 28, 1745, that she
Oils on canvas                                 inspected the Pragmatic army. She is depicted
HGM                                            in the foreground, sitting in a state carriage.
                                               The troops arrayed in battle order are from
The bombardment of Linz by the Austrians and   Austrian, Hanoverian and Dutch regiments.
its capitulation, 1742
                                               ANONYMOUS
The Battle of Kornya, 1738                     Battle of Piacenza, 1746
                                               ca. 1750
The enemy ambush at Plan, 1742                 Oils on canvas
                                               KHM



28
ANONYMOUS                                            TABLE
Siege of a town in Upper Italy                       Vienna, ca. 1750/60
ca. 1750                                             Yew veneer on pine and beech, ribbon inlay in
Oils on canvas                                       boxwood and olive
KHM                                                  BMobV

CONSOLE TABLES                                       GAMES TABLE
Vienna, ca. 1730                                     Vienna, ca. 1750/60
Walnut, carved; marble top                           Yew, apple-tree, rosewood and maple veneer,
ÖBF                                                  on beech.
                                                     BMobV
CHEST OF DRAWERS
Vienna, ca. 1730/35                                  A chessboard is inlaid in the surface of the
Walnut veneer on pine, with inlay in foliated        table. The inside is designed for playing “Tric-
silver                                               Trac”, a form of backgammon.
ÖBF                                                  Cabinetmakers’ bills reveal the existence of
                                                     numerous “Triset” tables that may have been
“Two walnut chests of drawers inlaid with tin        covered in leather, and of oval tables at which
decorations and with gilded fittings” was the        eight players could engage in another popular
description in the Schloss Hof inventory of 1736     game known as the “Quindetschi Spill”. An
of the chest of drawers standing here and its        entry in Khevenhüller’s diary for 1758 gives
pair, which stood in Prince Eugene’s state bed-      information about the games played at the
chamber.                                             Vienna court. As well as “Trisette” (“Trihset”,
The chests of drawers still formed part of the       “Treseet”), he also mentions “All’ombra” and
Schloss Hof furnishings in the post-Prince           “Piquet”, which we know was a favourite of
Eugene period. According to the inventory of         Prince Eugene’s.
1793, one of the two stood in the antechamber        Maria Theresa was greatly attached to playing
of the apartment created by Maria Theresa in         cards. She had a passion for “Pharao”, a game
1773/75. The second one was to be found in a         of pure chance often played for high stakes. As
cabinet in the east wing and was described as        a contemporary report put it, “The ducats roll in
follows in the inventory: “1 chest of drawers        their thousands across the green covers of the
veneered in hardwood with foliated silver inlay,     large tables, or over the marquetry of the four-
on six turned feet, with 11 drawers, lockable with   seat card tables ...” Gaming took place not only
1 common key, 6 small brass handles and the          in the private quarters, but also in the salons at
same number of brass plaques”.                       the larger soirées.




                                                                   Maria Theresa’s Apartment

                                                                                                     29
CHAIRS, STOOLS                                     Objects
Vienna, ca. 1773/75
Beechwood, in white; canework seats and backs      ANONYMOUS
BMobV, MAK                                         Maria Theresa
                                                   ca. 1750
TWELVE-ARMED CHANDELIER                            Pastel
England (or Bohemia?), ca. 1710                    MRB
Glass
BDA                                                ANONYMOUS
                                                   Emperor Franz I (Franz Stephan of Lorraine)
TILED STOVE                                        ca. 1750
Austria, end of eighteenth century                 Pastel
Glazed ceramics; brass feet (not original)         MRB
MAK
                                                   JOSEPH HAUZINGER
                                                   Queen Marie Antoinette and King Ludwig XVI
                                                   of France with Archduke Maximilian on his
                                                   journey to Paris
AUDIENCE CHAMBER                                   Vienna, 1778
                                                   Oils on canvas
That the audience chamber had pride of place       KHM (Gemäldegalerie)
in the apartment’s hierarchy of rooms is clear
from its fittings and furnishings. Only in this    CONSOLE TABLE
room are the panelling and seating furniture       Walnut, carved; marble top (not original)
decorated with gilding, two large mirrors con-     Vienna, ca. 1730
stitute another conspicuously luxurious fea-       MAK
ture, and this is also the only room in Maria
Theresa’s apartment that has an open fire-         WOOD TRESTLE
place. The pastels are of Maria Theresa and        ca. 1720/30
Franz Stephan of Lorraine. The painting            Walnut, carved
“Queen Marie Antoinette and King Ludwig XVI        MAK
of France with Archduke Maximilian on his
journey to Paris” is part of the cycle of family   Used to hold wood for the fire, the wood trestle
pictures .                                         was one of the items still used in Maria
                                                   Theresa’s time that had originally formed part
                                                   of Prince Eugene’s furnishings. This one has
                                                   scroll feet, acanthus-leaf decoration, and carved
                                                   lion’s heads.




30
FIREPLACE SCREEN
Vienna, ca. 1720/30                                 SITTING ROOM
Walnut, carved; Chinese silk taffeta, painted and
printed; Chinese silk, embroidered                  As a kind of private “living room”, the Sitting
MAK                                                 Room was very likely Maria Theresa’s favourite
                                                    room in the apartment. Two sets of seating
Fireplace screens were counted as part of the       furniture with a settee and daybed afforded
furnishing and matched the seating furniture        an especial degree of comfort. The theme
and wall decoration. This removable leaf of this    governing the pictures commissioned for this
fireplace screen from Prince Eugene’s furnish-      room was chosen by Maria Theresa herself:
ings for Schloss Hof still boasts its original      incorporated into the panelling are four large
fabric covering.                                    family pictures showing the four children of
                                                    hers who lived in Italy.
TABLE
Vienna, ca. 1750/60
Yew veneer on pine and beech, ribbon inlay in       Objects
boxwood and olive
BMobV                                               CYCLE OF FAMILY PICTURES
                                                    Vienna, 1776
SETTEE, CHAIRS, STOOLS                              Oils on canvas
Vienna, ca. 1773/75                                 KHM, Gemäldegalerie
Beechwood, in white and gold; canework seats
and backs                                           Joseph Hauzinger
BMobV u. MAK                                        Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany with his family

TWELVE-ARM CHANDELIER                               Franz Lindner
England (or Bohemia?), ca. 1710                     Archduchess Maria Karoline and Ferdinand of
Glass                                               Naples with their children
MAK
                                                    Jacob Kohl
TWO-ARM WALL-SCONCE                                 Archduchess Maria Amalie and Ferdinand of
Vienna, eighteenth century                          Parma with their children
Bronze, gilded
MAK

FIREPLACE
Eighteenth century
BMobV

                                                                 Maria Theresa’s Apartment

                                                                                                  31
Friedrich von Ohlenhainz                            in the Kunsthistorisches Museum’s collection of
Archduke Ferdinand and Beatrice d’Este of           historical musical instruments.
Milan with their children
                                                    MANUSCRIPT IN MARIA THERESA’S HAND
Between 1776 and 1778 a series of family pictu-     Schloss Hof, June 29, 1777
res was painted for the audience chamber and        HHStA
sitting room of Maria Theresa’s apartment. For      Reproduction
those pictures intended to combine “private”
family scenes with a certain indication of the      AUDIO INSTALLATION
official status of those depicted, it was for the   Sources: Manuscript in Maria Theresa’s hand
first time decided to open the commissions to       from June 29, 1777 and lsebill Barta, Familien-
applicants from the Academy. This unpreceden-       porträts der Habsburger, Wien-Köln-Weimar 2001
ted “state-sponsored” competition led to the        Speakers: Helwig Pfanzelter, Toni Slama
commissions being given to Joseph Hauzinger,        Production: Norbert Novak & Florian Schäfer
Franz Lindner, Jacob Kohl, and Friedrich von
Ohlenhainz.                                         TABLE
The four pictures in the sitting room date from     Vienna, ca. 1750/60
1776 and show the four children of Maria            Yew veneer on pine and beechwood, ribbon
Theresa who lived in Italy, with their families:    inlays in various woods
“my dear Italian colonies, all four, my darlings,   BMobV
my consolers, my support,”as she herself de-
scribed them in 1777.                               SETTEE, CHAIRS, STOOLS
After Joseph Hauzinger, imperial-royal court        Vienna, ca. 1773/75
painter and professor at the Academy, had com-      Beechwood in white and grey; canework seats
pleted the picture for the sitting room, he was     and backs; cushions (not original)
commissioned to paint two further pictures for      BMobV
the audience chamber: Joseph II at the spinet
with his sisters, the Archduchesses Maria Anna      CHANDELIER
and Maria Elisabeth and Queen Marie Antoinette      England (or Bohemia?), ca. 1710
and King Louis XVI of France with Archduke          Glass
Maximilian on his journey to Paris.                 MAK
The cycle of family pictures originally consisted
of eight paintings. Of the three paintings miss-    WALL-SCONCE
ing from the audience chamber, one has sadly        Vienna, 18th century
been lost: the portrait of the Archduchess          Bronze, gilded
Marie Christine. Its counterpart, a portrait of     BMobV
Duke Albert of Sachsen-Teschen, hangs in the
Albertina in Vienna. The picture of Joseph II at
the spinet with his sisters the Archduchesses
Maria Anna and Maria Elisabeth can be admired


32
TILED STOVE                                      CUTLERY FROM THE ESTATE OF
Austria, end of eighteenth century               KARL ALEXANDER OF LORRAINE
Glazed ceramics; brass feet (not original)       Part of a set for 24 persons
MAK                                              France, ca. 1760
                                                 Silver-gilt; knife handle: porcelain
18th-century breakfast tableware                 BMobV, Silberkammer

PARTS OF A DÉJEUNER (TRAY, COFFEE POT,           NAPKIN
SUGAR BOWL, CUP, SAUCER)                         19th century
Vienna, 3rd quarter of 18th century              Linen
Vienna Porcelain Manufactory                     BMobV, Silberkammer
Porcelain, glazed, polychrome painting,
gold decoration                                  Breakfast in the 18th century
MAK                                              Breakfast, in the sense of the first meal of the
                                                 day, was for centuries a very simple affair. It
CHOCOLATE POT                                    generally consisted of a bowl of hot soup with
18th century                                     bread; the soup did not necessarily have to be
Hausmaler decoration                             sweet. The ingredients depended on the finan-
Porcelain, glazed, polychrome painting, wooden   cial means of those consuming it. In peasant
handle, metal mount                              and artisan households it would have usually
MAK                                              been a brown roux soup made with water or
                                                 sour milk and seasoned with caraway or garlic
CHOCOLATE POT BELONGING TO                       and accompanied by a piece of black, often
EMPEROR JOSEPH II                                stale bread, which would have been broken
Ignaz Sebastian Würth, c. 1780                   into the soup.
Silver, ebony                                    At the Viennese court morning soup was also
BMobV, Silberkammer                              commonly served as the first meal of the day
                                                 until well into the 18th century. Morning soups
SUGAR CASTER                                     could be meat-based (albeit not on religious
Vienna Porcelain Manufactory, Du Paquier         fast days), or made with ale, wine, herbs and
period, 1718-1744                                spices (rosemary, cloves, cinnamon) and ground
Porcelain, glazed, polychrome painting,          almonds; the latter were thickened soups,
silver mount                                     bouillon only being served at the déjeuner
MAK                                              and at dinner. Thickened chicken soup was
                                                 regarded as particularly nutritious and whole-
SOUP PLATE                                       some, as was barley soup (créme d’orge).
Meissen, after 1776
Porcelain
BMobV, Silberkammer
                                                               Maria Theresa’s Apartment

                                                                                               33
At the imperial court white bread was eaten            Objects
with the morning soup.
During the course of the 18th century the new          ANTON VON MARON (?)
luxury beverages of coffee, chocolate and tea          Maria Theresa in her widow’s weeds
became increasingly popular. These drinks were         18th century, second half
esteemed on account of their aroma and origi-          Oils on canvas
nally taken with bread, gradually replacing the        MRB
thickened soups. Maria Theresa drank coffee or
chocolate at breakfast accompanied by egg              This half-length portrait shows Maria Theresa
croissants. Nonetheless, besides the new break-        in the widow’s weeds that she wore until her
fast, her children were still obliged to spoon up      dying day. After the death of her husband Franz
their breakfast soup three to four times a week,       Stephan in 1765, the empress only appeared as
so that they did not become unduly spoiled.            she is depicted in this portrait: entirely in black,
Towards the end of the 18th century the patis-         with her widow’s bonnet tied with a ribbon
siers were charged with making the imperial            under her chin. She wore no jewellery but the
breakfast: they not only prepared the coffee,          cross of the Sternkreuzorden (“Order of the Star
chocolate, milk and cream but also had to make         Cross”), the women’s counterpart of the Order
the croissants and rolls that had now become           of the Golden Fleece.
customary breakfast fare, as well as the butter
and jam to go with them.                               It was in 1772 that Anton von Maron (b. Vienna
                                  (Ingrid Haslinger)   1733, d. Rome 1808) was commissioned to do
                                                       portraits of a number of members of the impe-
                                                       rial family. The works he painted included a pair
                                                       of monumental portraits of Maria Theresa and
                                                       Franz Stephan.
BEDCHAMBER
                                                       ANONYMOUS (BÜRGER?)
The walls of the bedchamber are hung with              Emperor Franz I (Franz Stephan of Lorraine)
grey silk taffeta, and the wainscoting is in           ca. 1765
white and grey. The room is decorated with             Oils on canvas
portraits of Maria Theresa in her widow’s              KHM (Gemäldegalerie)
weeds and of Franz Stephan of Lorraine
(Emperor Franz I). Like all the bedrooms at            BED
court, this room originally contained a prie-          Reconstruction on the basis of the extant parts
dieu. This and the painting that went with it,         (including the bed’s original fabrics) and of
a crucifixion, have sadly been lost.                   documentary sources
Adjoining the bedchamber is the “Retirade”,
which originally had blue linen wall-coverings
and was furnished with a commode.



34
TEXTILE PART (VALANCES)                              TABLE
OF MARIA THERESA’S BED                               Vienna, ca. 1750/60
India and Austria,                                   Yew veneer on pine and beechwood, ribbon
first and second half of the 18th century            inlays in various woods
Cotton twill, silk embroidery, chain-stitch,         BMobV
passementerie
MAK                                                  SETTEE, CHAIRS, STOOLS
                                                     Vienna, ca. 1773/75
The state bed in the form of a “lit à la duchesse”   Beechwood, painted in white and grey; canework
made for Maria Theresa in 1775 was made from         seats and backs; cushions (not original)
textile elements from a Schloss Hof bed from         BMobV
the time of Prince Eugene. Indications that this
was the case are given by the inventory of 1736,     TILED STOVE
which lists a bed that corresponds to the one        Austria, fourth quarter of the 18th century
preserved today: “A large state bed for two per-     Glazed ceramics; brass feet (not original)
sons with various linen panels in many different     MAK
colours and embroidered in silk, and trimmed
with silk passementerie …”
This suggests that the textiles produced in India
for Maria Theresa’s bed were originally acquired
by Prince Eugene. Further indications that the
textile elements were “secondhand” are given
by the cutting up of the various embroideries
and the use of passementerie to make a unity
out of a number of heterogenous parts and to
cover seams. In all at least seven different
counterpanes or hangings went to make up the
present bed. The basic cotton fabric – white
chintz and cotton twill – is embroidered in the
finest chain-stitch with winding tendrils, flower-
blooms, birds and miniature architectural motifs.

BEDSIDE TABLE
Vienna, ca. 1760
Walnut
BMobV




                                                                   Maria Theresa’s Apartment

                                                                                                   35
                                                 Reproduction on cloth from :
SERVANT’S ROOM                                   JEAN ÉTIENNE LIOTARD
                                                 La belle chocolatière
WARDROBE                                         Vienna, 1743/44
Vienna, eighteenth or nineteenth century         Pastel
Oak                                              Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche
ÖBF                                              Kunstsammlungen Dresden

TABLE                                            Jean Étienne Liotard (b. Geneva 1702, d. Geneva
Vienna, ca. 1750/60                              1789), master of the pastel and miniature,
Oak                                              received a number of commissions to do por-
BMobV                                            traits of the imperial family. During his stay in
                                                 Vienna in 1743/44 he did pastels of most of the
CHAIRS, STOOLS                                   family. In 1762 he did a series of portraits of the
Vienna, ca. 1773/75                              children of the emperor and empress, and Maria
Beech, in white; canework seats and backs        Theresa singled him out for special thanks and
BMobV                                            recognition in 1778. In “La belle chocolatière”,
                                                 the artist chose as his theme a serving girl
CUP AND SAUCER (TREMBLEUSE)                      going about her duties. The girl in question is
Vienna Porcelain Manufactory, third quarter of   Nandl (Nanette) Baldauf, daughter of a coach-
the eighteenth century                           man at the Viennese court. As the title reveals,
Porcelain                                        she is serving drinking chocolate. On the
MAK                                              Chinese lacquerwork tray stands a glass, and
                                                 next to it a trembleuse. This kind of cup for hot
DRINKING GLASS WITH NIGHT-WATCHMAN               drinks has a fixture (often in metal), or a ring
BEARING A HALBERD                                projecting from the saucer, to hold the beaker,
Bohemia, eighteenth century                      glass, or cup in place. The purpose was to pre-
Glass                                            vent the drink from being spilt if the hand
MAK                                              holding it happened to tremble.

                                                 “Long live chocolate and he who invented it.”
                                                                                      (Carlo Goldoni)

                                                 As was the case with tea and coffee, it was in
                                                 the seventeenth century that chocolate became
                                                 an accepted and popular beverage at the courts
                                                 of Europe. This choice stimulant gave an extra
                                                 dimension to the rituals of the day and was sur-
                                                 rounded with a strong whiff of the glamorous
                                                 and exotic. In noble circles where such luxuries


36
could be afforded, these drinks gradually even
took the place of soups at breakfast.
The practice of consuming cocoa in liquid form
came to Austria in the eighteenth century, from
Italy. Almost all the living quarters of the stan-
dard palais were fitted out with a small “choc-
olate oven” for the preparation of the hot drink.




CORRIDOR
PORTRAITS OF LADIES OF THE COURT
Second half of eighteenth century
Oils on canvas
KHM (Gemäldegalerie)

The series of portraits first listed in the 1793
inventory as “half-length portraits of various
ladies of the court with frames entirely gilded”
hung on the ground floor of Schloss Hof’s south
tract. Of the original seventeen, ten are still
extant.




                                                     Maria Theresa’s Apartment

                                                                            37
Lenders
Albertina – Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Wien
BDA – Bundesdenkmalamt, Wien
BMobV – Bundesmobilienverwaltung – Hofmobiliendepot, Wien
BMobV, Silberkammer – Bundesmobilienverwaltung – Silberkammer, Hofburg Wien
HGM – Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Wien
HHStA – Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Wien
HKA – Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Hofkammerarchiv, Wien
KHM – Kunsthistorisches Museum, Wien
MAK – Österreichisches Museum für angewandte Kunst / Gegenwartskunst, Wien
MRB – Marchfeldschlösser Revitalisierungs- und Betriebsges.m.b.H.
ÖBF – Österreichische Bundesforste
ÖNB – Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Wien
Private collection
Klauda Collection


38
Generously supported by:
Museum of Military History




Court Furniture Depository




Kunsthistorisches Museum




MAK – Austrian Museum of the Applied
Arts/Contemporary Art




Austrian State Forests – Schloss Eckartsau




Ministry for Education, Science and Art




Government of Lower Austria



Editor:
Marchfeldschlösser Revitalisierungs- und
Betriebsges.m.b.H.
2294 Schlosshof 1
Texts:
Lieselotte Hanzl-Wachter, Franziska Hladky,
Birgit Lindner
Exhibition design:
Checo Sterneck
Layout:
Büro Meisinger, 1060 Vienna
Print:
Jentzsch, 1100 Vienna
Translation:
Sophie Kidd, Vienna
www.schlosshof.at

								
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