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					Sonnets
 Shakespeare
   Spenser
    Sidney
             Shakespeare
 1609 – Elizabethan, but published after
  her death (Jacobean).
 A Shakespearian sonnet is a fourteen line
  poem with a couplet written in iambic
  pentameter.
 Distinguish: Petrarch wrote first sonnet in
  Italy (hence, Petrarchan sonnet) = lyric
  poem of fourteen lines in iambic
  pentameter.
            Types of Sonnets
 Italian   (Petrarchan) =
  –Octave (first 8 lines)
    abba abba -- or – ab ab ab ab
  –Sestet (next 6 lines)
    cde cde – or – cd cd cd
  –Volta = turn – point of dramatic
   change, occurs between octave and
   sestet
         Types of Sonnets

English   (Shakespearean) =
 –3 quatrains, plus couplet
   3 stanzas of four lines
   1 stanza of two lines
 – abab cdcd efef gg
 –Volta = before the couplet
       More About Sonnets
 Sonnet  cycle = series of sonnets with
  central theme of love for a beautiful,
  unattainable woman (or young man)
 Fashionable to write intricate,
  controlled verse as competition and
  challenge
 Sonnets reflect shape, emphasis, and
  order of topic.
          Sir Thomas Wyatt –
         “Whoso List To Hunt”
 abba  abba cddc ee
 Iambic accents (stress) on:
  “Whoso-list to hunt, I know where is an hind,
  But as for me, alas, I may no more:
  The vain travail hath wearied me so sore.
  I am of them that farthest cometh behind;”
           Sir Thomas Wyatt –
          “Whoso List To Hunt”
 Volta@ “Who list her hunt,” =
  changes from active hunter (suitor) to
  acknowledged defeat (she belongs to
  King Henry)
 Theme = unattainable love
 Images =
  – Deer; doe; hunter; prey;
  – a net to catch the wind
  – Diamonds engraved on her neck
                  Wyatt – Whoso List To Hunt”

Whoso-list to hunt, I know where is an hind,                               A
But as for me, alas, I may no more:               iambic pentameter        B
The vain travail hath wearied me so sore.                                  B
                                                   modified Petrarchan
I am of them that farthest cometh behind;                                  A
Yet may I by no means my wearied mind                                      A

Draw from the deer: but as she fleeth afore,                               B
                                                             slant rhyme
Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore,                                  B

Since in a net I seek to hold the wind.                                    A

Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt,                                 C
                                               volta
As well as I may spend his time in vain:                                   D

And graven with diamonds, in letters plain         *metaphors –            D

There is written her fair neck round about:        *theme –                C

“Nolit me tangere, for Caesar’s I am;                  unattainable love   E

And wild for to hold, though I seem tame.”                                 E
                    Shakespeare – Sonnet 18

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?        conceit                       A
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.             iambic pentameter       B
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,                                A
                                                       Shakespearean
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.                                B
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,             *theme –              C

And often is his gold complexion dimmed.               immortality of fair   D
                                                       youth through verse
And every fair from fair sometime declines,                                  C
                                                 Dispraise =
By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed. opposition to               D
                                                 achieve praise              E
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
                                               volta
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest,                                 F

Nor shall Death brag thou wander’st in his shade                             E

When in eternal lines time thou grow’st.                                     F

  So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,                 eternizing  G
                                                               conceit
  So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.             (hyperbole) G

				
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