Revision List ……

Document Sample
Revision List …… Powered By Docstoc
					        Revision List……

       Lessons to learn for test

1)   Going on growing
2)   Defence systems
3)   Killing bacteria
4)   Fighting infection
5)   The battle goes on
            Going on growing
Keywords
1.   Microorganisms= Are tiny living things, so small we need a
     microscope to see them.
2.   Microbes= Is what we sometimes call microorganisms
3.   Bacteria=A microorganism that is very small, which consists
     of only one cell
4.   Viruses=Microbes that are smaller than bacteria
5.   Fungi=Are small and round, examples include yeasts and
     moulds
Bacteria, fungi and viruses are all types of microorganism


                       Bacteria




                 Microorganims/Microbes




     Viruses                              Fungi
   Diagrams of microbes and
         some features
1. Bacteria    Single cell
               No nucleus
              Reproduce by
                dividing



2. Virus      The smallest
                microbe
              Not made of
                 cells
     Diagrams of microbes and
           some features
              Are small
3.    Fungi
              Are round
              Are single
               celled
     Many microbes are very
           important
Fungi are used in/for:


          Beer           Cheese
                                   Antibiotics
Bacteria used in:


             Yogurt               Cheese
        Revision List……

       Lessons to learn for test

1)   Going on growing
2)   Defence systems
3)   Killing bacteria
4)   Fighting infection
5)   The battle goes on
                Defence systems
Keywords
1.   Sexually transmitted diseases=are diseases caught through
     sexual intercourse without protection (condom). An example is
     AIDS
2.   Immune system=Part of the body which fights against microbes
     when they get into the body
3.   White blood cells=Found in the blood and whose job is to
     destroy microorganisms in the body
4.   Antibodies=Are chemicals produced by white blood cells which
     attach to the outside of microbes and kill them.
                 Defence systems
Keywords
5)   Immune= If your body has met a microbe before, it can make
     antibodies quickly so you therefore don’t get ill, you are then
     IMMUNE to that microbe

6)   Infections=When a microorganism enters our body, we are then
     infected so therefore have an INFECTION

7)   Pathogen= Are the bad microorganisms that cause infection
 Some microorganisms are
very bad and cause disease
1. Tuberculosis caused by a
   bacteria (affects the lungs)


2   Rabies (from animal bites) is caused by a virus


3   Athletes foot is caused by a
    fungus
    How do we keep microbes
      out of our bodies???
  1)Skin
provides a                                              2)Tears
  strong                                                  have
 barrier                                               chemicals
                                                      that destroy
3)Strong                                                bacteria
stomach                                                 4)White
  acid                                                 blood cells
destroys                                                   kill
microbes                                                microbes
                                                       inside the
   We also have mucus in our nose and wax in our ears
                                                          body
     So how do microbes get into
          our body then????
1.   From cuts in our skin
2.   Dirty water
3.   Contaminated food
4.   Air that we breathe has microbes
5.   From animal and insect bites
6.   From sexual intercourse
            Fighting infection
•    If microbes penetrate the body’s barriers the
     immune system is used to clear up infection
•    White blood cells found in blood fight against
     microbes. They destroy microbes in 3 ways:

          1. They swallow up microbes
    2. Produce antibodies that attach to microbes
       3. Destroy toxins made by microbes
        Revision List……

       Lessons to learn for test

1)   Going on growing
2)   Defence systems
3)   Killing bacteria
4)   Fighting infection
5)   The battle goes on
            Killing bacteria
Keywords
1. Antiseptics=Are ointments and creams that have
   chemicals used kill bacteria. Are applied to cuts
2. Antibiotics=Are medicines that kill bacteria once
   they’ve got into our body
3. Agar plate=Has a jelly that contains food to grow
   bacteria in laboratories
 How we kill bacteria in our
      food and drink
Chlorine is added to our   We cook our food
water to kill bacteria     at high temperatures
         Antiseptics


We apply antiseptics to our cuts to kill
     bacteria and stop infections


            Joseph Lister
            was first to use
              antiseptic
                    Antibiotics
The discovery of antibiotics by Fleming was by
complete chance.

 What are antibiotics?
 Antibiotics are chemicals produced by fungi to kill OR
 stop the growth of bacteria.

IMPORTANT-
•Antibiotics are medicines that kill bacteria that have got
inside the body. For example penicillin
•THEY DO NOT KILL VIRUSES!!!!!
    Why do we need so many
     different antibiotics???
•   Different antibiotics are needed because bacteria
    can become RESISTANT to a certain antibiotic.
•   This means that the antibiotic does not kill certain
    bacteria and it will continue to live. So we
    therefore use a different one.
How does a bacteria become RESISTANT?
1. Because people don’t finish all their tablets.
2. Because doctors give wrong antibiotics to people
3. Because doctors give antibiotics when not needed
        Revision List……

       Lessons to learn for test

1)   Going on growing
2)   Defence systems
3)   Killing bacteria
4)   Fighting infection
5)   The battle goes on
          Fighting infection
Keywords
1.   Vaccination=When dead or inactive microbes are
     injected into our bodies.

2. Immunised=After our vaccination our body makes
   antibodies which are ready in case the disease
   ever infects our body.
Lady Montague
     •  In the 1700’s people were
       scared of catching smallpox
     • They had lots sores and usually
       died. (see picture below)
     • Lady Montague put some pus
       from one of the sores into the
       vein of a healthy person.
     • This made them slightly ill but
       when they recovered they were
       IMMUNE to smallpox
What did Edward Jenner
      discover???
           • In 1788 there was a big
             outbreak of smallpox
           • He noticed people who
             worked with cows only
             caught cowpox(milder
             than smallpox
           • So, he put cowpox pus
             into a healthy person to
             IMMUNISE them
             against smallpox
           • He called his discovery
             vaccination
        Revision List……

       Lessons to learn for test

1)   Going on growing
2)   Defence systems
3)   Killing bacteria
4)   Fighting infection
5)   The battle goes on
         The battle goes on…..
Ways of preventing the spread of infection before
microorganisms were identified:

Case 1- The bubonic plague

•The great plague was caused by bacteria in infected rats,
passed to humans by rat bites.

•It was passed from human to human by coughing and
sneezing.
How did people prevent the spread
  of disease from one village to
           another????
              1.   A brave vicar persuaded people
                   to stay in the village which
                   stopped infection spreading

              2.   Their food was delivered to the
                   edge of the village

              3.   They used to drop money into
                   wells for collection by delivery
                   people
   Case 2-Cholera in the water
Background information
•Cholera is caused by a bacteria in people’s drinking
water
•Back in the 1800’s people got water from pumps in the
street
•A clever man, Dr Snow showed how many victims of
cholera lived near a single pump
  How did they stop cholera
        infection??
•By closing pumps which spread the infection




•Nowadays in developing countries e.g Bangladesh
cholera is controlled by 1) Adding chlorine
                         2) Boiling water
                         3) Antibiotics
         How the incidence of disease
           has changed over time
                        What this graph shows
                       •Firstly we see an increasing
                       numbers of deaths up until
                       Lady Montague’s
Deaths
                       discovery(first dotted line)
                       •The number of deaths then
                       decreases
                       •The number of deaths
            Date       further decreases following
                       Edward Jenner’s
                       discovery(second dotted line)
  Very best of
luck with your
    test!!!!!

				
DOCUMENT INFO