Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 by hbh94542

VIEWS: 113 PAGES: 16

More Info
									U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs




   Bureau of Justice Statistics
   Special Report
                                                                                                               May 2002, NCJ 175703


Police Departments
in Large Cities, 1990-2000
                  By
        Brian A. Reaves, Ph.D.             Highlights
                  and
         Matthew J. Hickman                From 1990 to 2000, in cities with 250,000 or more residents, the number
            BJS Statisticians              of UCR violent crimes decreased 34%, the number of UCR property crimes
                                           decreased 31%, and the number of full-time local police officers increased 17%
From 1990 to 2000, 62 local police                        P ercent change from 1990
departments served cities with a                          20%
population of 250,000 or more. During                           N um ber of full-tim e
this time, the number of residents                        10%   sw orn person nel
served by these agencies increased by
                                                           0%
10%, from 45 million to 49.4 million;
their number of full-time employees by                   -10%
                                                                                         N um ber of U C R
20%, from 166,823 to 199,627; and                                                        violent crim es
their number of full-time sworn person-                  -20%      N um ber of U C R
nel by 17%, from 130,242 to 152,858.                               property crim e s
                                                         -30%

In contrast to the increases noted                       -40%
above, the volume of serious crime                          1991             1994           1997             2000
reported in these cities was substan-
tially lower in 2000 than in 1990.         Among large city police departments, 1990-2000, changes included —
According to the FBI Uniform Crime
                                           • The number of residents served                 Annual operating costs per resident
Reports program, the number of violent
                                           increased by 10%, accompanied by a             rose 10%, from $242 to $266, but
Crime Index offenses declined by 34%,
                                           7% increase, from 289 to 310, in the           annual per officer costs increased by
and the number of property Crime
                                           number of full-time sworn personnel            just 2%, from $83,814 to $85,786.
Index offenses by 31%.
                                           per 100,000 residents.                     The percent of departments using
In addition to employment and crime          The percentage of full-time sworn      bicycles rose from 39% to 98%. The
trends, this report presents other data    personnel who were members of a          average number of bicycles in use
comparisons based on the 1990 and          racial or ethnic minority increased from went from 8 to 95.
2000 Law Enforcement Management            30% to 38%.
and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS)                                                 The percent of departments using
surveys. Topics include staffing levels,     Hispanic representation among                in-field computers increased from 73%
race and ethnicity of officers, officer    officers increased from 9% to 14%,             to 92%, the percent using automated
education and training requirements,       blacks from 18% to 20%, and women              fingerprint ID systems from 60% to
operating budgets, officer salaries and    from 12% to 16%.                               97%, and the percent with enhanced
special pay, types of special units                                                       9-1-1 from 76% to 97%.
operated, drug enforcement activities,       The percent of departments requiring
                                           new officers to have at least some       The percent of departments with full-
sidearm and armor policies, types of                                              time domestic violence units rose from
vehicles operated, and computeriza-        college rose from 19% to 37%, and
                                           the percent requiring a 2-year or      50% to 81%; with full-time victim
tion.                                                                             assistance units, from 32% to 47%.
                                           4-year degree grew from 6% to 14%.
Staffing levels
                                             Table 1. Number of full-time employees in police departments
                                             serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
From 1990 to 2000, the average
number of full-time personnel in police                                           Number of full-time employees
departments serving cities with a                                  Per                   Per 100,000               Per 10
population of 250,000 or more                Population            agency                residents                 square miles
increased by 20%, from 2,691 to 3,220        served              1990     2000            1990      2000          1990      2000
(table 1). New York City’s police             Total               2,691    3,220           370        404             85     101
department (NYPD), the Nation’s
                                             1,000,000 or more    9,047   11,267           422        470              82    102
largest, had about 53,000 full-time          500,000-999,999      2,113    2,349           348        355              80     89
employees as of June 2000. (See              350,000-499,999      1,113    1,334           289        317              86    103
appendix table A for employment data         250,000-349,999        932    1,068           305        343             133    153
for all 62 local police departments
serving cities with a population of
250,000 or more.)                           Table 2. Number of full-time sworn personnel in police departments serving
                                            cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
In 2000, police departments in large
cities employed 404 full-time personnel                                         Number of full-time sworn personnel
per 100,000 residents. This repre-                                 Per                  Per 100,000               Per 10
sented an increase of 9% over the           Population             agency               residents                 square miles
                                            served               1990    2000            1990     2000            1990       2000
1990 level of 370 per 100,000. On a
land area served basis, employment            Total              2,101    2,465            289       310               66      78
increased from 85 full-time personnel       1,000,000 or more    7,113    8,717            331       364               65      79
per 10 square miles in 1990 to 101 per      500,000-999,999      1,647    1,810            271       274               63      69
10 square miles in 2000.                    350,000-499,999        841      972            219       231               65      75
                                            250,000-349,999        730      796            239       256              105     114

From 1990 to 2000 the average
                                            In terms of land area, employment               The Washington (DC) Metropolitan
number of full-time sworn personnel
                                            increased from 66 full-time sworn               Police Department continued to have
among police departments in large
                                            personnel per 10 square miles in 1990           the highest ratio, with 631 officers per
cities increased by 17%, from 2,101 to
                                            to 78 per 10 square miles in 2000.              100,000 residents in 2000, although
2,465 (table 2). The NYPD had more
                                                                                            this was down 15% from the 1990 ratio
than 40,000 full-time sworn personnel
                                            In 2000 these agencies employed 310             of 742 per 10,000. Other large city
as of June 2000 (see box below). This
                                            full-time sworn personnel per 100,000           police departments with at least 500
was about 3 times the next largest
                                            residents. This represented an                  full-time officers per 100,000 residents
department in Chicago, with 13,466.
                                            increase of 21 per 100,000, or 7%,              in 2000 were the Newark (NJ) Police
                                            compared to 1990.                               (536) and the NYPD (505).


 Fifteen largest local police departments serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, by number of full-time
 sworn personnel and number of full-time sworn personnel per 100,000 residents served, 1990 and 2000

             Number of full-time sworn personnel                     Number of full-time sworn personnel per 100,000 residents
 City                 1990      City                  2000         City                    1990        City                   2000
 New York (NY)        31,236    New York (NY)         40,435       Washington (DC)            742      Washington (DC)             631
 Chicago (IL)         11,837    Chicago (IL)          13,466       Detroit (MI)               447      Newark (NJ)                 536
 Los Angeles (CA)      8,295    Los Angeles (CA)       9,341       New York (NY)              427      New York (NY)               505
 Philadelphia (PA)     6,523    Philadelphia (PA)      7,024       Chicago (IL)               425      Baltimore (MD)              466
 Detroit (MI)          4,595    Houston (TX)           5,343       Philadelphia (PA)          411      Chicago (IL)                465
 Washington (DC)       4,506    Detroit (MI)           4,154       Atlanta (GA)               396      Philadelphia (PA)           463
 Houston (TX)          4,104    Washington (DC)        3,612       Baltimore (MD)             389      Detroit (MI)                437
 Baltimore (MD)        2,861    Baltimore (MD)         3,034       St. Louis (MO)             389      St. Louis (MO)              428
 Dallas (TX)           2,635    Dallas (TX)            2,862       Newark (NJ)                368      Cleveland (OH)              381
 Boston (MA)           2,053    Phoenix (AZ)           2,626       Boston (MA)                357      Boston (MA)                 367
 Phoenix (AZ)          1,949    San Francisco (CA)     2,227       Cleveland (OH)             348      Atlanta (GA)                354
 Milwaukee (WI)        1,866    Las Vegas (NV)         2,168       Buffalo (NY)               315      New Orleans (LA)            343
 San Diego (CA)        1,816    Boston (MA)            2,164       Pittsburgh (PA)            312      Milwaukee (WI)              335
 Honolulu (HI)         1,781    San Diego (CA)         2,022       Miami (FL)                 310      Buffalo (NY)                317
 San Francisco (CA)    1,777    Milwaukee (WI)         1,998       Milwaukee (WI)             297      Cincinnati (OH)             311




2 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000
 Table 3. Female and minority representation among full-time sworn personnel in police
 departments serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
                                                                 Percent of full-time sworn personnel who were:
 Population                 Any minority              Black, non-Hispanic       Hispanic, any race        Asian/Pacific Islander    American Indian         Female
 served                    1990    2000                 1990      2000           1990       2000            1990       2000         1990      2000        1990     2000
   Total                  29.8%         38.1%          18.4%      20.1%           9.2%       14.1%               2.0%   2.8%         0.3%     0.4%        12.1%       16.3%
 1,000,000 or more        27.6%         37.6%          15.1%      16.9%          11.4%       17.5%               0.9%   2.1%         0.2%     0.3%        12.3%       16.8%
 500,000-999,999          35.8          41.1           25.2       27.0            5.0         7.7                5.3    5.3          0.3      0.5         12.6        16.1
 350,000-499,999          30.7          36.4           18.9       20.4           10.2        12.7                1.0    2.1          0.6      1.0         10.9        14.4
 250,000-349,999          24.0          32.7           17.4       20.9            6.2        10.4                0.3    0.7          0.2      0.4         10.5        15.8


  A v e ra g e ra tio o f p e rc e n t m in o rity lo c a l p o lic e o ffic e rs to p e rc e n t m in o rity               Table 4. Mininum education
  c ity re s id e n ts , c itie s w ith a p o p u la tio n o f 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 o r m o re , 1 9 9 0 a n d 2 0 0 0              requirement for new officers in
                                                                                                                            police departments serving cities
                M inority gro up                                                                                            with a population of 250,000 or more,
                       A ny m inority                                                            2000                       1990 and 2000
                                                                                             1990
                                                                                                                            Minimum             Percent of agencies
           B lack/A frican A m erican                                                                                       requirement          1990        2000
                                                                                                                                   Total           100%      100%
                    H ispanic/Latino                                                                                        4-year degree       1.6%       4.8%
                                                                                                                            2-year degree       4.8        9.7
                                                                                                                            Some college*      12.9      22.6
                     O ther m inority                                                                                       High school        79.0      62.9
                                                                                                                            None                1.6        0.0
                                        0       0.1     0.2     0.3      0.4      0.5      0.6      0.7      0.8            *Non-degree requirements only.
                                                          A verage officer-to-resident ratio


Figure 1                                                                                                                    Table 5. Mininum training requirement
                                                                                                                            for new officers in police departments
Minority and female representation                             From 1990 to 2000, the average ratio                         serving cities with a population of
                                                               increased from .59 to .63 for minorities                     250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
Minority representation among local                            overall (figure 1). That is, on average,
police officers in large cities increased                      police departments in large cities had                       Type of               Median number of
from 29.8% in 1990 to 38.1% in 2000                            63 minority police officers for every 100                    training and          training hours required
(table 3). Hispanics recorded the                              minority residents in 2000, compared to                      population served         1990        2000
greatest increase, from 9.2% to 14.1%.                         59 for every 100 in 1990. For blacks or                      Classroom training
                                                                                                                             All sizes                 760          880
Black representation also increased,                           African Americans, the average ratio
from 18.4% in 1990 to 20.1% in 2000.                           increased from .64 in 1990 to .74 in                         1,000,000 or more          831        1,111
                                                                                                                            500,000-999,999            760          852
Asian and Pacific Islander representa-                         2000, for Hispanics or Latinos from .54                      350,000-499,999            760          897
tion was 2.8% in 2000, up from 2.0% in                         to .56, and for other minority groups                        250,000-349,999            756          880
1990. The percentage of female                                 (such as Asians and American Indians)                        Field training
officers rose from 12.1% in 1990 to                            from .26 to .37.                                               All sizes                520          600
16.3% in 2000. (See appendix table B                                                                                        1,000,000 or more          500          500
for minority and female officer percent-                       Education and training requirements                          500,000-999,999            540          560
ages for all 62 local police departments                                                                                    350,000-499,999            520          648
                                                                                                                            250,000-349,999            490          610
serving cities with a population of        The percentage of police departments
250,000 or more.)                          in large cities that required a 4-year
                                                                                                                          From 1990 to 2000, the median number
                                           degree of new officers rose from 1.6%
                                                                                                                          of classroom training hours required
Using a ratio based on the percentage in 1990 to 4.8% in 2000 (table 4). The
                                                                                                                          of new officer recruits in police depart-
of sworn personnel who were members percentage requiring a 2-year degree
                                                                                                                          ments in large cities increased from
of a racial or ethnic minority relative to increased from 4.8% to 9.7% during
                                                                                                                          760 to 880 (table 5). The median field
the percentage of city residents who       this time, and the percentage with a
                                                                                                                          training requirement also increased
were members of that minority group        non-degree college requirement went
                                                                                                                          during this time — from 520 hours
indicates that, on average, police         from 12.9% to 22.6%. Overall, about
                                                                                                                          to 600 hours. In 2000, police depart-
departments in large cities were slightly twice as many departments had some
                                                                                                                          ments in large cities had a median
more representative of the cities they     type of college education requirement
                                                                                                                          annual in-service training requirement
served in 2000 than in 1990.               for new officers in 2000 (37.1%) as did
                                                                                                                          for officers of 40 hours (data were not
                                           in 1990 (19.3%).
                                                                                                                          collected in 1990).



                                                                                                                 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 3
 Table 6. Annual operating budget of police departments
 serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
                                                                     Annual operating budget
 Population                        Per agency                        Per resident             Per employee            Per sworn employee
 served                     1990                 2000              1990       2000           1990      2000            1990       2000
   Total                $176,134,761         $211,581,036          $242        $266         $64,493    $64,323        $83,814     $85,786
 1,000,000 or more      $586,494,149         $695,642,921          $272        $290         $64,024    $60,061        $82,450     $79,804
 500,000-999,999         138,511,331          165,117,265           228         250          64,667     69,391         84,109      91,127
 350,000-499,999          77,063,388           99,818,601           200         237          67,715     73,811         91,352     102,539
 250,000-349,999          59,757,009           71,229,731           196         229          62,470     65,788         81,747      89,364
 Note: All data are presented in 2000 dollars.

Operating budgets
                                                    Table 7. Minimum starting salaries                Table 8. Types of special pay for
The operating budgets of police depart-             in police departments serving cities              sworn personnel in police depart-
ments serving cities with a population              with a population of 250,000 or more,             ments serving cities with a population
of 250,000 or more totaled about $13.1              1990 and 2000                                     of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
billion in fiscal 2000. Controlling for             Position and          Average minimum             Type of pay and     Percent of agencies:
inflation (see methodological note on               population            starting annual salary      population served     1990       2000
page 15), this was 20% more than in                 served                  1990         2000
                                                                                                      Shift differential pay
1990. The per agency average was                    Chief                                              All sizes                66%     76%
nearly $212 million in 2000 compared                 All sizes             $95,393       $97,215
                                                                                                      1,000,000 or more         70%     80%
to about $176 million in 1990 (table 6).            1,000,000 or more     $113,150      $105,524      500,000-999,999           62      71
                                                    500,000-999,999         98,401       105,488      350,000-499,999           53      65
Operating budgets for 2000 totaled                  350,000-499,999         88,789        89,050      250,000-349,999           86      93
$266 per resident, $24 higher than in               250,000-349,999         86,430        87,989
1990. Per employee operating costs                                                                    Education incentive pay
                                                    Sergeant or equivalent                             All sizes            60%         61%
were $64,323 for 2000, about the same                All sizes           $49,081         $50,541
as in 1990 ($64,493). The overall                                                                     1,000,000 or more         60%     60%
                                                    1,000,000 or more      $50,444       $49,726      500,000-999,999           62      57
operating budget per sworn officer                  500,000-999,999         49,042        51,265      350,000-499,999           65      59
increased 2% during this period, from               350,000-499,999         48,279        48,718      250,000-349,999           50      71
$83,814 to $85,786.                                 250,000-349,999         49,143        52,298
                                                                                                      Hazardous duty pay
In 2000, departments serving 1 million              Entry-level patrol officer                         All sizes                56%     50%
                                                     All sizes              $35,002      $34,556
or more residents had the highest per                                                                 1,000,000 or more         50%     50%
                                                    1,000,000 or more      $34,986       $34,153      500,000-999,999           57      57
resident operating budget, $290.
                                                    500,000-999,999         34,306        34,454      350,000-499,999           71      47
Departments serving a population of
                                                    350,000-499,999         35,742        34,476      250,000-349,999           43      43
350,000 to 499,999 had the highest per
                                                    250,000-349,999         35,158        35,095
employee ($73,811), and per officer                                                                   Merit pay
($102,539) budgets. (See appendix                   Note: All data are presented in 2000 dollars.      All sizes                35%     34%
table C for budgetary data for all 62                                                                 1,000,000 or more         60%     50%
local police departments serving cities             increased by 3% from 1990 ($49,081)               500,000-999,999           19      19
with a population of 250,000 or more.)              to 2000 ($50,541), while starting                 350,000-499,999           35      47
                                                    salaries for entry-level officers declined        250,000-349,999           43      29
Salaries and special pay                            by about 1%, from $35,002 to $34,556.
                                                                                                      From 1990 to 2000, the percentage of
From 1990 to 2000, the average base                 From 1990 to 2000, the percentage of              departments offering hazardous duty
starting salary for police chiefs in cities         police departments in large cities that           pay declined slightly, from 56% to 50%.
with a population of 250,000 or more                offered shift differential pay to officers        In 2000, a majority of the departments
increased by about 2%, from $95,393                 increased from 66% to 76% (table 8).              serving 500,000 to 999,999 residents
to $97,215 (table 7). The average                   Nearly all (93%) of the departments               (57%) offered this type of special pay.
                                                    serving 250,000 to 349,999 residents
starting salary for chiefs was highest
                                                    offered this type of special pay in 2000.         The percentage of departments with
in departments serving 500,000 or
                                                                                                      merit pay in 2000 (34%) was about the
more residents C about $105,500.                    About 3 in 5 departments offered                  same as in 1990 (35%). Those serving
                                                    education incentive pay in 1990 (60%)             1 million or more residents (50%) or
Average starting salaries for sergeants             and 2000 (61%). Those serving
or equivalent first-line supervisors                                                                  350,000 to 499,999 residents (47%)
                                                    250,000 to 349,999 residents (71%)                were the most likely to offer merit pay.
                                                    were the most likely to offer it in 2000.


4 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000
UCR violent crimes                                              Table 9. UCR violent crime index offenses reported to police departments
                                                                serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
From 1990 to 2000, according to the
FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports (UCR),                                                            Number of UCR violent crime index offenses
the number of violent Crime Index                                                      Per                Per 100,000              Per 100
                                                                Population             agency             residents                sworn personnel
offenses (murder, forcible rape,                                served               1990     2000         1990       2000           1990     2000
robbery, and aggravated assault)
                                                                  All sizes          13,091        8,686                1,802        1,091                 623       353
reported to police departments in cities
with 250,000 or more residents declined                         1,000,000 or more    44,123      26,558                 2,056        1,108                 620       305
                                                                500,000-999,999       9,154       7,083                 1,506        1,072                 556       397
34% C from an average of 13,091 per                             350,000-499,999       6,579       4,696                 1,710        1,115                 782       483
department to 8,686 (table 9).                                  250,000-349,999       4,739       3,171                 1,553        1,018                 649       397

The drop in the rate of violent crimes
per 100,000 residents was even larger,                          Table 10. UCR property crime index offenses reported to police departments
falling from a rate of 1,802 violent                            serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
crimes per 100,000 residents in 1990,
                                                                                                 Number of UCR property crime index offenses
to 1,091 per 100,000 in 2000 — a                                                       Per                   Per 100,000              Per 100
reduction of 39%. Cities with 1 million                         Population             agency                residents                sworn personnel
or more residents had the largest                               served               1990         2000                  1990         2000               1990       2000
decrease (46%), led by a 60% drop in                              All sizes          60,653      41,571                 8,352        5,221               2,887     1,692
New York City. (See appendix table D
                                                                1,000,000 or more   172,513     103,346                 8,038        4,312               2,425     1,186
for UCR violent crime data for all 62                           500,000-999,999      51,205      39,208                 8,424        5,933               3,109     2,197
local police departments serving cities                         350,000-499,999      35,348      26,959                 9,190        6,398               4,201     2,773
with a population of 250,000 or more.)                          250,000-349,999      25,652      18,732                 8,407        6,013               3,514     2,344

A large reduction in violent crime also                       UCR property crimes                                        There were 41% fewer reported UCR
occurred in the number reported per                                                                                      property crimes per 100 sworn person-
officer employed. In 2000 there were                          From 1990 to 2000, the number of UCR                       nel in 2000 (1,692) than in 1990
353 violent crimes per 100 sworn                              property Crime Index offenses (larceny-                    (2,887). Departments serving 1 million
personnel, 43% fewer than the 1990                            theft, burglary, motor vehicle theft) in                   or more residents reported a drop in
rate of 623 per 100. Among cities with                        large cities decreased 31%, from an                        property crimes per 100 officers that
1 million or more residents, the decline                      average of 60,563 per city to 41,571.                      exceeded 50% (from 2,425 to 1,186),
was 51%, including 57% in New York.                           In 2000, there were 5,221 property                         with a 69% drop in New York.
                                                              crimes per 100,000 residents compared
By specific type of violent crime, the                        to 8,352 in 1990, a decrease of 37%. In                    The burglary rate in cities with a
number of murders per 100,000                                 cities with 1 million or more residents,                   population of 250,000 or more declined
residents declined from an average of                         the drop was 46%, led by New York
21 per city in 1990 to 13 in 2000; forci-                                                                                from an average of 2,122 per 100,000
                                                              (64%). (See appendix table E for UCR
ble rapes, from 84 to 52; robberies,                                                                                     residents in 1990, to 1,167 per 100,000
                                                              property crime data for all 62 local
from 671 to 399; and aggravated                                                                                          residents in 2000 (figure 3). For
                                                              police departments serving cities with a
assaults, from 786 to 603 (figure 2).                                                                                    larceny-theft, the average rate declined
                                                              population of 250,000 or more.)
                                                                                                                         from 5,082 to 3,798, and for motor
                                                                                                                         vehicle theft from 1,529 to 1,005.

    U C R v io le n t c rim e in d e x o ffe n s e s , c itie s w ith a                  U C R p ro p e rty c rim e In d e x o ffe n s e s , c itie s w ith a
                                                                                         p o p u la tio n o f 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 o r m o re , 1 9 9 0 a n d 2 0 0 0
    p o p u la tio n o f 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 o r m o re , 1 9 9 0 a n d 2 0 0 0

    Type of violent crim e
                                                                                            T ype of prop erty crim e
                   M urder                                                                                                         2000
                                                                                                      B urglary
                                                                                                                                              1990
                                   2000
           Forcible rape                         2000
                                    1990                                                        Larceny-theft
                                                                   1990
                 R obbery
                                                                                         M otor vehicle theft

   A ggravated assault
                                                                                                                    0       1000       2000      3000       4000   5000    6000

                             0            200        400          600         800                                                  N um ber per 100,000 residents

                                 A verage num ber per 100,000 res idents


Figure 2                                                                             Figure 3


                                                                                                       Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 5
Special units                           Ninety-seven percent of departments                          problems rose from 89% to 98%, and
                                        operated either a full-time domestic                         the percentage with a full-time gang
Police departments in large cities      violence unit or had personnel assigned                      unit increased from 69% to 84%.
operated various types of special units part-time to deal with the problem in
to address crime-related problems and 2000, compared to 61% in 1990. The                             The percentage of departments with
to provide resources to those affected  percentage with full-time units                              personnel assigned at least part-time to
by crime. In 1990 and 2000, more than increased from 50% to 81% during                               handle bias-related crimes increased
three-fourths of departments had full-  this time.                                                   from 58% in 1990 to 71% in 2000;
time special units or part-time person-                                                              however, the percentage with a full-
nel assigned to general crime preven-   From 1990 to 2000, the percentage                            time unit dropped from 34% to 26%
tion, child abuse, juvenile crime, drug with personnel assigned on at least a                        during this time.
education in schools, missing children, part-time basis to address gang-related
drunk drivers, and gangs (table 11).
                                              Table 11. Special units operated by police departments
In 2000 a majority of departments had         serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
personnel assigned full time to special
units for gangs (84%), domestic vio-                                               Percent of agencies with:
                                                                             Full-time                  Full-time special unit
lence (81%), child abuse (77%), crime         Type of                        special unit:              or part-time personnel
prevention (76%), drug education in           special unit                  1990           2000           1990         2000
schools (73%), juvenile crime (68%),
and missing children (66%).                   Victim assistance                32%             47%            45%          71%
                                              Crime prevention                 95              76            100           97
                                              Repeat offenders                 68              34             77           57
Seventy-one percent of departments            Prosecutor relations             66              31             76           58
operated a full-time unit or had part-        Domestic violence                50              81             61           97
time personnel assigned to victim             Child abuse                      87              77             95           92
assistance in 2000 compared to 45% in         Missing children                 89              66             95           95
                                              Juvenile crime                   81              68             94           84
1990. The percentage with full-time           Gangs                            69              84             89           98
victim assistance units rose from 32%         Drug education                   90              73             98           95
to 47% during this time.                      Drunk drivers                    56              40             76           81
                                              Bias-related crimes              34              26             58           71



 Community policing initiatives of police departments in large cities, 2000
 Since the enactment of the 1994 Crime        Also, nearly all departments had full-                 Seventy-one percent of departments
 Act and the subsequent creation of the       time sworn personnel serving as                        had a formal, written community polic-
 Department of Justice’s Office of            community policing officers with a                     ing plan, while 29% had an informal
 Community Oriented Policing Services         mean of 21% and a median of 5% of                      plan. Other indicators of community
 (COPS), most police departments              all officers so assigned.                              policing in large cities:
 have taken steps to implement
 community policing.                              Type of community policing activity during                  Percent
                                                  12-month period ending June 30, 2000                        of agencies
 The COPS office facilitated this effort
                                                  Met at least quarterly with citizen groups
 by providing funding to deploy commu-            to discuss crime-related problems                                 100%
 nity policing officers, facilitate problem       Gave patrol officers responsibility
 solving efforts, encourage interactions          for specific geographic areas/beats                               90%
 with communities by officers, promote            Conducted a citizen
 innovations in policing, and enhance             police academy                                                    87%
 existing technologies.                           Assigned detectives to cases based
                                                  on geographic areas/beats                                         84%
 Although such data were not collected            Trained citizens in community policing techniques
 in 1990, the 2000 LEMAS survey pro-              such as community mobilization and problem solving                79%
 vided several measures of large city             Actively encouraged patrol officers to engage in
 police departments’ community polic-             SARA-type problem-solving projects on their beats                 77%
 ing efforts. For example, 94% of the             Upgraded technology to
 departments provided all new officer             support community policing                                        76%
 recruits with at least 8 hours of                Conducted or sponsored a survey of citizens
                                                  on crime or police-related topics                                 63%
 community policing training during the
                                                  Formed problem-solving partnerships through
 12-month period ending June 30, 2000.            specialized contracts or written agreements                       61%



6 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000
 Table 12. Officers assigned to a multi-agency drug                                  Table 13. Officers assigned to a special drug enforce-
 task force by police departments serving cities with                                ment unit in police departments serving cities with a
 a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000                                      population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000

                       Officers assigned full-time to drug task force:                                     Officers assigned full-time to special drug unit
                             1990                         2000                                                  1990                      2000
 Population            Average Average              Average Average                  Population           Average Average           Average Average
 served                number   percent             number   percent                 served               number   percent          number   percent
  All sizes                 13        1.0%             15      0.9%                   All sizes                86          4.4%         123        3.5%
 1,000,000 or more          21        0.3%             48      0.7%                  1,000,000 or more         289         3.5%         474        3.6%
 500,000-999,999            15        0.8              11      0.7                   500,000-999,999            55         3.6           69        3.3
 350,000-499,999            10        1.5              10      1.1                   350,000-499,999            48         6.3           33        3.4
 250,000-349,999             6        1.1               8      1.2                   250,000-349,999            28         3.7           30        4.0

Drug enforcement                                      Departments had an average of 15 full-               Equipment
                                                      time officers each assigned to a multi-
All but 1 of the 62 local police depart-              agency drug enforcement task force in                In 1990 nearly all police departments
ments serving cities with a population                2000, compared to 13 in 1990. As a                   serving 250,000 or more residents
of 250,000 or more reported in the                    percentage of all officers, the average              authorized the use of both semiauto-
2000 LEMAS survey that they had                       decreased slightly, from 1.0% in 1990                matic (98%) and revolver (97%)
receipts from a drug asset forfeiture                 to 0.9% in 2000 (table 12).                          sidearms; however, the percentage
program during the prior year, as did 60                                                                   authorizing revolvers had dropped
departments in the 1990 survey.                       From 1990 to 2000, departments                       to 65% by 2000 (table 14). All depart-
Although data on the value of the                     serving a population of 1 million or                 ments authorized semiautomatic
goods, money, and property received                   more increased their average number                  sidearms in 2000.
were not collected in 1990, it totalled an            of officers assigned to a task force from
estimated $108.2 million in 1999, or                  an average of 21, or 0.3% of all          From 1990 to 2000, the percentage
about $708 per sworn officer.                         officers, to an average of 48, or 0.7%.   of police departments in large cities
                                                                                                requiring all patrol officers to wear
  Estimated value of drug asset                       The average number of officers per        protective body armor increased from
  forfeiture receipts, police departments             department assigned to a special unit     21% to 48%. During this time, the
  serving cities with a population of
  250,000 or more, 1999                               for drug enforcement increased from       percentage of departments that
                                                      86 in 1990 to 123 in 2000; however, the required at least some patrol officers to
  Population          Total             Per
  served              (in millions)     officer       average percentage of all officers so     wear armor rose from 31% to 69%
                                                      assigned in 2000 (3.5%) was lower         (table 15). Departments serving
  All sizes            $108.2            $708
                                                      than in 1990 (4.4%) (table 13). The       250,000 to 349,999 residents (43%)
  1,000,000 or more      $58.7           $674         largest drop was among departments        were the least likely to have a body
  500,000 - 999,999       25.0            657
  350,000 - 499,999       14.0            845
                                                      serving 350,000 to 499,999 residents C armor requirement for patrol officers
  250,000 - 349,999       10.5            939         from an average of 6.3% of officers in    during 2000.
                                                      1990 to 3.4% in 2000.



 Table 14. Types of sidearms authorized by                            Table 15. Body armor policies for field/patrol officers in
 police departments serving cities with a                             police departments serving cities with a population
 population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000                         of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000

                      Percent of agencies authorizing                                              Percent of agencies requiring field/patrol
                      field/patrol officers to use semi-                                           officers to wear protective body armor
                      automatic sidearms or revolvers                 Population                         1990                             2000
 Population           Semiautomatic             Revolver              served                 Total        All     Some          Total      All     Some
 served                1990      2000        1990     2000
                                                                         All sizes            31%        21%         10%          69%     48%        21%
  All sizes             98%      100%        97%       65%            1,000,000 or more       50%        30%         20%          70%     60%        10%
 1,000,000 or more     100%      100%         90%      80%            500,000-999,999         29         19          10           81      43         38
 500,000-999,999        95       100          95       71             350,000-499,999         30         18          12           77      59         18
 350,000-499,999       100       100         100       59             250,000-349,999         21         21           0           43      36          7
 250,000-349,999       100       100         100       50




                                                                                                  Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 7
Vehicles                                   Table 16. Use of off-land vehicles by police departments serving cities
                                           with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
In 2000, 29% of police departments in
large cities operated airplanes, about                                                       Percent of agencies using:
the same percentage as in 1990 (26%)       Population                    Airplanes                Helicopters                Boats
(table 16). Nearly all departments with    served                      1990     2000             1990       2000        1990       2000
planes had just one, with no more than       Total                      26%         29%             55%           66%             48%        58%
four operated by any department. In        1,000,000 or more            40%         50%             80%           90%             70%        70%
2000 those serving a population of 1       500,000-999,999              33          24              67            62              62         76
million or more (50%) were the most        350,000-499,999              24          41              53            82              29         35
likely to operate an airplane.             250,000-349,999               7           7              21            36              36         50

Sixty-six percent of departments op-
erated at least one helicopter in 2000,    Table 17. Use of motorcycles by                                Table 18. Use of bicycles by police
compared to 55% in 1990. The median        police departments serving cities                              departments serving cities with a
number of helicopters operated was 2       with a population of 250,000 or                                population of 250,000 or more,
with a maximum of 19. Ninety percent       more, 1990 and 2000                                            1990 and 2000
of departments serving a population of
                                                                     Percent of agencies                                          Percent of agencies
1 million or more operated helicopters     Population                using motorcycles                    Population              using bicycles
during 2000.                               served                      1990      2000                     served                     1990      2000
                                             All sizes                  90%        95%                      All sizes                39%       98%
From 1990 to 2000, the percentage of
departments using boats increased          1,000,000 or more           100%       100%                    1,000,000 or more          50%      100%
                                           500,000-999,999              95         95                     500,000-999,999            38       100
from 48% to 58%. Among those using         350,000-499,999              94         94                     350,000-499,999            41       100
boats in 2000, the median number           250,000-349,999              71         93                     250,000-349,999            29        93
operated was 3, and the maximum was
27. About three-fourths of the depart-
ments serving a population of 500,000       N u m b e r o f ve h ic le s p e r 1 ,0 0 0 s w o rn p e rs o n n e l o p e ra te d
or more used boats during 2000.             b y p o lic e d e p a rtm e n ts in la rg e c itie s , 1 9 9 0 a n d 2 0 0 0

                                             T ype of ve hicle
Among land vehicles, motorcycle use
increased slightly, from 90% of depart-         M arked cars                                                                      2000
ments in 1990 to 95% in 2000.                                                                                           1990
A much more substantial increase was         U nm arked cars
observed for bicycles, with 98% of
departments using them in 2000,
                                                M otorcycles
compared to 39% in 1990 (table 18).
On average, departments operated 44
                                                     B icycles
bicycles per 1,000 sworn personnel in
2000 compared to 3 per 1,000 in 1990
                                                                 0        50       100        150       200       250       300      350
(figure 4).
                                                                     A verage num ber operated per 1,000 sw orn personnel

Police departments in large cities        Figure 4
operated 307 marked cars per 1,000
sworn personnel in 2000, 17% more
than in 1990 (263). The ratio of un-       Table 19. Marked vehicle use policies of police departments serving
                                           cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
marked cars also increased, from 188
per 1,000 sworn personnel in 1990 to                                   Percent of agencies allowing officers to take marked vehicles home
207 per 1,000 in 2000.
                                                                                   1990                                   2000
                                                                                Personal Personal                      Personal Personal
The percentage of departments allow-       Population                           use         use not                    use         use not
ing officers to drive marked vehicles      served                      Total    allowed     allowed           Total    allowed     allowed
between work and home increased              All sizes                  39%            24%           15%                55%          13%        42%
from 39% in 1990 to 55% in 2000 (table     1,000,000 or more            20%            20%            0%                10%           0%        10%
19). However, the percentage of            500,000-999,999              33             19            14                 67           19         48
departments allowing officers to use       350,000-499,999              59             35            24                 71           18         53
these vehicles for personal errands        250,000-349,999              36             21            14                 50            7         43
decreased from 24% to 13%.                 Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.




8 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000
 Table 20. Use of computer-aided             Table 21. Use of an enhanced 9-1-1                                Table 22. Use of in-field computers
 dispatch by police departments              system by police departments                                      or terminals by police departments
 serving cities with a population of         serving cities with a population of                               serving cities with a population of
 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000              250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000                                    250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000

                     Percent of agencies                               Percent of agencies                                           Percent of agencies
                     using computer-         Population                with enhanced 9-1-1                                           using in-field computers
 Population          aided dispatch          served                       1990       2000                      Population            or terminals
 served                1990       2000         All sizes                    76%             97%                served                    1990        2000
  All sizes             90%      100%        1,000,000 or more               80%           90%                   All sizes               73%        92%
 1,000,000 or more      90%      100%        500,000-999,999                 76           100                  1,000,000 or more         90%       100%
 500,000-999,999        90       100         350,000-499,999                 82           100                  500,000-999,999           81        100
 350,000-499,999        94       100         250,000-349,999                 64            93                  350,000-499,999           77         88
 250,000-349,999        86       100                                                                           250,000-349,999           43         79

Computers and information systems
                                             Table 23. Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)
The increase in computerization among        capabilities of police departments serving cities with a population
police departments in large cities from      of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
1990 to 2000 was evident
                                                                           Percent of agencies with AFIS capability through —
in a variety of areas. For example, all                                          1990                             2000
departments were using computer-             Population                         Owned Remote                    Owned Remote
aided dispatch systems in 2000,              served                     Total   system terminal        Total    system terminal
compared to 90% in 1990 (table 20).            All sizes                 60%          57%            3%            97%        71%         26%
                                             1,000,000 or more           60%          60%            0%          100%         90%         10%
Participation in enhanced 9-1-1              500,000-999,999             62           57             5           100          71          29
emergency systems, capable of                350,000-499,999             77           71             6           100          65          35
pinpointing a caller’s location automati-    250,000-349,999             36           36             0            85          64          21
cally, increased from 76% of depart-         Note: System ownership may have been exclusive or shared.
ments in 1990 to 97% in 2000 (table
21). In 2000, all departments serving
250,000 to 999,999 residents were             T e c h n o lo g ic a l c a p a b ilitie s o f p o lic e d e p a rtm e n ts
using enhanced 9-1-1.                         in la rg e c itie s , 1 9 9 0 a n d 2 0 0 0


Increases in the percentage of depart-               C om puter-aided dispatch

ments using in-field computers or
terminals were also observed. Ninety-                            E nhanced 9-1-1
two percent of police departments in
large cities used them in 2000,
                                                       A utom ated fingerprint ID
compared to 73% in 1990 (table 22).
All departments serving 500,000 or
more residents were using in-field                In-field com puters/term inals                                                      2000

computers or terminals during 2000.                                                                                           1990
                                                                                     0%        20%       40%       60%       80%     100%
The use of Automated Fingerprint                                                                     P ercent of agencies
Identification Systems (AFIS) rose
from 60% of departments in 1990             Figure 5
to 97% in 2000 (table 23). In 2000
                                            In terms of the technological measures
all departments serving 350,000 or
                                            provided by LEMAS, nearly all police
more residents had AFIS access.
                                            departments in large cities had
The percentage of departments with
                                            advanced capabilities in 2000 (figure
exclusive or shared ownership of an
                                            5). This included the use of
AFIS system increased from 57% to
                                            computer-aided dispatch, enhanced
71% during this time.
                                            9-1-1, automated fingerprint identifica-
                                            tion, and in-field computers.




                                                                                            Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 9
Appendix table A. Full-time employees of police departments
serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
                                        Full-time employees                                     Full-time sworn personnel
                             Total number             Per 100,000 residents           Total number               Per 100,000 residents
Population                              Percent                       Percent                    Percent                       Percent
category and city       1990     2000 change         1990     2000 change        1990     2000 change         1990     2000 change
1,000,000 or more
New York (NY)           39,398 53,029     34.6%       538      662     23.1%    31,236   40,435    29.4%       427      505        18.4%
Los Angeles (CA)        10,695 12,409     13.2        315      336      6.8      8,295    9,341    12.6        238      253         6.2
Chicago (IL)            14,909 16,466     10.4        536      569      6.2     11,837   13,466    13.8        425      465         9.4
Houston (TX)             5,579  7,440     33.4        342      381     11.3      4,104    5,343    30.2        252      273         8.7
Philadelphia (PA)        7,354  7,928      7.8        464      522     12.6      6,523    7,024     7.7        411      463        12.5
Phoenix (AZ)             2,584  3,394     31.3        263      257     -2.2      1,949    2,626    34.7        198      199         0.3
San Diego (CA)           2,498  2,746      9.9        225      224     -0.2      1,816    2,022    11.3        164      165         1.1
Dallas (TX)              3,487  3,586      2.8        346      302    -12.9      2,635    2,862     8.6        262      241        -8.0
San Antonio (TX)         1,912  2,387     24.8        204      209      2.1      1,576    1,882    19.4        168      164        -2.4
Las Vegas (NV)           1,782  3,286     84.4        289      322     11.4      1,162    2,168    86.6        189      213        12.7
500,000 to 999,999
Detroit (MI)             5,203   4,804     -7.7%      506      505     -0.2%     4,595    4,154     -9.6%      447      437        -2.3%
San Jose (CA)            1,465   1,812     23.7       187      202      8.1      1,110    1,408     26.8       142      157        10.9
Honolulu (HI)            2,220   2,270      2.3       265      259     -2.4      1,781    1,792      0.6       213      205        -4.0
San Francisco (CA)       2,566   2,520     -1.8       354      324     -8.5      1,777    2,227     25.3       245      287        16.8
Indianapolis (IN)        2,113   2,402     13.7       299      313      4.5      1,436    1,592     10.9       203      207         1.9
Jacksonville (FL)        2,080   2,541     22.2       327      345      5.5      1,181    1,530     29.6       186      208        11.9
Columbus (OH)            1,724   2,144     24.4       272      301     10.6      1,381    1,744     26.3       218      245        12.3
Austin (TX)              1,082   1,656     53.0       232      252      8.5        795    1,144     43.9       171      174         2.1
Baltimore (MD)           3,414   3,649      6.9       464      560     20.8      2,861    3,034      6.0       389      466        19.9
Memphis (TN)             2,092   2,791     33.4       343      429     25.3      1,382    1,904     37.8       226      293        29.3
Charlotte (NC)           1,201   1,864     55.2       261      298     14.1        930    1,442     55.1       202      231        14.0
Milwaukee (WI)           2,274   2,472      8.7       362      414     14.4      1,866    1,998      7.1       297      335        12.7
Boston (MA)              2,741   3,046     11.1       477      517      8.3      2,053    2,164      5.4       357      367         2.7
Washington (DC)          5,259   4,468    -15.0       867      781     -9.9      4,506    3,612    -19.8       742      631       -15.0
Nashville (TN)           1,319   1,693     28.4       258      297     15.0      1,020    1,249     22.5       200      219         9.8
El Paso (TX)               928   1,351     45.6       180      240     33.1        738    1,057     43.2       143      188        30.9
Seattle (WA)             1,775   1,918      8.1       344      340     -1.0      1,271    1,261     -0.8       246      224        -9.1
Denver (CO)              1,558   1,802     15.7       333      325     -2.5      1,318    1,489     13.0       282      268        -4.8
Fort Worth (TX)          1,255   1,510     20.3       280      282      0.7        950    1,196     25.9       212      224         5.4
Portland (OR)              955   1,347     41.0       218      255     16.6        769    1,007     30.9       176      190         8.2
Oklahoma City (OK)       1,158   1,269      9.6       260      251     -3.7        863    1,011     17.1       194      200         2.9
350,000 to 499,999
Tucson (AZ)                989   1,253    26.7%       244      257      5.5%       745      928    24.6%       184      191         3.8%
New Orleans (LA)         1,686   2,050    21.6        339      423     24.7      1,397    1,664    19.1        281      343        22.1
Cleveland (OH)           2,060   2,386    15.8        407      499     22.4      1,761    1,822     3.5        348      381         9.3
Long Beach (CA)            968   1,363    40.8        225      295     31.0        643      881    37.0        150      191        27.5
Albuquerque (NM)         1,184   1,236     4.4        308      276    -10.5        808      859     6.3        210      191        -8.8
Kansas City (MO)         1,718   1,848     7.6        395      419      6.0      1,148    1,253     9.1        264      284         7.6
Fresno (CA)                657   1,011    53.9        185      236     27.5        429      683    59.2        121      160        31.9
Virginia Beach (VA)        796     881    10.7        203      207      2.3        597      721    20.8        152      170        11.6
Atlanta (GA)             1,916   1,984     3.5        486      476     -2.0      1,560    1,474    -5.5        396      354       -10.6
Sacramento (CA)            866   1,008    16.4        234      248      5.6        599      650     8.5        162      160        -1.5
Oakland (CA)               944   1,088    15.3        254      272      7.4        616      710    15.3        165      178         7.4
Mesa (AZ)                  582   1,132    94.5        202      286     41.4        384      717    86.7        133      181        35.7
Tulsa (OK)                 881     977    10.9        240      249      3.6        702      819    16.7        191      208         9.0
Omaha (NE)                 741     933    25.9        221      239      8.4        594      750    26.3        177      192         8.7
Minneapolis (MN)           912   1,163    27.5        248      304     22.8        806      902    11.9        219      236         7.7
Miami (FL)               1,436   1,487     3.6        401      410      2.4      1,110    1,110     0.0        310      306        -1.1
Colorado Springs (CO)      591     873    47.7        210      242     15.1        406      586    44.3        144      162        12.4
250,000 to 349,999
St. Louis (MO)           2,244   2,078    -7.4%       566      597      5.5%     1,544    1,489     -3.6%      389      428         9.9%
Wichita (KS)               578   1,097    89.8        190      319     67.6        423      609     44.0       139      177        27.1
Santa Ana (CA)             563     704    25.0        192      208      8.7        382      404      5.8       130      120        -8.1
Pittsburgh (PA)          1,239   1,315     6.1        335      393     17.3      1,153    1,036    -10.1       312      310        -0.7
Arlington (TX)             462     643    39.2        177      193      9.4        356      485     36.2       136      146         7.1
Cincinnati (OH)          1,166   1,321    13.3        320      399     24.5        938    1,030      9.8       258      311        20.7
Anaheim (CA)               493     588    19.3        185      179     -3.1        344      397     15.4       129      121        -6.3
Toledo (OH)                737     810     9.9        221      258     16.7        683      690      1.0       205      220         7.2
Tampa (FL)               1,083   1,229    13.5        387      405      4.7        824      939     14.0       294      309         5.2
Buffalo (NY)             1,177   1,135    -3.6        359      388      8.1      1,032      928    -10.1       315      317         0.8
St. Paul (MN)              718     798    11.1        264      278      5.4        532      576      8.3       195      201         2.6
Corpus Christi (TX)        514     592    15.2        200      213      6.9        367      407     10.9       143      147         2.9
Newark (NJ)              1,260   1,635    29.8        458      598     30.6      1,013    1,466     44.7       368      536        45.6
Louisville (KY)            812   1,009    24.3        302      394     30.5        630      689      9.4       234      269        14.8


10 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000
Appendix table B. Percent of full-time sworn personnel who are women and minorities, and ratio of minority officers
to minority residents, in police departments serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
                            Female                Any minority                   Black or African American            Hispanic or Latino
                        Percent of        Percent of         Officer-to-       Percent of          Officer-to-   Percent of         Officer-to-
Population              sworn personnel   sworn personnel    resident          sworn personnel     resident      sworn personnel    resident
category and city        1990      2000   1990      2000     ratio, 2000        1990      2000     ratio, 2000    1990      2000    ratio, 2000
1,000,000 or more
New York (NY)            12.3%    15.5%   25.5%     34.7%       0.53         12.6%        13.3%       0.50       12.1%     17.8%       0.66
Los Angeles (CA)         12.5     18.4    37.5      53.9        0.77         13.4         13.6        1.21       21.0      33.1        0.71
Chicago (IL)             13.0     21.3    30.4      40.3        0.59       2 23.6         25.9        0.70        6.3      12.7        0.49
Houston (TX)              9.6     12.4    26.3      39.7        0.57         14.4         19.4        0.77       11.4      17.9        0.48
Philadelphia (PA)        14.7     24.2    26.5      41.1        0.71       2 23.2         34.5        0.80        2.8       5.6        0.66
Phoenix (AZ)              8.1     15.0    15.5      17.9        0.40          3.6          3.9        0.76       11.0      12.0        0.35
San Diego (CA)           12.7     14.5    24.0      30.7        0.61          7.7          8.7        1.10       11.4      15.9        0.63
Dallas (TX)              13.3     15.8    22.7      36.8        0.56         15.5         21.4        0.83        6.2      13.5        0.38
San Antonio (TX)          5.7      6.0    43.9      48.0        0.70          5.8          5.8        0.85       37.9      41.7        0.71
Las Vegas (NV)           10.2     10.9    13.4      19.3        0.48          7.5          9.3        1.02        3.7       7.3        0.33
500,000 to 999,999
Detroit (MI)             20.0%    25.3%   53.4%     66.2%       0.74           51.8%      62.9%       0.77        1.3%      3.0%       0.60
San Jose (CA)             6.8      8.6    29.6      36.6        0.57            3.8        5.6        1.60       19.3      22.7        0.75
Honolulu (HI)             8.3     10.3    80.4      82.5        1.03            0.8        1.6        0.67        1.1       1.7        0.39
San Francisco (CA)       11.1     15.5    29.9      40.1        0.71            8.8        9.7        1.24       10.1      13.5        0.96
Indianapolis (IN)        13.9     13.4    16.5      17.9        0.58           15.8       16.6        0.69        0.7       0.7        0.18
Jacksonville (FL)         5.0     11.0    18.9      22.6        0.60           17.5       19.5        0.67        1.1       1.2        0.29
Columbus (OH)            12.1     14.0    14.3      15.5        0.47           14.3       14.4        0.59        0.0       0.3        0.12
Austin (TX)              11.3     11.8    24.9      28.8        0.61            9.8       10.8        1.07       14.7      16.6        0.54
Baltimore (MD)           10.9     15.7    27.7      41.5        0.60       2   26.5       38.6        0.60        0.5       1.6        0.94
Memphis (TN)             14.6     16.2    32.2      47.8        0.72           32.1       45.7        0.74        0.0       1.9        0.63
Charlotte (NC)           15.5     13.9    20.6      20.5        0.52       2   20.3       17.9        0.64        0.3       1.5        0.23
Milwaukee (WI)            8.6     16.3    17.5      33.4        0.61           11.8       21.2        0.57        4.4       9.6        0.80
Boston (MA)               8.4     13.0    25.9      31.7        0.63       2   20.5       24.1        0.95        4.8       6.0        0.42
Washington (DC)          18.5     24.1    67.8      72.4        1.00           64.4       66.4        1.11        2.6       5.0        0.63
Nashville (TN)            7.8     21.9    13.0      21.5        0.60           12.5       19.3        0.72        0.5       1.1        0.23
El Paso (TX)              6.4      9.0    63.8      76.3        0.93       2    2.2        2.2        0.71       60.7      72.1        0.94
Seattle (WA)             10.2     14.4    16.1      24.3        0.76            6.5        9.9        1.18        2.4       4.6        0.87
Denver (CO)               9.4     11.1    23.7      30.7        0.64            6.8       10.0        0.90       16.2      19.1        0.60
Fort Worth (TX)          12.4     16.8    19.4      25.0        0.46           10.7       12.0        0.59        8.1      11.9        0.40
Portland (OR)            11.7     16.6     7.6      10.4        0.42            3.1        3.3        0.50        2.0       2.4        0.35
Oklahoma City (OK)       10.8     11.3    11.0      12.9        0.37            7.3        7.6        0.49        1.0       2.4        0.24
350,000 to 499,999
Tucson (AZ)              12.2%    15.7%   24.4%     26.7%       0.58            3.1%       3.4%       0.79       20.0%     20.7%       0.58
New Orleans (LA)         12.0     14.5    40.1      54.0        0.74           39.4       51.4        0.76        0.6       1.9        0.61
Cleveland (OH)           12.8     16.9    27.9      33.5        0.55       2   24.6       27.0        0.53        3.3       5.9        0.81
Long Beach (CA)           8.7     10.6    17.3      32.7        0.49            5.3        6.5        0.44       10.1      18.5        0.52
Albuquerque (NM)         11.3     11.4    42.0      39.7        0.79       2    2.4        2.0        0.65       37.9      36.3        0.91
Kansas City (MO)         11.7     14.9    15.5      16.9        0.40           12.9       12.1        0.39        2.3       3.8        0.55
Fresno (CA)               6.1     10.7    30.1      38.1        0.61            7.7        6.3        0.75       20.3      26.8        0.67
Virginia Beach (VA)       9.5     10.4    11.2      14.4        0.47            8.0        9.6        0.51        1.5       1.7        0.40
Atlanta (GA)             12.9     16.6    54.1      59.2        0.86           52.5       57.1        0.93        1.6       1.3        0.29
Sacramento (CA)           9.7     13.7    25.7      29.4        0.49            6.3        6.5        0.42       11.9      11.5        0.53
Oakland (CA)              7.0     10.1    44.6      54.5        0.71       2   25.3       25.9        0.73       10.7      16.2        0.74
Mesa (AZ)                 8.9     10.2     8.0      19.7        0.74            1.0        2.6        1.04        6.0      14.8        0.75
Tulsa (OK)               11.1     14.0    13.8      21.4        0.65            9.1       10.9        0.70        0.4       1.6        0.22
Omaha (NE)                8.2     19.7    14.0      18.1        0.74           10.8       11.1        0.83        2.7       5.5        0.73
Minneapolis (MN)         10.5     15.7     8.4      15.7        0.42            3.2        6.2        0.34        2.1       3.4        0.45
Miami (FL)               12.1     17.6    64.7      81.4        0.92           19.9       27.2        1.22       44.5      53.6        0.81
Colorado Springs (CO)     7.1     12.5    14.3      18.6        0.75       4    4.9        5.5        0.83        8.4      10.6        0.88
250,000 to 349,999
St. Louis (MO)            7.1%    13.3%   26.8%     33.8%       0.61       2 26.3%        31.9%       0.62        0.5%      1.1%       0.55
Wichita (KS)              5.9     10.7     7.8      17.9        0.68       4 4.7           9.2        0.81        2.8       5.3        0.55
Santa Ana (CA)            3.9     10.4    29.6      42.1        0.76       2 2.4           1.2        0.71       24.6      36.9        0.48
Pittsburgh (PA)          22.8     24.6    24.6      24.9        0.80       2 24.3         24.9        0.92        0.2       0.0        0.00
Arlington (TX)            8.1     14.8    12.9      30.5        0.85          6.7         12.0        0.88        6.2      12.6        0.69
Cincinnati (OH)          10.1     19.6    17.2      30.0        0.65         16.5         28.7        0.67        0.3       0.0        0.00
Anaheim (CA)              6.4     10.3    15.4      23.7        0.49       2 2.3           2.0        0.74       10.2      17.6        0.38
Toledo (OH)              13.9     21.0    21.2      26.2        0.86         17.0         19.1        0.81        4.1       6.8        1.24
Tampa (FL)               15.5     15.4    23.7      27.2        0.57         11.8         12.4        0.48       11.3      12.9        0.67
Buffalo (NY)             12.9     20.9    25.7      31.9        0.68         19.2         23.5        0.63        6.0       8.1        1.07
St. Paul (MN)             7.1     16.1     9.2      13.4        0.41       4 4.9           6.6        0.56        2.3       3.3        0.42
Corpus Christi (TX)       6.0      6.6    46.0      45.0        1.07       4 4.1           3.2        0.68       41.1      41.3        0.76
Newark (NJ)               3.0     11.9    42.0      64.3        0.83         31.3         36.8        0.69       10.7      27.5        0.93
Louisville (KY)          11.1     16.3    16.5      17.7        0.48         16.5         16.8        0.51        0.0       0.4        0.21


                                                                                   Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 11
Appendix table C. Annual operating budget of police departments
serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
                                                             Annual operating budget (in 2000 dollars)
                                         Total                               Per resident                    Per sworn employee
Population                                              Percent                          Percent                              Percent
category and city           1990            2000        change       1990      2000      change          1990        2000     change
1,000,000 or more
New York (NY)           $2,728,353,656 $3,210,000,000     17.7%       $373      $401        7.6%         $87,346   $79,387    -9.1%
Los Angeles (CA)           653,646,007    891,679,649     36.4         188       241       28.7           78,800    95,459    21.1
Chicago (IL)               990,285,433    910,000,000     -8.1         356       314      -11.7           83,660    67,578   -19.2
Houston (TX)               299,064,866    425,867,364     42.4         183       218       18.9           72,872    79,706     9.4
Philadelphia (PA)          385,153,889    384,625,924     -0.1         243       253        4.3           59,046    54,759    -7.3
Phoenix (AZ)               184,396,384    217,617,984     18.0         188       165      -12.1           94,611    82,871   -12.4
San Diego (CA)             163,299,058    232,910,664     42.6         147       190       29.5           89,922   115,188    28.1
Dallas (TX)                203,703,864    246,000,000     20.8         202       207        2.3           77,307    85,954    11.2
San Antonio (TX)           117,910,059    197,013,318     67.1         126       172       36.6           74,816   104,683    39.9
Las Vegas (NV)             139,128,276    240,714,303     73.0         226       236        4.5          119,732   111,031    -7.3
500,000 to 999,999
Detroit (MI)             $437,808,244   $352,453,163     -19.5%       $426      $371      -13.0%         $95,279   $84,847   -10.9%
San Jose (CA)             161,496,212    182,962,392      13.3         206       204       -1.0          145,492   129,945   -10.7
Honolulu (HI)             129,355,317    140,782,160       8.8         155       161        3.9           72,631    78,561     8.2
San Francisco (CA)        239,437,393    255,706,971       6.8         331       333        0.7          134,742   114,821   -14.8
Indianapolis (IN)         110,034,203    146,520,013      33.2         156       189       21.0           76,625    92,035    20.1
Jacksonville (FL)         136,543,217    185,377,073      35.8         215       252       17.2          115,617   118,717     2.7
Columbus (OH)             111,587,657    177,210,599      58.8         176       249       41.3           80,802   101,612    25.8
Austin (TX)                66,511,125    107,687,988      61.9         143       164       14.8           83,662    94,133    12.5
Baltimore (MD)            224,811,682    231,297,485       2.9         305       355       16.3           78,578    76,235    -3.0
Memphis (TN)               93,875,910    140,000,000      49.1         154       215       40.0           67,928    73,529     8.2
Charlotte (NC)             56,903,544    111,642,098      96.2         124       179       44.3           61,187    77,368    26.4
Milwaukee (WI)            146,967,579    149,812,727       1.9         234       251        7.2           78,761    74,981    -4.8
Boston (MA)               160,676,235    204,000,000      27.0         280       346       23.8           78,264    94,270    20.5
Washington (DC)           278,822,171    316,666,268      13.6         459       554       20.5           61,878    87,671    41.7
Nashville (TN)             86,455,724    101,829,813      17.8         169       179        5.6           84,761    81,529    -3.8
El Paso (TX)               48,256,985     82,040,937      70.0          94       146       55.4           65,389    77,617    18.7
Seattle (WA)              109,287,078    135,604,854      24.1         212       241       13.7           85,985   107,538    25.1
Denver (CO)               107,833,358    123,318,114      14.4         231       222       -3.6           81,816    82,819     1.2
Fort Worth (TX)            63,928,322    119,119,884      86.3         143       223       56.0           67,293    99,599    48.0
Portland (OR)              78,432,681    110,000,000      40.2         179       208       15.9          101,993   108,857     6.7
Oklahoma City (OK)         59,713,305     93,430,016      56.5         134       185       37.5           69,193    92,413    33.6
350,000 to 499,999
Tucson (AZ)               $61,914,634    $88,406,720      42.8%       $153      $182       18.9%         $83,107   $95,266    14.6%
New Orleans (LA)          101,768,157    102,000,000       0.2         205       210        2.8           72,848    61,298   -15.9
Cleveland (OH)            133,221,062    252,000,000      89.2         263       527       99.9           75,651   138,310    82.8
Long Beach (CA)           108,313,041    135,574,459      25.2         252       294       16.5          168,450   151,649   -10.0
Albuquerque (NM)           62,636,736     76,068,000      21.4         163       170        4.2           77,521    88,554    14.2
Kansas City (MO)          114,926,917    134,445,917      17.0         264       304       15.3          100,111   107,299     7.2
Fresno (CA)                61,407,976     75,786,100      23.4         173       177        2.2          143,142   110,961   -22.5
Virginia Beach (VA)        47,703,647     57,960,815      21.5         121       136       12.3           79,906    80,389     0.6
Atlanta (GA)               93,699,529    119,407,023      27.4         238       287       20.6           60,064    81,009    34.9
Sacramento (CA)            74,702,843     75,721,000       1.4         202       186       -8.0          117,550   116,494    -0.9
Oakland (CA)              109,871,167    127,724,062      16.2         295       320        8.3          178,362   179,893     0.9
Mesa (AZ)                  38,777,844     90,261,296     132.8         135       228       69.2          100,984   125,887    24.7
Tulsa (OK)                 59,854,715     63,359,000       5.9         163       161       -1.1           85,263    77,361    -9.3
Omaha (NE)                 37,453,397     63,943,172      70.7         112       164       47.0           63,053    84,413    33.9
Minneapolis (MN)           61,355,681     91,481,322      49.1         167       239       43.6           76,124   101,421    33.2
Miami (FL)                103,882,805     86,595,193     -16.6         290       239      -17.5           93,588    78,014   -16.6
Colorado Springs (CO)      38,587,451     56,182,134      45.6         137       156       13.4           95,043    95,874     0.9
250,000 to 349,999
St. Louis (MO)           $110,560,099   $114,000,000       3.1%       $279      $327       17.5%         $71,606   $76,561     6.9%
Wichita (KS)               29,577,966     48,000,000      62.3          97       139       43.3           69,924    78,818    12.7
Santa Ana (CA)             53,915,241     80,752,086      49.8         184       239       30.2          141,139   199,881    41.6
Pittsburgh (PA)           101,701,014     65,452,306     -35.6         275       196      -28.8           88,206    63,178   -28.4
Arlington (TX)             27,047,667     44,900,000      66.0         103       135       30.5           75,977    92,577    21.8
Cincinnati (OH)            58,843,766     78,148,540      32.8         162       236       45.9           62,733    75,872    20.9
Anaheim (CA)              $49,977,230     65,848,988      31.8         188       201        7.0          139,407   160,217    14.9
Toledo (OH)                55,377,750     64,182,050      15.9         166       205       23.0           81,080    93,017    14.7
Tampa (FL)                 65,982,033     89,570,060      35.7         236       295       25.3           80,075    95,389    19.1
Buffalo (NY)               87,801,103     64,510,224     -26.5         268       220      -17.6           85,079    69,515   -18.3
St. Paul (MN)              51,257,595     63,607,453      24.1         188       222       17.6           96,349   110,430    14.6
Corpus Christi (TX)        28,825,332     38,531,910      33.7         112       139       24.0           78,543    94,673    20.5
Newark (NJ)                70,650,798    114,991,157      62.8         257       420       63.8           69,744    78,439    12.5
Louisville (KY)            45,080,533     64,721,454      43.6         168       253       50.8           71,556    93,375    31.3



12 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000
Appendix table D. UCR violent crime index offenses reported to police departments
serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
                                                           UCR violent crime index offenses
                                  Total number                Per 100,000 residents            Per 100 sworn employees
Population                                       Percent                        Percent                          Percent
category and city        1990        2000        change    1990       2000      change        1900       2000    change
1,000,000 or more
New York (NY)           174,689      75,745       -56.6%   2,386         946     -60.4%         559        187    -66.5%
Los Angeles (CA)         83,809      50,241       -40.1    2,405       1,360     -43.5        1,010        538    -46.8
Chicago (IL)             81,208      48,089       -40.8    2,917       1,661     -43.1          686        357    -47.9
Houston (TX)             22,637      21,491        -5.1    1,388       1,100     -20.8          552        402    -27.1
Philadelphia (PA)        21,387      22,812         6.7    1,349       1,503      11.4          328        325     -0.9
Phoenix (AZ)             10,665       9,754        -8.5    1,084         738     -31.9          547        371    -32.1
San Diego (CA)           12,047       7,159       -40.6    1,085         585     -46.1          663        354    -46.6
Dallas (TX)              24,550      16,042       -34.7    2,438       1,350     -44.6          932        561    -39.8
San Antonio (TX)          5,730       7,905        38.0      612         691      12.8          364        420     15.6
Las Vegas (NV)            4,510       6,349        40.8      732         622     -15.0          388        293    -24.5
500,000 to 999,999
Detroit (MI)             27,747      22,112       -20.3%   2,699       2,324     -13.9%         604        532    -11.8%
San Jose (CA)             4,698       4,928         4.9      601         551      -8.3          423        350    -17.3
Honolulu (HI)             2,412       2,302        -4.6      288         263      -8.9          135        128     -5.1
San Francisco (CA)       12,388       6,499       -47.5    1,711         837     -51.1          697        292    -58.1
Indianapolis (IN)         7,113       6,843        -3.3    1,007         891     -11.5          495        430    -13.2
Jacksonville (FL)        11,654       8,206       -29.6    1,835       1,116     -39.2          987        536    -45.6
Columbus (OH)             7,022       5,998       -14.6    1,109         843     -24.0          508        344    -32.4
Austin (TX)               3,326       3,069        -7.7      714         467     -34.7          418        268    -36.0
Baltimore (MD)           17,942      16,003       -10.8    2,438       2,458       0.8          627        527    -15.9
Memphis (TN)              9,082       9,610         5.8    1,488       1,478      -0.7          657        505    -23.2
Charlotte (NC)            9,531       7,515       -21.2    2,072       1,202     -42.0        1,025        521    -49.1
Milwaukee (WI)            6,282       5,711        -9.1    1,000         957      -4.3          337        286    -15.2
Boston (MA)              13,664       7,322       -46.4    2,379       1,243     -47.8          666        338    -49.2
Washington (DC)          14,919       8,625       -42.2    2,458       1,508     -38.7          331        239    -27.9
Nashville (TN)            6,886       8,901        29.3    1,378       1,562      13.3          675        713      5.6
El Paso (TX)              5,111       4,396       -14.0      992         780     -21.4          693        416    -39.9
Seattle (WA)              7,780       4,333       -44.3    1,507         769     -49.0          612        344    -43.9
Denver (CO)               4,205       2,885       -31.4      899         520     -42.2          319        194    -39.3
Fort Worth (TX)           7,826       3,815       -51.3    1,748         714     -59.2          824        319    -61.3
Portland (OR)             7,836       5,698       -27.3    1,792       1,077     -39.9        1,019        566    -44.5
Oklahoma City (OK)        4,813       3,951       -17.9    1,082         781     -27.9          558        391    -29.9
350,000 to 499,999
Tucson (AZ)               3,680       4,542        23.4%     908         933       2.8%         494        489     -0.9%
New Orleans (LA)         11,227       5,330       -52.5    2,259       1,100     -51.3          804        320    -60.1
Cleveland (OH)            9,190       6,041       -34.3    1,818       1,263     -30.5          522        332    -36.5
Long Beach (CA)           8,403       3,216       -61.7    1,957         697     -64.4        1,307        365    -72.1
Albuquerque (NM)          5,121       5,136         0.3    1,331       1,145     -14.0          634        598     -5.7
Kansas City (MO)         11,087       7,179       -35.2    2,550       1,626     -36.3          966        573    -40.7
Fresno (CA)               4,399       3,843       -12.6    1,242         899     -27.6        1,025        563    -45.1
Virginia Beach (VA)         902         936         3.8      229         220      -4.1          151        130    -14.1
Atlanta (GA)             16,097      11,583       -28.0    4,085       2,781     -31.9        1,032        786    -23.8
Sacramento (CA)           3,978       3,117       -21.6    1,077         766     -28.9          664        480    -27.8
Oakland (CA)              5,845       5,038       -13.8    1,570       1,261     -19.7          949        710    -25.2
Mesa (AZ)                 1,724       2,393        38.8      598         604       0.9          449        334    -25.7
Tulsa (OK)                4,898       4,411        -9.9    1,334       1,122     -15.8          698        539    -22.8
Omaha (NE)                3,139       3,164         0.8      935         811     -13.2          528        422    -20.2
Minneapolis (MN)          5,367       4,404       -17.9    1,457       1,151     -21.0          666        488    -26.7
Miami (FL)               15,607       7,877       -49.5    4,353       2,173     -50.1        1,406        710    -49.5
Colorado Springs (CO)     1,184       1,716        44.9      421         475      12.9          292        293      0.4
250,000 to 349,999
St. Louis (MO)           13,682       7,936       -42.0%   3,449       2,279     -33.9%         886        533    -39.9%
Wichita (KS)              2,189       2,081        -4.9      720         604     -16.1          517        342    -34.0
Santa Ana (CA)            2,663       1,829       -31.3      907         541     -40.3          697        453    -35.1
Pittsburgh (PA)           4,893       3,267       -33.2    1,323         976     -26.2          424        315    -25.7
Arlington (TX)            1,876       2,157        15.0      717         648      -9.6          527        445    -15.6
Cincinnati (OH)           4,476       2,671       -40.3    1,230         806     -34.4          477        259    -45.7
Anaheim (CA)              1,802       1,413       -21.7      676         430     -36.3          524        356    -32.1
Toledo (OH)               3,541       2,380       -32.8    1,064         759     -28.6          518        345    -33.5
Tampa (FL)                8,608       6,381       -25.9    3,074       2,103     -31.6        1,045        680    -34.9
Buffalo (NY)              5,275       3,657       -30.7    1,608       1,250     -22.3          511        394    -22.9
St. Paul (MN)             2,763       2,393       -13.3    1,015         833     -17.9          519        416    -19.9
Corpus Christi (TX)       1,607       2,104        30.9      624         758      21.5          438        517     18.1
Newark (NJ)              10,684       4,092       -61.7    3,882       1,496     -61.7        1,055        279    -73.5
Louisville (KY)           2,281       2,036       -10.7      848         795      -6.3          362        296    -18.4


                                                                               Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 13
Appendix table E. UCR property crime index offenses reported to police departments
serving cities with a population of 250,000 or more, 1990 and 2000
                                                           UCR property crime index offenses
                                  Total number                Per 100,000 residents             Per 100 sworn employees
Population                                       Percent                        Percent                           Percent
category and city        1990        2000        change    1990       2000      change         1900       2000    change
1,000,000 or more
New York (NY)           536,867     212,623       -60.4%    7,332      2,655     -63.8%        1,719        526    -69.4%
Los Angeles (CA)        237,727     130,297       -45.2     6,821      3,526     -48.3         2,866      1,395    -51.3
Chicago (IL)            228,829     169,699       -25.8     8,220      5,860     -28.7         1,933      1,260    -34.8
Houston (TX)            162,232     110,220       -32.1     9,950      5,642     -43.3         3,953      2,063    -47.8
Philadelphia (PA)        92,645      75,188       -18.8     5,843      4,955     -15.2         1,420      1,070    -24.6
Phoenix (AZ)             95,114      87,744        -7.7     9,672      6,642     -31.3         4,880      3,341    -31.5
San Diego (CA)           89,517      39,199       -56.2     8,061      3,204     -60.2         4,929      1,939    -60.7
Dallas (TX)             131,717      89,008       -32.4    13,082      7,489     -42.8         4,999      3,110    -37.8
San Antonio (TX)        111,044      78,424       -29.4    11,865      6,851     -42.3         7,046      4,167    -40.9
Las Vegas (NV)           39,434      41,059         4.1     6,399      4,025     -37.1         3,394      1,894    -44.2
500,000 to 999,999
Detroit (MI)             97,578      73,649       -24.5%    9,492      7,742     -18.4%        2,124      1,773    -16.5%
San Jose (CA)            33,392      17,880       -46.5     4,269      1,998     -53.2         3,008      1,270    -57.8
Honolulu (HI)            48,616      44,357        -8.8     5,814      5,063     -12.9         2,730      2,475     -9.3
San Francisco (CA)       57,562      35,675       -38.0     7,951      4,593     -42.2         3,239      1,602    -50.5
Indianapolis (IN)        45,777      30,198       -33.3     6,484      3,977     -38.7         3,188      1,919    -39.8
Jacksonville (FL)        54,964      42,866       -22.0     8,653      5,827     -32.7         4,654      2,802    -39.8
Columbus (OH)            55,681      57,096         2.5     8,798      8,025      -8.8         4,032      3,274    -18.8
Austin (TX)              51,217      35,611       -30.5    11,000      5,428     -50.7         6,442      3,113    -51.7
Baltimore (MD)           60,047      49,883       -16.9     8,158      7,661      -6.1         2,099      1,644    -21.7
Memphis (TN)             51,173      49,904        -2.4     8,384      7,684      -8.4         3,703      2,621    -29.1
Charlotte (NC)           45,368      41,948        -7.5     9,865      6,708     -32.0         4,878      2,909    -40.4
Milwaukee (WI)           52,124      38,381       -26.4     8,299      6,429     -22.5         2,793      1,921    -31.2
Boston (MA)              54,393      28,548       -47.5     9,471      4,846     -48.8         2,649      1,319    -50.2
Washington (DC)          50,470      32,982       -34.7     8,316      5,765     -30.7         1,120        910    -18.7
Nashville (TN)           32,474      39,689        22.2     6,500      6,964       7.1         3,184      3,178     -0.2
El Paso (TX)             52,810      30,276       -42.7    10,248      5,371     -47.6         7,156      2,864    -60.0
Seattle (WA)             57,303      40,967       -28.5    11,100      7,272     -34.5         4,508      3,249    -27.9
Denver (CO)              32,064      23,417       -27.0     6,857      4,222     -38.4         2,433      1,573    -35.4
Fort Worth (TX)          59,214      34,327       -42.0    13,229      6,420     -51.5         6,233      2,870    -54.0
Portland (OR)            40,709      35,245       -13.4     9,309      6,661     -28.4         5,294      3,500    -33.9
Oklahoma City (OK)       42,377      43,894         3.6     9,529      8,672      -9.0         4,910      4,342    -11.6
350,000 to 499,999
Tucson (AZ)              44,478      39,983       -10.1%   10,972      8,215     -25.1%        5,970      4,309    -27.8%
New Orleans (LA)         50,572      28,671       -43.3    10,177      5,916     -41.9         3,620      1,723    -52.4
Cleveland (OH)           36,895      26,543       -28.1     7,297      5,548     -24.0         2,095      1,457    -30.5
Long Beach (CA)          32,703      14,451       -55.8     7,615      3,131     -58.9         5,086      1,640    -67.7
Albuquerque (NM)         33,600      34,311         2.1     8,733      7,648     -12.4         4,158      3,994     -3.9
Kansas City (MO)         45,221      39,944       -11.7    10,403      9,046     -13.0         3,939      3,188    -19.1
Fresno (CA)              32,897      29,025       -11.8     9,288      6,787     -26.9         7,668      4,250    -44.6
Virginia Beach (VA)      21,814      16,746       -23.3     5,550      3,938     -29.0         3,654      2,320    -36.4
Atlanta (GA)             59,696      43,885       -26.5    15,151     10,537     -30.4         3,827      2,977    -22.2
Sacramento (CA)          29,732      24,221       -18.5     8,049      5,951     -26.1         4,964      3,726    -24.9
Oakland (CA)             34,750      20,022       -42.4     9,335      5,012     -46.3         5,641      2,820    -50.0
Mesa (AZ)                18,691      23,132        23.8     6,488      5,836     -10.0         4,867      3,226    -33.7
Tulsa (OK)               30,122      22,442       -25.5     8,201      5,710     -30.4         4,291      2,740    -36.1
Omaha (NE)               20,534      23,655        15.2     6,115      6,065      -0.8         3,457      3,154     -8.8
Minneapolis (MN)         36,778      23,085       -37.2     9,984      6,033     -39.6         4,563      2,559    -43.9
Miami (FL)               52,602      31,879       -39.4    14,671      8,795     -40.1         4,739      2,872    -39.4
Colorado Springs (CO)    19,833      16,968       -14.4     7,054      4,702     -35.9         4,885      2,796    -40.7
250,000 to 349,999
St. Louis (MO)           44,517      42,717        -4.0%   11,222     12,268       9.3%        2,883      2,869     -0.5%
Wichita (KS)             24,952      19,588       -21.5     8,208      5,689     -30.7         5,899      3,216    -45.5
Santa Ana (CA)           19,628       8,623       -56.1     6,682      2,551     -61.8         5,138      2,134    -58.5
Pittsburgh (PA)          27,493      16,189       -41.1     7,433      4,839     -34.9         2,384      1,563    -34.5
Arlington (TX)           20,433      19,323        -5.4     7,807      5,803     -25.7         5,740      3,984    -30.6
Cincinnati (OH)          23,031      18,975       -17.6     6,327      5,728      -9.5         2,455      1,842    -25.0
Anaheim (CA)             17,294       8,496       -50.9     6,492      2,590     -60.1         5,027      2,140    -57.4
Toledo (OH)              28,453      21,643       -23.9     8,546      6,901     -19.2         4,166      3,137    -24.7
Tampa (FL)               36,052      27,285       -24.3    12,875      8,992     -30.2         4,375      2,906    -33.6
Buffalo (NY)             23,906      16,591       -30.6     7,286      5,669     -22.2         2,316      1,788    -22.8
St. Paul (MN)            19,381      16,326       -15.8     7,119      5,686     -20.1         3,643      2,834    -22.2
Corpus Christi (TX)      24,928      17,905       -28.2     9,683      6,453     -33.4         6,792      4,399    -35.2
Newark (NJ)              34,055      15,571       -54.3    12,374      5,692     -54.0         3,362      1,062    -68.4
Louisville (KY)          15,004      13,022       -13.2     5,576      5,082      -8.9         2,382      1,777    -25.4


14 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000
Methodological notes                       Indianapolis (IN)                          Training requirements
A large part of the data used in this      The city of Indianapolis is served by      The 1990 LEMAS survey asked for the
report are from the Law Enforcement        both the Indianapolis Police and the       number of classroom and field training
Management and Administrative Statis-      Marion County Sheriff’s Department.        hours required while the 2000 survey
tics (LEMAS) surveys conducted in          Therefore, data from these two             asked for the number of academy and
1990 and 2000. Population data are         agencies were combined for both 1990       field hours.
from the U.S. Census Bureau decen-         and 2000. For categorical variables,
                                                                                      Operating costs
nial census, and crime data are from       data from the Indianapolis Police were
the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports            used, and for continuous variables, the    The 1990 survey asked for the annual
(UCR). Certain methodological issues       responses of the two agencies were         operating expenditure while the 2000
arose during analysis and are              aggregated.                                survey asked for the operating budget.
discussed below.                                                                      All monetary data were converted to
                                           Las Vegas (NV)
                                                                                      2000 dollars by multiplying them by
Jurisdictional issues
                                           The city of Las Vegas is under the law     1.3393. This factor was derived from
The 62 cities included in this report      enforcement jurisdiction of the Las        annual Consumer Price Index averages
were chosen because they had a             Vegas Metropolitan Police Department.      published by the Bureau of Labor
population of at least 250,000 in both     (LVMPD). The jurisdiction of the           Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
the 1990 and 2000 decennial                LVMPD extends beyond the city of Las
                                                                                      UCR Crime data
censuses. In most cases the data           Vegas to include significant portions of
used represent a city and the local        suburban Clark County. General             Changes in reporting methods at the
police department that serves it. For      population counts were available for the   State or local levels may affect the
certain cities, special circumstances      actual LVMPD jurisdictional area,          comparability of crime data for 1990
existed and are noted below.               however; race and ethnicity were not.      and 2000. This has been documented
                                           Therefore, the population race and         for Tennessee, including the cities of
Anaheim (CA)
                                           ethnicity data used are for all of Clark   Nashville and Memphis, which appear
The Anaheim (CA) Police did not            County. This includes the city of Las      to have underreported certain crimes
respond to the 1990 LEMAS survey.          Vegas, and county areas inside and         in 1990. Comparability issues may
Although personnel counts were             outside of LVMPD law enforcement           exist in other jurisdictions as well,
obtained from other sources, other         jurisdiction.                              documented or not.
values for 1990 were based on the
                                           New York (NY)                              Data on the number of forcible rapes in
agency’s responses to the 1987 and
                                                                                      Chicago were not available for 1990 or
1993 surveys. Where data values for        The New York City transit and housing
                                                                                      2000. Estimates based on the number
categorical variables differed, the data   police agencies were merged into the
                                                                                      of other violent crimes were calculated
for 1993 were used. Continous              New York City Police Department
                                                                                      for this report.
variables such as number of personnel,     (NYPD) on April 30, 1995. To provide
operating budget, number of vehicles,      comparability with the 2000 data           When comparing crime rates between
and asset forfeiture receipts were         reported by NYPD, data reported by the     jurisdictions, the FBI suggests consid-
averaged for the two years to arrive at    transit and housing police for 1990        ering factors such as population
an estimate for 1990.                      were combined with NYPD data. For          density, degree of urbanization,
                                           categorical variables, the responses of    demographic composition of the
Charlotte (NC)
                                           the NYPD were used. For continuous         population, stability of the population,
The Charlotte Police and Mecklenberg       variables, data for the three original     transportation modes and systems,
County Police merged on October 1,         agencies were aggregated.                  economic conditions, cultural factors,
1993. To provide comparability with                                                   family conditions, climate, effective
2000 data for the Charlotte-Mecklenberg    Comparability issues                       strength of law enforcement agencies,
Police, the data reported by the two                                                  administrative and investigative empha-
original agencies for 1990 were aggre-  All items that could be compared              sis of law enforcement, criminal justice
gated for continuous variables. For     between the 1990 and 2000 surveys             system policies, citizen attitudes, and
categorical variables in 1990, data fromwere included for analysis. Certain           citizen crime reporting practices. For
the Charlotte Police were used.         items asked in both surveys could not         more information on the Uniform Crime
                                        be included because of comparability          Reports see <http://www.fbi.gov/
Honolulu (HI)
                                        issues. In some cases, items were             ucr/ucr.htm>.
The jurisdiction of the Honolulu Police included when the design of the
                                                                                      Special units
covers the City and County of Honolulu. questions had changed because it was
Therefore, county population data were determined to not affect comparability.        The 1990 survey asked if the agency
used for this report.                   These items included the following:           operated a special unit with personnel




                                                                         Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 15
assigned either full-time or part-time.     In some instances this resulted in a
                                                                                       The Bureau of Justice Statistics
The 2000 survey asked if the agency         value greater than 1 (that is, a group
                                                                                       is the statistical agency of the
operated a unit with personnel              was over represented).
assigned full-time or had specially                                                    U.S. Department of Justice.
designated personnel who dealt with         Such values are included in table B;       Lawrence A. Greenfeld is acting
the issue on a part-time basis.             however, for the purposes of calculat-     director.
                                            ing the average ratios used in figure 1,
In-field computers                          these values were truncated to 1.00.       Brian Reaves and Matthew Hickman,
                                                                                       BJS statisticians, prepared this
The 1990 survey included the catego-                                                   report. The Office of Community
                                            This was done so that average ratios
ries of laptop, car-mounted digital                                                    Oriented Policing Services (COPS)
                                            would not be artificially inflated by
terminal, hand-held digital terminal and
                                            overrepresentation in certain agencies.    provided partial funding for the 2000
“other”. The 2000 survey included the
                                            By definition the overrepresentation of    LEMAS survey. Debra Cohen and
four specific categories of laptop,
                                            one group is accompanied by the under      Matthew Scheider of COPS assisted
mobile digital/data computer, mobile
                                            representation of one or more other        with questionnaire development.
digital/data terminal, and “other” within
                                            groups. Ideally, all groups would have     More information on COPS can be
two general categories of vehicle-
                                            an officer-to-resident ratio of 1.         obtained at their website <www.
mounted and portable.
                                                                                       usdoj.gov/cops>. Data were
Minority representation ratio                                                          collected and processed by the U.S.
                                            This report in portable document           Census Bureau under the supervi-
The officer-to-resident ratios used to      format and in ASCII, its tables, and       sion of Latrice Brogsdale-Davis and
measure minority representation in          related statistical data are available     Charlene Sebold. Project staff
figure 1 and appendix table B were          at the BJS website <http://www.ojp.        included Theresa Reitz, Martha
calculated by dividing the percent of an    usdoj.gov/bjs>. If you wish to receive
agency’s full-time sworn personnel who                                                 Greene, Patricia Torreyson, Bill
                                            e-mails notifying you about BJS            Bryner, and Paula Kinard. Jayne
were members of a racial or ethnic
                                            releases, please follow the instruct-      Robinson, BJS, administered final
group by the percentage in the popula-
                                            ions provided at <http://www.ojp.          report production.
tion served who belonged to that group.
                                            usdoj.gov/bjs/juststats.htm>.
                                                                                       May 2002, NCJ 175703




16 Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000

								
To top