OJJDP's Tribal Youth Initiatives by hbh94542


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									U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    J. Robert Flores, Administrator                                                                                         May 2003

OJJDP’s Tribal Youth
Initiatives                                                                                     A Message From OJJDP
                                                                                                The violent crime rate among Ameri-
                                                                                                can Indians is twice that of the United
                                                                                                States as a whole. Tribal communi-
Kay McKinney                                                                                    ties are also beset by high rates of
                                                                                                domestic violence, child abuse and
                                                                                                neglect, alcohol abuse, and gang
Tribal communities in the United States           available resources for families and
                                                                                                involvement. Given such factors, it
face formidable challenges. Although the          youth and for the social services and law     is not surprising that tribal youth are
difficulties that afflict American Indian and     enforcement agencies that serve them.         exposed to multiple risk factors for
Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities are             Many of the 1.9 million American Indians      delinquency. Indeed, while the violent
not necessarily unique—violence, gangs,           living on or near Indian lands lack suffi-    crime rate for U.S. youth has steadily
and drugs plague many communities                 cient law enforcement services (Office        declined over the past several years,
nationwide—these problems are especial-           of the Associate Attorney General, 1999).     the rate of violent juvenile crime in
ly pervasive among tribal populations.            Indian communities face chronic under-        tribal communities continues to grow.
Tribal communities experience dispropor-          funding for their justice systems, lack
tionately high levels of violent victimiza-       access to meaningful training for law en-     Risk factors for delinquency for the
                                                                                                nearly 2 million American Indians
tion, intimate partner violence, child abuse      forcement and justice personnel, and lack
                                                                                                who live on or near tribal lands are
and neglect, youth gang involvement, and          comprehensive programs that focus on
                                                                                                compounded by a lack of social serv-
co-occurrence of alcohol use and offend-          preventing juvenile delinquency, providing
                                                                                                ices. Tribal communities are challenged
ing. Of particular concern to AI/AN tribes1       intervention services, and imposing appro-    by inadequate resources for their
and the Office of Juvenile Justice and            priate sanctions. OJJDP seeks to address      juvenile justice systems, resulting in
Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is the             these problems by enhancing Indian coun-      insufficient training of law enforcement
increasing number of violent crimes being         try law enforcement and improving the         and other justice personnel and a
committed by juveniles in many tribal             quality of life in tribal communities.        dearth of programs that comprehen-
communities. Although the rates of juve-                                                        sively combat juvenile delinquency
nile violent crime have declined through-         The Tribal Youth Program Manager rep-
                                                                                                through appropriate prevention, inter-
out the United States for several years,2         resents OJJDP in a variety of interagency
                                                                                                vention, and sanction activities.
juvenile crime continues to increase in           work groups that provide a forum for coor-
Indian country. According to the Bureau           dinating and sharing information on pro-      This Bulletin describes the efforts of
                                                  grams, available grants and funds, and data   OJJDP to assist tribal communities
of Justice Statistics’ Special Report Violent
                                                  collection systems. This Manager actively     through such initiatives as the Tribal
Victimization and Race, 1993–98 (Renni-
                                                  participates in the following:                Youth Program, the Tribal Youth Pro-
son, 2001), American Indians experience                                                         gram Mental Health Project, the Com-
violent crime at a rate twice that of the         ◆ Federal Interagency Work Group on           prehensive Indian Resources for
general population.                                 Alcohol and Substance Abuse, adminis-       Community and Law Enforcement
Tribal youth are exposed to a variety of            tered by the U.S. Department of the         (CIRCLE) Project, training and tech-
risk factors that increase their chances of         Interior (DOI), with participants from      nical assistance, and research and
becoming involved in delinquency and                the Department of Health and Human          evaluation.
violent offending—a trend that is com-              Services (HHS); Substance Abuse and
                                                                                                It is hoped that OJJDP’s tribal youth
pounded by tribal communities’ lack of              Mental Health Services Administration,
                                                                                                initiatives will help build a better fu-
                                                    HHS; Indian Health Service, HHS;
                                                                                                ture for American Indian and Alaska
                                                                                                Native youth and their families.

      Access OJJDP publications online at ojjdp.ncjrs.org
   Bureau of Indian Affairs-Law Enforce-
   ment, Department of Safety, DOI; Office     TYP: Examples of Grantee Activities
   of National Drug Control Policy; and
   Department of Housing and Urban             ◆ The Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ, through its Haznojhi Youth Diversion
                                                 Project, is incorporating traditional and western education and therapy in an
                                                 intensive 3-week diversion program for court-involved youth and their families.
◆ Mental Health Initiative Work Group,           Participants receive information and training on topics such as communication,
  with participants from HHS, DOI, the           drug and alcohol abuse, juvenile crime and its consequences, the impact of
  Department of Education, and the               crime on victims and the community, and the Navajo view of offenses against
  Department of Justice (DOJ).                   the community.
◆ Several DOJ intraagency projects             ◆ The Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, Suttons Bay, MI,
  shared with the Office on Violence             is using a cultural perspective to address the problem of truancy among tribal
  Against Women, Office for Victims of           youth. Home visits and referrals to services and programs are essential ele-
  Crime, Corrections Program Office,             ments of the tribe’s plan for preventing and reducing truancy. The project’s main
  Office of Community Oriented Policing          objectives are to educate the community about the importance of addressing
  Services, Bureau of Justice Assistance,        truant behavior early, to decrease the community’s tolerance for truancy, and to
  and Tribal Courts.                             build capacity for assessing the needs of truant youth, those at risk of truancy,
                                                 and their families.
Since fiscal year (FY) 1999, OJJDP has
awarded 161 grants to tribes throughout        ◆ The Tanana Chiefs Conference, Fairbanks, AK, is developing pilot youth courts
the Nation to improve tribal juvenile jus-       in 14 tribal villages to address youth crime and related behaviors and to promote
tice systems and develop and implement           accountability and responsibility for youth actions among elders and peers. The
culturally sensitive delinquency preven-         youth courts are organized around tribal principles that incorporate culture and
tion programs, alcohol and substance             tradition in dealing with young people. The project is also drafting and adopting
abuse prevention programs, and interven-         juvenile codes/ordinances for use by youth courts, developing content for youth
tions for court-involved tribal youth.           court handbooks, and designing a training curriculum to help villages implement
                                                 the youth court program.
OJJDP’s commitment to preventing and
                                               ◆ The Burns Paiute Indian Reservation in Harney County, a rural area of eastern
reducing juvenile crime in AI/AN commu-
                                                 Oregon, is using TYP funds to address alcohol and marijuana abuse, juvenile
nities and improving tribal juvenile justice
                                                 crime, and academic failure; improve tribal youth service delivery systems; and
systems is reflected by its continued sup-       increase the availability and accessibility of community-based wraparound serv-
port of five broad program areas designed        ices for high-risk youth. The tribe also is working with parent volunteers and
to help tribes address juvenile crime:           other members of the community to develop a comprehensive 3-year plan to
◆ OJJDP’s Tribal Youth Program (TYP)             combat the early onset of alcohol and drug use, reduce violence and criminal
  provides funds directly to tribal com-         behavior, and prevent youth from dropping out of school.
  munities to develop programs that pre-       ◆ The Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo, located in an urban setting near El Paso, TX, is
  vent and control juvenile delinquency,         providing interventions for court-involved tribal youth and improving its tribal
  reduce violent crime, and improve              juvenile justice system. The pueblo’s new home detention system reduces the
  tribal juvenile justice systems.               need to place youth away from their families. The pueblo’s community service
                                                 program has been expanded to include traditional restitution, mentoring activi-
◆ OJJDP supports the TYP Mental Health
                                                 ties that involve police officers, diversion programs that apply auxiliary commu-
  Project, which provides diagnostic and
                                                 nity policing concepts, greater supervision of youth on probation, and more
  treatment services to AI/AN youth
                                                 activities to deter crime among court-involved youth.
  involved in, or at risk of becoming in-
  volved in, tribal and/or State juvenile      ◆ The Wampanoag Tribe, located in rural Aquinnah, MA, on the island of Martha’s
  justice systems.                               Vineyard, is establishing the Wampanoag Youth Program to engage at-risk youth
                                                 in culturally appropriate activities. The program has targeted 41 tribal youth who
◆ The Comprehensive Indian Resources
                                                 have been referred by the juvenile court or who are considered to be at risk of
  for Community and Law Enforcement              entering the juvenile justice system. Activities will include alcohol and drug abuse
  (CIRCLE) Project is a federal initiative       prevention education and cultural events such as tribal powwows, nature walks,
  that helps tribal communities develop          storytelling, and drumming and dance shows.
  comprehensive programs to address
  crime, violence, and substance abuse.        ◆ The Poarch Band of Creek Indians, Atmore, AL, a rural reservation that encom-
                                                 passes four southern Alabama counties and Florida’s Escambia County, is
◆ OJJDP provides training and technical          developing a project to address the needs of a target population of approxi-
  assistance to TYP grantees and other           mately 660 at-risk youth. The project will emphasize the incorporation of tradi-
  tribal communities to improve their            tional tribal cultural teachings and will include delinquency prevention activities,
  responses to youth crime, violence,            an afterschool program, and intervention and prevention services in local
  and victimization.                             schools.
◆ OJJDP funds several research and eval-
  uation activities that focus on juvenile
  justice problems in tribal communities.

This Bulletin highlights OJJDP’s current       In FY 2002, OJJDP awarded 43 grants            ◆ Provide mental health services for
activities in the five program areas listed    through TYP. Although OJJDP issued a             AI/AN youth at risk of delinquency.
on page 2 and briefly summarizes addi-         single solicitation to cover both TYP and      ◆ Provide interventions for court-
tional OJJDP activities that involve tribal    the TYP Mental Health Project funding in         involved tribal youth.
communities.                                   FY 2002, applicants were required to sub-
                                               mit separate applications for TYP (Part A)     ◆ Improve tribal juvenile justice systems.
                                               and Mental Health (Part B) funding. OJJDP      ◆ Provide alcohol and drug abuse coun-
Tribal Youth Program                           received 68 Part A applications and 16 Part      seling services.
Congress established TYP in 1999 to ad-        B applications. As in FY 1999–2001, eligible
dress the rising rate of juvenile crime        applicants included federally recognized       In FY 2000, OJJDP awarded TYP Mental
in tribal communities, appropriating           tribes, consortiums of federally recog-        Health Project grants to six tribal commu-
$10 million for the program in FY 1999,        nized tribes, and corporations that repre-     nities to provide mental health treatment
$12.5 million in FY 2000 and FY 2001, and      sent Alaska Native villages, and grantees      and services to AI/AN youth. The grants
$12.47 million in FY 2002.3 Before 1999,       were funded for a 3-year budget and pro-       totaled nearly $1 million and ranged from
OJJDP assisted AI/AN tribes through the        gram period.                                   $75,000 to $300,000, depending on the size
passthrough of Formula Grants Program                                                         of the AI/AN service population living on
                                               The sidebar on page 2 presents examples        or near a particular reservation.
funds by the states, discretionary grant
                                               of TYP-funded projects. The examples
funds, and training and technical assist-                                                     In FY 2001, OJJDP awarded TYP Mental
                                               illustrate the diverse activities undertaken
ance. However, it did not have a program                                                      Health Project grants totaling almost
                                               by grantees since the TYP program began
solely dedicated to the overall goals of                                                      $950,000 to five tribal communities.
                                               in FY 1999.
preventing and controlling juvenile crime                                                     Awards ranged from $125,000 to $300,000
in AI/AN communities and improving trib-                                                      (for a 3-year grant period), depending on
al juvenile justice systems.                   TYP Mental Health                              the size of the total AI/AN service popula-
TYP’s objectives are to:                       Project                                        tion living on or near a particular reserva-
                                                                                              tion. OJJDP also awarded five TYP Mental
◆ Provide prevention services to influ-        The TYP Mental Health Project was estab-       Health Project grants in FY 2002. (See
  ence risk factors for delinquency.           lished in 2000 to promote mental health        sidebar on page 4 for a summary of FY
                                               and substance abuse (alcohol and drug          2002 grantees’ activities.)
◆ Provide interventions for court-involved     abuse) services for AI/AN youth and sup-
  youth.                                       port juvenile delinquency prevention and
◆ Improve tribal juvenile justice systems.     intervention efforts that help tribes devel-   Comprehensive
◆ Provide prevention programs that             op and implement culturally sensitive          Indian Resources
  focus on alcohol and drugs.                  mental health programs. The project helps
                                               tribes provide a range of youth support        for Community and
In FY 2000, OJJDP awarded TYP grants           services and programs that address the         Law Enforcement
totaling approximately $8 million to 38        mental health and related needs of AI/AN
tribal communities. Awards ranged from         youth and their families in various com-
$73,352 to $498,475, based on the size of      munity settings (e.g., in schools, at vio-     The CIRCLE Project, with the assistance of
the AI/AN service population living on or      lence prevention and healthcare treatment      federal, state, and private partners, helps
near a particular reservation. A broad         programs, in the juvenile justice system).     tribal communities develop comprehen-
spectrum of tribal communities responded       The TYP Mental Health Project is part of       sive planning and funding infrastructures
to the FY 2000 TYP solicitation—an indi-       the Mental Health and Community Safety         to fight crime, violence, and substance
cation that OJJDP is achieving its goal of     Initiative for American Indian/Alaska          abuse more effectively. The CIRCLE Project
working with tribal communities of vari-       Native Children, Youth, and Families, a        is based on two key principles:
ous population sizes and geographic loca-      federal initiative announced in 1999 and       ◆ Local leadership is important in devel-
tions. The marked increase in the number       developed by the U.S. Departments of             oping and implementing efforts to con-
of applications from Alaska and in first-      Education, Health and Human Services,            trol crime, violence, and drug abuse.
time applicants for TYP funds further          the Interior, and Justice. Since FY 2000,
reflects the success of OJJDP’s outreach       this initiative has provided tribes easy-to-   ◆ A comprehensive approach (i.e., one
efforts.                                       access help in developing innovative             that incorporates coordinated, multi-
                                               strategies to meet the mental health, be-        disciplinary efforts) is needed to fight
In FY 2001, OJJDP awarded grants totaling                                                       crime, violence, and drug abuse.
                                               havior, substance abuse, and community
approximately $8 million to 30 AI/AN com-
                                               safety needs of AI/AN youth and their          The CIRCLE Project complements and is
munities to develop programs to prevent
                                               families through a coordinated federal         supported by the federal Indian Country
and control juvenile delinquency in AI/AN
                                               process.                                       Law Enforcement Initiative (see endnote 3
communities and improve tribal juvenile
justice systems. Applications were invited     The overall goal of the TYP Mental Health      for a description of this initiative). Central
from federally recognized tribes and from      Project is to provide mental health diag-      to the federal initiative and the CIRCLE
corporations representing Alaska Native        nostic and treatment services to AI/AN         Project is a commitment to improving the
villages. Awards (for a 3-year grant period)   youth who are involved in, or at risk of       federal government’s work with AI/AN
varied depending on the size of the AI/AN      becoming involved in, tribal and/or state      communities. The CIRCLE Project, in
service population living on or near a par-    juvenile justice systems. The project’s        conjunction with federal agencies,4 serves
ticular reservation.                           objectives are to:                             tribes in three pilot sites: the Northern

                                                                                             Training and Technical
  TYP Mental Health Project: Activities of FY 2002                                           Assistance
                                                                                             For the past several years, OJJDP has pro-
  ◆ Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians of Oregon, as part of a comprehensive              vided training and technical assistance
     working plan to improve the quality of tribal life, is focusing on juvenile drug and    to tribal communities through American
     alcohol use and will provide related services to at-risk tribal youth ages 8–18 in      Indian Development Associates (AIDA)
     an 11-county service area that encompasses the cities of Portland, Salem, and           of Albuquerque, NM. The agency’s two-
     Eugene. The project will include a needs assessment to identify risk factors fac-       pronged approach to training and techni-
     ing tribal youth and an evaluation of existing services. Planned activities include     cal assistance involves (1) helping TYP
     culturally appropriate parenting training, gender-specific programs, behavioral         grantees implement their programs and (2)
     and psychological assessments, and a variety of therapies (e.g., narrative,
                                                                                             helping other AI/AN communities develop
     sandtray, adventure-based, and family programs).
                                                                                             or enhance their juvenile justice systems.
  ◆ Eastern Aleutian Tribes, Inc., a nonprofit organization providing healthcare serv-
                                                                                             AIDA responds to requests for training
     ices to seven rural communities in the Aleutians East Borough of Alaska, will
     improve the delivery of comprehensive mental health services and substance              and technical assistance initiated by TYP
     abuse treatment for tribal youth ages 12–20. The program seeks to improve               grantees or program managers. AIDA deter-
     access to appropriate interventions for court-involved youth and their families,        mines the type of technical assistance or
     including counseling for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, post-traumatic          training to be provided to TYP grantees by
     stress disorder, and other mental health problems; standardize intake assess-           reviewing each community’s history and
     ments for youth who come into contact with local law enforcement; enhance               needs. In some cases, AIDA may need to
     alcohol and drug abuse counseling for youth; and provide appropriate training           provide training about concepts before
     for service providers.                                                                  changes in tribal juvenile justice systems
                                                                                             can take place. For example, Indian nations
  ◆ The Mount Sanford Tribal Consortium, a tribal health organization serving two            that rely on customs and traditions may
     Athabascan Indian villages in the sparsely populated Copper River region in
                                                                                             need to learn about American-style justice
     Alaska’s interior, is revising and expanding mental health services to address
                                                                                             systems before they are ready to develop
     risk factors related to delinquent behavior among tribal youth. All 48 tribal youth
     ages 5 to 17 are eligible to receive the expanded services, which are being             written policies and procedures. In other
     developed by a coalition of tribal council members, other community members,            instances, nations that do not have juris-
     and service providers. A youth counselor will be hired to diagnose and provide          diction over their youth may need help
     treatment for conduct disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse,        developing intergovernmental agreements
     and other serious problems among referred youth.                                        to influence prosecution, adjudication, or
                                                                                             disposition alternatives.
  ◆ The Osage Nation Counseling Center, in Pawhuska, OK, is establishing an
     inpatient treatment center to provide a continuum of delinquency prevention             AIDA helps tribal communities that are not
     and residential treatment services for at-risk males ages 13–18. The nearby city        TYP grantees improve their juvenile justice
     of Hominy has provided the facility, and the counseling center is collaborating         systems and address issues of youth and
     with other State and tribal agencies to provide mental health services and              wellness, community development, and
     alcohol/drug abuse treatment to court-referred youth. The program will focus            program planning and development. In
     on alcohol and drug abuse education, violence prevention, gang education,               2001, AIDA conducted 31 training and tech-
     and counseling for individuals, families, and groups. Once youth have complet-          nical assistance projects for TYP grantees.
     ed long-term counseling and treatment at the center, their care will continue           In FY 2002, OJJDP competitively solicited
     through home visits by program staff.                                                   applicants to continue providing training
  ◆ The Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation, located near Topeka, KS, is developing               and technical assistance to TYP grantees
     a mental health service program to prevent and reduce delinquent behavior               and other tribal communities. In April 2003,
     among tribal youth ages 5 to 18 residing on the reservation, in surrounding             the Native American Alliance Foundation
     rural Jackson County, and in the Topeka urban area. The program, which will             was selected as the new provider.
     serve 50 to 75 at-risk youth each year, will include crisis intervention, mental
     health screening, and counseling for suicidal behavior, depression, anxiety,
     conduct disorder, and other mental health problems.                                     Research and
                                                                                             Since 1999, OJJDP has used TYP funds
Cheyenne Tribe in Lame Deer, MT; Oglala        being conducted by the Harvard Project        to support a number of research and
Sioux Tribe in Pine Ridge, SD; and Pueblo      on American Indian Development at Har-        evaluation activities designed to provide
of Zuni in Zuni, NM. Participating tribes      vard University’s John F. Kennedy School      empirical evidence about juvenile justice
receive special consideration for techni-      of Government in Cambridge, MA. A draft       and delinquency prevention policies and
cal assistance and training related to         report for Phase I of the evaluation, which   practices and their impact on tribal
strategy development and implementa-           covers the first 18 months of the project,    youth. In developing guidelines for TYP
tion, and they are eligible to apply for       was submitted in spring 2002 and is still     research and evaluation, OJJDP convened
funding for law enforcement, tribal courts,    being reviewed. Phase II of the evaluation    an American Indian focus group. This
detention facilities, and youth programs.      began in December 2002 and will address       group developed three principles to guide
                                               the subsequent 30 months.                     TYP-funded research and evaluation activ-
DOJ’s National Institute of Justice is over-
                                                                                             ities. The group determined that research
seeing an evaluation of the CIRCLE Project
                                                                                             and evaluation should:

                                                                                              school, and peer factors that affect
  An Overview of Selected Tribal Research and                                                 delinquency and resiliency among tribal
  Evaluation Activities                                                                       youth. It will also promote the develop-
                                                                                              ment of culturally appropriate research
  ◆ The Michigan Public Health Institute in Okemos, MI, in partnership with the               methods for use with tribal populations.
     Native American Institute at Michigan State University, is helping five tribes           The first 2 years of the Longitudinal Study
     evaluate programs being conducted with TYP grants.                                       will consist of a feasibility study (to plan
  ◆ The College of Menominee Nation in Keshena, WI, is working with Menominee                 for the actual longitudinal study). After
     organizations to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a culturally appropriate,            the feasibility study has been completed,
     community-based, family-centered, integrated approach to the prevention of               and depending on the availability of funds,
     delinquency among tribal youth ages 11–18.                                               OJJDP anticipates supporting the Longitu-
                                                                                              dinal Study for up to 5 more years.
  ◆ New Mexico State University in Las Cruces is conducting a study that examines
     delinquency and the legal processing of Native American juveniles in a Four              In April 2002, OJJDP awarded approxi-
     Corners tribe during the past 11 years, taking into account changes in tribal            mately $650,000 in the form of a coopera-
     resources during that time, such as the opening of a casino on the reservation.          tive agreement (for a 2-year project and
  ◆ The Navajo Nation Judicial Branch in Window Rock, AZ, is conducting a com-                budget period) to Colorado State Univer-
     prehensive assessment of gang activity, the first such assessment undertaken             sity’s Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention
     by a tribal government, to identify approaches that can be adopted by tribes to          Research to administer and conduct the
     deal with gangs.                                                                         feasibility study. OJJDP will be actively
                                                                                              involved in this important research proj-
  ◆ Building on the Navajo gang study, researchers at California State University             ect through close communication with the
     in Sacramento are using ethnographic observation and interviewing community              grantee, participation in initial site visits
     members and gang members to document and profile the youth gang experi-                  to eligible tribes being considered for par-
     ence in up to six tribal sites across the Nation.                                        ticipation in the study, and followup visits
  More information on these projects can be found in the OJJDP Fact Sheet                     to participating sites.
  OJJDP’s Program of Research for Tribal Youth (Fung and Wyrick, 2001).

                                                                                              Other Tribal Youth
◆ Provide useful, practical results that      Youth Crime and Violence, will award
  are relevant to the parties who are the     $200,000 to Sandoval Indian Pueblos, Inc.,      The five program areas described thus
  focus of the research.                      a consortium of five pueblos in Sandoval        far in this Bulletin (TYP, the TYP Mental
                                              County, NM, to explore the causes of and        Health Project, the CIRCLE Project, train-
◆ Involve local community members in                                                          ing and technical assistance, and research
  decisionmaking and implementation           responses to youth substance abuse and
                                              crime. The study will use secondary and         and evaluation) focus specifically on tribal
  activities.                                                                                 youth and communities. Tribal communi-
                                              archival data sources, youth surveys, and
◆ Acknowledge and respect native cus-         interviews of tribe members to assess the       ties are active participants in a number
  toms, traditions, values, and history.      nature of juvenile delinquency in the pueb-     of other OJJDP programs and initiatives
Tribal research and evaluation activities     los. Another project, the Anishinaabek          as well. Tribal communities, for example,
address a range of issues relating to juve-   Juvenile Justice Study, will award approxi-     were among the grant recipients in sev-
nile justice and delinquency prevention       mately $200,000 to the Red Cliff Band of        eral major OJJDP initiatives, including
efforts in tribal communities. (See sidebar   Lake Superior Chippewa to conduct a form-       the Juvenile Mentoring Program, the Safe
on this page for a description of selected    ative evaluation of the juvenile justice sys-   Schools/Healthy Students Initiative, the
projects.)                                    tem on the Red Cliff Reservation. The           Drug-Free Communities Support Program,
                                              evaluation will focus on the reservation’s      the Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws
OJJDP also supports two new research          tribal court, tribal substance abuse pro-       Program, and CASA (the Court Appointed
programs designed to help AI/AN commu-        grams, and Indian Child Welfare program.        Special Advocate Initiative). OJJDP is also
nities develop and implement juvenile                                                         developing training support for tribal law
delinquency programs and improve tribal                                                       enforcement officers. In 2001, the National
juvenile justice systems. These programs
                                              The Longitudinal Study of
                                                                                              Youth Gang Center (NYGC) implemented a
are described in the sections that follow.    Tribal Youth Risk and                           new survey of youth gangs in AI/AN com-
                                              Resiliency                                      munities that measures the prevalence,
The Tribal Youth Field-                       In 2002, OJJDP began supporting the Lon-        composition, and activities of gangs in
Initiated Research and                        gitudinal Study of Tribal Youth Risk and        federally recognized tribes that had not
Evaluation Program                            Resiliency Using the Community Readiness        previously been included in NYGC’s an-
                                              Model (the Longitudinal Study), which will      nual National Youth Gang Survey of law
The Tribal Youth Field-Initiated Research     examine risk and protective factors for         enforcement agencies.
and Evaluation Program supports projects      juvenile delinquency within the unique
that focus on tribal youth and address        cultural and historical context of a tribal     In December 2000, OJJDP published a
child abuse and neglect, substance abuse,     community. By emphasizing cultural and          special issue of its journal Juvenile Jus-
and indigenous approaches to juvenile         historical factors, the Longitudinal Study      tice (Volume VII, Number 2) that focuses
justice. One such project, Understanding      will significantly improve knowledge con-       on the subject of preventing and combat-
the Causes of and Responses to Pueblo         cerning individual, family, community,          ing delinquency among tribal youth. This

issue includes an interview with Senator      2. During 2000, the juvenile arrest rate for      References
Ben Nighthorse Campbell of Colorado,          violent crime reached its lowest level in 14
an overview of OJJDP’s Tribal Youth Pro-                                                        Andrews, C. 1999. Tribal Youth Program.
                                              years and the number of juvenile arrests
gram, and a discussion of the importance                                                        Fact Sheet (FS 99108). Washington, DC: U.S.
                                              in each category tracked by the Federal
of cultural practices in delinquency pre-                                                       Department of Justice, Office of Justice
                                              Bureau of Investigation in its Violent
vention programs.                                                                               Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
                                              Crime Index (murder, forcible rape, rob-
                                                                                                Delinquency Prevention.
                                              bery, and aggravated assault) fell (Snyder,
                                              in press).                                        Frey, H.E. 2002. Tribal Court CASA: A Guide
For Further Information                                                                         to Program Development. Fact Sheet (FS
                                              3. TYP is part of the federal Indian Coun-
J. Robert Flores, Administrator for OJJDP,                                                      200209). Washington, DC: U.S. Department
                                              try Law Enforcement Initiative, a 4-year
invites inquiries on OJJDP programs and                                                         of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Of-
                                              joint initiative of the U.S. Departments of
activities. He can be reached at                                                                fice of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
                                              Justice and the Interior to improve law
202–307–5911.                                                                                   Prevention.
                                              enforcement and the administration of
Additional information on OJJDP tribal ini-   criminal and juvenile justice in Indian           Fung, C., and Wyrick, P.A. 2001. OJJDP’s
tiatives appears in the following OJJDP       country. The initiative also addresses the        Program of Research for Tribal Youth. Fact
Fact Sheets: OJJDP’s Program of Research      need for additional resources to respond          Sheet (FS 200110). Washington, DC: U.S.
for Tribal Youth (Fung and Wyrick, 2001);     to crime in AI/AN communities, including          Department of Justice, Office of Justice
Training and Technical Assistance for Indi-   increased funding for tribal police officers,     Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
an Nation Juvenile Justice Systems (Melton    courts, detention facilities, and prevention      Delinquency Prevention.
and Bird, 1999); Tribal Court CASA: A Guide   and intervention programs.                        Melton, A.P., and Bird, E. 1999. Training
to Program Development (Frey, 2002); Trib-    4. Partner agencies include the Office of         and Technical Assistance for Indian Nation
al Youth Program (Andrews, 1999); and         the Attorney General, the Office of Tribal        Juvenile Justice Systems. Fact Sheet (FS
United National Indian Tribal Youth, Inc.     Justice, the Office of Justice Programs, and      99105). Washington, DC: U.S. Department
(Sagiri, 2001). These publications and        the Office of Community Oriented Policing         of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Of-
others listed in the “References” section     Services. The U.S. Attorney also plays a          fice of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
may be ordered from the Juvenile Justice      role in the CIRCLE Project, and the Federal       Prevention.
Clearinghouse. Refer to the box on page 7     Bureau of Investigation and the U.S.              Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
for information on how to order publica-      Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indi-      Prevention. 2000. Juvenile Justice, Volume
tions or obtain information from JJC.         an Affairs contribute to project efforts          VII, Number 2 (American Indian issue).
For more information on OJJDP’s tribal        through their involvement in the Indian           Journal (NCJ 184747). Washington, DC:
youth initiatives, contact:                   Country Law Enforcement Initiative.               U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice
Laura Ansera, Program Manager
Tribal Youth Program
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
State and Tribal Assistance Division
810 Seventh Street NW.
Washington, DC 20531
anseral@ojp.usdoj.gov                             Electronic subscriptions are now available for OJJDP News @ a
In March 2003, OJJDP launched a Web               Glance, a bimonthly newsletter that presents up-to-date notices of
page (ojjdp.ncjrs.org/typ) devoted to             and quick access to agency activities, recent publications, funding
tribal youth initiatives.                         opportunities, and upcoming events.
                                                  To subscribe,
1. The terms “Indian tribe,” “tribal,” and
                                                      Go to OJJDP’s Web site (ojjdp.ncjrs.org).
“tribe(s)” mean “any Indian tribe, band,              Click on “Subscribe to OJJDP
nation, or other organized group or com-
munity, including Alaska Native village or
                                                      News @ a Glance.”
regional or village corporation, as defined           Fill in your name and e-mail address.
in or established pursuant to the Alaska
Native Claims Settlement Act . . . which          Or
is recognized as eligible for the special
programs and services provided by the
                                                  Download individual issues from
United States to Indians because of their         ojjdp.ncjrs.org/about/newsletter.html.
status as Indians” (25 U.S.C. § 450b(e)).
                                                                If you would like a copy mailed to you, contact the Juvenile Justice
                                                          Clearinghouse by phone at 800–638–8736, by e-mail at puborder@ncjrs.org,
                                                                     or by mail at P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849–6000.

Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention.                           How To Access Information From OJJDP’s Juvenile
Office of the Associate Attorney General.         Justice Clearinghouse
1999. Indian country law enforcement              All OJJDP publications mentioned in this Bulletin are available from the Juvenile
review. Unpublished report. Washington,           Justice Clearinghouse (JJC) via telephone, fax, and the Internet. JJC also wel-
DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of         comes questions via telephone, fax, or e-mail. When ordering a publication, please
the Associate Attorney General.                   refer to its NCJ or Fact Sheet (FS) number.
Rennison, C. 2001. Violent Victimization          Telephone:
and Race, 1993–98. Report (NCJ 176354).           800–638–8736
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Jus-
tice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau          Fax:
of Justice Statistics.                            410–792–4358 (to order publications)
                                                  301–519–5212 (to ask questions)
Sagiri, Y. 2001. United National Indian Trib-     800–638–8736 (fax-on-demand,
al Youth, Inc. Youth in Action Fact Sheet          Fact Sheets and Bulletins only)
(YFS 00107). Washington, DC: U.S. Depart-
ment of Justice, Office of Justice Pro-           E-mail:
grams, Office of Juvenile Justice and             askjj@ncjrs.org (to ask questions)
Delinquency Prevention.                           Internet:
Snyder, H. 2002. Juvenile Arrests 2000. Bul-      ojjdp.ncjrs.org (to view or download materials)
letin (NCJ 191729). Washington, DC: U.S.          puborder.ncjrs.org (to order publications online)
Department of Justice, Office of Justice
Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention.

This Bulletin was prepared by Kay McKinney,
formerly Acting Director of OJJDP’s Information
Dissemination and Planning Unit.
                                                               Find OJJDP Products
 The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
 Prevention is a component of the Office of
 Justice Programs, which also includes the
 Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of
 Justice Statistics, the National Institute of
 Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.

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Bulletin                  NCJ 193763

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