NIJ Journal Issue No. 241

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NIJ Journal Issue No. 241 Powered By Docstoc
					U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
National Institute of Justice




                                JOURNAL
 OCTOBER 1999                    NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE




                                      Problem Solving
                                      with Maps
                                      by Thomas Rich



                                      Prisons Can
                                      Reduce Drug Use
                                      by Thomas E. Feucht and
                                      Andrew Keyser



                                      Teaming up for
                                      Community Safety
                                      by U.S. Attorneys Veronica Coleman,
                                      Walter C. Holton, Jr., Kristine Olson,
                                      Stephen C. Robinson, and Judith
                                      Stewart

                                      and

                                      Cultivating Leaders in
                                      Criminal Justice
                                      At-A-Glance:
                                      s School Safety

                                      s Domestic Violence Arrest

                                        Policies
                                      s Family Group Conferencing
                  BUILDING
                                                   Director’s Message
           KNOWLEDGE TO
        MEET THE CHALLENGE OF                      This issue of the NIJ Journal demonstrates how sophisticated technologies
          CRIME AND JUSTICE                        and innovative partnerships among law enforcement, corrections, communi-
                                                   ty leaders, and researchers are evolving. The partners are finding that collab-
                                                   orations can lead to new ways to restore and maintain safety in neighbor-
    National Institute of Justice                  hoods and correctional settings.
                                                   Thomas Rich offers an overview of creative mapping applications that
                Jeremy Travis                      communities across the country are using to identify and address crime
                   Director                        problems. By integrating crime data with other data––survey data on
                                                   adolescents’ behavior, for example––these applications go well beyond the
The NIJ Journal is published by the National
Institute of Justice, the research arm of the      traditional mapping methods. Today’s technology offers expanded possibili-
U.S. Department of Justice, to announce the        ties for a community’s law enforcement, corrections, and social service
Institute’s policy-relevant research results       agencies to collaborate on analyzing data within and across agency and
and initiatives. The Attorney General has          jurisdictional boundaries.
determined that publication of this periodical
                                                   Thomas E. Feucht and Andrew Keyser describe a collaboration between
is necessary in the transaction of the public
business required by law of the Department         prison officials and researchers that addressed drug use among prison
of Justice.                                        inmates. In 1995 and 1996, six inmates died of drug overdoses in
                                                   Pennsylvania’s prisons. Recognizing the threat to inmate and correctional
Opinions or points of view expressed in this       staff safety, the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections developed a drug
document are those of the authors and do not       interdiction strategy that combined specific steps and actions with analytic
necessarily reflect the official position of the   evaluation of the outcome. Two years after the program was initiated, inmate
U.S. Department of Justice.                        drug use had declined dramatically.
For more information about NIJ activities,
products, and publications, visit NIJ on the       In a third feature article, five U.S. Attorneys describe partnerships in their
World Wide Web at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij.    cities that are targeting serious crime problems. Relying heavily on statistical
                                                   data and information analysis, these U.S. Attorneys have become key prob-
                                                   lemsolvers by teaming with researchers and other community leaders to
NIJ Journal Editorial Board                        develop crime reduction strategies. Results of their efforts so far are prelimi-
David Boyd                                         nary, and the NIJ Journal will continue to report on progress in the five sites.
Deputy Director for the Office of                  The John B. Pickett Criminal Justice Policy and Management fellowship
Science and Technology                             program at Harvard University provides an opportunity for mid-career
Sally T. Hillsman                                  criminal justice practitioners to hone their leadership and problem-solving
Deputy Director for the Office of                  skills. This issue’s fourth article describes the experiences of four Pickett
Research and Evaluation
                                                   fellows who have become leaders in their fields. As we approach the new
John L. Schwarz                                    millennium, their experiences remind us that strong criminal justice leaders
Deputy Director for the Office of                  will be the key to developing and sustaining effective problem-solving efforts
Development and Communications
                                                   and to keeping our neighborhoods safe.
Christy A. Visher
Science Advisor to the Director
                                                   Jeremy Travis
Cheryl A. Crawford
A. Trent DePersia
                                                   Director
James O. Finckenauer
Mary G. Graham
        .
Sharla P Rausch
         .
Gerald P Soucy
Laura Winterfield


Managing Editors
Brenner Brown, Palladian Partners, Inc.
Jolene Hernon, National Institute
 of Justice
Contents
features
2      Mapping the Path to Problem
       Solving s Thomas Rich
10 Reducing Drug Use in Prisons:
       Pennsylvania’s Approach
       s Thomas E. Feucht and Andrew Keyser


16 Using Knowledge and Teamwork To
       Reduce Crime s U.S. Attorneys
       Veronica Coleman, Walter C.
       Holton, Jr., Kristine Olson, Stephen
       C. Robinson, and Judith Stewart
24 The Pickett Fellowships: Cultivating
       Effective Leaders in Criminal Justice

at-a-glance
26 Recent Research Findings:
       q
           School Safety
       q
           Domestic Violence Arrest Policies
       q
           Family Group Conferencing

departments
29     New & Noteworthy
31     Events
34     Solicitations & Awards
35     NIJ in the Journals
36     Final Reports



Reducing Drug Use in Prisons:
As part of the Pennsylvania Department of Correction’s drug
elimination strategy, the department’s K-9 unit increased its
   searches of inmate housing and institutional areas. See
   “Reducing Drug Use in Prisons: Pennsylvania’s
   Approach,” page 10. Photo: Susan McNaughton




    Using Knowledge and Teamwork
    U.S. Attorneys, community leaders, and researchers are
    teaming up to identify and solve specific crime problems.
    A pilot initiative in five cities builds on lessons learned in
    other communities where crime is dropping. See "Using
    Knowledge and Teamwork To Reduce Crime," page 16.
    Photo: Sergeant Joe Humkey




             National Institute of Justice Journal s October
       National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999 1999
                                                         1   1
Mapping the
    Path to
   Problem
    Solving
       by Thomas Rich
                                                                 about the author

         C
                    omputer mapping and                          Thomas Rich is an Associate in the Law and Public Policy area of Abt Associates Inc.,
                    geographic information                       a public policy and business research and consulting company headquartered in
                    systems (GIS) are used in a                  Cambridge, Massachusetts.
         variety of criminal justice and pub-
         lic safety settings. Most of the data
         sets agencies and organizations
                                                             and other problems, but also reduce        police departments. In 1997, NIJ
         routinely collect and maintain
                                                             operating costs, manage resources          established a crime mapping pro-
         include location information—
                                                             more effectively, and assess the           gram to coordinate research, dis-
         police files contain addresses of
                                                             efficacy of interventions.                 seminate information on mapping,
         crimes and arrests, court files
                                                                                                        and provide training to spur devel-
         contain addresses of offenders,                     In the last 10 years, advances in
                                                                                                        opment of new spatial analysis
         corrections files contain addresses                 computer hardware, software, and
                                                                                                        methods and software. (See “For
         of probationers. Other public                       networking have made mapping
                                                                                                        More Information,” page 9.)
         agencies manage property databases,                 more widely available. Perhaps the
                                                                                                        Mapping also captured the attention
         street and physical infrastructure                  most important of these advances
                                                                                                        of both the Vice President, who
         files, licensing data, and public                   has been the development of low-
                                                                                                        established a Crime Mapping and
         health data. The Census Bureau                      cost yet powerful mapping software.
                                                                                                        Data-Driven Management Task
         manages block-level demographic                     In 1989, the National Institute of
                                                                                                        Force in 1998, and more recently the
         information.                                        Justice (NIJ) had only one active
                                                                                                        President, who highlighted comput-
                                                             grant involving computer mapping,
         Many tools allow these data sets to                                                            er mapping of crime data in his
                                                             although a second, more ambitious
         be viewed and analyzed, but only                                                               1999 State of the Union Address.
                                                             program—a five-city Drug Market
         computer mapping software can                       Analysis Program—was under
         create a single map that combines
         multiple data sets into one display
                                                             development. By the mid-1990’s,            Mapping in Law
                                                             mapping played highly visible roles        Enforcement
         so that public agencies not only can                in departmentwide transformations
         isolate factors contributing to crime               at the New York City and Chicago           Mapping in criminal justice agencies
                                                                                                        started with law enforcement agency
                                                                                                        crime analysts placing different col-
Figure 1: Cambridge (Massachusetts) Police Department                                                   ored pushpins on paper street maps.
Crime Bulletin of Larcenies from Motor Vehicles                                                         Today, automated versions of crime
                                                                                                        “pin maps” represent the most com-
                                                                                                        mon mapping application among
                                                    Symbol Legend:         Color Legend:                the estimated 36 percent of law
               Alewife
                                                       Daytime                    During Past
                                                                                                        enforcement agencies with 100
                                                       Larceny                    7 days                or more sworn officers that use
                         Danehy
                                                       Nighttime
                                                       Larceny                    8–30 days ago
                                                                                                        computer mapping.1
                          Park         Porter
                                       Square

       Fresh          Tobin
                                                       Unknown TIme                                     Several agencies around the country
                     School
       Pond
                                                                                                        are following a process, developed
                                          Lesley                                                        by the New York City Police Depart-
                                          College
                                                                                                        ment’s CompStat (computerized
                           Mt Auburn                   CCH                                              statistics) unit, that adds mapping to
                            Hospital   Harvard
                                       Square                                                           the mix of information that flows
                                                                       Donnelly
                                                                        Field                           among the department’s leaders,
                         Cemetery

  This map is
                                                                                          Galleria      precinct commanders, and patrol
  part of the                                     Central
                                                  Square
                                                                                                        officers. Each week, the CompStat
                                            Hoyt
  Cambridge Police                          Field                           Kendall                     unit prepares a report that is the
  Department’s daily Crime Bulletin.                                        Square

  Each Bulletin contains a section that
                                                                                                        focal point of discussion at weekly
  focuses on a different “target” crime                        MIT                                      briefings attended by department
  each day: street robberies on Monday,                                                                 executives and commanders. The
  house break-ins on Tuesday, larcenies
  from motor vehicles on Wednesday, auto
                                                                                                        CompStat database is used to create
  theft on Thursday, and commercial break-ins on Friday.                                                maps depicting virtually any combi-
                                                                                                        nation of crime and arrest locations,



                                                                                                            National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                                                   3
                                                                                               accurate data relating to risk and
         Mapping Drug Flow into                                                                protective factors and behaviors of
                                                                                               adolescents, such as the extent of
         the United States                                                                     substance abuse, delinquent and
                                                                                               violent behavior, teen pregnancy,
         Research funded by the Office of National Drug Control Policy is examining            truancy, and weapon carrying. To
         the use of computer mapping to study how drugs flow from source countries             fill the gap, the city conducted a
         into the United States. One project uses mapping to examine the spatial               series of citywide surveys of high
         relationship between drug smuggling patterns and the use of drug-interdiction         school students. The police depart-
         assets, such as ships, airplanes, radar, Federal agents, and drug-sniffing            ment then entered the findings into
         dogs. Mapping also provides a visual picture of the number of ships, trucks,          a database and used mapping soft-
         passenger vehicles, pedestrians, airplanes, and other conveyors entering              ware to display the results by Census
         the country through ports of entry.                                                   block. Figure 2 (opposite) is a map
                                                                                               that the Redlands Police Depart-
                                                                                               ment used to examine levels of risk
            crime “hot spots,” and other rele-        Automobiles, for example, often are      factors relative to the locations of
            vant information. The maps are            stolen in one jurisdiction and recov-    community resources that provide
            used not only to analyze crime, but       ered in a neighboring one. A region-     an opportunity to develop skills and
            also to enforce accountability and        al system that includes sophisticated    receive recognition.
            evaluate performance.                     query and mapping tools enables a        The effort enabled various city and
                                                      crime analyst to spot patterns in        county agencies and community-
            In Chicago, community police
                                                      these and other crimes that other-       based organizations to better target
            officers use the department’s
                                                      wise would likely go undetected.         their resources. For example, neigh-
            Information Collection for
            Automated Mapping (ICAM)                                                           borhoods where a high percentage
                                                                                               of students indicated “there’s noth-
            program to produce maps of crime          Collaborative                            ing for me to do” received additional
            conditions in their assigned beats        Enforcement and
            and share them with residents at                                                   youth recreation programming. In
            neighborhood beat meetings. Other
                                                      Problem-Solving                          the future, the city hopes to make
            law enforcement agencies use map-         Efforts                                  the maps and other survey results
            ping to support problem-solving                                                    available to city agencies, communi-
                                                      To address the many factors that
            and community policing, improve                                                    ty organizations, and the public
                                                      contribute to crime and disorder,
            law enforcement operations, and                                                    through a regional Intranet.
                                                      communities are forming partner-
            apprehend and convict offenders.2         ships between their law enforcement      Strategic Approaches to
            Figure 1 (on page 3) shows the            agency and other city, State, and        Community Safety Initiative.
            Cambridge (Massachusetts)                 Federal agencies. Because of its         Over the past decade, the U.S.
            Police Department’s “Daily Crime          ability to merge mappable data           Department of Justice has funded
            Bulletin,” through which the depart-      from different agencies and organi-      a number of community revitaliza-
            ment shares maps and crime analysis       zations, GIS is an ideal information     tion efforts involving multiple
            so that all officers and staff are more   tool for these collaborations.           local, State, and Federal agencies.
            aware and knowledgeable of crime                                                   Examples include the Comprehen-
            trends in various neighborhoods.          Risk-Focused Policing. In
                                                                                               sive Communities Program and
                                                      Redlands, California, the police
            Regional Law Enforcement                                                           Operation Weed and Seed. Most
                                                      department has adopted “risk-
            Systems. In some areas of the                                                      recently the Justice Department ini-
                                                      focused policing,” which systemati-
            country, law enforcement agencies                                                  tiated the Strategic Approaches to
                                                      cally focuses on the underlying
            have established regional systems                                                  Community Safety Initiative, or
                                                      causes of disorder and the factors
            that merge crime and other police                                                  SACSI, a new strategy that builds
                                                      that place its youths and families
            data from several, typically adjacent,                                             from the lessons of these earlier pro-
                                                      most at-risk for criminal and other
                                                                                               grams. (See “Using Knowledge and
            law enforcement agencies. Although        problem behavior.3 The model is
            regional systems often are difficult                                               Teamwork to Reduce Crime,” page
                                                      based on the extensive research liter-
                                                                                               16.) Each SACSI site is gathering
            to establish and maintain, they offer     ature on risk and protective factors.4
            obvious benefits, most notably the                                                 data from its criminal justice and
            ability to detect crime patterns that     Although Redlands had accurate           social service agencies and merging
            cross jurisdictional boundaries.          data on crime, it did not have           them into one database that will be


 Mapping the Path to Problem Solving
4
      Figure 2: Average Risk, Family Domain, and Community
      Assets Providing Skills, Opportunities, and Recognition




                                                                                               Resources
                                                                                               Streets
                                                                                          Average Risk, Family Domain
                                                                                               26%–36%
                                                                                               36%–46%
                                                                                               46%–51%
                                                                                               51%–58%
                                                                                               58%–69%



      As part of its risk-focused policing strategy, the Redlands (California) Police Department combined crime data
      with data from citywide surveys on risk factors to determine where resources were needed most.


accessible to each of the contribut-      ZIP codes and arrest locations.           ships to develop and use the SARA
ing agencies to help the site analyze     When these new data are combined          (scanning, analysis, response, and
its crime problem, assess the impact      and mapped with other ADAM                assessment) model to address spe-
of interventions, and make adjust-        data—such as the type and quantity        cific school-related crime problems.
ments in its strategy.                    of drugs purchased, the purchase          In Akron, Ohio, for example, the
                                          price, and the arrestee’s level of        School-Based Partnership project is
Mapping Local Drug Markets
                                          dependence on drugs and need for          focusing on crimes occurring within
and Treatment Needs. Officials in
                                          treatment—analysts will be able to        a two-block area of a targeted
the 35 metropolitan areas partici-
                                          better pinpoint where resources are       school, and mapping software will
pating in NIJ’s Arrestee Drug Abuse
                                          most needed.                              plot the precise locations of juvenile
Monitoring (ADAM) program,
                                                                                    crime occurring in the area.
which tracks drug use trends among        Schools. Some communities,
adult and juvenile arrestees, soon        including many receiving funding          Mapping crime and disorder inside
will have more information about          from the Justice Department’s Office      schools or on the school grounds
the location and characteristics of       of Community Oriented Policing            requires a large-scale or “high-
their drug markets and the potential      Services’ School-Based Partnership        definition” mapping system that
demand for treatment and other            program, have begun to use                includes digitized floor plans, build-
health services in different neigh-       mapping in conjunction with               ing blueprints, and detailed maps of
borhoods. In early 2000, the ADAM         school-based problem solving.             school grounds and surrounding
sites will begin collecting geographic    In these efforts, law enforcement         areas. Crime, victimization, and
information, including arrestees’         agencies and schools form partner-        other data are then linked to specific

                                                                                        National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                               5
                                                                                          electronic monitoring and police-
                                                                                          corrections partnerships.
      …community leaders say the mapping system                                           Electronic Monitoring. Electronic
                                                                                          monitoring devices have been used
              improved communication between the                                          for many years to help probation
                                                                                          and parole officials enforce home
               police and residents by ensuring that                                      detention, curfew, and restraining
                                                                                          orders. A typical arrangement in-
                                                                                          volves a device connected to a phone
           they shared a common platform on which                                         line and a special ankle bracelet
                                                                                          worn by the offender; each time the
                   to judge the nature and extent of                                      device is polled, it reports whether
                                                                                          the offender is at home or at some
                          neighborhood problems.                                          other location where he is supposed
                                                                                          to be (or not supposed to be).
                                                                                          An alternative approach, one with
                                                                                          which some corrections agencies
            locations (for example, a particular   own maps and analyze incident-         are beginning to experiment,
            classroom or section of a parking      level calls for service, crime, and    involves continuously monitoring
            lot). Temple University researchers    arrest data.6 The mapping system       the location of offenders using glob-
            recently conducted a pilot test of a   enables community groups to            al positioning system (GPS) tech-
            high-definition mapping system at      quantify suspected problems, thus      nology. Computer mapping soft-
            the university. Working with the       confirming—or disproving—the           ware is used in conjunction with
            campus police, Temple researchers      perceptions of neighborhood resi-      GPS to display the location of the
            constructed digitized maps of all      dents. In turn, this enables commu-    tracked offender on a digitized
            campus buildings, including floor      nity groups to make a stronger case    street map and, most importantly,
            plans of multistory buildings. The     to residents, the police, and other    to monitor his location relative to
            campus police department modified      city agencies to focus on particular   other areas. Thus, a corrections
            its records management system to       problems. One community leader         official could be alerted if an
            link crimes to one of several hun-     noted, “We were somewhat skittish      offender left a specific area (for
            dred specific campus locations.        about going after a problem if the     example, the 1-mile radius of his
            The study included a victimization     only evidence was citizen percep-      house) or if he came within a
            survey in which students rated the     tion.” Other community leaders say     certain distance of forbidden areas
            safety of different geographic         the system improved communica-         (such as a school, playground, or
            regions on campus.5                    tion between the police and resi-      other location).
                                                   dents by ensuring that they shared
            Community Organizations.                                                      Police-Corrections Partnerships.
                                                   a common platform on which to
            Community involvement in crime                                                Many cities have implemented law
                                                   judge the nature and extent of
            control and prevention efforts is a                                           enforcement-corrections partner-
                                                   neighborhood problems.
            central tenet of community polic-                                             ships as a way to provide enhanced
            ing. One effective way of getting                                             supervision of probationers, appre-
            the community more involved in         Mapping in                             hend persons who abscond from
            community policing is for city         Corrections                            supervision, and implement joint
            agencies—particularly the police                                              problem-solving efforts.8
                                                   Probation and parole departments
            department—to share information                                               Information sharing between
                                                   also use mapping, often in conjunc-
            with the community. Recognizing                                               law enforcement and corrections
                                                   tion with community corrections
            this, many law enforcement agencies                                           officials is a key component of these
                                                   initiatives. Delaware recently
            routinely make crime information                                              partnerships. In Phoenix, Arizona,
                                                   undertook a systematic examination
            available to the public, often                                                for example, local law enforcement
                                                   of the proximity of probationers’
            through the department’s Web site.                                            and probation officials are imple-
                                                   and parolees’ homes to drug treat-
            A project in Hartford, Connecticut,    ment, employment, and other social     menting a mapping system that links
            is providing local crime prevention    service centers and used the results   to a database containing both police
            organizations with basic mapping       to guide future placement of these     crime data and information on
            and analytical tools to create their   centers.7 Other uses include           probationers, including residential

 Mapping the Path to Problem Solving
6
and work addresses, conditions of       Figure 3: Arson “Hot Spots” in Detroit 1994 & 1997
probation, and probation history.       Hot Spots: Change Over Time
Teams of police and probation
officials working in targeted areas
will then use this system to plan
and implement strategies for reduc-
                                                                                   Highland
ing burglary. For example, a map                                                     Park
                                                                                              Hamtramck
showing the addresses of current
probationers convicted of or with
a history of burglary might show
that there are clusters of these
probationers near clusters of
                                                                                                                         Isle
                                                                                                                   lle
recent reported burglaries. As a                                                                                 Be

result, area probation officers might
                                        This map shows changes over
increase the frequency of visits        time in “hot spots” of incidents of                           1997 Fire Location
to probationers residing near the       arson in Detroit. The computer
                                                                                                      1997 Fire “Hot Spot”
burglary clusters.9                     software constructs ellipses
                                        around the areas with the highest                             1994 Fire “Hot Spot”
                                        concentrations of arson.
Analytic Mapping
Computer mapping can be a highly        Source: D. Martin, E. Barnes, and D. Britt, “Multiple Impacts of Mapping It Out,” in N.
effective technique for presenting      LaVigne and J. Wartell, eds., Crime Mapping Case Studies: Successes in the Field,
                                        Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum, pp. 3–14.
data and communicating ideas.
However, maps are sometimes
difficult to interpret and may          Various techniques have been                     ellipses around the densest concen-
appear simply as a jumble of dots.      developed to identify clusters of                trations of crime or other spatial
Comparing two maps that depict,         spatial data, the most common                    point data. (See figure 3.) STAC has
say, crime locations in two different   example being the crime “hot spot.”              been distributed to more than 200
time periods can be even more           Researchers at the Illinois Criminal             law enforcement agencies.
difficult. The development of spatial   Justice Information Authority devel-
                                                                                         Another technique used to show
statistic methods and software tools    oped one of the first of such tech-
                                                                                         areas of high crime density was
will expand the ability to interpret    niques, a computer program called
                                                                                         developed through a research
spatial data.                           STAC (Spatial and Temporal
                                                                                         partnership between the City
                                        Analysis of Crime) that constructs
                                                                                         University of New York and the




                                                                                              National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                                     7
     Recent Trends in Analytic Mapping
     Aerial Photography. Overlaying criminal justice
     data on digital aerial photographs makes maps appear
     more “real,” and, hence, easier to interpret. This also                                                                         96–100%
                                                                                                                                     91–95%
     provides additional environmental context within which
                                                                                                                                     86–90%
     to interpret criminal justice data.                                                                                             81–85%
                                                                                                                                     76–80%
     When users of the Baltimore County Police Depart-                                                                               71–75%
     ment’s mapping system were asked what additional                                                                                66–70%
     information would be most useful, digital aerial pho-                                                                           61–65%
     tographs were one of the top three choices, along with                                                                          56–60%
                                                                                                                                     51–55%
     the last known address of offenders and the addresses                                                                           46–50%
     to which incarcerated offenders are released.                                                                                   41–45%
                                                                                                                                     36–40%
     While only a few criminal justice agencies currently use                                                                        31–35%
     aerial photographs, it is conceivable that in the future,                                                                       26–30%
     as more cities commission aerial surveys of their                                                                               21–25%
                                                                                                                                     16–20%
     jurisdictions and as data storage costs continue to
                                                                                                                                     11–15%
     decrease, map displays routinely will show aerial pho-                                                                          6–10%
     tographs instead of “stick” representations of streets.                                                                         0–5%

     Geographic Profiling. A criminal investigative                                                                            Close
     technique called geographic profiling produces a
     map that shows the probable home or work address             Figure 4: This map of Vancouver is an example of geographic
                                                                  profiling. The house represents the probable location of the
     of a particular serial offender. Figure 4 shows the
                                                                  offender’s residence and the dark circles represent the robberies
     locations of robberies thought to have been committed        committed by the offender in nearby neighborhoods.
     by a single person. The robber’s likely residence is         Source: Vancouver Police Department.
     indicated with a house icon. Based on this map, inves-
     tigators were able to focus their search for the offender, who was eventually arrested. Kim Rossino, a detective in the
     Vancouver Police Department, developed this technique in 1990, incorporating findings from the field of environmental
     criminology, such as the distances offenders travel to commit crimes.* While only three police agencies, all Canadian,
     currently have full-time geographic profilers, the use of geographic profiling should increase substantially in the future as
     DNA databases, ballistics identification systems, and other techniques improve investigators’ ability to link crimes.
    * Note: For more information, see Rossmo, D. Kim, “Place, Space, and Police Investigations: Hunting Serial Violent Criminals,” in John E.
      Eck and David Weisburd, eds., Crime and Place, Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 4, Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, 1985, 217–35.



             New York City Police Department.               spatial distributions have changed              enforcement agencies to improve
             It involves a statistical technique            over time. Indeed, law enforcement              the targeting of enforcement and
             that blends, or “smooths out,” the             and problem-solving efforts that                prevention efforts.11 One approach
             pinpoints that represent specific              focus on a particular geographic                involves testing the “broken win-
             incidents to create an image that              area must address two critical ques-            dows” theory—that signs of physical
             represents the overall density of              tions: (1) Did the interventions                disorder, such as abandoned cars,
             crime rather than the specific                 change the geographic distribution              graffiti, and litter, will eventually
             locations of those crimes.10                   of crime, for example, by displacing            lead to more serious crime—by
                                                            the problem to other areas, and                 studying the temporal and spatial
             Research on hot-spot identification
                                                            (2) to what extent can the detected             relationships between public order
             and other spatial statistics methods
                                                            changes be attributed to the                    and other “leading indicator” crime
             has applications beyond simply
                                                            intervention.                                   hot spots and serious violent and
             identifying areas where criminal
                                                                                                            property crime hot spots. Another
             justice resources should be focused.           A logical next question to ask is
                                                                                                            approach incorporates a “rational
             For example, measures of spatial               whether it is possible to forecast
                                                                                                            criminal” model and assumes that
             correlation provide a means to                 changes in hot spots or the
                                                                                                            criminals search for geographic
             judge the relationship between                 emergence of new hot spots.
                                                                                                            locations that offer a low risk and
             crime and bars, liquor stores, or              Basic research in the area of
                                                                                                            high return, such as a particular
             other geographic features. Spatial             predictive modeling is investigating
                                                                                                            type of house or locations with
             statistics also can be used to                 whether spatial forecasting tools
                                                                                                            easy access to getaway routes.
             quantify the extent to which                   can be developed for use by law

 Mapping the Path to Problem Solving
8
These and other research efforts on
spatial methods are all attempting to       For More Information
move computer mapping beyond
simple pin maps and into analytic           NIJ has funded several of the efforts discussed in this article and is helping State
mapping. In the near future, it is          and local law enforcement and corrections practitioners learn more about geographic
likely that these tools will be stan-       information systems through grants, fellowships, workshops, annual conferences,
                                            Web sites, and a listserv.
dard features in computer mapping
software and will be widely used by         The Crime Mapping Research Center supports the development of new analytic
law enforcement and other criminal          software and training curricula, evaluation of best practices, and assessment of the
justice agencies.                           practical applications of mapping as well as its use as a research tool. For more
                                            information about the Center, visit its Web site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/cmrc/.
                                            The Crime Mapping and Analysis Program, housed at the NIJ-funded National Law
Notes                                       Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center at Denver University, provides
                                            hands-on crime mapping workshops and technical assistance in the areas of crime
1. Mamalian, Cynthia, and
                                            and intelligence analysis and geographic information systems to State and local law
   Nancy La Vigne, The Use of               enforcement and corrections practitioners. For more information about the Program,
   Computerized Mapping by Law              visit its Web site at http://www.nlectc.org/nlectcrm/cmap.html.
   Enforcement: Survey Results,
   Research Preview, Washington,            Additional information on computer mapping applications discussed in this article
   DC: U.S. Department of Justice,          is available at the following Web sites:
   National Institute of Justice, 1999      Geographic Profiling: http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/police/structure/op-support/
   (FS000237).                              geo/geo.html
2. La Vigne, Nancy and Julie                ADAM Program: http://www.adam-nij.net/
   Wartell, eds., Crime Mapping             Mapping by Community Organizations:
   Case Studies: Successes in the           http://www.civic.com/pubs/1999/march/civ-communities-3-1-99.html
   Field, Washington, DC: Police
   Executive Research Forum, 1998.          Chicago Police Department ICAM Program:
                                            http://www.ci.chi.il.us/CommunityPolicing/AboutCAPS/NewTech/ICAM.html
3. Redlands Police Department,
                                            New York City Police Department CompStat Process:
   Transforming Community Policing
                                            http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/html/chfdept/process.html
   for the 21st Century: Risk-Focused
   Policing, 1999.                          Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority’s STAC:
                                            http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/index.cfm?metaSection=data&metaPage=stacfacts
4. This research is discussed in the
   report, Comprehensive Strategy for
   Serious, Violent, and Chronic
   Juvenile Offenders, by John J.           Mapping To Increase Released                Research To Reduce Burglary,
   Wilson and James C. Howell,              Offenders’ Access to Services,” in          grant number 98–IJ–CX–0059.
   Washington, DC: U.S. Depart-             Crime Mapping Case Studies:
                                                                                    10. The statistical method used in
   ment of Justice, Office of Juvenile      Successes in the Field, Nancy La
                                                                                        this technique is called “kernel
   Justice and Delinquency                  Vigne and Julie Wartell, eds.,
                                                                                        smoothing.” The project to devel-
   Prevention, 1993 (NCJ 143453).           Washington, DC: Police Executive
                                                                                        op kernel smoothing is being
                                            Research Forum, 1998, 61–67.
5. This project is supported by                                                         supported by the NIJ grant
   the NIJ grant Using a High-           8. Parent, Dale, and Brad Snyder,              Innovative Crime Mapping
   Definition Geographic                    Police-Corrections Partnerships,            Techniques and Spatial Analysis,
   Information System To Enhance            Issues and Practices, Washington,           grant number 97–LB–VX–K013.
   Community Policing on College            DC: U.S. Department of Justice,
                                                                                    11. See, for example, Liu, Hua, and
   Campuses, grant number                   National Institute of Justice, 1999
                                                                                        Donald E. Brown, “Spatial-
   98–IJ–CX–0001.                           (NCJ 175047).
                                                                                        Temporal Event Prediction: A
6. This project is supported by the      9. With NIJ funding, researchers at            New Model,” proceedings of the
   NIJ grant Development of a               Arizona State University are                Institute of Electrical and
   Neighborhood Problem-Solving             assessing the impact of this                Electronics Engineers
   System, grant number                     approach to reduce the incidence            International Conference on
   97–IJ–CX–K017.                           of burglary. The project is sup-            Systems, Man, and Cybernectics,
                                            ported under the NIJ grant                  October 1998, San Diego, CA.
7. Harris, Richard, Charles Huenke,
                                            Combining Police and Probation
   and John O’Connell, “Using

                                                                                       National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                              9
Reducing Drug
Use in Prisons:
 Pennsylvania’s Approach
              by Thomas E. Feucht
               and Andrew Keyser
                                             about the authors
         rug use and crime are

D
                                             Thomas E. Feucht, Ph.D., is Director of the Crime Control and Prevention Division
         undeniably linked. More             of the Office of Research and Evaluation at the National Institute of Justice.
         than half of all adult              Andrew Keyser is Director of Management Information Services at the Pennsylvania
arrestees test positive for drug use         Department of Corrections.
at the time of their apprehension.1
Self-reports from prison inmates
indicate that their drug use prior
to incarceration is typically chronic     implement comprehensive prison           the Drug Interdiction Program, a
and linked to other criminal behav-       drug-testing and addiction treat-        broad-based strategy combining
ior. Although only a fifth of inmates     ment policies.3                          interdiction methods, drug testing,
in State prisons in 1997 were incar-                                               and drug treatment.
                                          Even before the congressional
cerated for drug crimes, 83 percent
                                          impetus, however, Pennsylvania           Secretary Horn also asked the
reported past drug use and 57
                                          had acknowledged that drug use           National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
percent were using drugs in the
                                          was pervasive in several of its pris-    to help assess the impact of the
month before their offense.2
                                          ons. Governor Tom Ridge appointed        program in five prisons that repre-
Despite their segregation from            Martin F. Horn as secretary for          sented a cross-section of the system.
society and continuous close super-       corrections in 1995 and charged          This article describes PDC’s inter-
vision, prison inmates still manage       him with the responsibility of rid-      diction strategies, the evaluation
to obtain illicit drugs. Such drug        ding the prison system of drugs.         effort, and the subsequent decrease
use in prison threatens the safety                                                 in drug use.
                                          Several prisons within the
of inmates and staff, contradicts
                                          Pennsylvania Department of               Although Secretary Horn cites
rehabilitative goals, undermines
                                          Corrections (PDC) system were            interdiction as the main reason for
the authority of the correctional
                                          suffering from widespread drug           the decrease, he stresses that it alone
institution, reduces public confi-
                                          availability and use: Six inmates        does not account for the results. All
dence, and ultimately corrodes
                                          died of drug overdoses during 1995       inmates now undergo an evaluation
the safety of communities and
                                          and 1996, assaults on corrections        to determine if they need substance
neighborhoods to which offenders
                                          officers and inmates had increased,      abuse treatment when they enter
return after prison.
                                          and the press reported corruption        the State’s prison system. Nearly
                                          among the staff and collusion            92 percent do. All of Pennsylvania’s
Recognizing                               between inmates and staff in             24 prisons offer treatment; 7 also
                                          obtaining drugs. The system’s            operate therapeutic communities
the Problem
                                          existing policies and resources          in which inmates with severe sub-
In 1994 and again in 1998, as part        were overwhelmed by the scope            stance abuse problems are housed
of a national focus on violent crime,     of the problem.                          separately and undergo intensive,
its link to drugs, and the pivotal role                                            long-term treatment. In 1997, PDC
                                          To rid Pennsylvania’s prisons of
prisons can play in treating drug                                                  opened its first substance abuse
                                          drugs and to secure inmate and staff
addiction, Congress took legislative                                               treatment prison, which requires
                                          safety, Secretary Horn launched
steps to encourage States to                                                       inmates to undergo difficult, inten-
                                                                                   sive, and long-term treatment.

     To rid Pennsylvania’s prisons of drugs                                        PDC’s Drug
                                                                                   Interdiction
     and to secure inmate and staff safety,                                        Strategies
                                                                                   At the heart of PDC’s comprehen-
Secretary Horn launched the Drug Interdiction                                      sive strategy was a zero-tolerance
                                                                                   drug policy: Inmates caught with
Program, a broad-based strategy combining                                          drugs were to be criminally prose-
                                                                                   cuted. Those testing positive in
        interdiction methods, drug testing,                                        PDC’s routine urine drug-testing
                                                                                   program were to serve disciplinary
                                                                                   custody time.
                     and drug treatment.

                                                                                       National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                              11
             Table 1: Type and Frequency of Pennsylvania’s                                                   also installed a new phone system,
             Drug Interdiction Program Activities, 1995–1998*                                                allowing staff to monitor inmates’
                                                                                                             calls on a random basis. Table 1
             Activity                        1995              1996              1997            1998        summarizes the major features of
             Cell searches                   66,727            73,693          87,039           89,699       the Drug Interdiction Program put
                                                                                                             into place by PDC between 1995
             K-9 searches                                                                                    and 1998.
                Cells                         None              4,955          11,143             7,725
                Vehicles                      None              1,789           3,858             3,041
                Common areas                  None              3,813           7,751             5,680
                                                                                                             Evaluating the
             Scan of visitors
             using drug detecting
                                                                                                             Effects of the
             equipment                        None             19,036          30,020           22,074       Program
             Visitors denied                  None                952              600              734      PDC officials explored several
                                                                                                             options for measuring the impact
             Urinalysis drug tests           29,494            50,235          69,926          105,347
                                                                                                             of the Drug Interdiction Program
                                                                                                             and finally decided to measure drug
             * Other program features not reported in this chart included increased phone monitoring,
               referral to drug treatment, and starting in 1998, scanning of correctional staff using drug   use by adding hair testing to the
               detecting equipment.                                                                          urine testing already taking place.
                                                                                                             Hair analysis is particularly suited to
                                                                                                             prison-based situations where drug
             Table 2: Samples sizes, head hair, and body hair,                                               use may be episodic and sporadic.
             1996 and 1998                                                                                   Hair tests can reveal drug use that
                                                                                                             occurred anytime within the previ-
                                              1996                                   1998                    ous 90 days, whereas urinalysis is
                                          (Before Drug                            (After Drug
                                     Interdiction Program)                  Interdiction Program)            limited to detecting drug use within
                                                                                                             the previous 48 hours or so.4
                                  Sample Head           Body             Sample Head            Body
                                   Size  Hair           Hair              Size  Hair            Hair         PDC officers collected hair and
              Institution           (N)   (%)            (%)               (N)   (%)             (%)         urine specimens from inmates
                                                                                                             on two occasions: in March 1996
              Prison #1             202        35%       65%               232        42%        58%         (the first wave) and in February/
                                                                                                             March 1998 (the second wave).
              Prison #2             169        32%       68%               196        37%        63%
                                                                                                             They collected about 1,000 hair
              Prison #3             220        62%       38%               213        57%        43%         specimens from a random sample
                                                                                                             of male and female inmates at the
              Prison #4             187        75%       25%               200        87%        13%
                                                                                                             five prisons. A head hair specimen
              Prison #5*            139       100%      None               190       100%       None         was obtained whenever feasible,
                                                                                                             but axillary (chest or underarm)
              Total                 917        59%       41%              1,031       64%       36%
                                                                                                             hair was accepted in those cases
              *Prison #5 is a facility for women.
                                                                                                             where sufficient head hair was
                                                                                                             unavailable.5 (See sidebar “The
                                                                                                             Challenges of Hair Analysis,”
             The strategy relied on greater                    detect drugs that visitors might try          opposite)
             surveillance of both inmates and                  to smuggle into the prison, to                Urine and hair specimens were
             visitors, increased frequency of                  inspect packages arriving in the              collected at the same time.6 To
             random urinalysis, more cell                      mail, and beginning in 1998, to               minimize the possibility of detecting
             searches and surprise raids,                      detect drugs that correctional staff          drug use that had occurred prior to
             and increased use of drug-                        might try to bring into the prison.           incarceration, only specimens from
             sniffing dogs.                                                                                  inmates who had been in the PDC
                                                               In addition, new policies were
              PDC also introduced highly sensi-                issued for inmate movement and                system for at least 3 months were
              tive drug detection equipment—                   visitation, and new sanctions for             analyzed. The final sizes of the hair
              ion mobility spectrometers—to                    drug violations were instituted. PDC          sample are shown in table 2.



  Reducing Drug Use in Prisons: Pennsylvania’s Approach
12
   The Challenges of Hair Analysis
   As they drew up their guidelines           The substitution of body hair for head       Americans. Laboratory procedures
   for using hair to test for drug            hair was not an entirely satisfactory        used to resolve this possible source
   use, PDC officials reviewed issues         alternative, primarily because of            of bias in test results are largely
   pertaining to inmate and correctional      differences in the rate of growth.           proprietary and remain a source of
   officer safety, hygiene, and religious                                                  some debate. In the PDC sample,
                                              Rate of growth. Body hair and head
   restrictions on cutting hair. Guide-                                                    the differential effect of hair color
                                              hair grow at very different rates, and
   lines pertaining to religious and                                                       is probably less problematic than
                                              as a result, drugs may be incorporat-
   other grounds for refusing the test                                                     the difference between head and
                                              ed into the two different hair types
   were reviewed and implemented.                                                          body hair.
                                              at different levels. While head hair
   In accordance with accepted testing
                                              grows at a fairly constant rate              Effects on the analysis. To the extent
   procedures, head hair was obtained
                                              of about 1.3 centimeters per month,          that inmates who lack adequate
   whenever possible, but chest hair
                                              body hair grows to a given length,           head hair differ from other inmates
   was accepted when an inmate’s
                                              remains dormant for a period of              in important inmate characteristics
   head hair was too short, shaved,
                                              time, and eventually falls out. Since        (like gender, race, and age), the
   or nonexistent.
                                              dormant hair is not growing, drug            analysis does not represent drug use
   In addition, PDC developed proce-          metabolites cannot be efficiently            across the entire inmate population.
   dures for protecting the confidentiali-    incorporated into the hair shaft. At         If inmates who lack head hair differ
   ty of individual results from the hair     any given time, proportionally more          from other inmates in terms of their
   drug tests because hair tests were to      body hair than head hair is dormant.         use of illicit drugs, results based on
   be used for research purposes only.                                                     head hair only will yield biased esti-
                                              Racial and ethnic differences. Some
   Staff at NIJ compiled the statistical                                                   mates of the actual prevalence of
                                              researchers have suggested that
   data and made aggregate reports                                                         drug use in the inmate population.
                                              thicker or darker hairs may more
   available to PDC.                                                                       It should be noted, however, that
                                              readily absorb drugs and other
                                                                                           body hair samples showed declines
   Corrections supervisors nominated          chemicals, resulting in artificially
                                                                                           in drug use between 1996 and 1998
   officers to be trained in collecting,      inflated levels of drug use for some
                                                                                           similar to those shown by the head
   handling, and packaging the                racial and ethnic groups, such as
                                                                                           hair samples.
   specimens.                                 African Americans and Asian

   Head Hair vs. Body Hair:                    Note: A hair specimen of about 60 to 80 strands was collected from each inmate. Each
   Implications for Analysis                   specimen was analyzed by Psychemedics Corporation in accordance with rigorous labora-
                                               tory procedures. (Psychemedics received a contract from NIJ to conduct the analysis.) Before
   The proportion of body hair samples         analysis, hair samples were trimmed to a standard length of 3.9 cm, representing the average
   compared to head hair samples               rate of growth of head hair over a 3-month period. Some hair shorter than 3.9 cm was collect-
                                               ed, and some longer hair was not trimmed to length because the root ends could not be
   was greater than anticipated,               properly aligned. Further sample preparation and analysis of the sample were conducted
   particularly at two of the prisons.         to resolve issues of potential environmental contamination.




A Remarkable                                 Table 3: Results of Urine and Hair Tests Showing Drug Use
Decrease in Drug Use                         Before and After Pennsylvania’s Drug Interdiction Program*

Results from the two waves of hair                               Marijuana          Cocaine           Opiates            Any Drug
analysis drug tests show a dramatic
                                                                Before After      Before After      Before After       Before After
decrease in the use of drugs in the                              1996 1998         1996 1998         1996 1998          1996 1998
prisons. (See table 3.) Results from
the initial tests in 1996, taken before      Type of Test
implementation of the new strategy,          Urinalysis            2.0    1.6        0.1    0.0        0.6     0.8        3.4     2.2
indicate that 7.8 percent of all
inmates who provided a head hair             Hair Assay
                                              Head or body         9.3    0.8        2.3    1.2        0.8     0.6      10.6      2.3
specimen had used at least one illicit
drug during the previous 90 days.             Head hair only       6.5    0.3        1.5    0.8        0.9     0.5        7.8     1.4
Marijuana was the most frequently
used drug (6.5 percent), followed by         *Before=1996, After=1998



                                                                                               National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                                      13
             Table 4: Percentage of positive drug test results by age,
             race, and committing offense of inmate (first wave, 1996)                             Demographic characteristics.
                                                                                                   Drug use was comparable among
                             Sample size      Marijuana*          Cocaine        Opiates           African-American, Caucasian, and
                                                                                                   Hispanic inmates and was largely
              Age                       N               %               %              %           unrelated to the length of time the
              18–25                    153            12.2              0.0            0.0         inmate had been incarcerated.
              26–35                    328            11.4              3.4            0.6         Marijuana use was slightly more
              36–45                    291             6.4              3.4            1.0         prevalent among inmates 35 years
              >45                      145             6.8              0.0            1.4         of age or younger, while cocaine
                                                                                                   use was highest among inmates
              Race                                                                                 aged 26 to 45 years. Opiate use
              Black                    533             9.0              3.0            0.8         was limited almost exclusively to
              White                    321             8.9              1.6            0.9         those age 36 or older.
              Hispanic                  63            13.8              0.0            0.0
                                                                                                   Type of offense. To learn more
              Time in prison                                                                       about the relationship between
              <1 yr                    206             6.1              5.3            0.5         the offense and drug use, tests were
              1–5                      231             6.8              0.9            0.0         analyzed using the PDC committing
              5–12                     413            12.6              1.7            1.2         offense criterion and categorized
              >12                       67             7.0              1.5            1.5         into violent offenses (crimes against
                                                                                                   persons, including robbery), drug
              Committing offense                                                                   or alcohol crimes, property crimes,
              Violent                  514            10.3              1.9            1.4         and other crimes. The analysis shows
              Drugs/alcohol            148             5.6              2.7            0.0         that inmates imprisoned for drug
              Property                 184            10.7              3.8            0.0         offenses may not be the most likely
              Other                     71             6.2              0.0            0.0         to test positive for drug use.

              TOTAL                    917                9.3           2.3            0.8
                                                                                                   Prisons Virtually
              *Results for marijuana based on a reduced sample size (N=852)                        99 Percent Drug-Free
                                                                                                   The second wave of tests, 24 months
                                                                                                   after the first, showed dramatic
             cocaine. Two years later, posttest            As table 3 shows, positive rates        declines in prison inmate drug
             results showed that marijuana use             based on urinalysis were generally      use. The prisons were virtually 99
             had dropped to 0.3 percent and                lower than rates based on head hair,    percent drug-free. The declines in
             that 1.4 percent had used at least            and results based on head and body      positive urine and hair assay results
             one illicit drug during the previous          hair specimens were slightly higher     were matched by similar declines in
             90 days. Similar declines were                than the results based on head          other measures collected by PDC:
             realized for cocaine and opiates.             hair only.                              s   The number of drug finds as a
             Hair samples were tested for                                                              result of cell searches dropped 41
                                                                                                       percent—from 1,866 to 1,109.
             evidence of use of marijuana,                 Drug Use by Inmate
             cocaine, opiates, amphetamines,               Characteristic and                      s   Assaults on staff decreased
             and PCP. Radio-immunoassay                                                                57 percent.
             (RIA)—a common drug-screening
                                                           Offense Type
             technique—was used to identify                The first wave of drug tests done       s   Inmate-on-inmate assaults
             samples presumed to be positive; gas          in 1996 provided sufficient variance        declined 70 percent.
             chromatography/mass spectrometry              in drug use to allow researchers to     s   Weapons seized during searches
             (GC/MS)—sometimes called the                  compare groups of inmates (see              dropped from 220 to 76.
             “gold standard” confirmatory test—            table 4), but by the second wave in
             was used to confirm the results.7             1998, the prevalence of positive drug   These drops in drug use and assaults
             Urinalysis was performed according            tests was so low that similar           provide convincing evidence that
             to standard laboratory immunoas-              comparisons could not be made.          PDC’s efforts to remove drugs from
             say drug-screening procedures.                                                        the prisons were highly successful.



  Reducing Drug Use in Prisons: Pennsylvania’s Approach
14
Implications for                          amended, P.L. 103–322, as
Communities                               well as the 1997 and 1998
                                          appropriations bills.
Because drug use in prisons erodes
institutional authority and control,   4. See Mieczkowki, Tom, and
it also severely undermines the           Kim Lersch, “Drug Testing in
public’s confidence in correctional       Criminal Justice: Evolving Uses,
institutions. It is disturbing to         Emerging Technologies,” NIJ
learn that inmates can continue           Journal, December 1997 (no.
drug consumption while serving            234) for a discussion of the
their prison sentences.                   various types of drug-testing
                                          technologies.
Eliminating drugs in prisons is
a crucial aspect of ensuring that      5. Male inmates provided either
prison order and safety are main-         head hair or body hair, not both.
tained, but perhaps most important,       Females provided head hair
eliminating the problem ensures           only.
that inmates abstain from drugs        6. Before the Drug Interdiction
during the time they serve their          Program was put into place,
sentences—a necessary first step          urinalysis had been part of
on the road to long-term abstinence       PDC’s routine testing protocol.
with important implications for the       Results were linked to individual
time when inmates return home to          inmates so prison officials could
their families and communities.                                                As part of the Pennsylvania Department of
                                          identify inmates who tested pos-     Correction’s drug elimination strategy, the
                                          itive. Compliance rates were 95      department’s K-9 unit increased its searches of
                                          percent or higher; inmates           inmate housing and institutional areas. The
Notes                                     who refused to comply were           searches have played a significant role in the
1. National Institute of Justice,         written up for refusing to obey      detection and confiscation of illegal drugs in
                                                                               the State prison system. Photo: Susan
   1998 Annual Report on Drug             an order. Hair tests, however,       McNaughton.
   Use Among Adult and Juvenile           were used solely for research
   Arrestees, Washington, DC: U.S.        purposes and were not part of
   Department of Justice, National        the Interdiction Program. The            the GC/MS results. For marijua-
   Institute of Justice, April 1999       results, therefore, were kept con-       na and cocaine, the RIA results
   (NCJ 175656).                          fidential so that individual test        are used; because of the large
                                          results could not be linked to           quantity of hair required for
2. Mumola, Christopher, Substance                                                  the marijuana GC/MS, the
                                          specific inmates.
   Abuse and Treatment, State and                                                  confirmatory test could not
   Federal Prisoners, 1997, BJS        7. Presumptive positive tests for           be performed on a number of
   Special Report, Washington, DC:        opiates were confirmed using             presumptive positive samples.
   U.S. Department of Justice,            GC/MS. Results reported here
   Bureau of Justice Statistics,          as positive for morphine were
   January 1999 (NCJ 172871).             confirmed by GC/MS. Four
                                          other presumptive positive
3. See Title II, Subtitle A of the
                                          opiate results were confirmed
   Violent Crime Control and Law
                                          as codeine only. All results for
   Enforcement Act of 1994, as
                                          morphine are presented using


 The authors would like to thank Daniel J. Woods, Depart-
 ment of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of
 Maryland, College Park, for his assistance in compiling the
 data, and Gary Zajac and Kathy Gnall of the Pennsylvania
 Department of Corrections for their contributions to the
 evaluation project.



                                                                                   National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                          15
Using Knowledge
and Teamwork
To Reduce
Crime
by U.S. Attorneys
Veronica Coleman,
Walter C. Holton, Jr.,
Kristine Olson,
Stephen C. Robinson,
Judith Stewart
                                                 about the authors
     n recent years, women in the

I
                                                 Veronica Coleman is the U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Tennessee;
     Memphis area—especially                     Walter C. Holton, Jr., is the U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of North Carolina;
     young women—have been                       Kristine Olson is the U.S. Attorney for the District of Oregon; Stephen C. Robinson
falling victim to sexual assault at              is the U.S. Attorney for the District of Connecticut; Judith Stewart is the U.S.
an alarming rate. General crime                  Attorney for the Southern District of Indiana.
rates were falling in Memphis,
but sexual assaults continued to
rise. The U.S. Attorney for the
Western District of Tennessee,                to serve as navigators—observing,
Veronica Coleman, is leading                  analyzing, and recommending
an effort to do something about               changes in direction. (See “Key
it. She heads a group formed to               Players.”)                                       Key Players
develop new approaches for reduc-                                                              Three special roles are key to the
                                              The pilot project is called the
ing sexual assaults in Memphis. “We
                                              Strategic Approaches to Com-                     SACSI project:
don’t want to be known as the rape
                                              munity Safety Initiative (SACSI)
capital of the world,” she says.                                                               U.S. Attorney. Through SACSI,
                                              and is supported by more than a
                                              dozen U.S. Department of Justice                 U.S. attorneys are demonstrating
This is the story of how five U.S.
                                              agencies.1                                       a new, emerging role for Federal
cities, including Memphis, with
five different crime problems                                                                  lawyers: that of prosecutor as proactive
                                             The pilot sites and their targeted                problemsolver. They are taking a
are experimenting with a new                 crime problems are:
way of doing business that makes                                                               more direct, active interest in find-
heavy use of statistical data and            s    Indianapolis, Indiana—                       ing solutions to the problems that
information analysis, boosts the U.S.             homicide and gun violence.                   jeopardize public safety in particular
attorney’s role as a key community           s    Memphis, Tennessee—                          communities.
problemsolver, and asks researchers               sexual assault.
                                                                                               Project coordinator. This critical
                                                                                               team member manages the daily
                                                                                               process, facilitates the conversation,
                                                                                               moves the group toward the collective
                                                                                               goal, ensures that different compo-
                                                                                               nents of the partnerships are working
                                                                                               effectively, holds the group to task,
                                                                                               and works with the research partner to
                                                                                               think through the nexus of operational
                                                                                               capacities, local data analysis, and
                                                                                               crime control theory.

                                                                                               Researchers. Unlike traditional
                                                                                               research involving neutral observation,
                                                                                               SACSI expects research partners to be
                                                                                               fully engaged in problemsolving. The
                                                                                               researchers are charged with gathering
                                                                                               crime data and street-level knowledge,
                                                                                               analyzing it, and reporting on what
                                                                                               they find. They bring knowledge of
                                                                                               crime control theory and the literature
                                                                                               about “what works” into the strategy
                                                                                               development and help craft an inter-
                                                                                               vention to reduce the target crime
                                                                                               problem.
Attorney General Janet Reno meets community leader Karen McClurg in Indianapolis.
Deputy Chief of Police Bill Reardon accompanied the Attorney General on her tour of
Indianapolis neighborhoods. Photo: Sergeant Joe Humkey.




                                                                                              National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                                     17
            s   New Haven, Connecticut—                 successful Gun Project,4 which was      Winston-Salem’s initiative to reduce
                gun-related crime and commu-            responsible for dramatic reductions     juvenile violence includes the school
                nity fear.                              in youth homicides in that city.        superintendent and the local mental
                                                        Key components of the Boston            health director as key partners. In
            s   Portland, Oregon—youth gun
                                                        Gun Project included strong             New Haven, with its focus on gun
                violence.
                                                        emphasis on partnerships, knowl-        violence, the core team relies most
            s   Winston-Salem, North                    edge-driven decisionmaking, and         heavily on law enforcement agen-
                Carolina—youth violence.                ongoing strategic assessment.           cies. In Portland, key members of
                                                        David Kennedy, a senior researcher      the group include the presiding
            (See “The Five Pilot Sites.”)
                                                        at Harvard’s Kennedy School of          judge of the State courts, State
            The sites are in the beginning              Government and the chief architect      and Federal public defenders, and
            of the second year of a 2-year              of the Boston Gun Project, is           representatives of schools, business-
            project and results are preliminary.        providing guidance to the SACSI         es, faith-based organizations,
            The NIJ Journal will present                sites.                                  and medical and public health
            findings and further develop-                                                       providers.
            ments, including findings from              The SACSI model follows five major
                                                        steps or stages:                        One difficulty in forming these
            a national evaluation, as they
                                                                                                groups has been making sure that
            become available.                           1. Form an interagency working          all the key players are at the table
                                                           group.                               while at the same time keeping
            The Theory Behind                           2. Gather information and data          the group small enough to ensure
            the Program                                    about a local crime problem.         efficiency and progress.
            SACSI is testing the assumption             3. Design a strategic intervention      (2) Gather information
            that crime is most effectively                 to tackle the problem.               and data about a local
            reduced by:
                                                        4. Implement the intervention.          crime problem.
            s   Bringing together the various
                                                        5. Assess and modify the strategy       Sources of information about a
                perspectives and capacities of
                                                           as the data reveal effects.          problem differ, but all sources—
                community groups and agencies
                                                                                                whether firsthand knowledge from
                to address a major crime
                                                        (1) Form an interagency                 street-level practitioners or data
                problem.
                                                        working group.                          collected by the probation office—
            s   Gleaning knowledge from street-                                                 systematically address the where,
                level practitioners and working         The U.S. attorneys spearheading the     when, what, and how of crime
                hand-in-hand with researchers           projects are working in concert with    incidents.
                to determine the exact nature           a core group of their communities’
                                                        decisionmakers and local research       All sites are going beyond examina-
                and scope of a targeted crime
                problem and to design interven-         partners.5 Each site has tailored its   tion of formal police records.
                                                        partnership to meet local needs and     Winston-Salem, for example, is
                tions based on the opportunities
                                                        characteristics.                        analyzing specific incidents of
                the analysis reveals.
            s   Adapting the strategy when
                ongoing analysis of information
                reveals failures or inefficiencies in
                specific aspects of the strategy.
                                                                          Key components of the Boston
            SACSI builds on the lessons learned                              Gun Project included strong
            from crime analysis efforts like the
            New York City Police Department’s
            CompStat unit,2 which emphasizes                        emphasis on partnerships, knowledge-
            using data to solve problems,
            and the Weed and Seed strategy,3                          driven decisionmaking, and ongoing
            which emphasizes coordination
            of resources to revitalize neighbor-                                  strategic assessment.
            hoods. Most directly, SACSI is
            an outgrowth of Boston’s highly


     Using Knowledge and Teamwork To Reduce Crime
18
The Five Pilot Sites
Indianapolis                              repeat offenders, enforce a policy        The Gun Project team is targeting
                                          of intolerance regarding sexual           offenders associated with the most
Indianapolis Violence Reduction           assaults committed by adult males         violent groups of drug dealers. Other
Partnership (IVRP)                        against teenage girls, and increase       groups are being specifically advised
Target problems: Homicide (particu-       the effectiveness of investigative        that they will be targeted next if
larly drug-related homicides) and gun     methods for prosecuting offenders         violence continues. The groups are
violence.                                 and services provided to victims.         offered social services and other
                                                                                    alternatives to crime—and possibly
Goals: To reduce homicides, bring the     According to the FBI, the five-county
                                                                                    incentives to use them. The project’s
community into the problemsolving         Memphis metropolitan area ranked
                                                                                    achievements will be communicated to
process, and improve communication        first in the Nation in 1997 with 107
                                                                                    the public as part of a broad communi-
and relationships among all agen-         forcible rapes per 100,000 population.
                                                                                    ty effort to more accurately present New
cies—Federal, State, and local—           The team’s research found that a
                                                                                    Haven as a safe locale for residents,
operating in Indianapolis.                significant portion of these cases
                                                                                    businesses, and entertainment centers.
                                          involve teenage girls and older men
The IVRP team analyzed data for           (generally 25 years old and older) and    New Haven’s efforts have been enthu-
every homicide in 1997 and 1998           that approximately 10 percent involve     siastically embraced by government
and identified four elements common       repeat offenders. They also learned       and community groups that do not
to approximately 60 percent of them:      that a large proportion involve women     ordinarily participate in the research
young men, firearms, drug use and         who are abducted by men in cars.          and planning for anti-crime strategies
distribution, and groups of chronic                                                 led by law enforcement agencies.
offenders known to the police. In         Memphis is applying different types
response, the team has begun order-       of interventions to different types of
                                                                                    Portland
ing chronic offenders who are on          sexual assault cases. For example,
parole or probation to attend meetings    incidents involving vehicles—both         Strategic Approaches to
with law enforcement, neighborhood        forced abductions and situations          Community Safety (STACS).
residents, and representatives from       in which women voluntarily get
                                                                                    Target problem: Youth gun violence,
social service agencies to inform         into cars with men—have occurred
                                                                                    with special attention to 15- to 24-
the offenders about the city’s intoler-   in specific areas and suggest the
                                                                                    year-olds and the role of alcohol in
ance toward violence and link them        need to combine crime prevention
                                                                                    youth-related violence.
with services designed to reduce          through environmental design
recidivism.                               techniques with community                 Goals: To reduce youth gun violence;
                                          policing strategies.                      strengthen and institutionalize intera-
Although it is too soon to confirm any                                              gency, street-level collaborations;
direct causal effect, there are promis-
                                          New Haven                                 and ensure that strategies are culturally
ing signs that the partnership between                                              relevant and have minimum disparate
law enforcement and community             New Haven Gun Project
                                                                                    impacts on ethnic groups and people
groups is having a positive effect.
                                          Target problems: Gun-related              of color.
Homicides are down 36 percent for
                                          crime and community fear.
the first 6 months of 1999 compared                                                 Portland linked its project to a standing
to the first 6 months of 1998.            Goals: To reduce assaults and             committee, the city’s 35-member
                                          robberies with firearms, shots fired,     Public Safety Coordinating Council.
Memphis                                   illegal gun possession, and communi-      The personal and professional relation-
                                          ty fear of gun violence.                  ships already established through
Strategic Team Against Rape                                                         the Council have helped to formalize
and Sexual Assaults (STARS)               The larger drug gangs in New Haven
                                                                                    and institutionalize collaboration
                                          have been dismantled through con-
Target problem: Sexual assault.                                                     among the frontline professionals
                                          certed law enforcement efforts, result-
                                                                                    who deal with crime and street
Goals: To reduce the number of            ing in dramatic reductions in violent
                                                                                    realities every day.
vehicle-related sexual assaults and       crime. However, fear of gun crimes
the number of sexual assaults by          remains high.                                                 (Continued on page 20)




                                                                                    National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                           19
                                                                                                  juvenile violence and discussing
     Five Pilot Sites (continued from page 19)                                                    them with a diverse group of police
                                                                                                  officers, school resource officers,
     STACS is concentrating its efforts on a few critical issues:
                                                                                                  and probation counselors.
     s Research shows that 60 percent of the city’s 400 high-risk offenders are under             Indianapolis brought together
       probation or parole supervision in three of the city’s ZIP code areas. These               street-level law enforcement and
       inner-city neighborhoods are receiving special attention through joint law                 criminal justice agencies to examine
       enforcement, parole, and probation intervention and youth outreach strategies.             the factors involved in each homi-
                                                                                                  cide incident.
     s The STACS team is anticipating the release of the first wave of prison inmates and
       juvenile offenders serving time for “three-strikes” offenses. Many have strengthened       Combining data with street-level
       their gang affiliations during their incarceration. Team members have targeted these       information helps paint a dynamic,
       youthful offenders to make sure they receive the outreach services and supervision         real-life picture of the problem.
       they need to transition smoothly from incarceration back into the community.               Many police officers report that
                                                                                                  they have never before shared
     s People of color are disproportionately represented in Portland’s criminal justice
                                                                                                  information with other agencies
       system—both as victims and offenders. STACS has funded research to measure,
                                                                                                  in such detail or analyzed it so
       report, and combat any disparate treatment of ethnic and racial minorities and is
                                                                                                  systematically.
       designing a youth outreach network to address the unique cultural conditions in
       Portland’s ethnic communities.
                                                                                                  (3) Design a strategic
                                                                                                  intervention to tackle the
     Winston-Salem                                                                                problem.
     Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI)
                                                                                                  Once the problem has been precisely
     Target problem: Violent and assaultive crimes committed by youth, age 17 and                 defined, the teams begin designing
     younger.                                                                                     the intervention strategies. This is
                                                                                                  perhaps the most creative part of
     Goal: In recent years, violent crime arrest rates for youth younger than 18 in Forsyth
                                                                                                  the project: combining local data,
     County generally have been higher than both State and national levels. Although juve-
                                                                                                  street-level information, crime
     nile arrest rates decreased slightly in 1998, arrests for such crimes as robberies and
                                                                                                  control theory, best practices,
     weapons violations increased, as did arrests for simple assaults, which for many youth
                                                                                                  and organizational capacities to
     is a precursor to more violent behavior. SACSI’s goal is to reduce violent and
                                                                                                  develop strategies that attack the
     assaultive crime below State and national levels.
                                                                                                  soft, vulnerable aspects of the prob-
     SACSI draws upon an extensive collaborative process already in place in Winston-             lem that are most susceptible to
     Salem called Forsyth Futures, which focuses on youth violence and has helped the             intervention. Harvard’s David
     community build an electronic network linking youth-serving agencies.                        Kennedy says, “The groups should
                                                                                                  continue to explore strategic options
     Analysis has shown that juvenile violence is concentrated in four target areas and
                                                                                                  until they find a strategy that will
     accounts for 60 percent of overall juvenile violence. Within these areas, there is evi-
                                                                                                  have the biggest impact in the short-
     dence that older offenders are “recruiting” juveniles into criminal activity, particularly
                                                                                                  est amount of time, using the least
     in the drug trade. A small number of repeat juvenile offenders, who are responsible for
                                                                                                  amount of money and State author-
     a disproportionate amount of violent crime, has been identified. As a result of SACSI
                                                                                                  ity.” Sites use Kennedy’s basic
     analysis, Winston-Salem has put several specific strategies in place, including:
                                                                                                  decision-making questions: How
     s Notifying older offenders to stop involving juveniles in their illegal activity and        big an impact is the intervention
       responding swiftly to violations through Federal and State prosecution.                    likely to have? How long will it take
                                                                                                  before we see the impact? Do we
     s Expanding the notification process to include (1) repeat juvenile offenders and their
                                                                                                  have the capacity and resources
       parents and (2) more extensive monitoring by police and probation officers.
                                                                                                  to do it? Why do we want to use
     s Enhancing collaboration among community groups to ensure that these repeat                 this intervention rather than anoth-
       offenders receive priority for intervention services and treatment needs and devel-        er? What are the side benefits or
       oping a case-management system based on the Forsyth Futures electronic network.            drawbacks?
     s Developing resources (such as mentors, job skills training, and after-school activi-
       ties) specifically geared toward repeat offenders and others identified through
       SACSI analysis as emerging offenders.



     Using Knowledge and Teamwork To Reduce Crime
20
In New Haven, some gun-related           (4) Implement the intervention.          community resources that can help
cases that would have been declined                                               them make better choices, stay
in the past are now likely to be pros-   At this stage, to enhance the deter-     clean, and reduce their risk of
ecuted federally because of the          rent effects of their interventions,     recidivism.
strategic impact a serious Federal-      team members send the message
                                         out through their criminal justice       When Winston-Salem’s research
level sentence can have on the prob-
                                         and community networks to let            revealed that one-fourth of the juve-
lem. Recently, police apprehended a
                                         potential offenders and the larger       nile violent offenses involved young
26-year-old suspect after he fled in a
                                         community know their plans.              adult offenders who were “tutoring”
high-speed chase. Upon arrest,
                                         For those who continue to break          juveniles in criminal behavior, the
police found two bullets in his pos-
                                         the law, the team then follows           team began notifying 18-year-old
session. He was identified by police
                                         through with clear, swift, and           and older suspects not only to
as a person frequently responsible
                                         certain consequences, as New Haven       stop their own violent acts but also
for violent crimes. He was charged
                                         did in prosecuting the young man         to stop involving juveniles in the
in Federal court with felonious pos-
                                         mentioned earlier.                       violence. If they persist, the older
session of two rounds of ammuni-
                                                                                  offenders are told, they will face
tion, brought to trial, and convicted.   Indianapolis sends its message           enhanced penalties and prosecu-
He was then sentenced to incarcera-      regarding intolerance for violence       tion under Federal gun and
tion for a term of 10 years. This        through an existing network of           drug statutes that forbid the use
case, and others in which similar        law enforcement and community            of juveniles in criminal activity.
sentences have been imposed on           leaders.6 The project encourages
violence-prone felons illegally in       probationers to bring someone who        (5) Assess and modify
possession of firearms, are being        is important in their lives (such as a   the strategy as the data
communicated to key groups of            mother, grandmother, or girlfriend)      reveal effects.
known offenders in the community         to mandatory meetings at which
to deter them from carrying and          they hear the message of intolerance     In many ways, the SACSI team
using guns.                              for violence and receive a list of       operates like mission control
                                                                                  launching a satellite: Once it has
                                                                                  determined the satellite’s path,
                                                                                  it observes carefully, takes measure-
                                                                                  ments, makes adjustments, observes
   Once the problem has been precisely                                            again, and makes more adjustments
                                                                                  so the satellite’s course remains
 defined, the teams begin designing the                                           sure and steady.
                                                                                  To accomplish this task at the SACSI
  intervention strategies. This is perhaps                                        sites, the teams’ research partners
                                                                                  collect and measure data and report
    the most creative part of the project:                                        back on how the strategy is working.
                                                                                  If the original plan isn’t having
                                                                                  its intended effect or is having
      combining local data, street-level                                          unintended consequences, the
                                                                                  partners can make adjustments
  information, crime control theory, best                                         until it succeeds.

 practices, and organizational capacities                                         Facing the
                                                                                  Challenges
to develop strategies that attack the soft,
                                                                                  As the SACSI partners strive to
                                                                                  create new, effective, and lasting
  vulnerable aspects of the problem that                                          relationships across agencies and
                                                                                  disciplines, they are recognizing
    are most susceptible to intervention.                                         how difficult and rewarding their




                                                                                     National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                            21
            pioneering efforts are and how            Research Center is helping to devel-     by then, but it is hoped that an
            their agencies’ cultures differ.          op, design, install, or improve each     infrastructure will be in place to
                                                      site’s crime mapping and data analy-     continue supporting this way
            Although local dynamics present
                                                      sis capability. The resulting system,    of working together, analyzing
            problems and opportunities unique
                                                      called the Community Safety              data, developing strategies, and
            to each site, some common themes          Information System, will be an           fine tuning interventions so the
            appear across all the sites:              integrated, user-friendly, intera-       sites can continue to apply the
            s   Among the more significant            gency, Internet-based system that        approach to other crime problems
                challenges have been balancing        will allow partner agencies to merge     and so the model can be replicated
                the desire for quick action with      data from several sources and ana-       in other sites.
                the need to collect and analyze       lyze information across agencies.
                                                                                               A SACSI infrastructure is already
                sufficient information so that        A national assessment of the pilot       becoming apparent in and around
                the problem and best points           project, which is being conducted        Winston-Salem and the Middle
                of intervention can be defined        jointly by the University of Illinois    District of North Carolina. The
                as precisely as possible and the      at Chicago and the State University      City of High Point has learned from
                maximum impact and effective-         of New York at Albany, will docu-        its neighbor Winston-Salem how to
                ness achieved.                        ment the processes and their             implement a SACSI-like approach
            s   All the sites recognize how easy      impact.                                  for reducing gun homicides. High
                it is to slip back into the old                                                Point experienced 14 murders
                ways of doing business—for                                                     between January and November
                                                      Long-Range Outlook
                example, for research partners                                                 1998—all by guns. Between
                to revert to their traditional role   The five SACSI sites have found that     November 1998, when the SACSI
                as neutral observer or for police     criminal justice agencies are not just   approach began, and July 1999,
                to believe their job is done when     doing business differently; they are     there have been none. In addition,
                they arrest a suspect.                also defining success differently.       assaults and robberies with guns
                                                      They continue to count arrests,          have been significantly reduced.
            s   Balancing the day-to-day work-
                                                      convictions, and recidivism rates,       Because of High Point’s tremendous
                load and integrating the tradi-
                                                      but they also are defining success       success, Durham and Greensboro
                tional way of doing business into
                                                      by how much crime they have              are now applying similar strategies
                the new and additional require-
                ments of the SACSI approach           deterred and by how much safer           based on data and information
                also has been a challenge.            their citizens feel.                     analysis.

            The SACSI partners don’t have the         One goal is for the sites to institu-    Cities that have experienced some
            answers yet for overcoming these          tionalize the project by the summer      of the greatest reductions in crime,
            challenges; they are still devising and   of 2000, when Federal support            such as Boston and New York, have
            revising their responses, but they        comes to an end. No one thinks           learned that cooperative efforts to
            hope to come up with directions and       that all the problems will be solved     gather and analyze information
            warnings and to encourage others to
            follow where they are leading.


            Funding the                                                  As the SACSI partners strive to
            Projects
                                                            create new, effective, and lasting relationships
            The Justice Department has funded
            the SACSI project coordinator
            position in the five U.S. attorneys’
                                                                across agencies and disciplines, they are
            offices, the research grants, technical
            assistance from experts, and fre-                     recognizing how difficult and rewarding
            quent cluster meetings at which
            the sites share lessons learned.                    their pioneering efforts are and how their
            To increase the analytic capability
            of each site, NIJ’s Crime Mapping                                 agencies’ cultures differ.

     Using Knowledge and Teamwork To Reduce Crime
22
from multiple agencies can reveal
opportunities for strategic interven-    For More Information
tions and illuminate more efficient
ways to employ limited resources.        Amy Solomon, Policy Analyst, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice,
Sustaining such an intense new way       810 Seventh Street, N.W., Room 7435, Washington, DC 20531, 202–305–7941,
of doing business will be the chal-      solomona@ojp.usdoj.gov.
lenge for the future of SACSI.           Tom Roberts, Counsel to the Assistant Attorney General, U.S. Department of Justice,
                                         Criminal Division, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Room 2217, Washington, DC 20530,
Notes:                                   202–307–3950, tom.roberts3@usdoj.gov.

1. The Office of the Associate           Dunworth, Terence, Gregory Mills, Gary Cordner, and Jack Greene, National Evaluation of
                                         Weed and Seed: Cross-Site Analysis, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National
   Attorney General; the Criminal
                                         Institute of Justice and Executive Office for Weed and Seed, 1999 (NCJ 176358).
   Division; Executive Office of
   U.S. Attorneys; the Office of         Eck, John E., and William Spelman, Problem Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in
   Intergovernmental Affairs; the        Newport News, Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 1987.
   Office of Community Oriented
                                         Goldstein, Herman, Problem-Oriented Policing, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.
   Policing Services; and the Office
   of Justice Programs (Office of        Kennedy, David, “Pulling Levers: Getting Deterrence Right,” NIJ Journal, Washington, DC:
   the Assistant Attorney General,       U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice (July 1998, Issue no. 236).
   National Institute of Justice,        This article describes in detail Boston’s Ceasefire strategy.
   Bureau of Justice Assistance,
                                         Kennedy, David, “Research for Problem Solving and the New Collaborations,” J. Phillip
   Office of Juvenile Justice
                                         Thompson, “Changing Role of the Researcher in Working With Communities,” Lisabeth
   and Delinquency Prevention,
                                         Schorr, “Replicating Complex Community Partnerships,” and Jeffrey L. Edleson and
   Bureau of Justice Statistics,
                                         Andrea L. Bible, “Forced Bonding or Community Collaboration? Partnerships Between
   Office for Victims of Crime,
                                         Science and Practice in Research on Woman Battering,” in Viewing Crime and Justice
   and Executive Office for Weed
                                         From a Collaborative Perspective: Plenary Papers of the 1998 Conference on Criminal Justice
   and Seed).
                                         Research and Evaluation, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of
2. The CompStat (computer                Justice, 1999 (NCJ 176979).
   statistics) unit of the New York
                                         What Can the Federal Government Do To Decrease Crime and Revitalize Communities?
   City Police Department compiles
                                         Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice and Executive
   and analyzes crime statistics,
                                         Office for Weed and Seed, 1998 (NCJ 172210). Collected papers from a symposium
   generates electronic pin maps,
                                         sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice and held in January 1998.
   tracks crime patterns, and holds
   twice weekly briefings with
   high-level officials and precinct
   commanders in which the              4. For a full description of the              Department, and Superior
   participants examine local              Boston experience, see David               Court; the Indiana Attorney
   crime patterns, devise and              Kennedy, “Pulling Levers: Getting          General; the United States
   select tactical plans, and coordi-      Deterrence Right,” NIJ Journal,            Attorney’s Office; The Hudson
   nate resources based upon the           July 1998 (no. 236).                       Institute; Indiana University;
   crime patterns in particular                                                       Indiana 10 Point Coalition; Weed
                                        5. Research partners include crimi-
   precincts.                                                                         and Seed representatives; the U.S.
                                           nologists, preventive medicine
                                                                                      Department of Justice’s Drug
3. The Weed and Seed strategy              and public health specialists,
                                                                                      Enforcement Administration,
   aims to mobilize resources in           sociologists, psychologists, and
                                                                                      Federal Bureau of Investigation,
   a coordinated way. Law enforce-         public policy professionals.
                                                                                      Marshals Service, and
   ment efforts work to remove          6. Indianapolis partners include the          Immigration and Naturalization
   crime, human services and               mayor’s office; the Indianapolis           Service; representatives of the
   neighborhood revitalization             Police Department; the Indiana             U.S. Internal Revenue Service;
   efforts work to prevent and             State Police; the Indiana                  the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco
   deter further crime, and com-           Department of Corrections                  and Firearms; the U.S. Customs
   munity policing efforts work            Parole Commission; Marion                  Service; the Postal Inspection
   to engage the community in              County’s Probation Department,             Service; and the Secret Service.
   problem solving.                        Prosecutor’s Office, Sheriff ’s

                                                                                     National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                            23
             The Pickett Fellowships:
              Cultivating                                     practitioners who are interested in
                                                              attending a 1-year Mid-Career Master
                                                                                                         stimulated their intellectual skills,
                                                                                                         sharpened their management
              Effective Leaders                               in Public Administration program at
                                                              the Kennedy School. (See “Applying
                                                                                                         skills, and enhanced their overall
                                                                                                         performance.
              in Criminal                                     for the Mid-Career MasterProgram.”)
                                                              Students are required to select at least
                                                                                                         Frank Dwyer is a lieutenant with
                                                                                                         responsibility for special projects
              Justice                                         one course from each of the Kennedy
                                                                                                         who works directly with New York
                                                              School's core methodological areas:
                                                                                                         City Police Commissioner Howard
              Today, D’Arcy Morgan, a former                  quantitative methods, public manage-
                                                                                                         Safir. A former patrol officer, Dwyer
              Royal Canadian Mounted Police                   ment, and politics/ leadership/ethics      was working for the New York
              officer and Vancouver (British                  and can choose courses from selected       City Police Department’s Office of
              Columbia) City Police officer, is               other Harvard graduate and profes-         Management and Planning when he
              developing a training and technical             sional schools. In addition, Pickett       decided to return to school for his
              assistance program with his                     fellows select courses in criminal         MPA to gain new analytical skills and
              colleagues at the Justice Depart-               justice policy.                            learn fresh ways of looking at policing
              ment’s Office of Community                      Since 1992, when the fellowship            and community issues.
              Oriented Policing Services. He took             program began, 16 master degree
              the position after earning his master                                                      Dwyer received his degree from
                                                              students have received fellowships,        the Kennedy School in 1993. He
              in public administration (MPA)                  which were established to honor the
              degree at Harvard University’s John                                                        says the fellowship offered him the
                                                              memory of John B. Pickett, NIJ’s first     opportunity to study with a diverse,
              F. Kennedy School of Government.                director of planning and manage-
              The master degree became possible                                                          stimulating group of people and to
                                                              ment. Pickett attended one of the          gain a better understanding of non-
              because of NIJ’s John B. Pickett                Kennedy School’s executive programs
              Criminal Justice Policy and                                                                law enforcement professionals’
                                                              and worked closely with the faculty        perspectives on the role of police
              Management fellowship program.                  and staff at the school’s Program in       in government.
              At Harvard, Morgan pursued his                  Criminal Justice Policy and Manage-
                                                              ment to address issues on policing         Today, when Dwyer confronts
              ideal education—he took classes
                                                              strategies. He was instrumental in         tough issues, he finds himself asking
              not only from the Kennedy School
                                                              establishing the Executive Session on      broader questions and considering
              but also from Harvard’s business and
                                                              Policing, a 7-year Kennedy School          a wider range of resources and mod-
              law schools and thus achieved a dual
                                                                                                         els, from both inside and outside
              concentration in public financial               project. The fellowships encourage
                                                                                                         government, to resolve problems.
              management and leadership.                      criminal justice professionals to con-
                                                              tinue Pickett’s legacy of commitment       Margaret Poethig worked in a very
              “I built an unbelievable network                to public service and criminal justice     intense, challenging environment
              of colleagues—former fellows and                administration. NIJ also provides          at the Chicago Police Department
              Harvard students from both criminal             funds for a 3-week program at the          before undertaking her MPA. She
              justice and the business sector,”               Kennedy School for senior executives       managed the Chicago Process
              Morgan says. “I studied with people             in State and local government.             Mapping Project, the lead pilot
              who were identifying problems and                                                          program of the Police Executive
              actually solving them.”                        When former Pickett fellows talk
                                                                                                         Research Forum’s 21st Century
                                                             about their experiences at Harvard,         Policing program. She also had been
              Morgan also says his degree has taken          they echo several recurring themes:
              him to a higher level of performance.                                                      a member of Chicago’s Alternative
                                                             The broad diversity of the student          Policing Strategy management team.
              “I’ve become more tenacious and                body gave them an expanded per-
              have the skills to implement my ideas          spective on the problems in their field     Poethig views her Kennedy School
              in more sophisticated, systematic              and a ready-made network of profes-         experience as a refreshing sabbatical.
              ways.”                                         sional friends from around the world        “I wanted to obtain a master’s degree
              The John B. Pickett Fellowships                whom they can call upon to talk             in a way that had the least negative
              in Criminal Justice Policy and                 through a tough problem. The                impact on the course my career was
              Management provide assistance to                invigorating academic environment          taking,” she says.


     The Pickett Fellowships: Cultivating Effective Leaders in Criminal Justice
24
When she graduated in 1997 and
returned to the Chicago Police              Applying for the Mid-Career
Department, Poethig says she had
“gained a better understanding of           Master Degree
the different roles people play in
                                            To be selected for a Pickett fellowship, candidates must demonstrate the qualities of
government and of the necessary
                                            integrity, professionalism, and dedication to public service exemplified in John Pickett’s
balance between career professionals,
                                            character and distinguished career. They must have the motivation and values to lead in
appointees, and publicly elected offi-
                                            their fields and to meet society’s need for excellence in government. In addition:
cials. Each has a necessary role, even
though each may not share the same          s Applicants must have an outstanding academic and professional record and be
vision of an organization’s goals.”           enrolled in or admitted to the Kennedy School of Government.

Poethig is currently the Policing           s Applicants should have at least 7 years of experience in law enforcement,
for Prevention Strategy coordinator           corrections, courts, or other criminal justice professions.
for the District of Columbia                s Preference is given to applicants who demonstrate a desire to continue in the
Metropolitan Police Department.               field of criminal justice policy and management, although not necessarily in
She helped to conceptualize the               their current capacity.
department’s new policing strategy
                                            NIJ supports one Mid-Career master degree tuition each year—either for one student
and expects to tap into her Harvard
                                            or split among two or more students, depending on the pool of applicants. The Kennedy
contacts as the program progresses.
                                            School manages the application and selection process.
At the Iowa Department of Correc-           The admissions process for entering the Mid-Career Master in Public Administration
tions, Patrick Coleman directed 10          in fall 2000 begins in March 2000.
prison-based substance abuse treat-
ment programs and managed the               For information, contact:
Iowa Treatment Alternatives to Street       Mid-Career Master in Public Administration
Crimes program before completing            Enrollment Services
his Mid-Career MPA in 1997. He              John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
credits his Pickett fellowship educa-       79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138
tion with helping him to obtain a           Phone: 617–495–1152
position as a resident practitioner at
                                            NIJ also supports a 3-week executive education program at the Kennedy School—
the Justice Department’s Bureau of
                                            the Program for Senior Executives in State and Local Government. This Program usually
Justice Assistance (BJA). He is cur-
                                            takes place in the summer, although a special session will be offered in January 2000.
rently BJA’s deputy director for policy
                                            For information about the 3-week program, contact:
and management.
                                            Program for Senior Executives in State and Local Government
Coleman says his career had reached         John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
the limits of his education and expe-       79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138
rience. “There’s only so much you           Phone: 617–495–0652
can learn from trial and error,” he
says. His Kennedy School education
supplied what he needed to know
about business and management             in my class were from outside the          government, the public sector,
strategies and practices.                 United States,” says Coleman. “The         advocacy groups, and constituents
Coleman said the Pickett fellowship       group included people from the             at the grass-roots level, which must
allowed him not only the opportuni-       military and from private and non-         be considered when program deci-
ty to obtain a master’s degree from       profit organizations, as well as from      sions are made. “Someone has an
an exceptional academic institution,      public sectors at both the State           interest in every move we make,”
but a chance to meet and learn from       and Federal levels.”                       he says, “and the Pickett Fellowship
a rich variety of highly educated and                                                helped me see that more clearly.”
                                          Before his Pickett fellowship,
experienced people, many of whom          Coleman focused primarily on
have remained his close colleagues.       program details. Now his vision
“Harvard University brings together       has expanded—he sees more clearly
people from all over the world—           the essential interrelationships
about half of the 260 people gathered     among the three branches of


                                                                                         National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                                25
            At-A-Glance:
            Recent Research Findings

             The summaries in this section are       involved; local responsibility for       persons conducted the activity on a
             based on recent NIJ reports and/        initiating the activity; the use of      regular basis, 70 percent or more of
             or ongoing research. The ongoing        multiple sources of information to       best practices with respect to both
             research was presented as part of the   shape the program; and the extent        content and methods were used, and
             NIJ Research in Progress seminar        to which the activity is part of the     students participated in the activity
             series, which features well-known       regular school program.                  at least daily. The best practices the
             scholars discussing their work with                                              researchers examined differed
                                                     Gary Gottfredson of Gottfredson
             an audience of researchers and                                                   according to activity type.
                                                     Associates, Inc., and Denise
             criminal justice professionals and
                                                     Gottfredson of the University of         The researchers found that 73
             practitioners. The reports and
                                                     Maryland led the NIJ-sponsored           percent of security and surveillance
             60-minute VHS videotapes of the
                                                     study. The researchers collected,        activities met the criteria for
             Research in Progress seminars are
                                                     examined, and classified examples        adequate, whereas 42 percent of
             available from the National Criminal
                                                     of prevention models used in schools     services for family members and
             Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)
                                                     and gathered data on the implemen-       57 percent of prevention curricu-
             at 1–800–851–3420. Videotaped
                                                     tation and quality of programs in        lum, instruction, or training pro-
             seminars are $19 ($24 in Canada
                                                     nationally representative surveys of     grams were rated as adequate. There
             and other countries). Many reports
                                                     principals in more than 845 schools      was great variability in quality of
             also can be downloaded from the
                                                     and activity coordinators in more        implementation for each kind of
             NIJ Web site at http://www.ojp.
                                                     than 550 schools. They obtained          prevention activity. Better programs
             usdoj.gov/nij.
                                                     detailed information about more          usually involved more structure,
                                                     than 3,700 activities directed at pre-   more supervision, better training,
             School-Based Prevention                                                          and the use of more information—
             of Problem Behavior:                    venting problem behavior or pro-
                                                     moting safe and orderly schools.         suggesting that there are mecha-
             What’s Being Done, Where,                                                        nisms for improving the quality of
             and How Well                            The most common prevention               delinquency prevention in schools.
             NIJ Research in Progress seminar:       approach involves curriculum,
             available on videotape from NCJRS       instruction, or training, with           Guidelines for Making
                                                     76 percent of schools reporting          Schools Safer
             Schools should not necessarily
                                                     that they implemented at least
             increase the number of delinquency                                               Report available from the NIJ Web
                                                     one such activity.
             prevention activities, but many                                                  site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij or
             could improve those already in          Other common approaches include          from NCJRS
             place, according to preliminary         counseling/social work programs,
                                                                                              Recent, tragic instances of violence
             findings of the National Study of       the use of outside personnel, creat-
                                                                                              in the Nation’s schools have brought
             Delinquency Prevention in Schools.      ing or maintaining a climate of
                                                                                              the issues of school security and
             The study found that schools engage     expectations for student behavior,
                                                                                              safety to the top of the agenda of
             in many prevention activities, but      and behavioral programming or
                                                                                              public policymakers, school admin-
             that the quality of these programs      modification.
                                                                                              istrators, and the public. Causes and
             varies greatly.
                                                     The researchers used the scientific      solutions remain a matter of debate,
             The study’s authors found that          literature to develop scales for         but guidance on the benefits and
             important predictors of quality         rating prevention programs. They         limitations of various security tech-
             and extensiveness of school-based       identified attributes required for an    nologies is available in a handbook
             prevention activities include the       activity to be judged “adequate.” For    NIJ recently published for school
             amount and quality of training;         example, a behavior modification         administrators and their law
             the supervision of workers carrying     program was judged “adequate” if         enforcement agency partners who
             out the activity; support from the      70 percent or more of the following      are considering ways to make
             principal; the degree of structure      attributes were present: one or more     schools safer.



     At-A-Glance: Recent Research Findings
26
The Appropriate and Effective Use of     of Justice, National Institute of       mediating or separating the couple.
Security Technologies in U.S. Schools    Justice, September 1999), can be        The study’s authors, the Attorney
covers products that can be used to      downloaded from the NIJ Web site        General’s Task Force on Family
address violence, with separate          at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij or      Violence, and the scientific commu-
chapters on video surveillance,          ordered from the National Criminal      nity called for replication of the
weapons detection, entry control,        Justice Reference Service (NCJ          Minneapolis experiment.
and alarm devices.                       178265).
                                                                                 Although SARP is an outgrowth of
In language accessible to the                                                    the Minneapolis research, it is not a
                                         The Impact of Arrest on
nonexpert, the guide presents                                                    direct replication: The researchers
                                         Domestic Violence: Results
information about the kinds of                                                   redesigned the victim interview
                                         From Five Policy
devices on the market; explains                                                  procedures, enhanced the analytic
                                         Experiments
how they work; lists their advan-                                                procedures, and chose not to use
tages and disadvantages and their        NIJ Research in Progress seminar:       the procedures for randomization
expected effectiveness; and explores     available on videotape from NCJRS       used in Minneapolis.
legal implications for their use.        Arresting domestic violence suspects    SARP’s primary data sources were
Although one of the most attractive      has modest deterrent effects, accord-   police arrest reports, supplementary
features of technology-based devices     ing to the preliminary findings of a    reports about the incidents, initial
is the possibility for savings, cost     study sponsored by the National         and followup interviews with the
remains a consideration. Thus the        Institute of Justice, the Centers for   victims, and police records about
guide also contains information          Disease Control and Prevention,         subsequent complaints or arrests
about the costs of installation, long-   and the Harry Frank Guggenheim          involving the suspects and their
term operation and maintenance,          Foundation. Researchers also found      victims. Common data included the
staffing, and training.                  that younger men and men with           nature of the incident, the treatment
The report’s appendix features an        prior arrests are more likely to        assigned and delivered by the police
extensive list of resources containing   recidivate.                             officers, demographic information
the names of organizations, books        The Spouse Assault Replication          about the parties, and outcomes
and other publications, Web sites,       Program (SARP) collected and            pertaining to later violence.
and conferences concerned with           archived arrest and outcome data        According to the victim interviews,
school safety and security. Future       in five jurisdictions: Charlotte,       postincident aggression occurred on
volumes in the series will deal with     North Carolina; Colorado Springs,       average 30 percent less often against
such issues as door, lock, and key       Colorado; Dade County, Florida;         the victims whose batterers were
control devices; glass-break sensors;    Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Omaha,        arrested. These data also showed
explosives detection; and drug and       Nebraska. The study was conducted       that suspects who were older and
alcohol use detection.                   by Christopher Maxwell of               employed reoffended less often.
The guidelines were the product of       Michigan State University, Joel         However, white batterers committed
an interagency agreement between         Garner of the Joint Centers for         about 35 percent more acts of
NIJ and the U.S. Department of           Justice Studies, and Jeffrey Fagan      aggression against their victims
Energy’s Sandia National Labora-         of Columbia University.                 than did African-American and
tories and were developed with                                                   other minority suspects. Suspects
                                         To some extent, SARP is modeled
the participation of the U.S.                                                    who were under the influence of
                                         after the Minneapolis Domestic
Department of Education’s Safe                                                   alcohol or drugs at the time of the
                                         Violence Experiment of the early
and Drug-Free Schools program                                                    incident offended more frequently
                                         1980’s, which is considered a land-
and officials responsible for school                                             against the victim than those who
                                         mark study of responses to domestic
security in various school districts                                             were not drinking or using drugs.
                                         violence because it was the first to
and police departments nationwide.                                               Having at least one prior arrest
                                         focus on victim safety. (Previous
                                                                                 increased by 56 percent the likeli-
The Appropriate and Effective            research concentrated on the safety
                                                                                 hood that a suspect would have at
Use of Security Technologies in          of officers responding to domestic
                                                                                 least one more incident of aggres-
U.S. Schools: A Guide for Schools        disputes.) The Minneapolis experi-
                                                                                 sion after the experimental incident.
and Law Enforcement Agencies, by         ment showed that arresting the
Mary W. Green (Research Report,          offender was more effective than        According to the official records,
Washington, DC: U.S. Department          officers advising and informally        approximately 60 percent of all



                                                                                    National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                           27
             suspects never reoffended during        conventional, retributive approach.       with the conferencing process.
             the study’s followup period, which      It is grounded in ancient tradition,      However, when the researchers
             for some suspects lasted more than      aiming to “restore” all parties affect-   measured satisfaction with their
             3 years. With the exception of arrest   ed by a crime—victims, offenders,         particular case on the part of those
             and race, the relationship between      and communities—by bringing               involved, they found no difference
             other measures and reoffending          them together to work out a resolu-       between participating and nonpar-
             were similar to those from the vic-     tion. Among its appeals are the           ticipating groups. When the
             tim interviews. With regard to the      considerable empowerment of               researchers examined how the
             effect of arrest, the researchers       victims and the requirement that          program affected recidivism, they
             found consistently that the level       offenders take steps to repair the        found that for property offenses,
             of aggression was only slightly less    harm they have done.                      the rearrest rates of participants
             among suspects arrested at the time                                               were no lower than those of non-
                                                     NIJ has been promoting the under-
             of the experimental incident. The                                                 participants, although for violent
                                                     standing of restorative justice in a
             researchers also found that minority                                              offenses the rate for participants
                                                     number of ways. One was through
             suspects were 30 percent more likely                                              was lower. The researchers cau-
                                                     a study of a family group conferenc-
             to have a subsequent officially                                                   tioned that the likely reason for this
                                                     ing project operated by the
             recorded incident of aggression                                                   lower rate was that participation
                                                     Bethlehem (Pennsylvania) Police
             than were white suspects. Analysis                                                was voluntary, producing a self-
                                                     Department. Family group confer-
             of the official records also found                                                selection effect.
                                                     encing, which originated in New
             no significant variation among the
                                                     Zealand, is a form of restorative         The final report of the study,
             sites in terms of the relationship
                                                     justice that diverts young offenders      “Bethlehem Police Family Group
             between arrest and subsequent           from court by involving their             Conferencing Project,” by P. McCold
             offenses against the victim. But the    families and their victims’ families      and J. Stahr, is available from the
             researchers did find that the longer    in the adjudication process.              National Criminal Justice Reference
             the period between the experimen-
                                                     In Bethlehem, uniformed communi-          Service (NCJ 173725).
             tal incident and the last victim
             interview, the more likely the          ty policing officers conduct the          NIJ has explored restorative justice
             suspects were to have reoffended        conferences. The police-based             in a series of regional symposia, one
             against the victim.                     model was developed in Australia,         product of which was a “notebook”
                                                     where some of the Bethlehem pro-          of symposia materials, accessible
             The researchers describe several        ject staff were sent for training. NIJ    online at NIJ’s Web site. The
             areas needing further research,         evaluated the project to find out if      concept and its prospects are
             including the level of deterrence       the approach was acceptable to the        examined by John Braithwaite
             created by more severe sanctions        community and whether it helped           in “Restorative Justice: Assessing
             and the effects of arrest policies      solve ongoing problems.                   Optimistic and Pessimistic
             on the overall rate of domestic
                                                     Researchers Paul McCold                   Accounts,” in Crime and Justice:
             violence. They recommend research
                                                     and Benjamin Wachtel of the               A Review of Research, vol. 25, ed.
             on the impact of sanctions in more
                                                     Community Service Foundation              Michael Tonry, Chicago: University
             serious domestic violence cases
                                                     concluded that police officers are        of Chicago Press, forthcoming.
             and situations in which the suspect
                                                     indeed capable of conducting the          For an overview, see Leena Kurki’s
             is not present when the police
                                                     conferences, provided they receive        Incorporating Restorative and
             arrive, as well as studies to develop
                                                     adequate training and supervision;        Community Justice into American
             enhanced measures of aggression
                                                     that while conferencing did not           Sentencing and Corrections,
             and injury.
                                                     transform the attitudes, organiza-        Sentencing and Corrections—
                                                     tional culture, or role perceptions       Issues for the 21st Century, Research
             Family Group Conferencing
                                                     of officers overall, citizens who were    in Brief, Washington, DC: U.S.
             Final report available from NCJRS                                                 Department of Justice, National
                                                     exposed to it became more favorable
             Restorative justice is an innovative    to community-oriented policing;           Institute of Justice, September 1999
             concept generating a great deal         and that victims, offenders, and          (NCJ 175723).
             of interest as an alternative to the    offenders’ parents were satisfied




     At-A-Glance: Recent Research Findings
28
                                                                                                     New &
                                                                                                 Noteworthy

Child Maltreatment the                    For more information about NIJ’s               summary, contact Cynthia A.
Focus of Planning Meeting                 research portfolio in this area or             Mamalian at 202–514–5981 or
                                          for a copy of the planning meeting             mamalian@ojp.usdoj.gov.
Although the rates of violence
toward children generally have
declined during the past few years,
the total number of child abuse             International Perspectives on
fatalities has remained stable.             Crime and Justice Research
Schools, courts, community-based
organizations, and social service and         NIJ is involved in many ongoing               inpatient or residential treatment and
law enforcement agencies all play             activities focused on international           rehabilitation centers for drug users
important roles in responding to              perspectives on crime and justice             also operate in the Philippines, and
child maltreatment. NIJ, the Office           research. Several of these activities         approximately half of these use the TC
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency           are highlighted below.                        treatment modality. Some have been
Prevention, and the Office of Com-                                                          doing so for a number of years.
                                              Drug Treatment in Thailand
munity Oriented Policing Services                                                           However, the clients of these centers
                                              and the Philippines
last spring sponsored a strategic                                                           are not necessarily criminal drug
planning meeting to delineate suc-            A therapeutic community (TC) is a             offenders as are the clients of the
cessful, collaborative, and interdisci-       self-contained drug treatment model           government-run facilities. Rather, they
plinary responses to child abuse.             that focuses on treating the whole            have admitted themselves voluntarily
                                              person, building an offender’s self-          and pay for their treatment.
More than 50 people, including
                                              esteem, and changing his values and
researchers, administrators, and                                                            Thailand has a somewhat longer his-
                                              attitudes. It is employed in residential
practitioners, attended the meeting.                                                        tory in implementing the TC model in
                                              settings, including prisons. The U.S.
Representatives from Westminster,                                                           its correctional facilities. Currently,
                                              Department of State’s Bureau of
California; New Haven, Connecticut;                                                         Thai government facilities have a rela-
                                              International Narcotics and Law
New Orleans, Louisiana; and                                                                 tively small number of correctional
                                              Enforcement Affairs is supporting the
Manatee County, Florida, gave                                                               personnel trained in TC, but the coun-
                                              development of the TC model in a
presentations on how their commu-                                                           try is investing in new prison con-
                                              number of foreign settings. To help
nities have developed innovative                                                            struction and is expanding its capacity
                                              the State Department assess develop-
interventions in response to child                                                          to provide TC treatment.
                                              ments in other countries, James O.
maltreatment. Cathy Spatz Widom,
                                              Finckenauer, Director of NIJ’s                Each country has a distinctive style of
Professor of Criminal Justice and
                                              International Center, and Spurgeon            treatment delivery, but in both there
Psychology at the State University
                                              Kennedy, Program Manager for                  are stark differences with the generally
of New York at Albany, moderated
                                              NIJ’s Breaking the Cycle program,             harsher and more intrusive methods
the meeting discussion.
                                              visited TC initiatives in Manila, the         associated with TC as employed in
Joyce Thomas, a guest speaker from            Philippines, and Bangkok, Thailand.           U.S.-based programs. The differences
the Center for Child Protection and                                                         between American and Asian styles
                                              The Philippines has very recently
Family Support in Washington, D.C.,                                                         seem to reflect the traditional Asian
                                              established nonresidential TC pro-
described a cross-system protocol                                                           emphasis on politeness and respect
                                              grams in government-run correctional
for domestic violence and child                                                             for personal dignity and esteem.
                                              facilities. Although officers hold a
maltreatment that is being imple-
                                              weekly “morning meeting” with drug            For more information about NIJ’s
mented jointly by the Washington,
                                              offenders (a formal component of the          activities in this area, contact
D.C., Metropolitan Police, the city’s
                                              TC model), these programs cannot be           Finckenauer at 202–616–1960 or
Office of the Corporation Counsel,
                                              considered true therapeutic communi-          at finckena@ojp.usdoj.gov.
the U.S. Attorney’s Office, the
                                              ties because they are not residential.
Emergency Domestic Relations                                                                                 (continued on page 30)
                                              Approximately 30 nongovernmental
Project at the Georgetown University
Law School, and the Child and
Family Superior Court.
                                                                                            National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                                   29
     International Perspectives on               advocacy, combating forced prostitu-         University of Southern California, and
     Crime and Justice Research                  tion, and the improvement of social          NIJ, researchers discussed both the rel-
     (continued from page 29)                    services. NIJ’s Director of Planning and     evance and the limitations of generaliz-
                                                 Management, Edwin W. Zedlewski, last         ing the American body of knowledge on
     Women in the Criminal Justice
                                                 April traveled to Helsinki, Finland, to      gangs to the European situation. The
     System To Be Focus of UN
                                                 participate in a planning meeting for        researchers agreed that the similarities
     Workshop
                                                 the workshop.                                in the U.S. and European situations,
     The Tenth United Nations Congress on                                                     such as gang proliferation, the margin-
                                                 “Eurogang” Workshops Bring
     the Prevention of Crime and the                                                          alization of minorities, and common
                                                 Together International Researchers
     Treatment of Offenders will convene in                                                   gang structures, are strong evidence
     Vienna, Austria, April 10–17, 2000. To      An increase in youth violence has been       that the U.S. gang research can provide
     promote the exchange of information         a concern in Europe much as it has           useful starting points for research that
     and experiences among UN members            been in the United States, though in         would have policy implications for
     on efforts to improve the situation of      Europe, youth violence has not been          Europe.
     women in criminal justice, the UN           accompained by crack sales and the
                                                                                              The second workshop, which was host-
     Congress plans to conduct a workshop        proliferation of sophisticated firearms.
                                                                                              ed by the Norwegian Institute of
     on women in the criminal justice sys-       Researchers from Europe and the
                                                                                              International Affairs, built on the first
     tem. The workshop will examine this         United States gathered a year ago in
                                                                                              meeting and included policy personnel
     issue from several perspectives, includ-    Schmitten, Germany, to discuss the
                                                                                              interested in developing and imple-
     ing female criminality, the treatment of    similarities and differences between
                                                                                              menting interventions. NIJ and the
     female offenders, and women as crimi-       and among European and American
                                                                                              Justice Department’s Office of Juvenile
     nal justice practitioners.                  youth gangs and youth groups and to
                                                                                              Justice and Delinquency Prevention
                                                 develop collaborative research efforts.
     NIJ has been invited to organize a pre-                                                  sponsored the U.S. researchers who
                                                 A second workshop was held in
     sentation focusing on women as vic-                                                      participated in the workshops. NIJ
                                                 September in Oslo, Norway.
     tims and survivors. This presentation                                                    anticipates publishing a report based
     will feature several practitioners repre-   At last year’s meeting, which was spon-      on the workshop papers and the
     senting both developed and developing       sored by the Dutch Ministry of Justice,      group’s related discussions.
     countries who will discuss best prac-       the Dutch Ministry of the Interior, the
     tices in the areas of prevention, victim    German Ministry of Justice, the


                                                      Health Care Issues in                       The report indicates that collabora-
                                                      Correctional Facilities                     tion to solve these health problems
                                                                                                  is increasing among correctional,
                                                      New findings suggest there have             public health, and community-
                                                      been improvements in many aspects           based agencies. There remains,
                                                      of the United States’ policy response       however, much room for improve-
                                                      to HIV/AIDS, STD’s, and TB in cor-          ment, particularly in the area
                                                      rectional facilities.                       of comprehensive prevention
                                                      NIJ recently released copies of             programs, discharge planning,
                                                      1996–1997 Update: HIV/AIDS,                 community linkages, and contin-
                                                      STD’s, and TB in Correctional               uity of treatment.
                                                      Facilities, which updates the latest        Obtain copies of 1996–1997
                                                      statistics from the Bureau of Justice       Update: HIV/AIDS, STDs, and
                                                      Statistics’ surveys on the extent           TB in Correctional Facilities
                                                      of HIV/AIDS infection among                 (NCJ 176344) by visiting NIJ’s
                                                      inmates. The statistics are combined        Web site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.
                                                      with the findings on policy and             gov/nij or by calling the National
                                                      practice from the ongoing series            Criminal Justice Reference Service
                                                      of national surveys sponsored by            at 1–800–851–3420.
                                                      NIJ and the Centers for Disease
                                                      Control and Prevention.


     New & Noteworthy
30
                                                                                                           Events

Annual Research and
Evaluation Conference                         Viewing Crime and Justice From a
“Enhancing Policy and Practice”               Collaborative Perspective
was the theme of this year’s Annual
                                              The plenary papers from last year’s Research and Evaluation conference
Conference on Criminal Justice
                                              are now available in the report, Viewing Crime and Justice From a
Research and Evaluation sponsored
                                              Collaborative Perspective: Plenary Papers of the 1998 Conference
by the Office of Justice Programs’
                                              on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation (NCJ 176979).
Bureaus and Offices.
                                              The plenary presentations
Highlights of the event included              last year were:
an account of trends and issues in
                                              s David Kennedy,
crime and justice by Jan Chaiken,
                                                “Research for Problem
Director of the Bureau of Justice
                                                Solving and the New
Statistics, and a reception on Capitol
                                                Collaborations.”
Hill to celebrate NIJ’s 30 years of
scientific endeavor to understand             s J. Phillip Thompson,
crime and improve justice.                      “The Changing Role
                                                of the Researcher in Working
More than 60 sessions, including
                                                With Communities.”
panels, workshops, a cybercafe, and
5 plenary sessions, were available            s Lisbeth B. Schorr,
to the more than 800 people who                 “Replicating Complex
attended the annual Washington,                 Community Partnerships.”
D.C., event.
                                              s Jeffrey L. Edleson and Andrea
The plenary papers from last year’s             L. Bible, “Forced Bonding or
research and evaluation conference              Community Collaboration?
now are available. (See “Viewing                Partnerships Between Science
Crime and Justice From a                        and Practice in Research on
Collaborative Perspective.”)                    Woman Battering.”

                                              Download a copy from the NIJ Web
Environmental Crime the
                                              site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij
Focus of Research Forum
                                              or contact the National Criminal
Little research is available on the           Justice Reference Service at
most effective means to promote               1–800–851–3420.
compliance with environmental
regulations among regulated entities.
To learn more about these issues,
NIJ partnered with the U.S. Environ-
                                          Approximately 50 people attended           environmental regulation compli-
mental Protection Agency (EPA) and
                                          the forum, including Justice Depart-       ance issues were presented by Robert
the Justice Department’s Division of
                                          ment and EPA staff, criminal justice       Kagan of the University of California
Environment and Natural Resources
                                          and environmental researchers, and         at Berkeley’s Center for the Study of
to host a research forum. The pri-
                                          policymakers and experts on the            Law and Society; Walter Mugdan of
mary goal of the forum, which was
                                          environment from the State and             the EPA; David Word of the Georgia
held in July, was to develop priorities
                                          local levels. Elaine G. Stanley,           Natural Resources Department;
for a research program on promot-
                                          Director of the EPA’s Office for           Daniel S. Nagin of Carnegie Mellon
ing compliance with environmental
                                          Enforcement and Compliance                 University; Mark Cohen of Vander-
regulations. Felice Levine, Executive
                                          Assurance, discussed EPA data              bilt University; Peter Reuter of
Director of the American Socio-
                                          available for research on deterring        the University of Maryland; and
logical Association, facilitated the
                                          environmental crime. Papers on             Richard Lempert of the Russell Sage
discussions.

                                                                                        National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                               31
              Foundation. Their papers focused         The first four papers, which deal       At the sixth meeting, Lynn Fereday
              on the following topics:                 with the competing conceptions          from the Forensic Science Service
                                                       of sentencing and corrections that      in Great Britain described develop-
              s   The relationship between
                                                       coexist today, serve as a framework     ments in technology needed to
                  Federal and State enforcement
                                                       for understanding the issues:           gather DNA from fingerprints.
                  activities and the range of
                                                                                               Representatives from the Los
                  government responses to non-         s   “Incorporating Restorative
                                                                                               Angeles Police Department
                  compliance and their impact              and Community Justice into
                                                                                               testified about evidence storage
                  on deterrence.                           American Sentencing and
                                                                                               issues.
                                                           Corrections,” by Leena Kurki
              s   General research on deterrence
                                                           (NCJ 175723).                       For more information and
                  and how it can be applied in the
                                                                                               copies of the proceedings, visit
                  context of environmental             s   “The Fragmentation of
                                                                                               the Commission’s Web site at
                  enforcement.                             Sentencing and Corrections in
                                                                                               http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/dna
                                                           America,” by Michael Tonry
              s   Existing research on deterrence                                              or call the Commission’s executive
                                                           (NCJ 175721).
                  and compliance in the context                                                assistant, Robin Wilson, at
                  of environmental enforcement.        s   “Reconsidering Indeterminate        202– 307–5847.
                                                           and Structured Sentencing,” by
              s   Issues warranting new or
                                                           Michael Tonry (NCJ 175722).         What Every Officer
                  additional research.
                                                                                               Should Know About
                                                       s   “Reforming Sentencing and
              Participants discussed such issues                                               DNA Evidence
                                                           Corrections for Just Punishment
              as the motivations of regulated
                                                           and Public Safety,” by Michael      Every law enforcement officer
              entities to violate or comply with
                                                           E. Smith and Walter Dickey          knows to look routinely for finger-
              environmental regulations; com-
                                                           (NCJ 175724).                       prints. And now officers also
              parisons of the deterrent impacts
                                                                                               must routinely think about
              of inspections, enforcement              In all, approximately 16 papers will
                                                                                               gathering evidence that might
              actions, penalties, and compliance       be published in the series. To obtain
                                                                                               contain DNA.
              assistance; and the possibility          copies of the papers, watch the
              of secondary benefits, such as           “What’s New” section of the NIJ         Today’s investigators can solve
              preventing pollution, of enforce-        Web site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.       crimes using the DNA collected
              ment efforts.                            gov/nij or contact the National         from the perspiration on a rapist’s
                                                       Criminal Justice Reference Service      discarded baseball cap, the saliva
              Executive Sessions on                    at 1–800–851–3420.                      on a stamp of a stalker’s threatening
              Sentencing and Corrections:                                                      letter, and the skin cells shed on
              First Papers Published                   DNA Commission Continues                a ligature of a strangled victim.
                                                       To Hear Testimony
              NIJ just released the first four                                                 NIJ recently published a handy
              papers from the Executive Sessions                                               pocket flyer for law enforcement
              on Sentencing and Corrections,                                                   officers that explains where to
              which NIJ sponsors with the Office                                               find DNA, how to collect it,
              of Justice Programs’ Corrections                                                 how to avoid contaminating
              Program Office. This series of exec-                                             it, and how to transport and
              utive sessions brings together distin-                                           store it.
              guished practitioners and scholars
                                                                                               NIJ is providing free copies of the
              to examine the complex, often con-
                                                                                               flyer to every law enforcement
              flicting issues in the field.            The National Commission on the
                                                                                               agency in the country. Copies also
                                                       Future of DNA Evidence held its
              Patterned on the influential Harvard                                             can be downloaded from NIJ’s Web
                                                       sixth meeting in Boston on July
              University executive sessions on                                                 page at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/
                                                       25–26, and its seventh meeting in
              policing held under NIJ sponsor-                                                 nij/dna or obtained by calling
                                                       Washington, D.C., on September
              ship, the series aims to find out                                                NCJRS at 1–800–851–3420.
                                                       26–27. The members discussed
              whether current policies and prac-
                                                       privacy and evidence storage issues
              tices are achieving their intended
                                                       and heard reports from several
              purposes.
                                                       working groups.



     Events
32
Law Enforcement-                         The workshop was sponsored by            Confidentiality, the Internet,
Corrections Partners                     the Boston Police Department, the        and Crime Mapping
Share Experiences                        Ford Foundation, NIJ, and the
                                         Justice Department’s Corrections         Criminal justice agencies are using
To tackle youth gun violence in          Program Office and Office of             Geographical Information Systems
Boston, the Boston Gun Project           Community Oriented Policing              (GIS) for a variety of applications:
and its Ceasefire Working Group          Services, in cooperation with the        to allocate resources, to identify
brought together the Boston Police       Justice Department’s National            crime “hot spots,” to aid in criminal
Department’s gang unit, the depart-      Institute of Corrections and the         investigations, and to support data-
ments of probation and parole, the       Office of Juvenile Justice and           driven decision-making processes.
U.S. Attorney’s and county prosecu-      Delinquency Prevention.                  Despite the widespread use of crime
tor’s offices, the Office of the State                                            mapping, standards or guidelines
Attorney General, school police          For more information, contact            addressing privacy, confidentiality,
officers, youth corrections staff,       Alanna LaFranchi at the Institute        data sharing, and the dissemination
youth workers, religious leaders,        for Law and Justice at                   of geocoded crime data have not yet
and other community advisors.            703–684–5300.                            been developed.
The resulting decline in Boston’s
                                         Crime Mapping Conference                 To generate discussion on these
youth homicides demonstrated
                                         Goes International                       complex issues, NIJ’s Crime
the effectiveness of such successful
                                                                                  Mapping Research Center hosted
partnerships.
                                                                                  a 2-day Crime Mapping and
To facilitate similar efforts, a 3-day                                            Data Confidentiality Roundtable.
Midwest regional workshop recently                                                Participants included representatives
was held in Minneapolis. The                                                      from law enforcement, the research
meeting brought together 18 inter-                                                community, the legal profession, the
disciplinary teams from jurisdic-                                                 GIS field, the media, and victims’
tions with experience or interest                                                 rights advocates.
in forming law enforcement-
                                         NIJ’s third annual crime mapping         The roundtable discussions were
corrections partnerships.
                                         research conference, Mapping Out         guided by the following questions:
The partnership teams discussed          Crime: Expanding the Boundaries,         s   Where is the balance between
issues of mutual concern with            will feature presentations from              the public’s right to know and
national experts and experienced         researchers and others from around           a victim’s right to privacy?
practitioners, shared information        the world who will highlight their
and experiences, discussed the           innovative uses of computerized          s   When information passes from
concepts and research associated         crime mapping for research and               one agency to another, who is
with law enforcement-corrections         practice. The conference will take           liable or accountable for the
partnerships, and developed strate-      place at the Renaissance Hotel in            inappropriate use of crime maps
gies to combat an identified crime       Orlando, Florida, December 11–14,            or the sharing of inaccurate
problem in their communities.            1999. Participants at the 4-day              geocoded data?
Representatives from 12 Midwestern       international conference can             s   Should professional standards
States—Kansas, Illinois, Indiana,        attend plenary sessions, panels,             or guidelines be developed for
Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota,               and workshops conducted by more              crime mapping as it pertains to
Missouri, Nebraska, North                than 70 leading experts, including           privacy and freedom of infor-
Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota,              police managers, crime analysts,             mation issues? If so, what
and Wisconsin—were invited to            geographers, and criminal justice            should these standards look
apply to send jurisdictional teams       researchers. More than 750                   like and who should promote
to the workshop. A similar meeting       people participated in last year’s           them?
was held in Boston for Northeast         conference.
                                                                                  s   What is the appropriate model
and mid-Atlantic States; additional      To register for the conference, con-         for partnerships between law
workshops are scheduled to take          tact the Institute for Law and Justice       enforcement agencies and
place in Raleigh, North Carolina,        at 703–684–5300 or register online           researchers with regard to
and Seattle, Washington.                 at http://nijpcs.org/upcoming.htm.           sharing geocoded crime data?




                                                                                      National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                             33
             s   What security measures are           will cover topics of general interest     fields of medicine and public health,
                 available for sharing geocoded       to the membership, rather than            neighborhood revitalization special-
                 crime data over Internet or          concentrate on a particular               ists, family advocates, and preven-
                 intranet environments, and           theme.                                    tion and education specialists.
                 how can they be disseminated
                                                      The meeting will be held November         Attorney General Janet Reno and
                 to local agencies?
                                                      17–20 at the Royal York Hotel.            Office of National Drug Control
             A white paper based on the tran-         Registration is $75 for ASC mem-          Policy (ONDCP) Director Barry
             scripts of the discussion will be        bers, $85 for nonmembers, and $15         McCaffrey cochair the task force.
             developed and posted on the Crime        for student members. Registration         The executive cochairs are NIJ
             Mapping Research Center Web page         fees increase after November 1.           Director Jeremy Travis and ONDCP
             at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/cmrc.        For more information, contact the         Deputy Director Donald R. Vereen,
             For more information, contact            ASC at 614–292–9207 or visit its          Jr. Other members of the Task
             Debra Stoe at 202–616–7036 or            Web site at http://www.asc41.com.         Force include representatives of
             stoed@ojp.usdoj.gov.                                                               the secretaries of the U.S. Depart-
                                                      Methamphetamine Task                      ments of Health and Human
             American Society of                      Force Hears Final Opinions                Services and Education, members
             Criminology To Meet                                                                of the judiciary and public health
             in Toronto                               The Methamphetamine Task Force,           agencies, researchers, substance
                                                      which over the past 2 years has been      abuse specialists, and law enforce-
             The American Society of                  exploring issues associated with          ment officials.
             Criminology (ASC), an inter-             methamphetamine abuse, will con-
             national organization that               vene its final meeting November           The Task Force released its interim
             represents criminologists and            30–December 1 in Washington, D.C.         report in September. The final
             others concerned with criminology                                                  report, which NIJ anticipates releas-
                                                      Community stakeholders will pre-
             and scientific research on the                                                     ing in December, will propose
                                                      sent opinions and concerns about
             etiology, prevention, control, and                                                 recommendations to Congress.
                                                      a wide range of drug issues at the
             treatment of crime and delinquency,                                                Copies will be available on NIJ’s
                                                      November meeting. Invited guests
             will convene its annual meeting in                                                 Web site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.
                                                      include drug abuse experts from the
             Toronto this year. The meeting                                                     gov/nij.



             Solicitations
             & Awards
             NIJ will soon issue open solicita-       s   Rethinking Justice                    Institute of Justice, November 1998,
             tions to the criminal justice research                                             NCJ 172883, and National Institute
                                                      s   Understanding the Nexus
             field to propose innovative research                                               of Justice 1997 Annual Report to
             endeavors.                               s   Breaking the Cycle                    Congress (Washington, DC: U.S.
                                                                                                Department of Justice, National
             The Office of Science and Techno-        s   Creating the Tools
                                                                                                Institute of Justice, August 1998,
             logy accepted proposals from the
                                                      s   Expanding the Horizons                NCJ 171679).
             physical sciences field until October
             7, 1999. The Office of Research and      Both parts of the “Solicitation for       Visit NIJ’s Web site at http://www.
             Evaluation will solicit social science   Investigator-Initiated Research”          ojp.usdoj.gov/nij for the publica-
             research proposals, which will be        will include a discussion and exam-       tions mentioned above and for
             due January 18, 2000.                    ples of how proposed research can         the latest information on the
                                                      fit into these themes. A discussion       release of the “Solicitation for
             This year, there will be one funding
                                                      of these themes also can be found in      Investigator-Initiated Research.”
             cycle for each of the two parts of the
                                                      Building Knowledge About Crime            NIJ publications also are available
             solicitation, rather than two cycles
                                                      and Justice: the 1998 Research            from the National Criminal Justice
             for one solicitation, as in previous
                                                      Prospectus of the National Institute of   Reference Service by calling
             years. The broad themes that have
                                                      Justice (Washington DC: U.S.              1–800–851–3420.
             guided NIJ’s research agenda in
                                                      Department of Justice, National
             recent years still apply:

     Solicitations & Awards
34
NIJ in the
Journals

The following summarizes key articles    schools. Using data from the U.S.        “foreground”—the immediate
of interest to the Journal’s readers.    Census, school districts, police         context in which decisions to
Most are based on studies sponsored      departments, and a survey of             offend are activated.
by NIJ. Copies are available on loan     “school climate”—the unwritten
                                                                                  “Violent Crime and the Spatial
from the National Criminal Justice       beliefs, values, and attitudes that
                                                                                  Dynamics of Neighborhood
Reference Service (NCJRS); in some       become the style of interaction
                                                                                  Transition: Chicago, 1970–1990,”
cases, photocopies may be obtained       among students, teachers, and
                                                                                  Social Forces, 76(1) (September
and a corresponding fee charged.         administrators—researchers
                                                                                  1997), 31–64, by Morenoff, J.D.,
For information on availability,         studied the following predictors
                                                                                  and R.J. Sampson, grant number
contact NCJRS at 1–800–851–3420          of school misconduct: community
                                                                                  93–IJ–CX–K005, ACCN 175654.
or askncjrs@ncjrs.org. Please cite       poverty and residential stability;
                                                                                  Integrating ecological, demographic,
the accession (ACCN) number              community crime; school size;
                                                                                  and criminological theory, the
when contacting NCJRS.                   student perceptions of school
                                                                                  authors examined the roles of
                                         climate; and individual student
“Criminalizing White-Collar                                                       violent crime and socioeconomic
                                         characteristics.
Misconduct: Determinants of                                                       disadvantage in triggering popula-
Prosecution in Savings and Loan          The authors found that the level         tion decline in Chicago neighbor-
Fraud Cases,” Crime, Law, and            of crime in a community has less         hoods from 1970 to 1990. Although
Social Change, 26 (1997), 53–76,         effect on student misconduct than        both black and white populations
by Tillman, R., K. Calavita, and         individual student characteristics,      declined in response to high initial
H. Pontell, grant number                 such as belief in rules and positive     levels of homicide and socioeco-
90–IJ–CX–0059, ACCN 175387.              peer associations. They conclude         nomic disadvantage, increases
This analysis focused on three           that the assumption that “bad” com-      in neighborhood homicide, spatial
explanations for the differential        munities produce “bad” schools is        proximity to homicide, and socio-
handling of white-collar offenders.      unwarranted and that a school is         economic disadvantage were associ-
Using data on individuals suspected      neither blessed nor doomed entirely      ated with black population gain and
of having committed serious crimes       on the basis of where it is located,     white population loss.
against savings and loan institu-        nor on the basis of its student
tions, researchers sought to deter-      demographics.
mine the factors that influenced
                                         “Stick-Up, Street Culture, and
prosecutors to file criminal charges
                                         Offender Motivation,” Criminology,
against some suspects and not oth-
                                         37(1) (1999), 149–73, by Jacobs,
ers. The findings indicated that all
                                         B.A., and R. Wright, grant number
three models may be limited in their
                                         94–IJ–CX–0030, ACCN 176453.
ability to explain low rates of prose-
                                         This article explores the decision-
cution involving white-collar
                                         making processes of active armed
crimes.
                                         robbers in real-life settings and
“School Disorder: The Influence          circumstances. The authors attempt
of Individual, Institutional, and        to understand how and why offend-
Community Factors,” Criminology,         ers move from an unmotivated state
37(1) (1999), 73–115, by Welsh,          to one in which they are determined
W.N., J.R. Greene, and P.J. Jenkins,     to commit robbery. They conclude
grant number 93–IJ–CX–0038,              that street culture represents an
ACCN 176452. This study examined         essential intervening variable linking
the influence of individual, institu-    criminal motivation to background,
tional, and community factors on         or behavioral, risk factors and
misconduct in Philadelphia middle        the conditions of the subjective



                                                                                     National Institute of Justice Journal s October 1999
                                                                                                                                            35
                                                                                                    Final Reports

             The following final reports of com-      stalking experiences of noncelebrity,     rental properties to test the theory
             pleted NIJ-sponsored research were       former intimate victims. The vic-         that property managers can help
             submitted by the authors in manu-        tims provided data on the relation-       prevent illicit activities. It also tested
             script form. The reports are available   ship between victim and stalker, vic-     a drug sales prevention tactic
             from the National Criminal Justice       tims’ responses to the stalking, con-     designed to pressure landlords with
             Reference Service (NCJRS) through        sequences of the stalking for the vic-    drug-plagued rental properties to
             interlibrary loan and as photocopies.    tims, and the fulfillment of victims’     improve their management prac-
             For information about fees, call         needs in terms of victim services         tices. Two experimental groups
             NCJRS at 1–800–851–3420.                 and the criminal justice system. The      received different interventions; a
                                                      paper includes policy recommenda-         control group received no further
             “Civil Remedies for Controlling
                                                      tions for law enforcement agencies,       police actions. Followup analysis
             Crime: The Role of Community
                                                      the courts, State legislatures, and       revealed more evictions of drug
             Organizations,” by Roehl, J., ACCN
                                                      victim service agencies.                  offenders for both experimental
             175519, 1998, 19 pp., grant number
                                                                                                groups relative to the control group.
             93–IJ–CX–K010. This paper reviews        “Fast Track Program Study,” by
                                                                                                The findings support the hypothesis
             civil remedies used by community         Collier, L., P. Phelps, M. Barnett, K.
                                                                                                that place management is causally
             organizations to control crimes. It      Gewerth, and M. Hedberg, ACCN
                                                                                                related to crime and drug dealing.
             presents the results of a national       175476, 23 pp., grant number
             survey on the types and prevalence       96–IJ–CX–0072. This study evalu-          “On-Campus Victimization
             of civil remedies used, problems         ates the effectiveness of the Bay City,   Patterns of Students: Implications
             encountered, and outcomes. The           Michigan, Fast Track Program in           for Crime Prevention by Students
             two most common forms of civil           curbing and retracking nonviolent         and Post-Secondary Institutions,”
             remedies were environmental              juvenile delinquents. The program         by Fisher, B.S., J.J. Sloan III, F.T.
             changes and enforcement strategies.      was designed to provide immediate         Cullen, and C. Lu, ACCN 175504, 25
             Community organizations often            sanctions for status offenders and        pp., grant number 93–IJ–CX–0049.
             used nuisance and drug abatement         nonviolent juveniles who committed        This study reports on the victimiza-
             ordinances and municipal codes;          minor delinquent acts. Successful         tion experiences of college students
             sometimes they collaborated with         completion of the program                 and the crime prevention challenges
             police, prosecutors, and other gov-      expunges the charge for which a           facing campuses today. It also
             ernment agencies. These methods          youth entered the program.                examines the frequency and nature
             displaced rather than eliminated                                                   of on-campus victimizations; the
                                                      “Improving the Management of
             crime and drug problems.                                                           crime-prevention behavior of stu-
                                                      Rental Properties With Drug
                                                                                                dents; and the crime-prevention
             “Exploration of the Experiences          Problems: A Randomized
                                                                                                programs, services, and measures at
             and Needs of Former Intimate             Experiment,” by Eck, J.E., and J.
                                                                                                selected schools.
             Stalking Victims,” by Brewster, M.P.,    Wartell, ACCN 175516, 1998, 25 pp.,
             ACCN 175475, 1998, 81 pp., grant         grant number 90–IJ–CX–K006. A
             number 95–WT–NX–0002. This               randomized experiment was con-
             research explored the nature of the      ducted in 121 San Diego, California,




     Final Reports
36
                                   U.S. Department of Justice
                                   Office of Justice Programs
                                    810 Seventh Street N.W.
                                     Washington, DC 20531

                                              Janet Reno
                                           Attorney General

                                       Raymond C. Fisher
                                    Associate Attorney General

                                          Laurie Robinson
                                     Assistant Attorney General

                                       Noël Brennan
                               Deputy Assistant Attorney General

                                         Jeremy Travis
                              Director, National Institute of Justice



           Office of Justice Programs                      National Institute of Justice
             World Wide Web Site                              World Wide Web Site
            http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov                       http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij



The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), a centralized national clearinghouse of criminal
justice information, is sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs agencies and the Office of National Drug
  Control Policy. Registered users of NCJRS receive the NIJ Journal and NCJRS Catalog free. To become a
  registered user, write NCJRS User Services, Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849–6000, call 800–851–3420, or
           e-mail askncjrs@ncjrs.org. Visit the NCRJS World Wide Web site at http://www.ncjrs.org.
   The National Institute of Justice is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes
     the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Office of Juvenile Justice and
                       Delinquency Prevention, and the Office for Victims of Crime.




                                                JR000241

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: NIJ,�October 1999,�NCJ 184427. (38 pages).