Physical and Cognitive Developme by fjwuxn


									Physical and Cognitive
Development in Middle
Body Growth
   2 to 3 inches in height
   5 pounds in weight each year
   girls are slightly shorter than boys from 6 to 8 then
    trend reverses
   girls have slightly more body fat;
   lowest portion of body growing the fastest during
    this time frame
    between 6 and 12 years, all 20 primary teeth are
    replaced with permanent teeth
Health Problems
   common vision problem-myopia-nearsightedness
    nearly 25% children affected
   Myopia is affected by heredity ad experience
   less ear infections-Eustachian tube becomes
    longer and narrower
   malnutrition-prolonged affects can cause physical
    growth problems, low test scores, poor motor
    coordination, inattention and distractibility
   About 25% of American children
   greater than 20% over average body weight based
    on age, sex and physical build of child
   Causes
      genetics

      low-cost, high fat foods, and family stress

      food as a reward system

      lack of physical activity
 children that are obese have lower self-
  esteem, report feeling more depressed and
  display more behavioral problems than their
 There is an increase in type II diabetes in
  children in recent years
 Treatment for obesity should be a family
  program and focus on changing behaviors
 Nocturnal enuresis -bedwetting that occurs
  during the night
 most cases cause is failure of muscular
  responses that inhibit urination or hormonal
  imbalance that permits too much urine to
  accumulate during the night
 treatment-urine alarm; special pants
   higher range of illnesses during the first 2 years of
    elementary school; exposure to more sick children
    and immune system is still developing
   Asthma-most frequent cause of school absence
      boys, African American children and children

       that were LBW, smoking parents, parents that
       have had asthma and children that live in
       poverty have the greatest risk
 Common in middle childhood
 auto and bicycle accidents very common
 school-based safety programs a must at this
 be careful of toy related injuries
Motor Development and Play
   running, jumping, hopping, and ball skills more
   fine motor skills improve-writing (starts off larger
    ad gradually decreases in size)
   drawings show gains in organization, detail ad
    representation of depth
   games with rules are more common-children have
    a better concept of fairness, and justice
   PE classes very important-builds self esteem, and
    physical activity
 Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage
 7 to 11 years
 thought process is more logical, flexible and
  organized that in early childhood
   children can conserve at this stage-one of the most
    important developments
   clear evidence of operations-mental actions that
    obey logical rules
   Decentration-focus on several aspects of problem
    at once and relate to them
   Reversibility-the ability to mentally go through the
    series of steps in a problem and then reverse the
    direction returning to the starting point
Hierarchical Classification
 now can group objects into hierarchies of
  classes and subclasses
 collections are common in middle
 Seriation-order items in length and weight
  and height
 Transitive inference-ability to perform
  seriation mentally
Spatial Reasoning
  7 to 8 years-mental rotations-align self’s
  frame to match that of a person in a
  different orientation; identity left and right
  for positions that they do not occupy
 8 to 10 years-can give clear, well-organized
  directions for how to get from one place to
  another using “mental walk” strategies.
Limitations of Concrete
Operational Thought
 Children still need concrete information for
  the most part
 abstract concepts are still difficult
 Horizontal decalage-conservation problems
  in certain order;number first than length
  than mass than liquid

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