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Roman vs. Greek values, beliefs
Romans: Concerned with real world, what is, not what
could be or should be; Greeks concerned with ideal
situations. Doryphoros (Text, p. 202) vs. Hadrian’s bust
(head and shoulders, text, p. 297, or picture of Pompey, put
on overhead). Romans’ realism in busts, even of emperors,
include warts and wrinkles. Romans build roads, bridges,
aqueducts; Greeks build philosophical systems, discuss
poetry. Rome: Land power, struggles shaped character,
loyalty to home, family, no mercy to vanquished, willing to
kill or be killed, endurance, discipline, being practical
necessary for battlefield success, etc.

Greeks create; Romans happy to copy, better at portraits,
historical narrative. “Does it do what it is supposed to do?”
vs. “Is it beautiful?” Romans good at problem solving,

Greek education, more balanced than Roman, emphasized
imagination, creativity, higher level philosophy and math.
Develop whole person/man ideal. Sports part of balance,
strong body and mind ideal.
Rome: learn 3R’s to be better citizen. Conformity,
obedience, less educated even ideally, obey elders, and
state, have endurance devotion.

Greek Olympiads: honor, truce from war, grace/how done,
not just speed, winning, fair play requirement.

Roman spectacles: mass entertainment, crudeness,
brutality, effective, perfuming done event, gifts handed out,
Coloseum seated 50,000. Rome’s population 1.2 million
2nd century A.D.

Cincinnatus (c. 519-439 b.c.): Roman general, statesman.
Model of patriotism, loyalty to Rome. Modesty, gave up
power voluntarily. Senate in 458 b.c. gave him power to
run army in order to save another Roman army. 439 b.c.,
got absolute power from Senate, but kept it only 21 days.
Went back to plowing!

T.R. Glover, classicist: “Rome is famed for its drains;
Greece for its brains.”

Vergil: “Captive Greece had begun to take her rude
conqueror captive.” Like Mongols and Manchus in China.

Cato the Elder: Never kissed wife but during thunder. Felt
slaves mere machines, treated them cruely, get rid of when
useless and old. Yet never struck wife or son. Tutored
own son. Lived and ate on own farm. Wrote De
Agricultura, practical book on farming.
Incorruptible: Took no bribes, didn’t use office or military
victories to become rich. As censor in 184 b.c., demoted
senators, knights for morals; cut public water pipes going to
private homes. Contracts put out at lowest prices, collected
maximum taxes.

Opposed luxury, cultivation of arts, extravagance;
emphasized simplicity. Valued the ability to endure
hardship, honesty, courage, strict sexual morality, loyalty to
Sumptuary law against luxury: 30% tax on clothing,
jewelry, furniture, dishes/plates over $6,000 to $12,000 in
today’s prices.
Hated Greek culture, wanted laws against Greek
philosophers visiting Rome. Says it undermines sturdy
Republican morals.
Imperialistic: Wanted to promote Rome’s glory, greatness,
end justifies means. “Carthage must be destroyed.”

Etruscans: We can’t read their writing well. Main
knowledge of from tombs, text, p. 283 example. Civilized
Romans. Non-indo-European language. Herodotus said
from Lydia in W. Turkey/Asia Minor. Art, religious
practices eastern—Divination using animals’ livers,
Romans pickup. Romans dislike their luxurious living,
elaborate tombs, high position of their women (carvings of
them drinking with men).
Like Sumeria, Mycenaeans, had strong independent city-
states in 8th century b.c. Each city independent, like
Greeks, why weak ultimately, despite high level of culture.
Fairly equal treatment of women, it seems. In 7 th-6th
century took Rome. Had a powerful navy (like which
Greek city-state? (Athens)), unlike Rome, like Carthage.
Tyrrhenian Sea (part of Mediterranean Sea) named for their
legend. Lydian king’s son, Tyrrhenus, leads migration.

Civilized Romans: Lictors, Triumphs, augurs, Roman
alphabet, arch, triads of gods, temple design. Emperor
Claudius: wrote 20 books on.

Legendary Founding (text, p. 233): Romulus and Remus,
sons of Mars and Rhea Silvia, daughter of King Numitor.
Amulius, evil great uncle, had twins put in basket in Tiber
River. Rescued by wolf, killed Amulius as adults, restored
Numitor to throne. Romulus killed Remus (too light-
hearted) for ridiculing the building of Rome’s walls.
Romulus raised army, supplied with Sabine wives (mass
rape). 753 b.c. date of founding, basis for chronology,
A.U.C., “from the founding of the city.”

Virgil, Aenid: Aeneas (Uh/NEE/us) founder, Rome
founded by Trojans in exile (notice anti-Greek aspect),
fleeing Troy’s fall, lead by Aeneas. Duty to press onwards
after stop (by storm forcing them) in Carthage. Met Quen
Diedo (DI-do), she falls in love with him. Aeneas rejects
her, feels he has to do his duty, she kills herself because of
unrequited love. He sails on to Sicily, Tiber’s banks.

2nd century b.c.: Italy had 1,000,000 Roman citizens, 4
million Italians, 1,000,000 slaves.

75,000 slaves taken in 1 st (264-241 b.c.) and 2nd (218-202
b.c.) Punic Wars. 100,000’s taken in 2nd century. b.c.
Rome won: key result: Medieval Europe had a Indo-
European culture, not Semitic.

“Bread and circuses,” the Republic’s decline. Dole of grain
to Rome’s poor. Gaius Grachus’s innovation (subsidized
price). Money up, duty down, corruption up, old total
authority of the father down. Would judge some of the rich
guilty, took their property, for that reason alone.
Verres, governor of Sicily, example: Boasted his objective
was to make three fortunes, one to pay off debts, one with
which to bribe the jurors in Rome, and one to keep.
Roman public, no taste for tragedy, only crudest comedies,
stock plots, same 5 characters.

T. Graccus: Land reform bill. Public lands not actually
owned by Patricians, but had had them for a long time.
Reassign to poor, landless Romans. Brought bill to Tribal
Assembly first, not Senate (vs. usual custom). Patricians
got another tribune to veto it, but Tiberius got that Tribune
deposed in retaliation. Billed passed, but not ultimately
implemented Tried to get reelected (illegal), but senators
and their retainers killed Tiberius and 300 of his followers,
put bodies in Tiber.

Gaius Gracchus: half-price grain sold to unemployed in
city, 123 b.c. Dole system begins. More magnetic in
personality, better politician than brother. Wanted colonies
for placing unemployed, given citizenship to Latin allies,
Buys support of knights but putting them on court for
extortion (abused it, conemned those opposed to their
extortions) and turning province of Asia over to them,
unjust rule resulted there. Lost power by false promises of
Optimates’ ultimate decree: Gaius and 250 die. 3000 later

die due to commission without trial. No land commission
or Cathaginian colony resulted, no land reform.

Populares vs. Optimates (“best people”): Class warfare
through parties results.

Marius: Got support of knights, Populares, elected consul
to prosecute Jugurthine War in N. Africa. Tribal invasions
get him reelected consul. Brings in professional army:
Volunteers, without property, long term career, given land
if serve full time. Reorganized it tactically, more cohesive
in small units, cohorts, maniples, centuries. Not a citizen-
army anymore of small farmers serving for short periods. :
Elected Consul 7th time after Sulla gone from Rome., who
had used his army vs. it (first time, bad precedent, army
loyal to commander vs. Rome itself). Marian massacres
followed: 5 days and nights in 87 b.c. Jan. 1, 86 b.c.,
elected consul 7th time.
End: caught between trying to please both Optimates and
Populares, proscriptions attack his friends.

Social War (90-88 b.c.): Allies revolt massively, not put
down. Latins, Italians given full citizenship by Senate.
Makes rebellion largely collapse, Roman victories help.

Mithradates in Asia Minor takes advantage of this mess:
80,000 Italians killed in one day, had treated locals badly.

79 b.c.: Sulla’s proscriptions: has 4700 killed, 2600 of
them knights, 90 senators. Sulla wins against Mithradates,
gets him to sue for peace. 83 b.c., Sulla returns with army,

Optimates side with him. 82-79 b.c., Sulla dictator over

Cicero: Never really accepted by “old guard” patricians
since born to middle class parents. Became a lawyer.
Prosecuted Verres, governor of Sicily: sold justice,
priesthoods, muncipal offices to highest bidder, falsely
accused wealthy people to take their property, worked with
tax-gatherers to squeeze out cash. To stop Cataline,
Optimates support him for consul in 63 b.c., Cicero wins.
Condemnation of Catline (pp. 369-70, Origins and Ordeals,
Hardy: speech against after discovers conspiracy to have
poor revolt against rich, massacre Senators and Knights
(rich Plebians). Cataline flees, Cicero didn’t have him
arrested since he was middle class, Cataline aristocrat, may
have felt Optimates wouldn’t believe a fellow Patrician
would do such a thing. Letters to Atticus, etc., important in
Latin literature, disliked Romans being so anti-
philosophical, his countrymen.

Julius Caesar: “Czar,” and “Kaiser” corruptions of his
name, “July” named after him. Married at age 19 to
Cornelia, daughter of Cinnas, Populares leader. Refused to
divorce at Sulla’s order.
Gets money from Crassus—puts on big games to entertain
masses, gets their support. Example of stunt of Roman
republican political maneuvering: raises (false) red flag on
Janiculum Hill in order to have the Assemby of Centuries
dissolved to stop Rabirus from getting off from killing an
associate of Marius 37 years earlier since the Optimates
controlled it.

First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, Caesar. Caesar gets
elected consul for 59 b.c., in return gives Pompey, Crassus
what they want. Cicero shoots down apparent land reform
bill that would aid Crassus especially. Caesar gets own
army later. Gaul, Alesia, 51 b.c., wins! Had son by
As dictator, decreasted dole from 320,000 to 150,000,
planned public works, overseas colonies for poor, calendar
change. The fear of his become king, led to assassination
in 44 b.c., Ides of March. 23 stab wounds, about 60
Crassus and Pompey: Caesar’s rivals/associates. Crassus:
money made from loans, fighting fires scam in Rome,
buying up property at literal fire sale prices.
Pompey: Did divorce, remarry at Sulla’s command, raised
three legions, fought populares successfully in Sicily and
Spartacus (73-71 b.c.): Crassus trained six legions, beat
his rebel slave army (70,000 strong). Sp. had won six times
before, Rome had wars in Spain, Aegean/Asian area also
going on. Pompey and Crassus had 6,000 slaves executed,
hung on crosses along Apian Way (analogous to I-94 in
Detroit). Pompey, Crassus, initially denied consulship by
Senate (constitutional reasons for doing so also), so made
alliance with Populares, forced Senate to put them in office.
They overturned the Sullan constitution by restoring the
power of the tribunes and censors, juries now just 1/3
senators. Crassus killed at Carrhae by horse-mounted
Parthians (53 b.c.).
Pompey: Gets rid of Mithrades’ pirates in a mere 40 days
after being given 120,000 infantry, 5,000 horsemen.

Voluntarily took apart army in 62 b.c., doesn’t march on
Rome as Ceasar did in 49 b.c. Pompey loses in 48 b.c. to
Caesar at Pharsalus in Greece.

Augustus (“revered one”) (Octavian): Grand nephew of
Caesar, only 18 when Caesar died, but acted as veteran
politician. Formed 2nd triumvirate with Mark Anthony,
who had Cicero killed, and Lepidus. Octavian not an esp.
good general, but good at politics. 42 b.c., Jan. 1: 300
Senators, 2000 knights executed by proscription. Then
Octavian defeated Brutus, Cassius, Caesar’s assassins, at
Phillippi in 42. b.c.
Augustus beats Anthony at Actium (31 b.c.): Cleopatra’s
machinations fail. She was subtle, tried to preserve Egypt’s
independence and her throne, allied with Anthony, blunt,
objective, good soldier but bad politician, both lost, killed
selves separately.
Sets up “Principate”: “Princeps,” first citizen, origin of the
word “prince.” Republican façade maintained, since didn’t
want to be accused of being a king. Civil service based on
merit, created pensions for veterans using own money as
endowment, added a sales tax, rebuilt Rome (from brick to
marble), had army build public works across empire; set up
police and fire services in Rome itself. Moral reforms:
penalized bachelors, encouraged large families, punished

Text reading: pp. 268, Ovid’s “Art of Love.”


Roman religions
Eastern imports:
Isis/Serapis/Osiris: Story of Osiris as king of Egypt, victim
of conspiracy, but in sealed coffere, put in Nile, drowned.
Isis found body. Seth got the body, cut it into 14 pieces.
Isis found them one by one, buried them. Isis cult offered
deliverance from fate as “salvation.” Serapis manufactured
by Ptolemy to replace Osiris. Despite obvious political
origin, motive (merge Greek and Egyptian cultures),
became popular.

Cybele/Attis: “The Great Mother”—from southern Asia
Minor. In rituals, men would sacrifice selves to Cybele by
castrating themselves, become priests (Galli). Standard
myth: Queen Cybele loved Attis, a handsome shepherd
(analogous to Titanic!) He was unfaithful, made love to a
nymph (a minor goddess), which drove her insane. He
became so upset by this he castrated himself [or was killed
by a boar in a hunting accident, like Adonis], died. Cybele
mourned for him.

See text, p. 240: Did he come alive again? Sometimes not
even said to be dead, since Ovid said the wounds weren’t
fatal. Gunter Wagner: “With one exception that has still to
be mentioned, the rest of the version of the myth are at one
in telling that Attis died and remained dead. 4 th century
Firmicus Maternus, influenced by Eleusinian mysteries
(Demeter/Persephone). The “resurrected” Attis merely had

a preserved body, his hair still grew, and his little finger
could move, or being changed into an evergreen tree.

As for Osiris, according to Gunter Wagner, “Nothing is
said about a resurrection in Plutarch’s account of the myth.
Plutarch reports and criticizes the assertion that Osiris
returns to life when the seeds begin to sprout.” Metzer said
believers wanted to be buried where Osiris’ body was. Isis
(or another deity) reassembled his body, various gods did
magical rites to his embalmed body. Lives only in
underworld of dead as king.

Mithraism: Mithras born from a rock. Battled with sun,
killed the bull which was the source of life for humanity.
Mithras, mediator, gave protection against demons. Each
day of week controlled by a planet. All souls came from
highest level of heaven (7th), lost good characteristics when
descended to earth. If do right, join good god, if do wrong,
sentenced to suffer forever with the forces of evil. 7 stages
of initation corresponded with levels of heaven, had to
prove self worthy at each one.
Mithras a judge for each soul, weighed good/bad: Also
Savior who helped followers against evil. After death,
souls led by Mithras through 7 planets to heaven.

Anti-woman: never initiated into this cult. “Sol
Invictus”—Dec. 25 used to honor Mithras. “Invincible
Sun.” Planetary week.
321 A.D. Constantine: Venerable day of the Sun. “Let all
the judges and townspeople and the occupations of all
trades rest upon the venerable day of the sun.” Date for

Xmas partially derived from this, as from Saturnalia, which
honored Saturn, god of agriculture, would exchange gifts,
freed slaves temporarily (ala Carnival, misrule festivals),
postponed business and war. Mithras seen as god of light,
Greeks identified him with Helios, their sun-god. Winter
solstice tradition “Christianized” by Catholic church in 4 th
century b.c.

Roman Philosophy:

Epicurus: Born on island of Samos, c. 341 b.c. Taught in
various cities, settled in Athens in 306 b.c. Set up school,
surrounded by worshipful students, but still lived simply,
ate plain food, enjoyed conversation with friends the most.

Epicureanism: Purpose of life is for each individual to
maximize pleasure and minimize pain. What would be the
problem with this goal?
“Egocentric hedonism.” Better to seek moderate pleasures
than violent ones with “kick backs,” adverse after effects.
Would Epicurus have chosen to get drunk?

Distinguished natural from unnatural desires: Need to eat,
but didn’t need to eat caviar. W.T. Jones: “The unnatural
desires are a bottomless pit that the wise man will not
attempt to fill.”

Problem: Should certain actions be done because they are
good despite they bring no pleasure? The self-sacrificing
soldier, the older rich man who avoids divorce when could

abandon old wife for a younger model. No place for honor,

Achilles in Illiad: “Let me die forthwith and be avenged on
my enemy, rather than survive a laughing-stock and a
burden on earth.” Would Epicurus agree?

Repose: Mental peace objective. Corresponds with people
withdrawing from society/politics since can’t control
everything or influence it much. So many give up,
withdraw from competition.

How gain it: Eliminate fear of death and fear of divine
intervention. Naturalism.
Atomism: shows no soul, no personal identity survives
death. Since death ends only sensation, not to be feared.
Science valuable only in ending worry about death, the

Lucretius (96-55 b.c.): Believed fear of death drove all
men, haunted them.
Attacked religion, since made men fearful, caused them to
do bad things to appease gods, such as Agamemnon’s
sacrifice of Iphigenia in order to sail and win vs. Troy.

Stoicism: Founded by Zeno, born on Cyprus, went to
Athens about 320 or 315 b.c.
Stoa, “porch,” place where Zeno taught. Zeno influenced
by “cynics,” a group of followers of Socrates who strove to
be indifferent to all pain and pleasures, including poverty,
pain, death not really bad to them then.

Empiricism: Sensationalism—form of object enters mind
by the senses. Conceptualism: concepts only general
mental abstractions about material objects. Only matter
real—even called the soul, god, good and bad material.

Happiness gained by fulfilling, acting in accordance with
own nature (analogous to Aristotle’s teleology, but a step
further). Knowledge valuable for telling us what our nature
and where we fit in the universe. The universe is
deterministic, but still not mechanistic since can choose to
react to it differently. “Logos,” “nature,” “Providence,”
describe a complex but orderly universe.

Stoics built on Aristotle’s idea of nature, teleology. (Can
anyone say what that is?) Happiness gained by acting in
accordance with nature. Like evaluating oak trees
deviating from average, can do with human behavior also.

Universal, natural law concept: Leads to brotherhood of
man idea. Christianity also has. Cosmopolis—universal
city. Roman Empire influenced and influences this idea.

Natural law concept: Acts immoral intrinsically, not just
because God or men say they are wrong. Paul in Romans
2:14-15: “Indeed, when gentiles, who do not have the law,
do by nature the things required by the law, they are a law
for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since
they show that the requirements of the law are written on
their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and
their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them.”

Motives, not acts, primary to Stoics. Happpiness not from
pleasing senses or overall development of human
personality, but from gaining peace of mind [would
Epicurus agree?] from accepting how the universe is and
therefore becoming indifferent to the course of events.

Rejects emotions: not just channeling or controlling them,
or whether they cause good or bad. Ascetic side,
moderation no better than excess, since should be
indifferent to both.

Romans try to purge Stoicism of exaggerations, still
strongly altruistic, ascetic.

Cicero: “True law is right reason in agreement with nature;
it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting, it
summons to duty by its commands, and averts from
wrongdoing by its prohibitions.”

Reason as the source of morality. A state must have laws
in accordance with the eternal law of nature.

Epictetus: Born in Phrygia in Asia Minor. Slave in Rome
during Nero’s reign.
More religious version of Stocism—nature as the governor
of the universe. Men, since rational, unlike animals, are to
live differently from them, shouldn’t just do as the animals
Accept what God gives us. In community, individual loses
identity. Sacrifice self for the whole (collective) if

necessary. Foot/body analogy. Withdraw from world,
from politics.

Marcus Aurelius (120-80 A.D., r. 160-180): Wanted peace,
yet involved in many battles vs. barbarians.

Meditations: not intended for publication, but like a journal
or diary. Like Heraclitus: All is changing, yet done in an
orderly fashion. Universe is “one living being, possessed
of a single . . . soul; . . . it does all things by a single
impulse . . . and . . . all existing things are joint causes of
all things that come into existence . . . how intertwined in
the fabric is the thread and how closely woven the web.”

Emphasized duty, doing what is according to man’s nature.
“Despise not death, but welcome it, for nature wills it like
all else.” World-city analogy: nature gives equal treatment
under its laws, shouldn’t complain if removed later or

Stoicism influences law: Rome had two laws, one for
citizens, one for all other nations/foreigners. Natural law
idea encourages one law for all since all people rational
beings that share in the divine reason that rules the
universe. “Jus Naturale,” shift from verbal form to intent
on validity of contracts.
Affects slaves: conditions under law improve in 2nd
century A.D. Father couldn’t totally control family, no
longer could kill children or own wife’s dowry.

Romans made Stoic ideal operative.

Neo-Platonism: Plotinus (204-270 A.D.) of Alexandria.
Emphasized transcendent, mystical, non-rational side of
Plato. Can’t know important truths by rational means.
Wanted certainty, and since couldn’t get it by rational
means, sought a non-rational means. Otherworldly trend—
other world better than this one. Religious orientation, not
about morality or theory of knowledge.

Form of the good from Plato’s Republic built on—Plotinus
went further, emphasized can’t know ultimate truth by
rational means.

Ironic: uses reason to deduce reason can’t know ultimate
reality. Mystical experiences are the way to know, not
reason. [Compare to contemporary New Age
movement/Eastern mysticism].

Emmanation theory: Chain of being idea. One;
absolute/first > Nous (Spirit, IQ, divine mind) > Soul
(includes all individual human souls) > Forms (including
nature, visible world). Value identified with reality,
increase in both as go up chain.

Way of ascent: Universe leaves god, just to return. (1)
Reincarnation approach—successful rebirths at higher
levels. (2) Mystical vision made one with god. Nature
divine, just as we are divine in part, so why contemplating
nature can help us back. Beauty in any form is a road to
the divine. Need to purify soul—leaves it alone, avoid
thinking on outside world, turn inward. [Common theme

here of all three philosophies]. Text, p. 262, Lucretius; p.
274, Epicetus; p. 275, Marcus Aurelius.

Men portrayed as nude first, women only later (4th century
b.c.). May be due to male figure more revealing of
anatomy of muscles, the availability of living models at the
Olympics. (Athletes competed in the nude). Greek
attitude on nudity: Only barbarian won’t strip! Syrian
figures of statues had loincloths, but Greek ones didn’t.
Greeks felt a certain natural beauty in the human body as is,
didn’t associate nudity with slavery, as did the world for
millennia before.

Early classical style: Severe formalism, like Egyptian art
of Pharaohs (text, pp. 196, 198, 199, 200). What is the
facial expression? (Smile). Originally painted, not bare

Classical: Discus thrower (text, p. 201): Plane view from
side, as if on wall. Notice how still like Egyptian art.

Kritos Boy (text, p. 198): Shows movement around spine,
subtle shifting of weight, not “stiff,” walking. Compare to
text, p. 39, flat-footed.

Text, p. 202: What does this look like (clothes)? Wet
drapery affect.

Polykleitos (Spear Bearer), by Polykleitos, text, p. 202.
Used mathematical conventions to aim for ideal natural
proportions. Personified strong, Doric, masculine
physicality. Broad shoulder, thick torso, muscular limbs.

Very carefully contrived, devised casual pose, weight shift
principle at work, allows him to be portrayed as walking in
a natural pose; right arm, left leg relaxed, but left arm
tensed (holding spear), as is right leg.

Isocephalic convention: Heads at same level (text, p. 203),

Three types of columns (orders): Doric: “Male”, 7 to 1
column. Ionic: “Female,” 11 to 1 column. Ratio equal to
height/foot’s length ratio. Corinthian, most elaborate,
decorative, the one the Romans preferred. Put up picture of
Colosseum, ask which is which.
The problem of corners: wanted triglyph centered over
column, yet had to meet at corners.
Corinthian capital, even more slender and tall relatively
than the Ionic, using acanthus leaves, a solution to this
problem, can be seen equally well from all sides, while
Ionic only to be seen from two sides equally well. (Why
different?) A way for the capital to make a transition from
a circular shaft to a square corner just above (architrave).

Parthenon, “The Virgin’s building,” (Athena Parthenos”),
text, pp. 206-7. On Acropolis in Athens. Very large: 228
feet by 101 feet with 34 foot high columns. What kind of
columns does it have? (Doric). Architects: Ictinos and
Not quite square, but gives illusion of it. Columns lean
inward by 2 ½ inches, 4 corner ones still more, would meet
1 mile up if extended. Also 24 inches closer to other

columns compared to gaps between non-corner columns.
Doric architecture, but not quite plumb and square.
Phidias: Idol/statue of Athena inside, 40 feet high, made of
ivory and gold.

Plato had trouble philosophically with the optical illusion
involved, perfection vs. illusion of perfection. Foundation
(stylobate) rises 4 ½ inches on long sides to center, 2 ¾
inches to center of other two. (Text, p. 208).

Caryatids, text, p. 211: Female figures used as columns.
Found on the Erechtheion (Air/ek/thee/on), another temple
on the Acropolis. What kind of order (capital) on it?
(Ionic). One swiped by Lord Elgin in 1806, never returned,
Greek govt. still complains, demands return.

Late Classical: Softer sinuous look, Aphrodite of Knidos,
(text, p. 215), violates old rectangular spare convention of
Egyptian statues. (Ask how different from Mycerinus and
his Queen, text, p. 39). Compare also 7.49, text, p. 214,
Hermes and the Infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles, with
Polykletos’ Spearbearer, p. 202, 7.23. Notice muscles of
stomach especially.

Nike of Samothrace, text, p. 218, winged victory. Dramatic
piece, as if on prow of ship.

Laocoon and his sons, text, p. 221: Ask class for difference
from Delphi Charioteer, p. 199, Kritos boy, p. 198. Notice
the emotionalism on their faces, compared to the stolidity
of early and high classical art.

Achilles Bandaging Patroclos’ Wound, text, pp. 188, 197.
What is the difference between the eyes here as opposed to
Egyptian art? (See text, p. 41). Amphora with Achilles
and Ajax playing dice, p. 194. Is this like p. 41, Egyptian
art, or like p. 188, in how the eyes are portrayed?

Roman Realism: (Use overheads). Ask class to compare
Pompey, etc. to p. 214. Romans want exact realism often,
warts, wrinkles, and all.

Roman arch, keystone at top, text, p. 288. Pier (wall):
Mutually supporting pressures between stones help avoid a
collapse, vs. post & lintel system (text, pp. 11, 44).

Colosseum (text, p. 293): 50,000 spectators could sit in it.
Built by Jewish prisoners—dedicated in 80 A.D.When
dedicated, over 100 days as a holiday, 10,000 gladiators
fought, 2,000 of them died as well as 9,000 animals died.
Arena is 156 feet by 258 feet. Four levels high. Roman
arch with a Greek post & lintel decoration as the frame.
Vitruvius, architect, 1st century b.c., had these principles:
firmness, commodity, delight, which this building
followed. 1. Structurally sound. 2. 80 entrances,
comfortable seating, unobstructed sight lines (vs. Tiger
stadium!) 3. Aesthetically pleasing.

Triumphal arch (text, p. 294). Propaganda ploy, 70 A.D.
destruction of Jerusalem commemorated. 50 feet high, 110
feet wide. Symbolism: When Samnites won battle, took
40,000 Romans, made them walk under two spears as
posts, one horizontal on top. Had to crawl under stripped

to one garment. 321 b.c.—symbolic of going under the

Pantheon (text, p. 296): Space the emphasis, not
interrupted by columns blocking one’s view of the other
side (unlike Parthenon inside or Luxor temple, text, p. 44).
142 feet high, 142 feet in diamter. Made of concrete
(limestone burned, then water, stones added), remarkable,
technique forgotten by medieval world. Done without
steel, turned into a church. Oculus at top, only light source,
28 feet in diamter. Plumbing (drains) still works. Built
under Hadrian (117-138 A.D.)

Trajan’s column (Emperor, 98-117 A.D.), text, p. 294.
Pushed empire to maximum size, born in Spain. 150
scenes carved in 658 foot-long freize. 125 feet high.
Commorates his battles in Romania, Hungary. Hard to
read as go up higher on the column. Not as deeply carved
to avoid shadows obscuring it. Enemies respected on it.
Battles portrayed as hard fought. (Realism: Not a
propaganda piece).



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