Historical design development - Bored of Studies - Student online

Document Sample
Historical design development - Bored of Studies - Student online Powered By Docstoc
					                                   Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Textiles and Design Stage 6 HSC Course
Area of Study: Design
Historical design development
 overview of design developments in society through ONE of the focus areas:
     – apparel
History of swimwear
It wasn‟t until the 16t century when the puritans denounced the sins of flesh that exposing the body became
Late 19th century – bathing began to develop as a popular leisure activity and a women‟s bathing suit consisted
of a corset, hat, shoes, stockings and dress – all women could do was paddle about in the shallows and „look
1900 - 1910
- Swimming was only for men, swimming seen as violent exercise and not acceptable for women.
- Heavy silk or woollen garments
1910 – 1920
- First World War changed attitudes towards women doing work, lead to changes in lifestyle.
- Very little flesh was exposed.
- 1918: knitted, woollen striped one piece reaching down to the knee and buttoned down the legs and side. Had
to be worn with a small wrap over dress which was discarded at the waters edge.
- As the decade progressed less heavy fabrics emerged. Taffeta, silk moiré, crepe de chine, charmeuse and
     wool jersey.
- Annette Kellerman became the worlds first female swimming champion but felt performance was restricted
     by clothing and turned up for competition in a one piece bathing suit – through the media and her arrest a
     new age of the bathing suit had begun.
- WW1 freed women and a new fashion for tanning led to women bathers looking increasingly like their male
1920 – 1930
- Two piece tubular costumes worn. A long line with loosely fitting shorts, emphasizing the waistline.
- Later in the decade beauty house advertisements began to warn of the dangers of sunburn as swimming
costumes got smaller.
- Production of speedos commenced in 1929. introduced racer back for men with narrow straps – it was made
from knitted wool, silk or cotton and became standardized racing wear for champions.
1930 – 1940
- Fitness was the craze, costumes became smaller as there was a need to make the body appear slimmer.
- Development of Lastex and Contralex: fabrics with rubber core around which any textile yarn may be wound.
- Maillot – knitted one piece tight fitting swimsuit. Its low cut front and revealed back allowed maximum
exposure to the sun. Its cross straps which could be removed is still seen on many summer tops today.
- 1932 – Jacques Heim introduced the first two piece swimsuit revealing the naval area – high cut shorts and a
     padded boned top.
- 1946 two piece is officially named the bikini.
- By 1930 Jantzen produced body molding costumes by developing knitting machines that could make elastic rib
stitch on both sides to add extra stretch.
1940 – 1950
- Most important fabric was elasticized knit which made swimwear hug the figure.
- WWII – fabric rationing – multiple layers of beach clothing impossible.
- Post WWII -decoration which was denied during war became popular: frills, ruching…
               - bright colours became popular to counteract drab colours of war.
- elasticized jersey was the norm for one piece swimsuits.
1950 – 1960
- Satinised Lastex was the new form of stretchy fabric.
- Waistline and breasts were focal points emphasised by a matching or contrasting belt and/or padded cups sewn
between layers of fabric.
- In 1956 Melbourne Olympic games the popularity of speedos was greatly boosted by the fact that nearly all
Aussie swimmers wore them.
- Change from cotton to nylon in the late 1950‟s meant new prints and colours and form-fitting shapes became
possible, new synthetic fibres shaped and structured the curves of the female body.
1960 – 70
- Swimsuits and bikinis were full of batiste and uplift to emphasize or create curves.
- British vogue 1963: “the new way for the bikini is little boy shorts, a built up bra.”
- By the end of the decade small bosoms were fashionable thus bolstering disappeared.

                                     Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

1980      French vogue 1968: “the minimum two piece for the perfect tan, leaving the least possible marks for
1980      New nylons appeared: “the quick change maillot – when it‟s dried in the sun it‟s a sinuous velvety
     black, and when it‟s soaked with water it glistens like a seal on the
rocks – in the miracle fibre Vyrene.” – British Vogue 1965.
1980      Prints were bold, huge dots, large geometric shapes, black and white or very bright colours.
- Printing on nylon jersey was now of a very high standard and new dyes with new fixers permeated the fibre
     so deeply that the print remained bold when stretched.
1980 to present
- 1980s perfect gym-toned bodies of the “me-generation” further influenced the shrinking of the bathing suit
     with even higher cut sides and the buttock-exposing thong.
- 1990s the swimsuits remain tiny but an awareness of skin cancer through media advertising and cancer
     council have influenced covering up on the beaches especially of children – rash vests and suits, board
     shorts with bikini
- in the field of sport research has been developing fast suits such as those worn by Ian Thorpe, in order to
     imitate shark skin for increased speed when racing.
Technological developments influencing swimwear:
1938 – First nylon produced. It achieved success due to its fineness, lustre, durability, quick drying, easy care
properties (no ironing) and lightweight nature.
1947 – Texturised nylon = stretch. Lightweight, more stretch. Usually knitted and fewer sizes needed for
textured stretch to fit everybody.
1958 – Elastomeric fibre; Lycra. Excellent elasticity/resilience. Core spun yarns used in clothing, swimwear, and
underwear. (Usually 85% nylon, 15% lycra for swimwear) Close fitting, figure hugging garments, less drag,
resistant to acids, alkalis, perspiration and sunlight.
Elastic first appeared on the market at the beginning of WWII and caused a revolution in swimwear comfort. The
chemical company Du Pont developed Lycra – an elastic fabric made from polyamide and elastane. After 30
years it is now resistant to salt water, chlorine, and sunlight. It can be dyed any colour and a swimsuit made of
lycra weighs only 100g dry. In the twenties a swimsuit would weigh 360g dry and 3.6g wet.
Raschel - warp knits:
Power net – an elasticized fabric used for swimwear and foundation garments. Nylon is used for the two bar
construction, lycra is laid in by two other guide bars.
Produces a firm, yet stretchy, figure hugging fabric.
Synthetic dyes:
1922 – disperse dyes.
1955 – reactive dyes.
More variety and brighter colours.
Printing methods:
Transfer printing, digital heat imaging, screen printing.
Clearer images, more variety in designs.

Fabric decoration
  principles of applying colour to fabrics, yarns and fibres
Basic dyeing process
1. Immersing the textiles into the dye bath – i.e. the fibre/yarn/fabric or garment s placed into a solution of dye
and a liquid (water or other liquid such as acid). This helps the fibre to swell and allows the dye molecule to
enter the fibre
2. The migration of the dye to the surface or the textile – the dye molecules which are within the liquid begin to
move towards the textile. They first reach the surface and if the textile has been prepared properly, then will
continue their journey into the fibre (absorption). If the textile is not properly prepared or the dye is unsuitable
for the fibre, then the molecules will sit on the surface, and not penetrate within (adsorption). When these
fabrics are washed, the dye will run straight out and the process will have been a waste
3. Location of the dye within the fibre – from the surface the dye molecules move into the fibre. If the fibres
are swollen sufficiently (through the use of liquid and heat) then this process will be easy and reasonably fast.
Once inside the fibre, the dye attaches itself chemically to the polymers. If there is a high level of attraction
between the dye and the fibre then the textile article will have a very good wash and light fastness. If the level of
attraction between the dye and textile is poor, then the wash and light fastness will also be poor.
4. Fixing the dye to the fibre – fabric is steamed or heated

This is a principle used to fix dye colour to the fabric.

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Experiment – Using natural onion dye on two samples of the same cotton fabric. One sample was dyed with a
mordant (alum/cream of tartar) in the bath, the other was not. Once the samples had been dyed they were washed
to see whether the mordant really made a difference in wash fastness. The results were conclusive: the mordant
dyed sample retained a rich, browny colour, whereas the other faded to a very pale brown. This experiment
clearly shows that mordants are an important factor when dyeing cellulosic and regenerated cellulosic fibres.
Dyeing fibres
Fibre dyeing --> 1. Mass pigmentation - adding coloured pigments or dyes to the spinning solution (each fibre is
coloured as it is spun)
Methods include stock dyeing, dope dyeing, top dyeing.
Stock Dyeing refers to dyeing of fibre, or stock before it is spun into a yarn. This is done by putting loose,
unspun fibres into large vats containing the dye solutions, which are then heated to the proper temperature.
Cost is high as level of production is low.
Results in excellent penetration of dye and evenness of colour
Decision as to final colour has to be made in early stages
Mostly done in woolen materials when heather-like colour effects are desired.
Dyeing yarns
Yarn dyeing--> less costly than fibre dyeing, because the processes are more productive.. Each yarn is coloured
before woven or knitted. Permits excellent penetration and great clarity of colour. Include skein, package or
beam dyeing.
Beam dyeing is a larger version of package dyeing. An entire warp beam is wound onto a perforated cylinder,
which is then placed in the beam dyeing machine where the flow of the dye bath alternates from the centre to the
outside then the outside to the centre. Most economical method.
                   B.        Dyeing fabrics
Piece dyeing --> a role of fabric is dyed producing solid colour fabrics, costs less to dye – includes winch, jig,
pad, jet, beam, foam, and vacuum impregnation dyeing.
Jig dyeing – fabric is rolled back and forth through the dye every 20 mins until dye is taken up and repeated until
correct shade is reached. Fabric is dyed in open width therefor large runs can be dyed. This method does not
crease and can be suitable for carpet, some satins and some twills, rayon and nylon. Fabric is stretched over 2
rollers making it suitable for only close weaves and helps force the dye liquor between the fibres.
Product dyeing --> fabric is cut and sewn into finished product then dyed in something like a paddle machine
where garments are placed in bags and move through the dye by paddles.
Dyeing Blends  cross dyeing and union dyeing methods where different types of dye are used in the same

 Dye types
Reactive Dye (primarily used on cotton) – Dye is dissolved in water. An electrolyte (salt) is added to exhaust
dye onto the fibres. An alkali (sodium hydroxide) is added to help the dye molecules react with the groups on the
cellulose molecule and form a strong covalent bond with them (dye molecule and –OH groups on cellulose

Disperse Dye (used on polyester) – Dye molecules are dispersed through dye bath with the help of detergents.
Dye liquor is heated causing fibre to swell and dye to penetrate – dye is held by hydrogen bonds and van der
waals forces. Organic compuonds known as carriers are added so dark shades can be produced. Pressure vessels
which reach temperatures of 130C are used to force the polymers open.

Principles of printing
1. Print paste applied to raised surface area of a printing tool
2. Applied to fabric
3. Steamed to fix the dye – steam swells the fibres allowing dye to penetrate
4. Fabric washed to remove non-fixed colour/residual chemicals etc
 - Water is used to dissolve dye into a paste and disperse dye molecule and a thickener (eg natural gums) is used
to give the correct consistency and help bleeding or migration.

Types of printing
Rotary screen, stencil, screen, batik, block, ikat, transfer, digital inkjet – that‟s enough we know how to do some
of them.

Process of digital imaging and dye sublimation
Digital Printing
Digital printing is any image that can be realised on a computer screen whether originated by CAD, in-put from
a digital camera or scanner from photographs or original artwork can be printed. Digital printing is generally
used on short lengths for samples, banners, and photographic exhibitions, reproduction of historical prints or

                                          Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

     artworks. All fabric are pre-treated and then steamed and washed to set the dyes. Printing is charged per metre,
     and although any image can be printed, engineered designs are cheaper than all other designs to reproduce.
     Digital textile printing can be carried out on any natural woven fabric (cotton, wool, silk, linen, viscose), and
     more recently polyester.

     The main advantages of digital textile printing are:
o            It enables rapid prototyping without the need for sampling prcess
o            There is no need for colour separatons
o            It is ideal for low volume, high value products
o            Printing can occur on demand, hence reducing the cost of carrying stock
o            No start up costs

     Ink jet technology is used in digital printing, reactive dyes are used for natural fibres, and disperse dyes are used
     for polyester. Artworks that are to be printed must be at least 254 dots per inch (dpi).

     The steps for pre-treating and processing with reactive dyes:
o            The fabric is coated with a carrier paste to help fix the dyes
o            The fabric is steamed to open the fibres and allow the dye molecules to penetrate the fibre.
o            The fabric is washed to remove the coating and any excess dye
o            The fabric is then pressed to finish.

     The steps for pre-treating and processing with disperse dyes
o             Where the dyes are printed onto transfer paper, then pressed to sublimate (extract) the dyes onto the
     fabric where they are fixed during the pressing process and the colour develops.
o             The fabric can also be steamed in a similar process to fixing reactive dyes.
     Dyeing                                                    Printing
     Provides a wide range of colours                          A greater scope for designs
     The colour penetrates through to reverse side             More range for colours and patterns
     Wash and light fastness varies according to dye and Complicated designs can be produced
     fibre type
                                                               Many varied methods used
                                                               Cheaper than dyeing
                                                               Tend to be more suitable for a greater range of fibres
                                                               Only printed side shows the design clearly

       methods of fabric decoration, including printing, dyeing, applique and embroidery
     Calico, Stencil either purchased or designed on thick paper or stencil film and cut out, stencil brush, fabric paint,
     masking tape.
1.        Tape fabric to table and tape stencil to fabric to avoid slipping or movement
2.        Apply a small amount of paint to brush and remove some of it by rubbing it on a scrap or newspaper
3.        To stencil the design, use brush and dab it into the surface until design is covered
4.        Remove stencil and leave to dry
5.        Once dry, iron to seal the paint into the fabric
     Stencil printing can be used on a variety of items. There are many different stencils available and you can design
     your own so it is a creative and personalised technique. It adds colour and interest to napery, upholstery and
     clothes as well as a range of artistic textile pieces.
     If too much paint is applied the design may bleed and ruin the design, be sure there is only just enough paint on
     brush otherwise this may happen.

     Frying pan, wax stamps, ruber gloves, flat bottomed bowl, knife, bucket, clothes rack and pegs.

                                         Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

     Wax, pre-washed lawn, dylon cold water dye, salt
1.            Heat wax in frying pan until there in at inch or so of melted wax in the bottom.
2.            Keeping wax hot, dip wax stamps into the wax and then press onto pre washed lawn, in required design
3.            Put on rubber gloves
4.            fill bowl with water
5.            Pierce tin with knife and mix with 500ml of hot water in bucket until dissolved, then add to dye bowl
6.            Dissolve 150 grams of salt and 1 sachet of Dylon cold fix in hottest tap water in bucket, then add to dye
7.            Put in Batik sample unfolded, and dye for one hour, agitating for the first 10 mins, and lifting out of dye
     to prevent folds forming. Repeat stirring at brisk intervals for the remaining time.
8.            Rinse fabric in cold water until the water runs clear.
9.            Hang on clothes rack with pegs to dry
     Batik is used to develop creative and interesting designs on fabric before they are manufactured into their
     respective textiles items. Batik can be used for clothing, accessories, haberdashery and costuming to produce
     bright and vibrant dyed designs.
     Limitations of Batik are mostly involved with the application of the wax. If there is too much wax on the stamp,
     the stamp may drip or bleed on the fabric causing an undesired pattern. If there is not enough wax on the stamp,
     then the wax won‟t fully penetrate the fabric, and once dyed, the fabric won‟t retain the desired design.

     Sewing machine, bobbin, bobbin case
     Cotton thread, patterned material, calico, vliesofix, paper, pencil, scissors, iron
1.            Draw and cut desired design out of paper to use as a template.
2.            Using template, cut design out of patterned material and vliesofix.
3.            Iron material and vliesofix, so that they are joined, and then iron the material to the backing calico.
4.            Thread machine, and set to desired width zigzag setting.
5.            Neatly stitch around the perimeter of the design.
6.            Draw threads to the wrong side of the fabric and secure.
     Fused appliqué is a quick and easy decorative technique used to create interest and focal points in textiles items.
     Appliqué is often used for clothing, and children‟s toys and books.
     Fused appliqué works best with medium weight fabric, and it is limited in its use with sheer fabric as they aren‟t
     sturdy enough, and thick fabrics become too bulky, and difficult to sew. Another limitation is that the chosen
     fabric must be able to withstand ironing, and heat.

     Embroidery hoop/
     Embroidery needle, embroidery cotton, embroidery scissors, fabric
1.             Cut fabric to desired size.
2.             Place and secure fabric in embroidery hoop.
3.             Tie a small knot at the end of embroidery cotton, to secure on the wrong side of the fabric.
4.             When stitching, make sure the tail of the knot is caught by stitched on the wrong side, to keep to back of
     the design neat, to avoid getting knots.
5.             There are unlimited patterns, designs, and stitches that can be sewn, from the traditional and established
     stitches, and those that you invent yourself. Some of the well known stitches are stem stitch, herringbone stitch,
     long and short stitch, satin stitch, back stitch, blanket stitch, and chain stitch.
     Hand embroidery is used to create original and individualised designs to embellish all sorts of textile items. It
     can be used on nearly all fabrics, and there are un unlimited number of techniques and stitches that can be used
     on clothing, accessories, and haberdashery.

                                         Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

     Hand embroidery is time consuming and delicate. Due to this, mass production is limited, and it requires a lot of
     concentration. Steady hands are necessary, and the wrong side of the fabric must be neat to avoid causing knots.
     Identical designs are difficult to produce.

     Bernina computerised sewing machine and hoop, Bernina Artista computer program, computer, bobbin, bobbin
     Different coloured cotton threads pending on design, calico, “stitch and tear”
     Bernina Artista instruction manual
1.        Use computer program and select a design or create your own
2.        Thread machine with thread of desired colour
3.        Cut calico and stitch and tear to a square slightly larger than hoop size
4.        Put calico and stitch and tear into hoop and tighten
5.        Attach hoop to machine
6.        Send design from computer to machine
7.        Start the machine and following the machines prompts trim backstitch thread and change colour.
8.        When design is completed remove from machine and hoop, cut joining threads with embroidery scissors
9.        Remove stitch and tear if desired
     Computerised machine embroidery is a new technology, which allows for the decoration of a range of fabric and
     designs to provide a neat and professional design. Computerised machine embroidery can produce an unlimited
     number of designs and allows for creativity and personalisation of designs. It is often neater to use a
     computerised sewing machine than free motion or hand embroidery.
     Tension often causes a problem with computerised machine embroidery when using sheer fabric or metallic
     threads. It may take a few practices to achieve the correct tension. Occasionally the thread reel comes off the
     machines and needs to be put back in place. These few limitations are easily dealt with and this technique is a
     helpful and nice technique.

     Influence of culture on design
      textile production and textile art forms
     1. Stitched Shibori, 2. Bound Shibori, 3. Aizome, 4. Yuzen.

     1. Stitched Shibori – stitching as a way of resisting the dye.
     Unique effects obtained with Shibori are created by the type of stitch, whether or not the cloth is folded, and the
     arrangement of the stitches. After stitching the piece is complete, the cloth is drawn into tight gathers along the
     stitched threads and secured by knotting. It is then dyed. The cloth between the gathers is largely protected from
     the dye.
     Mokume Shibori: a single line of running stitches made in a single layer of cloth results in a broken line of
     resisted marks. This creates a textual effect known as wood grain or mokume.

     2. Bound Shibori – designs are created by drawing up portions of cloth and binding each shape with thread.
     The nature of the binding process limits itself to circular patterns.
     Ne-maki Shibori: resisted ring motifs created by close wound binding. Literally translated ne-maki means base-
     wound shibori.
     Kanoko Shibori: Tiny resisted units. Results in tiny dots as well as a crimped effect of binding the silk so tightly
     when dyed. Use of silk is favored for all types of kanoko because of its natural tendency to retain after it is dry,
     the sharp creases made when wet.

     3. Aizome –Indigo dying. Indigo dying techniques include tie dying and paste-resist dying. Cotton was
     introduced into Japan in the 15thC and is very suitable for indigo dying. Indigo can be produced in a wide
     variety of shades from very pale blue to almost black. The colour can be controlled by the strength of the dyed,
     and the number of times the fabric is dipped into the dye.
     Yukata fabric is dyed with indigo. This fabric is made into summer kimono. The patterns on Yukata are
     achieved by applying paste to both sides of the fabric through a stencil (yuzen dying). Finished Yukata motifs
     are in blue and white and include dots, checks, birds, flowers, landscapes and komon designs (ie. small all-over
     designs). Today, yukata fabrics are used for summer garments. Heavier fabrics can be yukata dyed – they are
     used for farmer‟s clothes curtains, quilt covers.

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

4. Yuzen – multicoloured paste-resist dying
Yuzen developed around 1700 in the Edo period. The Edo period was a time of creativity and local governments
encouraged product development and industries. This was a period of flamboyance in dress. The dying
technique of yuzen was developed by a fan painter names Miyazaki Yuzensai. Fine white lines that outline
colourful pictorial designs are characteristic of yuzen dyed fabrics.
Designs and colours vary from place to place. Kyoto - aristocratic designs and bright colours. In Tokyo Edo
yuzen is more flamboyant and bolder in designs and colour; they often reflect the world of theatre and daily life
objects (eg. fish, vegetables, festivals and dancing). Yuzen is often combined with other decorative techniques.
Designs are often symbolic motifs used to reflect special occasion, season, social class or age.
There are two basic types:
Free hand paste drawing yuzen
A small version of the design is put on paper
The design is drawn in an enlarged size on the kimono silk. This is done with blue aobana liquid (an extract
from the spiderwort plant)
For most of the yuzen process the silk is stretched on pliable bamboo rods called shinshi. This helps the
craftsmen to draw the design and brush-dye the fabric.
A thin consistency of sticky rice-paste resist is drawn on the blue aobana lines using a waterproof paper tube
with a metal tip. The rice-paste acts as a resist. The soyabean extract helps prevent dye running outside design
areas. It also assists dye absorption by the silk.
Water is brushed over the area to be painted to help the dye spread evenly
Dye is then applied with a small flat brush
The silk is then steamed to set the dye. It is then rinsed to remove the paste. Thin white lines remain where the
paste has been removed. These white lines outline the colourful designs.
Before dying the background, a coat of paste is placed over the design. The background dye is then brushed
onto the fabric. After dyeing, the fabric is steamed and then washed to remove the resist paste. The fabric is
then stretched over bamboo rods to dry.
Yuzen dyed fabric consists of delicate white lines that outline the colourful motifs and design pictures.
The fabric is then stitched onto a kimono
Stencil yuzen
A more modern method
A dye-infused paste is used. This is spread over the cloth through stencils
After dyeing the fabric is steamed and the paste is removed. Dye remains in the fabric where there was no resist
 textiles as a medium for self-expression and communication between people
Colour combinations are important, certain colours are used to represent the season. Designs also reflect
seasons, and the main colours used are red, white, indigo, and blue. The Japanese believe that people should be
one with nature and their designs were influenced by designs from nature. Symbols used were cranes (unity),
dragon (strength), mandarin duck (marital fidelity), tortoise (longevity), shrimp (bounty of the sea), bamboo/pine
(endurance), plum (hope), cherry tree (symbol for samurai warriors and readiness to give life instantly), fern
(wish for prosperity). The Shinto religion influenced textiles and the kimono was hence decorated with seasonal
natural pictures. Shinto is a mixture of ancestor and nature worship. Religions in Japan include; Shintoism,
Buddhism and Christianity. For new years festivals people dress in fine kimono and for Setsuban people wear
brightly coloured kimono to drive out evil spirits and bring in good ones. For weddings they have elaborate,
colourful furisode kimonos over pastel kimonos with a tasselled fan tucked into the obi. For funerals a kimono
is worn with a family crest worn with a wide obi.
     o     Hierarchical court rank system used colour to communicate rank. There were 6 colours and the
           highest two levels were white (righteous) and black (wisdom).
     o     Status was equated with size – bulk was created by multilayered clothing to communicate status.
     o     Large sleeves were a sign of affluence because only rich people could afford extra material.
     o     Family crests were used on belongings to express individuality
     o     Different ways of tying the obi to communicate the wearers age and status.
     o     Furisode worn by unmarried girls.
     o     Obijime was a special way of tying the obi which expressed the mood required for an occasion.
           Different ways for special, ordinary and sad occasions.
 effects of the culture on textile design in contemporary society
  Miyake Issei. Known abroad under his label name of Issey Miyake. Born in Hiroshima, Miyake is known for
his unconventional designs and reinterpretations of traditional textile designs in various modern materials. He
creates these fabrics together with his assistant Minagawa Makiko.
  John Marshall is an internationally known textile artist working with techniques of paste resist dyeing. He
produces a wide range of sophisticated and colorful designs, many of which show the influence of his years of
study in the Orient (particularly Japan).

                                     Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

  Today, it is common to see an obi used for interior design as a table runner, cut to desired lengths and used for
cushion covers and wall hangings.
  Shashiko is a form of Japanese quilting which is still used today for quilt covers, wall hangings and cushions.
  Furoshiki is a square wrapping of cloth which gifts or objects are placed in and the diagonal corners of the cloth
are knotted in the middle to form a handle. Can be used in contemporary society as table centre pieces, table
cloths, placemats, cushion covers, etc.
  Wrap around tops or dresses are currently in fashion. While the waist tie might be significantly smaller than the
obi, the wrap around design has been inspired by the kimono.
  The very common dressing gown is kimono inspired.
  Cherry blossom decorations were commonly used by the Japanese and can now be seen in contemporary
society with designers such as Akira Isogawa.
 external factors that have influenced textile design
Communication and Trade – In the past Japan was influenced by neighbouring countries and traded with China
and Korea. Silk, brocades, fabric decoration technique, and multi-layering of clothing came from China.
Buddhism was introduced by Korea, and the Portuguese brought velvet, wool and printed cottons from India.
Today there is increased technology and industrialisation. Television), Sashiko and Kogin (quilting), and
Weaving techniques. Colour combinations are important; certain colours are used to represent the season.
Designs also reflect seasons, and the main colours used are red, white, indigo, and blue. The Japanese believe e
of communication and travel – populations which were originally isolated from one another, are now more than
ever exposed to a variety of influences from cultures all over the world. Communication through a diverse range
of media reveals new ideas and travel allows people to encounter the arts of other cultures.
Ecological issues – Examples of ecological and conservation concerns include increasing consumer preference
for natural fibred textiles and protects against use of animal furs and synthetics, concern for the retention of
textile arts by various cultures. They also include the appreciation of skills of various racial and ethnic groups in
the community, recycling of previously worn clothing, frequent displays of textile art forms in museums, and use
of authentic textiles for display in historical houses. Government assistance – laws are established regarding
quality and marketing of textiles. Advertising has been instigated to encourage Australian made products.
Tariffs are imposed on imports
 cultural influences, including geographic location, technological development, resources available, religious
      practices, workers‟ skills and status
Geography – situated off the pacific coast of the Asian continent Japan consists of 4 main islands Hokkaido,
Honshu, Shikoku, and Dyushu. It is located near China and Korea and both of these countries have influenced
clothing, textiles designs, weaving and fabric decoration techniques. It is believed that the Kimono evolved from
Chinese coats around 300BC-300AD, and that multi-layering in Japanese clothing evolved from the Chinese
tradition of multi-layering. The Climate influences the clothing (e.g. the Yukata is an unlined summer kimono,
and winter kimonos are lined and padded, multi-layering also achieves warmth.). The landform of Japan has
been a source of inspiration for many designs. The Japanese have respect for nature and designs often reflect
Resources – in the past natural fibres were used (hemp, ramie), the Japanese spun and wove silk, natural dyes
were used, and vegetable dyes were combined with mordants such as iron, plum vinegar and alum. These
mordants were used to fix the colour on the fabric and control the colours produced. Today some natural
resources have been replaced with synthetics. Chemical dyes are used because they give brighter colours.
Synthetic fibres are used and are sometimes blended with natural fibres. Silk is cultivated for the use of textiles.
Japan has a variety of different resources but they are limited in quantity and quality and consequently do not
supply the countries needs. Japan imports cotton and wool, raw material such as cotton, flax and wool are
imported due to improvements in transportation and foreign trade. Manufacture of silks is expensive and it is
Technological advancement – today Japan is one of the greatest industrial powers and has a high degree of
technological advancement. Prices of goods are competitive and high as the Japanese expect high standards and
subsequently this helps the exportation of goods. There is government support of research and development of
new ideas. Television, computers, the Internet, and fashion magazines have great influence on fabric decoration
techniques and fashion. Natural dyes are being replaced by synthetic designs (brighter colours and more
variation), natural fibres are being replaced by synthetic fibres (they can imitate natural fibres), work previously
done by hand (hand embroidery) can be done by machine (machine embroidery). Stencil printing is also being
replaced by silk screen printing. Japan is one of the major manufacturers of microchips.
Traditions/beliefs/customs – Shibori (tie dying), Yuzen (multi-coloured paste-resist dying), Katazome (stencil
printing), Tsutsugaki (free hand paste-resist dying), Shishu (embroidery), Ainu (applique and embroidery),
Sashiko and Kogin (quilting), and Weaving techniques. Colour combinations are important, certain colours are
used to represent the season. Designs also reflect seasons, and the main colours used are red, white, indigo, and
blue. The Japanese believe that people should be one with nature and their designs were influenced by designs
from nature. Symbols used were cranes (unity), dragon (strength), mandarin duck (marital fidelity), tortoise
(longevity), shrimp (bounty of the sea), bamboo/pine (endurance), plum (hope), cherry tree (symbol for samurai

                                        Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

    warriors and readiness to give life instantly), fern (wish for prosperity). The Shinto religion influenced textiles
    and the kimono was hence decorated with seasonal natural pictures. Shinto is a mixture of ancestor and nature
    worship. Religions in Japan include; Shintoism, Buddhism and Christianity. For new years festivals people
    dress in fine kimono and for Setsuban people wear brightly coloured kimono to drive out evil spirits and bring in
    good ones. For weddings they have elaborate, colourful furisode kimonos over pastel kimonos with a tasselled
    fan tucked into the obi. For funerals a kimono is worn with a family crest worn with a wide obi.
    Skills of the textile worker – Japanese value textiles in the past complicates and elaborate techniques were used
    to decorate kimonos. Because designs were symbolic and an expression of the Japanese way of life, the textile
    worker needed an understanding and feeling for the designs. Today, much of the traditional manual weaving and
    fabric decoration techniques have been replaced with new technology. Even though workers much be trained in
    this technology it does not require the skill of traditional techniques. The government does support the textile
    industry and consequently there are some craftsmen that still carry out traditional techniques.

    Contemporary designers
     factors that determine the success or failure of designers:
         – external factors, including economic, political, social, ecological and technological
    a) Economic
             General economy will influence the designer
             Currency value important economic influence to trade and expanding international markets
             Export market strong – international buyers gain a financial advantage with currency that performs well
    against the low Australian Dollar.
             The Australian Fashion Week allowed designers to showcase their work. Buyers attending the shows
    extended the potential for export sales immensely.
             Low dollar – advantage for export markets, designers wanting to import materials will find they are
    very expensive
             Introduction of GST affect designers and their products as they will be more expensive for consumers
    and all the materials used and services used in their production.
    b) Political
             Political climate can affect designers
             Relationships between countries can affect exports, imports, production rates etc.
             Trade agreements between countries can affect designers – designers can profit from trade ties through
    increased jobs and spending power of consumers.
             Changing government can mean a great attitude change and a reallocation of funding
             Governments that value the protection the textiles industry impose tariffs on imported goods and give
    financial assistance to manufacturers and researchers.
             A favourable political climate can enhance and strengthen the industry and offer designers a greater
    sense of security in attempting to address more challenging markets.
    c) Social
             Designers respond to social trends and the attitude of groups within society e.g. mambo produces a surf
    wear range that comments on society through the artwork on its t-shirts.
             The arts can influence the design – movies, music, celebrities, religion, and sport e.g. sports girl used
    young female pop-stars (Bardot, Britters) to advertise their range of dirty denim in 2000.
             Australian society has embraced the contributions of other cultures. Interior and apparel designs reflect
    global cultural influences.
    d) Ecological
             Demand by consumers for ecologically friendly products, so therefore designers need to be aware of
    these demands.
             Products like recycled clothing, environmentally friendly fibres, dye techniques etc. can all influence
    the image the designer wishes to portray. (The anti-fur lobby is a prime example of ecological influence.)
             Stringybark designers are a good example of environmentally friendly designers. They use dyes that
    are environmentally friendly, their designs are based on the environment, and they use natural fibres.
    e) Technological
             With huge fibre development, yarn and fabric production, dyeing, and manufacturing developing
    rapidly, the designer must be aware of how these advances affect their products.
             Not all technological advancements have a positive affect yet new developments could make an
    enormous difference to quality and price in a positive way.
             In the apparel industry, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacture (CAM) have
    greatly contributed to the speed at which a manufacturer can get garments into the marketplace. The CAD
    system allows for pattern development and grading of the patterns to different sizes and cutting layout
    simulation. The CAM system makes the planning happen with computer links between the design system and
    the cutting system. Multiple layers of fabric (up to 100) may be cut after the computer program has positioned
    the pattern pieces in the most cost effective, space saving way.

                                         Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

             Information on the processes involved in manufacturing a garment are not itemised on a database on the
    Gerber Garment Technology system. Costing of a new garment can be completed before final decisions are
    made whether to put into production or not. The garment data can be entered into the computer giving details of
    types of seaming techniques, fasteners, trims, lengths of seams etc. The time a garment will take to produce and
    the cost would then be calculated.
             Investing in new technology can be expensive; however savings in other areas such as time, wages, and
    material may be considerable enough to warrant the initial investment. Often this investment is essential to keep
    pace with other companies so that they are not left behind.
             In the area of printing there have been many developments that not only make the process quicker and
    easier to achieve but also broadens the range of possibilities. The multiple print separations necessary for a
    Mambo print is made easy through computer technology. The system will complete the colour separation and
    prepare the screen for each colour in the print.
             The Internet has made worldwide access easily available to any designer who wishes to have a website
    to showcase their designs for shopping online. This makes them a part of the global network that allows for
    expansion to suit their needs. Simulated shopping malls allow the shopper to select garments from a boutique,
    give details of size and colour, and even „try on‟ a range of garments together.
         – internal factors, including expertise, facilities and financial
    a) Expertise
             Designers usually posses an innate ability for creative design or a sense of „what people want‟.
    Designers are from quit diverse backgrounds and expertise.
             Some designer‟s expertise is targeting a special group through marketing and producing the types of
    product for that particular market. Textiles have been used for insulation, filtration, to enhance human
    circulation and provide environments for cultivating plants.
             The expertise of a designer may be in fibre technology, fabric production, creating furnishings,
    costumes or everyday wear. The training the designers undertake is diverse as the areas of textiles.
             A designer working for a company must be aware of the responsibility of meeting consumer‟s needs.
    Their employment would be as a result of the skills they can bring to the company.
             As the textile industry is so competitive designers need to keep on top of all innovations and
    technologies by reading trade journals, fashion magazines etc.
             Many fashion designers expertise reads as a signature of their creations. For example; Collette
    Dinnigan‟s expertise is in fabric selection for simple silhouettes.
    b) Facilities
             Facilities available to designers are important. The designer needs to ensure that working conditions
    are safe and that Workcover regulations are respected.
             With technology and computerisation making machinery more efficient to contract out manufacturing.
             Supre once had facilities to store 3 million dollars worth of fabric, six cutting tables and Eton garment
    production system, printing and dyeing premises and retail outlet, design rooms and administration all at their
    head office. When they hit financial difficulties they had to scale down their facilities. They no longer bought
    fabric is large quantities ahead of time, and started to use make and trim facilities.
    c) Financial
             To start a business a large input of capital is needed so that the business can function whilst establishing
    a name for itself e.g. wages, rent, materials, manufacturing costs, marketing fees are all necessary and they may
    need to be paid before the business starts making profit.
             Productions costs and overheads that need to be considered include wages, superannuation, workers
    compensation, holiday pay, updating of equipment, training costs, multi-skilling of workers and costs of
             Often creative people aren‟t good business people, so to overcome this, designers often work with a
    business partner. Consideration must be given to the time delay from the outlay for materials to the profit of the
    product. This affects the money flow. The shorter the timeline for production to sale, the better the cash flow.
             The Break even point (BEP) is the point at which the cost of development manufacture and promotion
    is met. No profit is made until this point is met. By spreading the cost over a large production run, the product
    will be priced more competitively, but f the demand is overestimated and doesn‟t sell there is the additional cost
    of the materials and manufacture of the products that didn‟t sell.
             A good understanding of the anticipate product life cycle is important in deciding the number of units
    produced and their respective price. A product that will be a short trend needs to be expensive as the market can
    tolerate to gain a return for the investment before the market collapses.
             Much of the financial factors have a close relationship to efficiencies of sale and the type of product
    being produced over a period of time.

     Investigation of Contemporary Designer.
    a) Internal/external factors contributing to success

                                 Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

The state of a countries economy will influence the success of a designer. In Australia the current
value of the Australian dollar affects imports and exports. A low value of the Australian dollar is a
benefit to Lenore Dembski’s business. Many of her customers are tourists from overseas keen to buy
authentic Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander textiles. A low value of the dollar means that prices are
low compared to the cost overseas. A low value of the dollar also is an advantage for her as she now
exports her clothing overseas. Overseas buyers gain a financial advantage with a currency that
performs well against a low Australian dollar.
Governments can assist designers by establishing grants and imposing tariffs on imported goods.
Lenore Dembski’s business has been helped by government initiatives. She has used Trade Start to
expand her business overseas. Trade Start is a national network of export assistance offices in
partnership between Austrade and a range of local private and public sector organisations throughout
Australia. Australia and Trade Start offer a package of free services designed to assist small –medium
sized Australian companies develop their business overseas and make their first export sale. The
program gives Australian businesses the best possible start to exporting, by providing a wide range of
free services to new exporters including advice and information about getting into exporting, export
coaching and assistance on the ground in foreign markets. The TCF Resource Centre of WA
promoted Paperbark Womenswear in The Australian Designer Showcase, and promotes Australian
designers at national and international showcase events over the next two years. Inn 201 Lenore’s
business was a National Finalist in the Small Business Category of the Prime Minister’s Community
and Business Partnership Awards.
Textile products reflect the trends within society. Today Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
designers are expressing their culture in a range of mediums including textiles and fashion. The
energy and imagination of Aboriginal design reveals a culture with a continuity that remains through
fickle changes of fashion. Designs reflect social status, and designers need to respond to current
social trends.
Designers should use environmentally friendly materials and processes where possible. Lenore used
fabric designed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders to produce her clothing. She uses mainly
natural fibres, cotton and silk. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander designers use traditional
methods of surface decoration including batik and screen printing.
Designers must be aware of technological developments if they are to succeed in the 21 C. There
have been many developments in fibre, yarn, fabric and finishing techniques. CAD is an important
part of the industry and the Internet has allowed designers to showcase their work to the world.
Although part of the appeal of Aboriginal designs is the absence of high-end technology and a focus
on hand-made products. Lenore has developed a website to promote clothing she has designed.
This web site gives an insight into the designer as well as promoting the products she designs. It
increases the market for her designs as anyone in the world can go to her website and shop online for
Lenore was born in Darwin and was taught to sew by her mother when she was about 8. She made
dolls and costumed, and began sewing for herself, her brothers and sisters. By the time she was 13
she had started designing, drafting, and sewing clothes for other people. Lenore learnt some formal
skills in sewing when she did sewing during her first year at high school. Between 15 and 18 she
modelled in a number of fashion parades and worked selling clothing materials and haberdashery for
Woolworths. By her mid teens she could knit, crochet, bead, and do tapestry, tatting, batik, tie dye,
macramé, appliqué, patchwork and many more. When she 19 she purchased her first (and current)
sewing machine and an overlocker. She attended short courses on appliqué and machine
embroidery, menswear, swim wear, lingerie and stretch materials. In 1982 she did a twelve hour
course on pattern drafting. She started her sewing business in 1979 when she moved to Adelaide.
She manufactured children’s clothes, women’s sports wear, and much more. When she returned to
Darwin in 1984 she sewed on a casual basis and did a small amount of children’s wear for several
outlets. In 1996 to coincide with Aboriginal fabrics to designers and the general public, Lenore started
to actively produce resort wear, and evening and glamour wear using Aboriginal Fabrics.
All businesses require sound financial backing if they are to succeed. All designers must have a good
understanding of a products life cycle to ensure they produce the correct quantity of an item and sell it

                                 Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

at a price consumers are prepared to pay. By outsourcing of subcontracting sewing Lenore keeps
priced competitive and maintains appropriate stock levels.
The facilities available to designers will vary from one-room operations using basic equipment to large
organisations outsourcing parts of the production process. The clothing she produces now is made
using fabric designed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander designs has inspired non-indigenous
designers to experiment with these fabrics and incorporate them into their own collections.
b) Target market
Lenore Dembski has been designing and manufacturing clothing for men, women and children for
over 30 years under three clothing labels: Lenore Dembski Paperbark Women, Oakman (menswear),
Aunty Lenore (children’s wear). Lenore mainly targets tourists as they are often keen to buy authentic
Aboriginal textiles.
c) Description of designs
Lenore Dembski Paperbark Woman has fabrics and scarves from a number of Northern Territory
Aboriginal communities. New stock is being received on a regular basis. Most of the textiles and
scarves have been decorated by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. There are also fabrics
that have been mass produced using designs by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. The base
materials in the textiles are made from various types of cloth including: cotton woven and stretch, poly-
cotton woven and stretch, synthetic stretch/lycra, silk and linen. The artists have used a number of
different ways to decorate the textiles - including single or combinations of the following: silk painting,
lino printing, screen printing, batik, tie-dye, stencil and hand painting. The mass produced textiles have
been manufactured under the artistic guidance of the particular artists.

e) Relationship between designer and current trends
Lenore Dembski’s success is a source of inspiration for many designers. Her success allows new
designers to realise they can also success with lots of time and hard work. Lenore’s use of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander designs has inspired non-indigenous designers to experiment with these
fabrics and incorporate them into their own collections. Designers who have used these fabrics: Linda
Jackson, Jenny Kee, Rebecca Paterson and Peter Morrissey.
 changing trends in society that influence:
Any designer must interpret their key looks from a whole range of information and adapt the for their
market – influences vary according to their job. The must analyse the major social, cultural and
technological changes impacting on a season and address the resulting changing needs and
behaviour of their company’s market.

-   Globalisation – increases consumer’s awareness of other fashions thereby increasing global
    competition and access to a wider range of products and styles.
- Greater media communication – exposure and access to wider range of ideas, styles and
    cultural influences through film, tv, interner, magazines etc – glabal catwalk trends can be
- Health and well-being – Fitness culture – breathable fabrics, UV protection – sunsafe fabrics.
- Technology – Smart textiles developments influence garments that are easier to care for, softer,
    computer prints, increased speed and quality.
- Ecology – global warming, pollution, erosion etc. have raised awareness of need to recycle, use
    innovative sources of fibre.
- Pressured life-styles – created need for easy wear and easy care products and less emphasis
    on formal suits with emphasis on smart casual.
- Androgyny – convergence of men’s and women’s styles reflected in cargo pants etc.
- Democratisation of fashion – growth of previously exclusive brands like gucci and prada into
- Single parent families – cheaper ranges of clothing, synthetic fabrics eg supre.
- Tertiary education – students on a budget – cheaper clothing.
- Sub cultures – specialised ‘looks’ eg surf or punk culture.
- Travel – clothing that is easy to pack and care for, lightweight.
- Arts and crafts – hobbies eg tye dyeing, sequins and beading, patchwork
                     - social influences of music, architecture, films eg Moulin rouge and stepford
wives , theatre and cult movements
- Nature – endless variety in colour, pattern and form
- Folk and historical costumes
- Concept – eg Donna Karen a conceptual designer who uses her lifestyle as a guide.
- Museum galleries and libraries – range of objects eg paintings, sculptures, animals

                                             Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

         Area of Study: Properties and Performance of Textiles
         End-use applications
          the influences of fabric, yarn and fibre properties and fabric finishes on the selection of textile end-uses in
              each of the focus areas: apparel, furnishings, costume, textile arts, non-apparel
         APPAREL  Man's Business Shirt
         35%cotton,, 65% polyester; crease resistant, good conductor, strong fibre blend, easy care, good resilience
         Plain weave; cost effective, strong, easy to work with
         Permanent press; cellulose fibres tend to crush and wrinkle during wear. Resins applied to fabric minimise
         wrinkling during wear.
         FURNISHING Lounge
         65% polyester, 35% cotton; very durable, strong, non-absorbent, fibre blend, hard and stiff handle
         Twill weave; most durable, closely woven (able to shed water)
         Anti-pilling finish; controlled by; increasing fibre strength and stiffness characteristics, tighter fabric
         construction, smoother fabric finish
         COSTUME  Tu-Tu
         Cotton/lycra blend; excellent elasticity in fibre blend, good durability and strength, good moisture absorbency
         (very comfortable as perspiration is quickly and readily absorbed).
         Plain weave; cheaper, durable, comfortable in hot weather
         Spot and stain-resistant finish; use of flurochemical finishes (e.g. Scotchguard). Sprayed and coats the surface
         to resist against oil and water-soluble stains
         TEXTILE ARTS  Wall Hanging
         Cotton; hard, stiff handle, strong, durable, good resistance to sunlight, good absorbency (easy to dye)
         Twill weave; most durable, good drape, less likely to wrinkle
         Flame retardant finish; resins applied to fabric, making it flame/fire resistant.
         NON-APPAREL  Tent
         65% polyester, 35% cotton; very strong, durable, not absorbent (hydrophobic), good insulators of heat, good
         sunlight resistance
         Twill weave; most durable, tightly/closely woven (able to shed water), dense, opaque
         Mildew or rot proofing; protection of moulds and bacteria growing on textiles (i.e. under conditions of
         moisture, high humidity, in contact will soil) by applying antiseptic agents or chemical modifications of cellulose
         Innovations and emerging textile technologies
             innovations and technological advances:
i)            in the use of textiles to enhance performance
     –         fibre, eg microfibre
         Microfibre – short for micordenier fibre which means the fibre measure less than one denier – one sixtieth of the
         thickness of a human hair.
             Made of - polyester, viscose, nylon, acrylic and polyester/polyamide (nylon) combinations.
             Made by – single component filaments extruded through very fine spinneret or spinning bi-component
         filaments and breaking them down. Finishing very often consists of both mechanical and chemical treatments.
              Clothing Advantages - Often blended with other fibres offering a soft buttery hand, superior drape and
              comfort never before available in man made fibres. They exhibit improved breathability and absorption.
              Fabrics composed of micro-denier yarns are exceptionally strong, durable and strong enough to withstand
              different types of finishing such as sending or sueding. Because they are generally made of polyester they
              are easy to care for and launder as well as being less prone to wrinkles. Colours are brighter as the yarns
              have more surface area due to the numerous filaments that make up each yarn. The fabrics are also more
              porous and breath better than other polyesters. Tightly woven structure lifts moisture to the outer face of the
              fabric but they are not so porous that they allow water to soak through. Softer – better drape and comfort.
          Cleaning - Are used as cleaning cloths because they are super strong but soft, have a vast surface area
              allowing greater contact with dirt and dust and pockets between the millions of fibres trap grime and make
              the cloth super-absorbant.
              Advantages – It can hold many times its own weight in water, lint free for effective polishing and static
              charge attracts dust  multi purpose. Environmentally friendly – no need for detergents, cleaning
              chemicals or polishes, no need to rinse (saves water), long life means it can be washed and used over again.
              Can be used on multiple surfaces – kitchen, glass, plastic, wood, ceramics etc.
              How this works – Electrostatically – thick terry (pile weave usually looped) cloth carries charge that will
              attract dust or
              Capillary or Absorption cleaning – wicking

         Innovation in Fibre – OPTIM™

                                     Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

OPTIM™ fibre treatment gives wool a silk like quality for extremely fine, soft and light weight fabrics. This
unique and technical development and innovation provides a revolutionary technology. The CSIRO Textile and
Fibre Technology unit has developed a treatment to modify or re-engineer wool at the fibre level. There are
three variations of this innovation:
     o OPTIM™
     o OPTIM Fine™
     o OPTIM Max™
Wool fibres treated with OPTIM™ have a silk like quality because the cross section of the fibre has been altered
to more closely resemble the rounded triangular shape of silk. Tops fibres resemble the fibres after carding and
combing have occurred, The effect of a finer, stronger fibre for yarn production makes it possible to produce
lightweight yarns that are soft but are strong and offer warmth when made into fabric. The diameter reduction of
OPTIM™ fibres is more precisely expressed as a change in linear density measurement, since the fibres are not
approximating circles in X-section anymore.
OPTIM Fine™ is a new generation of ultrafine wool fibres with a structure and physical properties that closely
resemble silk. This gives weavers the scope to create high quality, sophisticated, lightweight fabrics that are
super soft to handle. Fabrics made from OPTIM Fine™ fibres have a silk-like touch, fluid drape, distinctive
sheen and subtle lustre, plus all the natural performance benefits of wool.

X-rays show that the processed fibre is closer to silk in structure, while being stronger and finer than its parent
wool. A further benefit of the technology is that it can be used to produce a fibre that has the potential to provide
light, warm garments by inducing latent effects in the modified fibre.

Finer fibres make light-weight yarns possible in today‟s spinning environment, while the bending properties of
fine fibres provide the required softness. Not only is the linear density of fibres reduced, but the X-sectional
profile (below) and the surface lustre of the fibres is different as well.

The advanced equipment developed to produce OPTIM Fine™ fabrics uses twisted wool sliver which stretches a
19 micron wool fibre some 40-50%, making each fibre 3 to 3.5 micrometers significantly finer. The reduced
micron fibre is then chemically set in this finer form. The result is a fine, lustrous silky soft and strong fibre.

OPTIM Max™ is a unique fibre with latent retraction potential, designed to develop volume and bulk in wool
yarns. On blending with untreated Pure New Wool, the OPTIM Max™ fibre is then allowed to contract during
wet processing. This produces a revolutionary new Pure New Wool yarn that is less dense and has greater
covering power, and so is ideally suited to the manufacture of lightweight garments, particularly knitwear.

OPTIM Max™ fibres are produced from twisted wool sliver to give an average fibre extension of 20%-30%;
these are temporarily set. In blends with normal wool and when finished in hot water the OPTIM Max™ fibres
retract fully to their original length, giving a soft, lightweight bulky yarn and fabric structure. In lightweight
fabric production, OPTIM Max™ blended yarns take up more space, so less yarn is required per square metre
compared with the equivalent in regular Pure New Wool.

The OPTIM Max™ process of enhancement and modification creates retractive fibres for blending with Pure
New Wool. After spinning, the blended yarn undergoes a retraction that changes its characteristics, increasing
total volume by 30-40% to create pure wool bulky yarn.

CSIRO measured heat transfer values indicate that the bulky wool product has better insulating properties
compared to unmodified wool. This is associated with the increased volume of air trapped in the bulky yarn
assembly. With the 20% lighter product from the bulky wool yarn providing the same cover, the warmth to
weight analysis indicate garments would be significantly more comfortable than the conventional wool product.
Properties of OPTIM Fine ™
    o Are lustrous
    o Offer a distinctive sheen
    o Have a fluid drape
    o Feel like silk
    o Offer the usual properties of wool
Steps involved in making an OPTIM Fine™ fibre
    o Wool sliver is wrapped around fibres
    o Wool fibres are stretched by 40-50% to make the fibre finer
    o Fibre is chemically set
OPTIM Max™ is designed to develop volume and bulk in wool yarns. To achieve this, twisted wool slivers are
temporarily set with an average extension of 20-30%. The fibre is blended with regular wool then finished in hot

                                        Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

    water which causes the OPTIM Max™ fibres to retract. The result is a soft, bulky yarn that is lightweight.
    Yarns blended with OPTIM Max™ fibres offer better insulating properties because OPTIM Max™ fibres offer
    better insulating properties because more air is trapped in the arrangement of fibres.
    Advantages and disadvantages of the OPTIM™ range of innovations on the consumer, manufacturer, employee,
    and the environment,
    The advantages for the consumer of the OPTIM™ range would be lighter-weight fabrics with each offering
    special qualities. OPTIM Max ™ would offer a warmer end-product with less weight. OPTIM Fine™ would
    offer silk-like qualities but with the warmth of wool. The main disadvantage would be higher cost until the
    technology is more widely available.

    The advantage for the manufacturer would be the production of a new product and new opportunities for other
    uses. The disadvantage would be the cost of setting up additional equipment.

    The advantage to the employee is that the new technology may result in increased sales and therefore better job
    security. Also employees may develop a new set of production skills. The disadvantages could be changes to
    current work practices which may reduce job opportunities. This would depend on the employees set skills and
    ability to be retrained.

    The advantage for the environment is that the yarn is lightweight therefore transportation costs may be reduces,
    the disadvantage could be the impact of the chemicals used to set OPTIM Fine™ or the energy costs of using hot
    water for OPTIM Max™. If the water could be re-used this would be a positive
          – yarn, eg bicomponent
    Bicomponent  Fibre with two parts. Yarns consisting of fibres made from two polymers extruded
    Extruding two polymers from the same spinneret with both polymers contained within the same filament
    DuPont introduced the first commercial Bicomponent application in the mid 1960s - made from two nylon
    polymers which formed a highly coiled elastic fibre.
    Main objective; exploit the capabilities not existing in either polymer alone
    Possible to produce yarns of any cross sectional shape
    Bicomponent yarns are commonly classified by their cross-sectional view
    Main application; non-woven fabric for disposable nappies, feminine care products etc
    Air laid non-woven structures used for absorbent cones* in wet wipes, medical disposable textiles and in
    filtration products
     Types – side by side – both polymer solutions fed through spinneret together so they are side-by-side in the
    - sheath and core – polymer is completely surrounded by another polymer
    - Biconstituted fibres – fine fibrils of one polymeric substance are embedded in the matrix of another
    - Can be cut into staple lengths and spun into a yarn
–          fabric, eg washable webs
    Washable Webs  non-woven fabrics
    Non-woven webs are used for both durable and disposable items, including disposable nappies, blankets,
    industrial filters and tea-bag covers
    Textile structures produced by bonding or interlocking of fibre, or both, accomplished by mechanical, chemical
    or solvent means and combinations
    Made to be disposable after a single or limited number of uses e.g. disposable nappies, disposable towels, tea
    bag covers
    Some items are disposable not because of their durability, but because of their end-use e.g. medical gown, train
    Durable non-woven can be made for multi use, not manufactured to be thrown away after a single application
    e.g. types of blankets, carpet backings, cleaning cloths
    Vliesofix is an example of a washable web, used for applique, it is a fusible web that when ironed will bond
    two fabrics together. Also Chux cloth is a washable web, used as a household cleaning cloth.
     Two examples of Washable Webs and their structure
    Needle punching
    The fibre web is reinforced by a thin scrim in the middle or by texturised yarns distributed lengthwise through it.
    The web is continually punched by barbed needles. The fibres in the webs are caught up by the needle barbs,
    and the resulting increased entanglement yields a compact product sufficiently strong for many purposes. This
    is the most common example of mechanical bonding. Web consolidation is by means of the mechanical
    entanglement of groups of tufts of fibres rather than individual fibres.
    Through needle punching, the degree of interlaminate strength can be adjusted to allow isolated layers to move
    and elongate independently during molding. Other attributes of needle punching will enable the composite to

                                     Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

maintain its dimensionality during use and cleaning, and provide increased depth loading capacity. With
the addition of new fiber technology, low melt, and split able fibers to the fiber blend, it becomes clear that the
technology of needle punching will provide a bridging for today‟s products to meet future needs.
Examples of needle punched non-wovens include surgical dressings, carpet backings and they are also used to
reduce noise in the automotive industry.

Stitched through non-wovens (washable webs)
These are formed by stitching a web or wad of fibred to obtain a coherent structure. Arachne process is
commercially best and most developed manufacture – wad of fibres is passed through a specifically designed
warp knitting machine and as the was passes beneath the knitting needles of the machine a warp knit structure
is produced. Thus this method is regarded as a single warp knitted fabric with a fibrous web as a filling.
Used for outerwear, underwear and lining material. The picture of it looks like a wire fence with fuzzy bits
between the diamonds created by the wire if u can picture that.

Other methods include spun-lace bonding, melt blown, spun bonding, extruded nets and meshes.

ii) machinery to improve construction or save time, eg computer linked sewing machine
a) Explain how this technology works.
Computer-aided tailoring
Brooks Brothers, Madison Avenue, New York offer a digital tailoring service. The client changes into a pair of
grey boxer shorts and then stands in a cubicle where they are required to hold onto two handles and then squeeze
the on buttons.

Very bright lights flashed for about 10 seconds ... The lights were scanners, and they plotted 200 000
topographical points on my body. A software program translated the data into 45 tailoring measurements, (collar,
biceps, drop from side of neck to chest) all within a hundredth of an inch. Brooks Brothers transmits the
measurements, along with the customer's choices for fit, style and fabrics, to its suit factory outside Boston or its
shirt factory in North Carolina, where a made-to-order wardrobe is produced in two to three weeks (Colman,
2002: 11).
b) Explain how this technology has improved the manufacture of textiles
Traditional tailoring on the other hand can take months and a number of fittings. Fast, easy and accurate, causes
less embarrassment for the consumer. Computer-aided tailoring produces quality tailored garments, quickly,
effectively and with limited human resources.
c) Evaluate the impact of this machinery technology on both consumers and manufacturers.
Computer aided-tailoring benefits the consumer as they are able to access fast and easy tailoring services. The
cost of the machinery however will impact the consumer as prices of garments are likely to rise proportionately.
Manufacturers will not need tailors as employees as the machinery will take their place, and this limits jobs in
the industry. However the money saved from having fewer employees allows the manufacturer to spend more
money on quality fabrics and to improve machinery. Manufacturers that are unable to purchase this high cost
machinery are disadvantaged as they will be pushed out of the competitive market due to lack of recent

Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Design of fabric surface patterns
Computer controls the design, colour and repeat process
INPUT                                    TRANSFORMATION                         OUTPUT
A motif or design can be scanned The computer can make many Presentation boards giving a good
into the computer. Then ready to be different        repeats   and     colour idea of what fabric will look like on
altered.                                 combinations very quickly              a range of garments
Apply to any fabric
Virtual bodies to drape designs over
Speeds up entire design, manufacture and retail process
Allows designer to create motifs and repeating patterns that can be printed onto textiles
Complex designs in a short time
Variety of colour schemes, improvement in quality of design
Alterations made with the click of a button - quickly
Information can be stored - easily retrieved


                                       Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

     Cost - very expensive
     Requires training to use - complex instructions are needed can take time
     Subject to mechanical breakdown
     Loss of employment
     Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM)
     Parts of a product are manufactured by equipment that is controlled by a computer
     Time - machine can work continuously and quicker
     Cheaper… in the long run as less labour costs and more production
     Unlimited production - greater productivity
     Accuracy, greater consistency of quality (less human error)
     New instructions stored electronically, can be down-loaded and programmed very quickly; changes to designs
     to suit changes in market demand made easily
     Fewer faulty goods - more reliable
     Mechanical breakdowns
     Loss of employment
     Losing skilled workers
     Losing hand made value
     Only suitable for mass production

     Streamlines the creative design process by reducing development time and decreasing costs  electronically
     simulates design tools
     Changes made faster and easier
     Photos and fabric patterns can be scanned into the design
     Colour changes made quickly
     Accurate representation of designs
     Sample fabric runs printed off for client approval quickly and cheaply
     Process of design to marketing done quickly by one person
     Pattern layout done on screen
     Repetitive and time consuming tasks are done easily
     Pattern marking and grading is done in seconds
     More accurate patterns and markings  less errors
     Data easily entered, stored and retrieved
     Patterns quick and easy to open, view and modify
     Fabric wastage is minimal
     Increased speed in pattern development allows more rapid response to consumer demands
     Data can be sent overseas in seconds for offshore manufacture
     Modifications made easily errors quick to rectify
     Pattern pieces moved around to optimise fabric usage, determining best layout, which uses fabric most
     Systems are expensive to set up and therefore prohibitive for small businesses
     Patterns which require contour and drape often done more successfully by an experiences hand pattern maker
     plotters are integrated with marking and grading systems
     Plotters quickly print out pattern pieces and all pattern markings
     Easy to operate, requiring little technical skill
     Accurate printed pattern pieces - include details
     Information printed out continuously and automatically
     Pattern production
               -high speed

                                      Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

     Automatically cut out pattern pieces in multiple layers (approx 7cm)
     Fabric is compressed by a vacuum system; improves quality
     Sensor controlled knife cuts out fabric according to information in computer
     Very fast and accurate
     Fastest route for cutting is automatically determined
     Continuous cutting occurs
     Safe to use  diagnostic systems detect any faults automatically
     Energy is conserved
     Cutting of many layers of fabric at once is possible; improving quality and overall consumption of power
     Few operating staff is required which reduces the cost of garment manufacture
     iii)      decorative techniques to enhance design, eg digital imaging heat transfers
     HEAT TRANSFER - Heat and Pressure to transfer designs (from special paper to fabrics)
     CAD systems have improved transfer printing by contributing to:
     Higher productivity
     Improved quality
     More flexibility, precision and accuracy
     Many colours can be transferred simultaneously
     Complex prints using both hand generated and photographic images
     New inks and dyes which can be used on a variety of surfaces from natural to metallic fabrics
     Suitable for short runs of fabric
     Greatly reduces cost of setting up the transfers
     Produces excellent results within microfibres
     CAD weave software is used in weaving textiles by controlling warp/weft patterns
     Colour systems set up to enhance design of woven fabrics
     Designs scanned onto computer, fabric produced using a direct disk link with an Industrial Jacquard Loom
     Complex weave structures/complex designs
     Multiple layer cloths are possible with varying textures and surfaces
     Quicker - the computer speeds up the once lengthy process
     Freedom to create totally new fabrics
     Random weave effects programmed to produce interesting designs
     Gradual changes to fabric made easier
     Many possibilities tested quickly and easily
     Produces highly realistic simulations
     Saves time thus money too
     Progression from design to production is much more efficient
     human cost (loss of employment jobs)
     Environmental issues (disposing of chemicals, use of more power)
     CAD is used in the development of designs and application of designs onto garments.making embroidered
     textiles available to the mass market
     Created on screen or scanned into system. Embroidery then produced using a direct disk link with the
     embroidery sewing machine
     Complex images embroidered onto fabric with accuracy.quickly
     Design repetition is easy and accurate
     Cost is greatly reduced, time also reduced compared to hand-done
     Loss of value of embroidered textiles (historical/hand-made value)
     Losing individuality, originality, uniqueness
     Inkjet Dyeing – Textile Jet TX1600s (inkjet dye sublimation)
      A way of printing photo quality images or bright spot colours onto polyester materials
      Used on – any natural woven fabric and polyester.

                                         Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

         Process - Dye sublimation is a high resolution imaging technique. Special dyes are imaged electrostatically
          onto a transfer paper which is then, together with receiving material pressed under heat. The dyes turn into
          gasses which penetrate and dye the material with the final image. Prints in dots per inch – dpi.
         1. tiff image imported into software program and printed on transfer paper
         2. Ink is heated where it explodes into its true life and colour
         3. Print is transferred onto material with a flat press or roller press
         Technology – Mimaki printers, Reggiani Dream Machine
         Advantages – Fabric and clothing reflects high quality design in high resolution, vibrant colours. Accurate,
          intricate designs produced using 7 colour simultaneously. Short production time, quick response. Good for
          manufacturing sample production runs therefor requires less human resources and more profit. Offers
          quicker turnaround times. Can use reactive, acid, disperse dyes as well as pigment. Less waist as printer
          automatically stops when cartridge runs out. Unattended operation is possible. Fabric is washable, lightfast
          and colourfast.
         Disadvantages – High tech machinery has higher cost for both consumer and manufacturer.
         Uses – short lengths for samples, banners, flags, reproduction of historical prints or artwork, clothing,
          handbags, car seat covers, furnishings, upholstery

     Mechanical process - performed by a series of heated rollers
     Fabric is passed through universal rollers to iron the fabric, achieves smooth finish, slight sheen, irons out
     Used to achieve a number of effects
              -glazing creates waxy lustre, suitable on polished cottons
              -schreinering silky lustre, suitable for curtaining, evening wear
              -Moireing  create fabric surface similar to wood grain or water mark design used on evening wear
     and blouses
     BLEACHING For improving whiteness/enhance appearance
      Fabric, yarn or fibre is treated with a chemical which destroys the natural pigments
      Used on white business shirts etc

     BLOOMING For improving the appearance of cut pile fabrics
      Fabrics are treated by forcing steam through the back through to the front causing twist in yarn to slightly
        relax creating a wider, fluffier tuft.
      Brushes which rotate cause the pile to stand upright.

     DELUSTRING – you know it…titanium dioxide

     Used on fabrics made from thermoplastic synthetic fibres
     Fabric is heated 20-30C above ironing temp
     Internal fibre structure is rearranged
     Remains in that set position when cooled
     Permanent pleats and creases are heat set
     Used for hosiery
     Bonding of wool fibres with resin, fabric is then dried and cured under mild conditions
     Suitable for wool fabrics/fibres and wool blends only
     Improves abrasion resistance, handle, resistance to shrinkage in washing and dry cleaning, reduces haring and
     fuzzing of wool
     Suitable for blankets, garments and bedspreads etc
      LAMINATING to give stiffness and make waterproof
      Two different fabrics joined by adhesive
      Polyurethane applied to make aprons, tablecloths etc

     Suitable for cellulose fibres, particularly cotton

                                   Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Resin applied to fabric by impregnation following which the fabric is cured in an oven
Reduces tensile strength by up to 50%, tear strength and abrasion resistance. Minimises care needed
Minimum care finishes still require ironing following laundering

SHOWERPROOFING(eg scotchguard or fibre construction yarn count), waterproofing (film to fabric eg
rubber), sunlight resistance finishes (additives eg pigments that absorb more light), windproof (rubber, waxes,
resins), anti static (cationic agents, metal fibres, softeners), mothproofing (poisons larvae)

DURABLE PRESS for wrinkle resistance – easy care
 Resin solution is applied to fabric either before it is made into grament (precured process) or after
   (postcured process) Garment or resin is cured in the oven depending on process.

Used for cellulose especially cotton fibres, as they ignite easily and burn like paper. Also used for wool and
Ability of a textile to be resistant to fire combustion may block the flame of fuel to prevent further flame
propagation or produce a flame extinguishing gas.
Essential in public places. I.e. theatres, hospitals, aircraft, restaurant furnishings and children's wear
Proban system imparts durable flame retardant properties to cotton by producing an invisible polymer
(containing phosphorus and nitrogen) inside the cotton fibre.
When Proban comes in contact with flame, an insulating char is formed and there is no melting, smoldering or
after glow
Does not produce sticky residue
Protects wearer against burn injuries
Fabrics are non-toxic
Does not alter properties of the cotton fibre, thus it has excellent air conductivity and moisture absorbency
Proban treated cotton has no static electricity and therefore does not cling to the skin
Finish is not removed through laundering, lasts forever
Fire retardant finishes require a high amount of finish to be added to the fibre, adding considerably to the
weight of the textile. I.e. heavier weight products
Adds significantly to the cost of the item if it has been treated with Proban. More expensive product
Fire fighters uniforms
Work overalls
Racing drivers suits
Furnishings such as curtains
Children's wear

Flourochemical products used for imparting a stain repellency
Skotchguard is a finish applied by the pad-dry-cure process as a barrier for the fabric against water and oil
based products
Repels water and oil stains from clothes, carpets and furniture
Stains are resisted and easily removed
Effective even after cleaning, lasts the life of the textile item
Can be applied by the consumer - using a spray can
Prevents penetration into the fabric and restricts the spreading of liquid and greasy stains
Innovative finishes used to give easy-care benefits, enhance textile performance and provide added value
Skotchguard ingredients include fluorocarbons related to CFCs, which are now banned as ozone depletes
Known to damage the liver and produce defects in lab animals

                                      Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

a) Soil resistant
Soiling and stains can occur by
     o Deposit of dry soil from the air onto fabric
     o Redeposit of sol during laundering
     o Fabric coming in contact with the soil or staining substance
Scotch Guard
Water repellent fabrics are resistant to water borne stains for example, Scotch guard is a water repellent which
contains fluoro chemicals. It also makes the fabric more resistant to water borne stains. Fluorocarbons are not
hydrophilic or oleophilic (oil loving) – they have little attraction to oil and water molecules. Fluorocarbons are
used to a form a barrier against oil and water borne stains.

Silicone chemicals are effective for repelling water and water borne stains. However they do not repel oily

These finishes may be applied to the fabric during manufacture in a liquid or spray form, or they may be applied
after the construction of the article is completed. Aerosol spray containers can be purchased and applied to
fabrics at home but the finish wears off with use and laundering and needs to be reapplied. Oil repellent and stain
resistant finished are applied to articles which do not receive regular laundering for example, upholstery
coverings and carpets.
Du Pont developed the Stainmaster concept for carpets. It involves applying sulphonated phenolic reins which
have a high affinity for nylon. This resin resists food dyes. It works by providing an ionic barrier layer on the
surface of the fibre. This prevents charges acid dyes penetrating the fibre
Stainmaster® Carpet is made in Australia and the following are the steps involved in its construction.
                    C.        Bulked Continuous Filament (BCF)
 Continuous strands of nylon are formed into yarn. They are also texturised to increase their bulk and to change
from straight into kinked or curled fibre.
                    D.        Twist
 Each carpet fibre is wound around itself to make the carpet pile more resilient. The tighter the twist, the more the
carpet will resist crushing, matting and changes in texture.
                    E.        Heat Setting
 After the fibre is twisted, it is treated with heat to lock in the twist. The result: carpet fibres that won't easily
unravel or crush under heavy foot traffic.
                    F.        Tufting
 The heat-set fibre is fed through needles and then stitched or tufted into the primary carpet backing. The density
of a carpet is determined by how much yarn is used and how close the tufts are to one another.
                    G.        Dyeing
 The tufted carpet is saturated with liquid dye then treated with a fixation solution and dried.
                    H.        The Advanced Teflon® Repel System
 The dyed carpet is now saturated with an anti-stain treatment. Then it undergoes a fixation process and is dried
again. Next, the Advanced Teflon® Repel system is applied. The result is carpet that has the long lasting ability
to repel dirt and resist stains.
                    I.        Advanced Teflon® Repel System
Carpet fibre actually repels liquid spills. Rather than being absorbed, most spills bead up on
the carpet fibres allowing for easy cleanup.
Repelling action is the key to keeping carpet cleaner for longer.
Makes carpets easier to clean and increases vacuuming efficiency.
                    J.        Fibre Technology
Premium fibre guards against fibre loss usually caused by foot traffic over time.
The INVISTA nylon fibre in Stainmaster® Carpet ensures a beautiful appearance for years to
Sturdy nylon fibre retains colours longer.
BCF (Bulked Continuous Filament) eliminates carpet fuzzing and shedding.
                    K.        Anti-Static Technology
Stainmaster® Carpet contains carbon-filled fibre which act as miniature lightning rods
dissipating     the     static    charge     away      from     the     person     generating     it.

The anti-static technology is built into the carpet itself, so your family is protected for as long as
you have it.


                                     Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Teflon is a fluoro chemical finish that forms an invisible shield around each fibre to protect fabric against spills
and stains. There are two basic types of Teflon® fabric protection.
    1. Repellent
    2. Stain Release
Rain and Stain repellent products protect against rain, water based stains (coffee, tea, wine), oil based stains
(sauce, mustard, cooking oil), and dry soil.

Teflon® delivers a durable, long-lasting protection by forming a molecular shield around the fibres guarding
them from oil and water based stains, dust and soil. Undetectable by sight smell or touch, Teflon® protects
virtually all kinds of fabrics – whether it is wool, cotton, linen, velvet, or heavy wovens and can maintain all
colours. Teflon ® works on most fabrics. Teflon® is applied as the last step of the textile mill, usually via the
„pad‟ process, which means the fabric is immersed in a water bath containing Teflon®, the excess is squeezed
out then the fabric travels through an oven to dry and cure the finish. Teflon does not change the feel or
breathability of apparel.

Benefits of Teflon® include that no additional capital equipment is necessary. Teflon® is compatible with other
finishing agents such as softeners and wrinkle-free additives. Teflon is a durable permanent finish that will stand
up through repeated washings and save on emergency dry cleanings. Treated fabric stays clean longer without
losing its soft touch and bright colour.

Soil releasing stains
There are two types of soil releasing finishes;
     1. A substance is used to coat the surface of the fibres. This acts as a barrier by holding soil and stains on
          the surface of the fabric. The soil/stain does not penetrate the fibre and is easily washed off during
     2. Using a finish that will alter the characteristics that cause soil and fibres to bond together. E.g. polyester
          is hydrophobic, but it does attract fats, grease, oils and greasy soil. In other words polyester is
          oleophilic (oil-loving). Polyester also develops static electricity and attracts dust and dirt from the air.
          Because polyester is hydrophobic and grease and oils and insoluble, it is very difficult to remove greasy
          stains and oil from polyester during laundering with water.
     o Soil releasing/resistant finishes have been developed to make polyester more absorbent using
          hydrophilic grafts. This helps in laundering polyester and decreases its tendency to build up static

b) Fire retardant
Accidents can occur from garments catching alight. Therefore flame retardant finishes have been developed.
Fibres such as cotton linen and viscose readily ignite. Wool burns slowly in a flame but does no continue to
burn if removed. In the mid 70‟s legislation was introduced in Australia to label children‟s nightwear according
to their flammability.

Some man-made fibres have a fire-retardant chemical added to the spining solution. Others are inherently flame
retardant such as some acrylics (Cashmilon A83, Valzar), aramid fibres (Kevlar, Nomex), cholorfibres (Phovyl)
and some polyester fibres (Kodel).

Flame proofing on cotton can be achieved by the following;
    o Reducing the availability of air to the flame by chemicals which meld and coat the fibre when exposed
        to the flame. When air is prevented from getting to the textile and the flame extinguishes itself.
    o Breaking down the cotton to carbon and water. This produces a charred mass, and as carbon has a very
        low combustion it does not burn. The finish that achieved this result has a phosphorous base and would
        include Proban (THPC).
    o Conduction where the finish reduces the fabrics ignition temperature and thus the heat is merely
        conducted along the fabric but it does not actually burn, for example antimony compounds.
    o Releasing of gases that reduce flaming because the finish is burnt it breaks down. With its gases
        diluting the oxygen the flame itself is self-extinguished for example ammonium compounds.

Durable finishes are achieved by chemical modification of the fibres. Example – treating cotton with tetra
hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC). This chemical is impregnated into the fabric followed by drying
and curing.

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Temporary flame retardant finishes are not wash-fast. Example – immersing a fabric is a solution containing
borax and boric acid in the ratio 7:3.

Items which may require a flame retardant finish include theatres, hospitals, hotels, aircraft, multi-storied
buildings and for use by the elderly and juvenile.

Proban® is the leading flame retardant treatment for cotton and other cellulosic fibres. The Proban® system
imparts durable flame retardant properties to cotton by producing an invisible polymer containing phosphorous
and nitrogen, inside the cotton fibres. When flame comes into contact with Proban® treated cotton, an insulating
char is formed with no melting, smouldering or afterglow. Proban® cotton retains all the essential cotton factors
of untreated cotton such as air permeability and moisture transmission. Proban® treated fabrics do not build up
static electricity. These flame retardant properties will not be diminished for the wearer life of the garment
provided the correct care instructions are followed, Knitted Proban® cotton is the wearer friendly fabric and the
best in flame retardant systems for cellulosic fibres. After a 35 year history as the completely safe alternative,
Proban® has protected over 40 million people from injury and death by fire since its introduction and continues
to do so today.

When fire comes into contact with Proban treated cotton the material chars rather than burns immediately
insulating the wearer from the heat of the flame. It is lightweight, resembles denim and provides the best balance
between protection from heat while still allowing body heat to escape. The elements of phosphorous and
nitrogen are introduced to the cotton fibre in order to produce a Proban treated fibre. Proban treated cotton is
comfortable due to excellent air flow and moisture transmission. Proban does not react chemically in the cotton
fibre. This is why the properties of cotton are retained. Excessive soiling or soap deposits and chlorine bleach
will reduce Proban‟s effectiveness.

The advantages and disadvantages of Proban in the treatment of fabrics for firefighter and the environment
Fire fighters
      offers protection from flames
      provides protection without excessive discomfort
      non-toxic fumes.
      non-toxic fumes
     o     produced less combustion by-products than treated fabrics.

During treatment, the Proban® chemical is implanted deep inside the cotton fibres. It is then processed to form
an inert cross-linked polymer which is physically entrapped within the cotton itself. It is the Proban® polymer
that gives the fabric its flame retardant performance; and as Proban® does not react chemically with the cotton
fibres, the natural and physical properties of the fabric remain unaffected. The Proban® polymer trapped inside
the cotton fibres cannot be removed by washing or dry cleaning. But flame retardant performance may be
masked by excessive soiling deposits. In foundry and furnace operations, appropriately constructed Proban®
garments, help to protect the wearer against burn injuries arising from splash by most molten metals (except
aluminium and magnesium). Proban® cotton eliminates the risk of ignition from sparks or flame ion welding or
cutting operations. The flame retardant properties of Proban® knitted cotton make it the most appropriate
fabrics in industries where there is a risk of spillage and ignition of flammable liquids.

   the advantages and disadvantages of innovations and related textile technologies on the:
    – consumer
Quick response time from manufacturers to consumers, consumer needs met more readily
Access to the latest fashions rapidly
Consumers can now purchase their requirements online at anytime from anywhere in the world
Increase in production rates
Decreased cost to the consumer
More consistent quality

Still high costs

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Informative labelling is required to determine the properties, performance and care requirements due to the
great range of fibres now available
    – manufacturer
Produce goods in countries with the cheapest labour, as labour costs effect cost of production for manufacturers
Textile industry becoming more technologically based - Design and marketing is done on-shore and sent off-
shore for manufacturing (labour cost is cheaper)
Use outworkers to manufacture goods, as they are not required to pay costs of energy use, factory set up and
other overheads
Labour saving technology - very little supervision is required by the staff i.e. less labour costs e.g. robots to
prepare warps for looms, computerised fault detection devices

Establishment of these factories is very expensive
High cost of manufacturing technology
    – employee
New technology designed to minimise employee exposure to occupational hazards e.g. machines designed with
reduced noise levels, minimise employee exposure to dust particles

Outworkers are exploited -
         OH&S not monitored
         High levels of noise, chemicals and dust hazards
The introduction of innovative textile industry technology means employee's require re-skilling e.g. pattern
makers need to develop skills in the use of CAD/CAM systems
Loss of employment/jobs
    – environment
Use of non-renewable resources
Chemical spraying in fibre production
land erosion due to fibre farming
Chemical waste removal
High noise levels

Innovation in the textile industry reduces effects on the environment:
More efficient farming methods
Pest control methods - minimal use of chemical sprays
Recycling of fibres and plastics into textile products
Recycling of textile waste and old clothes into non-woven fabric products
More accurate dye calculations - minimal chemical waste
Quieter manufacturing systems
Less need for transport due to Internet

Still effects of environ.
Disposal of used items, such as nappies and medical textiles need to be put into landfills or incinerated
Only a small quantity of used textiles can be recycled
 Only a small quantity of used textiles can be recycled into non-woven fabrics/products
Garments which have notions such as zippers and buttons, cannot pass through the recycling machines

Area of Study: Australian Textile, Clothing, Footwear and Allied Industries
Appropriate textile technology and environmental sustainability
 selection of appropriate technology in the industry
    – resources, alternatives and limitations
A range of strategies have been adopted by the textile industry to reduce the impact of textile production on the

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

The textile industry pollutes the air and waterways with waste materials – acids, alkilis, dyes and detergents are
emptied into the sewerage system and hot liquids entering treatment plants will kill bacteria to treat the effluent.
Sulphur compounds produced from burning of coal can kill huge areas of forest.
 Pollution Problems
Energy - The use of fossil fuels to generate electricity (energy) are not renewable
Water - Pollution is being discharged into waterways creating vast amounts of damage to land, plants and
animals (Biodiversity)
Waste - Disposal of waste causes environmental damage – dyes, water, chemicals etc

    appropriate and sustainable textile resources
     – recycling
- The development by the CSIRO of SIROSCOUR which uses less water than conventional methods of wool
     scouring because it recycles the rinse liquids and uses more concentrated scouring liquors.
- Ecospun is a combination of cotton and polyester fibre recovered from plastic drink bottles. Bottles are
     crushed and heated to produce fibres that are then combined with cotton to produce a polycotton.
- The main wastes from the dyeing process are contaminated water from dyeing, rinsing and washing baths
     and from dyeing chemicals. Energy is consumed when heating the dye baths and running pumps and other
     parts of the dyeing machinery.
- Cold-pad batch dyeing for cotton impacts less on the environment as the process requires 33% less energy
     and 45% less water, requires fewer chemicals and produces less effluent. The Australian Dyeing company
     adopted this technique in the 1990s.
- The Smith Family are leading exporters of recycled clothing extending into 18 world markets.
     – pollution
Some steps towards pollution control are:
     o Use of natural gas as a fuel as it burns cleanly
     o Filtering of waste materials before they leave chimneys etc
     o After-burning to ensure total combustion and recycling of burnt gases
     o Air-filtering systems to minimise fluff in air
     o Use of biodegradable detergents
     o Neutralisation of acids with alkalis
     o Cooling dyes before disposing into the waterways
     o Aeration of all waste liquids to encourage growth of bacteria which digest them
     o Current research focuses on separating the waste materials from wool scour liquors and using them as
     o Incentives and deterrents to encourage industry to employ such steps
     – government legislation
In developed countries today, legislation sets minimum standards for working conditions, and factory inspectors
employed by governments, and shop stewards representing unions, make sure that these standards are upheld.
Legislation - Sets the rules and standards that the textile industry must follow, it also controls the level of
assistance the TCF companies are given. E.g. Best Practise Program
Current issues
 current issues that affect the industry, including:
     – globalisation of design, manufacture, distribution and marketing
     – The federal government is committed to promoting the international competitivness of the TCF and
          allied industries through a range of measures.
     – In order to be successful the ATCFAI must look beyond the domestic market and seek out opportunities
          in the global marketplace. The development of strong export markets is essential.
     – The federal government has established organisations and structured assistance programs to encourage
          and assist australian companies to export their products and services. Austrade is Australia‟s frontline
          export marketing organisation providing support and assistance for Australian exporters. Most of their
          clients are small to medium enterprises but it also provides assistance to major corporations in markets
          where its special status can make a positive difference. Austrade assists exporters through the entire
          process from initial consideration to mature, market based operations.
     – Eight companies have taken a step toward promoting the capabilities of the industry by pooling their
          approach to international marketing and promotion. Operating under a formal association known as
          Fabrics Australia their research has showed most major international buyers had no idea of Australia‟s
          capabilities. They have adopted the co-operative approach of sharing scarce resources, profiling a
          comprehensive, versatile capability, sharing market intelligence and trading opportunities etc. Their
          strategy includes targeting North American design houses who manufacture in the Asia pacific region.
          The rationale is Australia has the advantage of supplying to Asian based companies with lower costs
          and ease of communications while Nth America‟s need for textiles in strategic locations is essential.

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

          Therefor competing with each other locally does not produce nearly as good a result as working
          together to grow business internationally.
     – Many Australian companies have chosen to manufacture their products overseas because the high cost
          of labour in Australia. The cost of labour, award pay and facilities are cheaper overseas. This allows for
          companies to manufacture their goods at a lower cost and ship them back to Australia or any country to
          which they may export. Manufacturing their goods offshore can also give companies access to various
          government assistance packages. For example under the Import Credit Scheme companies who export
          products are rewarded by earning credit points – these can then be used to offset the amount of duty
          paid on any product they import into Australia. The Overseas Assembly Provisions enable companies to
          assemble clothing in low cost labour countires from pieces cut or knitted in Australia and import them
          with a free rate of customs duty. these also come under the next dot point – imports/export, protection
     – Computerisation of the textile industry and the use of the internet has meant information from other
          countries is close at hand.
     – restructuring of the industry: imports/exports, level of protection, increased skill level of workers
The textile industry is restructuring: new features include; reduced level of tariff protection and multi-skilling.
Reasons for radical changes in the Australian fashion industry include: relaxation of trade tariffs, increase of
costs of domestic production and manufacture, computer aided design, off-shore labour.
- Some impacts of globalisation include: patterns and orders are sent around the globe, links have been made
     with manufacturers overseas and a relaxation of trade barriers.
- Investing for future growth is based on: the pursuit of sound macroeconomic conditions and microeconomic
     conditions and a suite of business programs framed around the three drivers of economic growth:
      innovation
      investment
      international competitiveness
This will mean in the future the Textile, Clothing and Footwear Industry will be influenced by innovation, levels
of investment and be modified by changes to make the industry competitive globally.
- The Action Agenda is important for the TCFL Industry because the long planning strategies aim to support
     this important Australian industry through a restructuring period. This support will enable growth and
     development to the industry. List the five thematic working groups the TCFL Action Agenda Advisory
     Board was established to oversee.
The five thematic areas are:
      supply chain management
      market development
      innovation and technology
      skills, education and training
      information technology.
The recommendations made for the Australian TCFL Industry are:
      build on natural and competitive advantages of our natural fibre supply, e.g. wool and cotton. This is a
          positive suggestion as we currently have a monopoly with the quality of our wool product. A negative
          may involve the finance to support the research into fibre blending.**
      stimulate innovation in production of synthetic fibres.
      develop innovative blends of natural and synthetic fibres.
      develop technical textiles.
      develop environmental sustainability of textiles in production, sustainability and recycling textiles
The five objectives that are to drive the changes in the TCFL industry are:
      internationalisation of supply chains
      pursuit of niche brands
      innovation in and along supply chains
      repositioning the Australian TCFL industry
restructuring the industry and its relationship with the government.

- The government is committed to ensuring Australia will meet its APEC commitment to free trade by 2010.
    The Textile, Clothing and Footwear (TCF) industries have also committed to this objective. On 10th
    September, 1997 the Prime Minister, John Howard, and the then Minister for Industry, Science and
    Tourism, John Moore, made a joint press release outlining a package for the TCF industries. The aim was to
    promote job security and to help develop sustainable and internationally competitive textiles, clothing,
    leather and footwear (TCF) industries in Australia. A key element of this package is the reduction of tariffs.

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

-   The Government's TCF package assist in securing jobs in TCF industries by encouraging additional
    investment and promoting the development of an internationally competitive TCF sector in the lead-up to
    the free trade environment beyond 2010.
Key features of the Government's TCF package:
     continue tariff decreases through to 2000, then maintain tariff levels from 2000 until 2005
     introduce legislation to reduce tariff levels from 2005
     develop forward looking action agendas
     establish a TCF Investment Program to build globally competitive capacity in the industry
     establish a TCF Technology Development Fund and a national centre of excellence for TCF training
         (total $20 million)
     establish a Market Development Program to increase export capabilities ($2.5 million per year)
     an expanded Overseas Assembly Program to enable increased use of Australian textiles
     examine removal of anomalies in TCF by-laws and tariff concessions
     review in 2005 to take account of our APEC commitments and progress on market access.
- The Government's plan aims to encourage more value-added activity in natural materials processing, design,
    research and development, marketing, and product assembly, strategic alliances, joint ventures, and effective
    value chain management as well as investment in skills development.
Duty is applied directly to raise the price of imports
benefits: Trade agreements with NZ, Fiji and PNG with zero percent tariff to encourage assembly points for
Downside: Complex tariff system hard to work out with by-laws
Basic for garments - 25%
Raw Fibre - 0%
Yarns - 5%
Fabrics - 25%
- Textile,         clothing      and        footwear    (TCF)      post       2000      assistance      package
    The TCF post 2000 assistance package is a five year program which commenced on the 1st July 2000, and is
    coinciding with the pause in TCF tariff reductions from 2000-2005. The assistance package represents
    continued government support for TCF industries. It has been designed to promote investment in innovation
    and research and development to improve the competitiveness of Australia's TCF industries in preparation
    for the more internationally competitive trade environment after 2005. The most significant component is
    the TCF strategic investment programme, with funding of $678 million over five years.
- TCF SIP is an Australian Government initiative to help develop sustainable, competitive textile, clothing,
    footwear and leather industries in Australia while a more competitive trading environment develops after
    2005. The aim of the TCF SIP scheme is to provide incentives in the form of grants to help Australian
    textile, clothing, footwear and leather companies promote investment, innovation and value-adding.

    –    changing consumer demands and lifestyle: sun protection factor clothing, clothing made from organic
         sources (eg clothing made from organic cotton)
a) Sun protection clothing
An increase in consumer awareness of the damage caused by the sun, resulted in an increased consumer demand
for sun protection clothing. Australia has the highest rate of skin cancer in the world, and prevention is aided by
the production and wearing of textiles which protect the consumer from most ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
     o The more skin you cover with clothing and hats, the better. When selecting sun protective gear you
         need to consider the style and the fabric. Choose shirts with collars or high necks and long or three
         quarter sleeves. Longer shorts and skirts or trousers provide good protection. Protection may be
         reduced if the fabric is in close contact with the skin. Hats should be wide brimmed bucket or
         legionnaire-style to protect the face, neck and ears.
     o Material – the closeness of the weave is important and not the weight of the fabrics. The less light that
         passes through the fabric, the better protections. Synthetics or mixed fabrics often have a tighter weave
         than natural fabrics. Protection may be reduced if the fabric is stretched or wet. Clothing colour affects
         protection but closeness of the weave is more important. White and other light colours may let more
         sunlight through. Dark colours absorb UV rays preventing them reaching the skin. Avoid light
         coloured hat brims that bounce sunlight back onto the face,
     o The cancer council produces a huge range of sun protection clothing to keep up with consumer demand.
         These include baby and infant wear, swimwear, men‟s and women‟s wear, hats, gloves, socks,
         umbrellas, bags, pram shades and beach and outdoor shade tents.

The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), as part of the Health and Aged
Care Portfolio, is a new Federal Government agency charged with the responsibility for protecting the health and
safety of people, and the environment, from the harmful effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. One area

                                   Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

of expertise is sun safe fabrics and garments. The website has good information on sun protection. Use the
information on the site to answer the questions below.

The UPF of a fabric is affected by:
     fabrics made from different fibre compositions block more or less UVR
     tightly woven or knitted fabrics allow less UVR to pass through
     darker colours block more UVR
     heavier fabrics block more UVR than light fabrics of the same type
     wet, overstretched or worn out clothes offer less UVR protection.
a) Features of good sun protection garments are:
     fabric has high UPF rating
     design
         shirts with long sleeves and collars
         hats with a brim or legionnaires hats
         loose fitting clothing offers more protection
         shorts and skirts to the knee offer more protection for the legs.
b) a fabric can be labelled with the UPF Certification Trade Mark swing tag when it is approved by the
Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). ARPANSA is the proprietor of the UPF
Certification Trade Mark. When the UPF Certification Trade Mark is applied to a product it indicates that
ARPANSA has been satisfied that the materials used to construct that product will provide at least the amount of
sun protection stated on the rating label. A licensing fee is paid to ARPANSA by the manufacturer.

b) Clothing made from organic sources – organic cotton
     o Organic cotton is cotton grown without the spraying of chemicals.
     o Farmers control pests when growing organic cottons by using natural methods like food sprays and
          beneficial insects
     o More than 30 insects damage cotton plants. Pests eat and ruin the quality of the cotton fibre.
     o Beneficial insects are insects helpful in the growing of cotton. These insects may eat the pest insects or
          help pollinate the cotton plant.
     o The most common pest is the Heliothis caterpillar as it eats and destroys the flower buds and cotton
     o The demand for organic cotton is limited as it is harder to grow. Farmers make much less cotton than
          conventional cotton farmers, and this makes cotton more expensive for manufacturers to buy.
     o The Goondiwindi Cotton Company is the Coulton family-owned cotton growing business and value-
          added venture. Concerned about the amount of chemicals used for growing cotton, and anticipating a
          market niche, the Coulton‟s grew organic cotton in the early 1990‟s. They grew one bale to an acre,
          where traditionally you grow three bales to an acre. To grow a bale was costing them as much as
          traditional cotton. In the end they found the market wasn‟t prepared to pay three times as much for
          their new product. As a result the Coultons ceased growing organic cotton.
Organic Cotton
Cotton grown without the spraying of chemicals
Changing consumer demands for clean green textiles e.g. organic cotton
Best practise program - growing cotton in the best way possible, reducing impacts on cotton farming on the
natural environment
Manufacturer - Aiming for Best Practise Logo due to "environmentally friendly products" Keeps the quality of
soil intact and integrity of farm as no chemical sprays are used (pesticides) Meets consumer demands, improves
export market
Consumer - Helping environment by buying 'eco-friendly products' meets their demands - clean, green, niche

Advantages -
Manufacturer - Grows easily and quickly, needs little water, needs no pesticides, durable fibre, produces many
products (clothing, cosmetics, paper, plastics) deep rooted plant helps prevent soil erosion
Consumer - comfortable, supporting environment
Disadvantages -
Manufacture - less consumer demand, has a high resin content, which must be removed
Consumer - Not widely sold, not readily available and very expensive because grown in small quantities

    –   manufacturing strategies: niche and mass produced goods

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

     – Niche market approach
Liberalisation of international trade in TCF products and increasing involvement of developing countries in mass
produced, low end market sectors, is the key driving force in the movement to niche manufacturing by
Australian TCF firms. Successful TCF organisations have heeded the call to develop and expand niche markets
for technical textiles and textile products.
For example Combat Clothing began manufacturing clothing and equipment for the sports shooter and
fisherman in 1982. From this developed a niche market specialising in the design and manufacture of military
and para military clothing worn by soldiers in addition to their clothing and weapons. The company has also
developed a ballistics laboratory for research and development focusing on developing their strong market
position and competitive edge. The company now exports 50% of its products, turnover has grown by more than
50% in a short period of time and they employ only 50 workers.
Mass produced goods
Mass produced goods supply a large number of retailers around the country. Styles in mass produced clothing
are plainer therefore quicker to produce and cheaper. Found in stores including Target, Big W etc. Mass
produced goods are successful in Australia as the conditions are readily accepted by most average Australian
customers – they are of a fair quality, are reasonably priced and preferable to second hand clothing and produce
a wide range of colours and styles. They attract a large market.
The goal of using computers in the textile industry is to enhance existing methods of production and therefore
reinforce trends towards mass-production. Time consuming tasks that were once done by hand are now
accomplished quickly and accurately with the aid of computers.

 aspects of marketing of textile products, including:
Product  in terms of their features and benefits
Features are products characteristic (such as size, colour, functionality, design, fabric content etc) that deliver
Pricing  Products should be offered for a price your target market is willing to pay and that produces a profit
for your company
Promotion  Technique that persuasively communicates favourable information about a seller's product to
potential buyers: includes advertising, sales promotion i.e. buy one get one free
Place  Delivery of a good or service to a consumer aka distribution
     – product planning
Product – testing of new products formulating brand names planning packaging and identifying potential
Product – these are goods and services that represent the end point of the production process yet in marketing the
term is widened to include image and any other benefits a product may engender. It can refer to anything
associated with a product that differentiates that product in the mind of the consumer. People will consume some
products simple because of an associated image eg Coke adds life campaign. Other benefits can include social
acceptance eg teens and brand names.
- testing of new products formulating brand names planning packaging and identifying potential markets.

     – place and distribution channels
Place – developing distribution channels, establishing distribution centres, and developing and analysing
alternative transportation networks

Place – This includes the way the product is distributed to its final point of sale. Manufacturer would need to
consider the best form of distribution for their products – through wholesaling network which sells to retailer or
directly to the retailer. Direct marketing  catalogue in post and consumers place order or door to door selling
Location can be critical in marketing in projecting an image eg: the miss shop in myer is understood widely to be
for teenagers, rebel sport for quality branded sportswear.
Distribution channels refers to the way the product is distributed to its final point of sale eg:
Produces  wholesaler  retailer  consumer.
This can affect the availability of the product or stock for instance in the event of a holdup.
It can also effect price for instance more channels will be more expensive whereas factory outlets will be much

Image and product branding: important concepts in market place and promotional activities
Promotional success is measured by consumer recognition, increased market sales and increased market share.
E.g. mambo - developed internationally recognised Mambo brand through development and establishment of
Mambo-only stores
Promotional Strategies

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Store design and promotional concepts encourage sales
Creating an environment that draws in customers and keeps them coming back: drive sales, increase

     – price structure
Price – monitoring competitors price structures, setting prices, and determining discount price structures for
Price – In marketing „price‟ is the amount of money consumers are willing to pay and is therefore important
price is set as to attract maximum exposure to the targeted market. Price should cover cost of production and a
profit component. Marketing should include information on price of competitors or alternative to capture larger
market. Strategies include discounting, loss pricing and pricing that „looks‟ cheaper.

     – promotion strategies
Promotion – setting promotional goals, developing advertising campaigns, training salespeople, establishing
franchise territories, and planning and implementing promotional activities such as; in store testing, giveaways,
sales displays, and publicity releases
Promotion – act of elevating a product‟s visibility in the eyes of consumers. Can ensure a product‟s reputation
and appeal are fixed firmly in the mind of the consumer. Persuasive promotion will emphasise image rather than
actual product with increasing emphasis placed on enhancing image during promotion eg Volvo is promoted as
safe car airbags etc  family car image
Informative advertising focuses on physical qualities of a product with the communication of facts eg smoking
Other forms include letterbox, tv, cinema, tv shows, billboards. Newspapers, pamphlets etc
      setting promotional goals, developing advertising campaigns, training salespeople, establishing
          franchise territories, and planning and implementing promotional activities such as; in store testing,
          giveaways, sales displays, and publicity releases
 product life cycle
Product Life Cycle
All stages of a product beginning with the processing of raw materials (cotton, wool synthetics etc), through to
design, pattern making, cutting and assembly of final goods (clothes, shoes etc), through to wholesale then
retailers and then to the consumer and finally when it is disposed of ( i.e. recycled)

All stages of a product beginning with the processing of raw materials (cotton, wool synthetics etc), through to
design, pattern making, cutting and assembly of final goods (clothes, shoes etc), through to wholesale then
retailers and then to the consumer and finally when it is disposed of ( i.e. recycled)

During the introductory phase – the product is new, especially designed for a specific marketing segment. The
target market need informing about the product and the way it meets their needs.
Promotion is aimed at building demand for the new product, the objective is to inform – magazines, media etc.
 Price would depend on the long term strategy – a high price skimming policy provides a rapid return on
investment therefore most suitable for a product with a short life cycle. A low priced penetration policy would be
more appropriate for a product with a long life cycle. In this case the aim would be to quickly gain adoption of
use of the product and maximise market share, creating difficulties for competitors.
Following market introduction an objective would be to make it available to as many people as is economically
possible thereby establishing distribution channels.

The marketing strategy is designed to increase the consumption of a product or service – the overall
effectiveness can be measured by the sales or the adoption of the product.

Product Life Cycle
Market Introduction  Market Growth  Market Maturity  Sales Decline
Innovators            Early adopters  early>late majority Laggards

Market Place
Textile products, clothing and footwear depend almost entirely on consumer demand
Companies in TCF industries competing for a relatively constant level of domestic consumer demand
Rise in imported textiles due to reduced protectionist policy- no quotas/tariffs), means ATCF markets for local
manufacturers are contracting (getting smaller due to overseas imports)
Fijiduty free (no tariff) and also PNG and NZ Makes Fiji very attractive option for importers of TCF

                                    Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

 target markets
Target Market
Group of people at which you aim your marketing effort. People with common characteristics i.e. pregnant that
set them apart

Niche Markets
Narrowly defined group of potential customers. Focused, targetable portion of a market

  o      Compare two different product marketing strategies for one focus area and explain why they are
appropriate for a specific textile product.
- Seafolly brought the aerobics boom of the 80s to australia by introducing aerobics wear – company went
    from a small to a multi-million dollar business – they supplied the Saefolly brand to majors such as Myer
    and david jones. Quickly reacted to popularity of exercise by producing cotton lycra tops, bike pants and
- Halas (managing director) offered customers a 24 hour turn around service on stock orders and ramped up
    marketing activity – putting a lot of effort into point of sale and supporting retailers, giving them good
    sinage and in-store support.
- Have an exclusivity deal with david jones
- Signed deals with department stores all over the world – except Italy and Spain which have very tough
    markets and a lot of competition.
- Developed a relationship with a US company which will distribute, market and sell the product throughout
    the US, targeting mid to upper end swimwear, department and surf stores.
- Manufactures 2 million garments each year and exports 25% - 85% produced in Australia rest in China.
- Sell their swim wear as separates – catering for women who migh require different sizes top and bottom –
    this is where 24 hour turn around stock service is important eg if a store runs out of bottoms in one size they
    can get stock to them the next day. Offer their range to “any shape or size.”
- Recently acquired the liscence to distribut Nike swimwear in the asia pacific and will stem from exports of
    this brand. recognition of Seafolly‟s expertise – partnership intends to compete with Speedo and will
    make a major impact on the performance swimwear market. Nike Swim produces mens and womens
    swimwear and accessories and will double seafolly‟s business over next three to five years.
- Import products to test waters to maintain quality level of products. Import fabrics for a greater range.
- Strong influence with its distribution of the high-end gotex label from Israel and Nike swimwear.
- Exhibit their range at the Lyon Mode City lingerie and swimwear show in France – it was as a result that
    they scored the deal with French department store giant Galleries Lafayette.
- Relocation to Mascot sees distribution of product centralised under one roof. There will also be more and
    bigger showrooms.


-     Expand its beach and lifestyle collection to account for more than 50% of its total business. Beachwear
      targeted to surpass the active swimwear market.
-     More speedo stores as well as a boost for its aquatic footwear range – 25 – 35 year old demographic.
-     Cater for middle ages – less well served than young people in terms of surf brands.
-     Plans to open stores across Australia – already one in chatty – looking to boost distribution channels,
      including swimwear and other boutiques.
-     Opening of a number of concept stores in high visibility locations to showcase its range of apparel.
-     Thomson Data Corporation‟s industry leading point of sale solution was implemented across all Speedo
      outlets – this enables extensive performance monitoring of the outlets overall contribution to business. It
      allows sales staff to easily track availability of stock by size, colour, monitor seasonal trends, follow
      transfers and trace customer orders

    Assumed knowledge - Preliminary
a) Cotton
Burst from a pod called a boll
Molecular structure
Made of glucose molecules which form cellulose chains
DP = 18000+
Hydrogen bonds - good absorbency
This results in fibre strength and polarity
Some Van Der Waals not significant

                                     Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Long linear polymer chains
65 - 70% crystalline
Morphological structure
Cuticle - waxy layer protects against chemicals
Primary Wall - thin layer of cellulose threads
Secondary Wall - Bulk of the fibre, concentric layers of spiralling fibrils
Lumen - central canal which carries sap b4 the boll bursts
Low - dull

Treated with strong alkali solution
Causes fibre to swell giving a rounder cross section
Convolutions decrease
Rounder cross section reflects light better thus increasing lustre
Also increases strength
Absorbency increases as fibre swells opening molecular structure allowing more moisture to be absorbed
Microscopic characteristics
Cross section - bean shape
Longitudinal - convolutions
Short staple fibre - length - 10mm - 25mm
Longer fibre - better quality - easier to spin
Very fine

Properties of Cotton
Poor resistance to wrinkling
Resistant to pilling
Tends to lint rather than pill
Easy to dye and print due to polarity
Fades easily in sunlight

Very strong - due to long well aligned crystalline polymer system and hydrogen bonds
Strength increases 5% when wet
Poor resistance to abrasion - tear fibre wall, crack fibre, break fibre tips
Damaged by fungi - mildew and bacteria
This causes - bad odour, stain and weakening of fibre
Needs to be dried carefully b4 storage to prevent biological attack
Highly resistant to alkali such as detergent
Acids will weaken and destroy
Bleach will also weaken and destroy

Hydrophilic very absorbent
Air space between convolutions creates comfort
In dry conditions absorbs sweat n stuff so skin doesn‟t become wet
Good heat conductivity
Highly flammable
Not extensible
Does not build static charges

Manufacture of Cotton
Harvested by machine
Ginning - separates fibres from seeds
Pressed into bales - mill - graded according to length, colour and trash content
Made into laps - fluffy sheets of cotton fibres
Carded - teases fibres apart
Straightens and gathers fibres into loose ropes called slivers

                                   Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Drawing/Roving - Slivers are twisted by rollers to make thinner stronger rope
Spinning - spinning frame twists roving into finer yarns. Wound onto bobbins

b) Polyester
Round cross section
De-lustering agent may be added… leaving specs in the microscopic appearance
Very strong
Often used for apparel
good elasticity
Good sunlight resistance
very durable
Good resistance to wrinkling
non absorbent
Conducts static electricity
Good heat insulators
Smooth surface - maximum skin contact - uncomfortable
Poor heat conductor
Not effected by acids
Extremely crystalline
Alkalis do attack the fibre however polymer arrangement allow them to only attack the surface
Should not be bleached
Good sunlight resistance
Hydrophobic - difficult to dye
Resistant to biological attack

Blending is done to minimise the disadvantageous properties
Often blended with many other fibres
Often blended with more absorbent fibres making tit more comfortable to wear
Usually polyester/cotton

c) Yarns
How a yarn is formed
Monofilament - single filament extruded from spinneret, coagulated, drawn, finished ready for use
Multifilament - Many filaments extruded from spinneret as required in yarn, coagulated, drawn, finished ready
for use
Staple Spun Yarn - Staple fibres extruded as tow, coagulated, drawn, finished
Tow - hundreds of filaments that have been formed at the same time through special spinnerets
Carded Cotton Yarn                                         Combed Cotton Yarn
Picking                                                   Picking
ginning                                                   Ginning
Opening and blending                                      Opening and blending
Carding                                                   Carding
Drawing                                                   Combing
Roving                                                    Drawing
Spinning                                                  Roving

Spiral arrangement of fibres to produce a yarn
Twisting brings fibres closer together
Gives yarn strength
Amount of twist increases so does the strength

                                   Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

SOFT SPUN YARN                                             HARD SPUN YARN
Less twisted                                              More twisted
Less compact                                              More compact
weaker                                                    Stronger
Less elastic                                              More elastic
More wrinkle resistant                                    Less resistance to wrinkling
Softer                                                    Harder
Fuzzier                                                   Smoother
Thicker                                                   Finer
More insulating                                           Less insulating
Warmer-handling                                           Cooler-handling
More absorbent                                            Less absorbent
Slower drying                                             Quicker drying
Duller lustre                                             More lustrous
Less durable                                              More durable

Simplest type of yarn
One strand of fibres
Includes a second twisting operation
Two or more single yarns twisted together
Plying increases - diameter, strength, quality
Can be ply or single yarns
Made by uneven twisting
Some areas are loosely twisted and bulky and soft
Some areas harder twist - thinner
Irregular diameter
Very high or hard twist yarns
Causes yarn to buckle and twist
Fabric made from crepe yarns have a "pebbly" surface
Made of two different fibres
Central core made of one fibre
Different fibre then twisted, wrapped or spun around the core

Straight filaments pass thru teeth of two heated gears
takes shape of gear tooth
Permanent on thermoplastic fibres
Makes the fibre - more absorbent, more resilient, more comfortable, more insulated
Straight filament stuffed into a heated box
Take on a zig zag or crimped shape
Heat applied to soften the yarn
Cooled on removal from box and sets in shape
Increases volume by 200 - 300%
Gives elasticity to yarn
Filament fed over and air jet
Causes some filaments to form tiny loops
Air velocity affects the size of loops
Slow process
any kind of fibre can be used
Volume increased by 50 - 150%
Little or no stretch

                                   Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Yarn is twisted, heat-set and untwisted on cooling
gives good stretch and bulk
Easy care properties
Widely used method
Fibres are heated and drawn over a knife-like edge.
Flattens filaments on one side
Outside edge stretches
Yarn curls in a helical shape
Very elastic
Low cost
Can be used on monofilament or multifilament yarns

Two or more different fibres in a yarn
Mixture - fabric composed of two or more yarns each a different fibre
Combination - two unlike fibre strands twisted together as a ply
Improve performance characteristics
Improve texture and fabric appearance
Reduce cost of fabric
Create different effects
Correct defects
Improve spinning, weaving, finishing effectiveness
Staple fibres - can be done at any stage - opening, drawing or roving
If done early a uniform blend is achieved

d) Weaving
Warp - Strong yarns run parallel to the selvedge
Weft yarns - not as strong - run from selvedge to selvedge
Selvedge - runs parallel to the warp yarns. More tightly woven - prevents edge from fraying
Bias - diagonal direction of the fabric 45º between the warp and weft yarns
Straight grain - direction of yarns parallel to the selvedge - most stable least stretch
Crosswise Grain - runs across the fabric - has a slight stretch

Plain Weave                            Twill Weave                            Satin Weave
Simplest weave                        Most durable                          Smooth and lustrous
Approx 80% of all woven fabrics       Produces hard wearing fabrics         More warp yarn than weft on the
Warp and weft alternate over and      Shows distinct line of effect -       right side
under one another                      diagonal                               Warp floats
Quickest set-up on loom               Each warp and weft interlaces one     Requires most yarn
Fastest to weave                      or more up the one or more outward     Slower to weave
Uses least yarn                       Longer to set up                      More costly
Cheapest                              Slower to weave                       Less common
Most common                           Requires more yarn                    Limited use
Even surface produced                 More costly                           Maximum surface smoothness and
Easy to print                         Less common than plain weave          lustre
Natural or man made fibres used       Very fine yarn gives unstable         woven from very fine to fine man
Can be done with multifilament        fabric                                 made multifilament yarn or silk
man made yarns to imitate satins or    Soft to medium, full handle'          Full smooth soft handle
sateen‟s                               Good drape                            Cool to touch
Firmly woven - Crisp hard cool        Does not wrinkle as much              Dense and opaque
handle                                 Most durable                          best drape
Loosely Woven - soft, limp, warm                                             form fitting if made from polyester,
handle                                                                        nylon or silk
Poor drape                                                                   Wrinkles less

                                     Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

Least form fitting                                                             If delicate fabric structure floats
Will wrinkle                                                                   can snag

Produces fabric with small geometric designs and small floral patterns
done on a plain loom with a mechanical attachment called a dobby
Attachment raises or lowers as =many as 24 - 40 harnesses which contain series of warp yarns which form the
Newer methods use computer to create patterns
attachment moves each warp yarn automatically allows interlacing to be varied
First the pattern is sketched and colours decided apon
series of punch cards prepared
setting up of loom is long
expensive as up to 5000 cards may be requires and 5000 threads to repeat the pattern
eg brocade - embossed appearance

Fancy weave constructed from three sets of yarns
two are regular warp and weft yarns
other is caught into background for anchoring but purpose is to form loops or cut pile on the surface of the cloth
Gives depth to the fabric
soft texture
eg terry toweling
eg upholstery covers or carpets
Rubbing doesn‟t seriously damage them
cut pile - carpets not wool show traffic lanes where fibre ends have been flattened
Loop pile and cut pile
used for cut pile fabrics
two sets of warp yarns and two sets of weft yarns are woven simultaneously into a layer of fabric
Third set of warp yarns is woven, moving back and forth between the two layers of fabric
incl. Velvets and plushes
two layers of fabric bound together by another yarn
If cut apart leaves two layers of fabric
often designed to be reversible
used for strength weight warmth or design

e) Knitting
ADVANTAGES                                                  DISADVANTAGES
Comfortable                                                can lose shape easily
Elastic                                                    can be stretched or distorted during laundering
allows for moisture absorption                             can snag
bulky structure traps air and insulates                    weft knits run or ladder when yarn breaks
does not crease much
form fitting
cheaper than woven to produce
can have good drape
Do not fray

similar to hand knitting
Rows are knitted across the fabric horizontally
formed by two sets of latch hook needles
Flat bed machine
Circular knitting machine

                                      Textiles and Design Stage 6 Syllabus

flat bed knitting - knitted from one side to the other
                    continuous length of fabric is formed
circular knitting machine - rows are continually knitted in one direction forming a tube
plain, purl and rib interlock
e.g. inc. single knit jersey, rib knits, double knits, fleecy jersey, jacquard jerseys, pile jersey

fast way of making fabric from yarns
combines qualities of double knits and wovens
less resilient than weft
lighter weight
Has stability both crosswise and lengthwise
more interlacing
more firmness
good strength and stability
vertical construction produced
tricot warp knits
does not unravel
run proof
will curl
lingerie, sleepwear, shirts, blouses, dresses, car upholstery

WARP KNITTING                                     WEFT KNITTING
one or more sets of yarns interlocked vertically horizontal looping of one length of yarn
usually flat fabric                              able to produce flat or circular fabric
more stable                                      less stable
stretch and distorts less easily                 stretch and distorts more easily
less form fitting                                more form fitting
smoother                                         smooth to fury
harder handle                                    softer handle
less absorbent                                   more absorbent
uses                                              uses -
                                                  circular - underwear, hosiery, jumpers, cardigans,


KNITTED FABRICS                                                  WOVEN FABRICS
More elastic                                                    Less elastic
More resilient                                                  Crushes easier
easily distorted                                                resists stretching and distorting
loops insulate if air is still but not in windy conditions      close weave more insulation in windy weather
more absorbent                                                  less absorbent
slower drying                                                   quicker drying
may snag                                                        tends not to snag
weaker                                                          stronger
less durable                                                    more durable

f) Non-woven and washable webs


Shared By: