Midterm Exam Prep

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					Midterm Exam Prep
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
      1) Freud's theory places great importance on the role of unconscious processes. What evidence do you see from
         other areas in psychology or in your observations of human behavior to support the idea that people are
         often motivated by processes that are not under conscious control?

       2) How would a Freudian use the concepts of fixation and regression to explain the behavior of a student who
          overeats during final examination week?

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
     3) The phenomenon where an analyst forms an emotional attachment to a patient is called:       3) _______
          A) cathexis                                   B) catharsis
          C) transference                               D) countertransference

       4) The major tool that Freud used in his self-analysis was:                                           4) _______
            A) free association                                 B) self-hypnosis
            C) looking at pictures of Anna O.                  D) the interpretation of his own dreams

       5) The psychic energy associated with the life instincts is called:                                   5) _______
            A) eros                  B) thanatos                 C) impetus             D) libido

       6) Freud claimed that the aim of all life is:                                                         6) _______
            A) sexual enjoyment                                B) death
            C) self-actualization                              D) to benefit others

       7) When a cathexis which first involved one object now involves another object, ________ is said to   7) _______
          have occurred.
            A) need reduction                                 B) development
            C) a primary process                             D) displacement

       8) According to Freud, the most overwhelming experience of anxiety humans have is when they           8) _______
            A) in danger                                    B) separated from their mother at birth
            C) sexually aroused                            D) out of money

       9) ________ anxiety is the fear that the impulses of the id will overwhelm the ego and cause the      9) _______
          person to do something for which he or she will be punished.
            A) Reality                 B) Neurotic               C) Moral                D) Environmental

      10) ________ is the most basic ego-defense mechanism because, for any of the other ego-defense         10) ______
          mechanisms to occur, it must occur first.
            A) Projection             B) Repression          C) Rationalization        D) Displacement

      11) Which of the following statements best describes Freud's view of human nature?                     11) ______
             A)   What we are is determined mainly by the environment.
             B)   What differentiates us from other animals is our spiritual nature.
             C)   Humans are basically gregarious, i.e., social in nature.
             D)   We are like other animals in that our master motive is the satisfaction of biological needs.

      12) The term catharsis refers to:                                                                          12) ______
            A) the investment of psychic energy in images of things that can satisfy a need
            B) a release of emotional tension
            C) the uterus
            D) hysteria

      13) The phenomenon whereby an analyst is responded to as if he or she is an important person in            13) ______
          the patient's life is called:
            A) transference                                B) countertransference
            C) catharsis                                  D) cathexis

      14) Which of the following did Freud call the fundamental rule of psychoanalysis?                          14) ______
           A) chimney sweeping                               B) hand pressure
           C) hypnosis                                       D) free association

      15) The ________ is governed by the pleasure principle.                                                    15) ______
            A) ego-ideal            B) id                     C) superego                    D) ego

      16) ________ refers to the investment of energy in an image of an object that will satisfy a need.         16) ______
            A) Cathexis                B) Anticathexis         C) Catharsis               D) Displacement

      17) Minimizing the value of something that one had aspired for but failed to obtain exemplifies:           17) ______
           A) regression                                     B) sour grapes rationalization
           C) reaction formation                             D) sweet lemon rationalization

      18) Undergratification or overgratification at a certain psychosexual stage results in:                    18) ______
           A) psychosis                                          B) sexual perversions
           C) normal development                                 D) fixation

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
    19) What does Jung mean by "personality type"? How is this concept different from the personality type concept
        that comes from Freudian theory?

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
    20) One of Jung's childhood fantasies was that he was:                                          20) ______
         A) rich and famous                                B) a great psychologist
         C) God                                            D) two different people

      21) To a large extent, Jung's professional life was an attempt to understand the:                          21) ______
      A)   influence of learning on personality development
      B)   cultural influences on personality development
      C)   religion of his father
      D)   origin of his childhood dreams, fantasies, and visions

22) Jung emerged from his "dark years" with:                                                           22) ______
      A) a terrible hangover
      B) his own unique theory of personality
      C) utter despair and an inability to continue his work
      D) a theory much like Freud's

23) It was disagreement concerning the nature of the ________ that Freud and Jung parted company.      23) ______
       A) psyche              B) libido                 C) complexes            D) soul

24) With his use of the word-association test, Jung demonstrated that it was possible to:              24) ______
     A) systematically study the unconscious mind
      B) probe the ultimate meanings of dreams
     C) systematically study creative illness
     D) segregate neurotic and psychotic individuals from normal individuals

25) According to Jung, the ________ is by far the most important and influential part of the psyche.   25) ______
     A) collective unconscious                           B) shadow
      C) ego                                             D) libido

26) The ________ develops because of the need humans have to play a role in society.                   26) ______
      A) anima                B) animus               C) persona                D) shadow

27) According to Jung:                                                                                 27) ______
     A) men should be men and women should be women
      B) both men and women possess traits of the opposite sex
      C) all humans are homosexuals
     D) none of the above

28) The ________ is the female component of the male psyche.                                           28) ______
      A) persona                B) anima               C) shadow                   D) animus

29) The ________ tends to be sociable, outgoing, and interested in people and things.                  29) ______
      A) humanist                                        B) extrovert
      C) self-actualized person                          D) introvert

30) Which of the functions of thought is used when factual information is not available?               30) ______
     A) thinking                B) feeling              C) intuiting              D) sensing

31) ________ explains human personality in terms of future goals.                                      31) ______
      A) Synchronicity                                  B) Teleology
      C) Causality                                     D) more than one of the above
      32) The coming together in a meaningful way of two otherwise meaningless events defines:                 32) ______
            A) synchronicity                                B) teleology
            C) causality                                    D) more than one of the above

      33) According to Jung, one of the most important functions of a dream is to:                             33) ______
           A) reveal repressed memories
            B) compensate for neglected parts of the psyche
            C) give hints as to the contents of the unconscious mind
           D) preserve sleep

      34) The constant bickering of his parents caused Jung to:                                                34) ______
            A) run away from home                               B) rely heavily on his dreams and fantasies
            C) lose himself in books                            D) attempt suicide

      35) Jung viewed the libido as:                                                                           35) ______
            A) sexual energy                                   B) a creative life force
            C) aggressive energy                               D) all of the above

      36) According to Jung, the value of something is determined by:                                          36) ______
           A) how hard it is to obtain
            B) how much it costs
            C) how much psychic energy is invested in it
           D) all of the above

      37) According to Jung, which was the most important stage of development?                                37) ______
           A) young adulthood                                B) childhood
            C) middle age                                    D) infancy

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
    38) Contrast Adler's view of therapy with Freudian psychotherapy. How do the goals of therapy differ? What
        important differences in method can you identify?

      39) To what extent are Adler's findings about birth order true of your personality? Be sure to develop specific

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
    40) Because of its concern with the questions concerning the meaning of human existence, Adler's 40) ______
        theory can be considered:
          A) existential            B) psychoanalytic        C) humanistic          D) deterministic

      41) Adler's theory can be viewed as:                                                                     41) ______
           A) different from Freud's in almost every respect
            B) essentially the same as Freud's
           C) like Freud's only in its emphasis on unconscious mechanisms
           D) like Freud's in a number of important respects

      42) Adler's early position was that individuals with some sort of physical weakness attempt to:          42) ______
      A) compensate for it                                B) gain sympathy
      C) become medical doctors                           D) ignore it

43) Early in his theorizing, Adler believed that children overcome feelings of inferiority by             43) ______
      A) masculine               B) powerful               C) aggressive            D) all of the above

44) Adler's final theoretical position was that healthy adults seek:                                      44) ______
     A) pleasure                                           B) admiration from their peers
     C) a perfect or superior society                     D) masculinity

45) If a person concentrates too much on developing his or her own superiority while ignoring the         45) ______
    needs of others and of society, he or she is said to have:
       A) a superiority complex                             B) an inferiority complex
       C) feminine protest                                  D) masculine protest

46) For Adler, which of the following is the most important determinant of behavior?                      46) ______
      A) physical inferiority                            B) socioeconomic status
      C) physical reality                               D) subjective reality

47) The concept of fictional finalism gave Adler's theory a(n) ________ component.                        47) ______
      A) deterministic           B) irrational            C) hedonistic          D) teleological

48) According to Adler, neurotic individuals:                                                             48) ______
     A) do not use fictional finalisms
      B) cling to their fictions at all costs
      C) change their fictions when circumstances warrant it
     D) typically use a large number of fictional finalisms in their lifetime

49) According to Adler, what determines if a person will have well-developed social interests?            49) ______
     A) primarily his or her mother                      B) the person's health as a child
      C) how many siblings he/she has                   D) primarily his or her father

50) Using ________, the neurotic creates minor problems in his or her life so that they can be either     50) ______
    easily overcome thus impressing people, or if not overcome, used as a rationalization for failure.
      A) the exclusion tendency                          B) moving backward
      C) the construction of obstacles                   D) anxiety

51) According to Adler, healthy individuals have a well-developed ________; unhealthy individuals         51) ______
    do not.
      A) social interest                                B) fictional finalism
      C) creative self                                  D) lifestyle

52) Of all the birth orders, Adler believed that the ________ born was best off.                          52) ______
      A) first                   B) second                 C) third                 D) first and only
53) For Adler, unconscious meant that which is:                                                          53) ______
      A) not understood                                    B) repressed
      C) traumatic                                         D) anxiety-provoking

54) According to Adler, which of the following is most instrumental in the formation of a lifestyle?     54) ______
     A) a child's experience of physical reality
      B) the harsh treatment of a child by a parent
      C) a child's perception of the major events in his or her life
     D) the warm, loving care of a child by a parent

55) For Adler, dreams provided:                                                                          55) ______
      A) compensation for underdeveloped aspects of the psyche
      B) the self-deception necessary to maintain a mistaken lifestyle
      C) problems in the dreamer's life
      D) the satisfaction of illicit sexual desires

56) Adler emphasized the fact that all human beings begin life with:                                     56) ______
     A) organ inferiority                               B) as much creativity as they ever will have
     C) feelings of inferiority                        D) feelings of superiority

57) Adler believed that feelings of inferiority:                                                         57) ______
     A) are the primary motivating force behind all accomplishments
      B) cause most failures in life
     C) characterize only a small proportion of humans
     D) more than one of the above

58) According to Adler, healthy people:                                                                  58) ______
     A) change their fictions when circumstances warrant it
      B) do not use fictional finalisms
      C) typically use only one fictional finalism in their lifetime
     D) cling to their fictions at all costs

59) A child will tend to develop a strong social interest if:                                            59) ______
      A) the child is not physically abused
      B) the mother maintains a positive, cooperative atmosphere
      C) the child does not have any physical abnormalities
      D) the child has his or her biological needs reliably satisfied

60) Of all the errors that parents can make in their childrearing practices, Adler considered ________   60) ______
    to be the worst.
      A) neglecting                                         B) pampering
       C) establishing unattainable standards              D) using physical punishment

61) Adler's contention that everyone chooses his or her own destiny is compatible with the               61) ______
    philosophy of:
      A) humanism               B) determinism           C) existentialism       D) psychoanalysis
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
    62) With which theorist would Horney be in greatest agreement about goals and methods of psychotherapy?

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
    63) Horney considered the satisfaction of the ________ needs to be most important for healthy   63) ______
        personality development.
          A) animalistic           B) physiological         C) spiritual            D) safety

      64) Like Freud, Horney stressed the importance of:                                                     64) ______
            A) the psychosexual stages of development          B) early childhood experiences
            C) biological drives                               D) all of the above

      65) Which of the following did Horney refer to as the basic evil?                                      65) ______
           A) anything that parents do that undermines a child's security
           B) having more than three children
           C) not satisfying a child's biological needs
           D) all of the above

      66) The child who seems to say, "I have to repress my hostility because I need you," is repressing     66) ______
          basic hostility because of:
            A) helplessness           B) guilt                C) fear                   D) love

      67) Concerning the satisfaction of what Horney called the 10 neurotic needs, what distinguishes the    67) ______
          neurotic from the normal person?
            A) The approach of both the normal person and the neurotic to the satisfaction of the neurotic
               needs is about the same.
            B) The normal person does not have neurotic needs.
            C) The normal person will tend to concentrate on one of the needs and exclude the others.
            D) The neurotic will tend to concentrate on one of the needs and exclude the others.

      68) According to Horney, what does the normal person have much more of than the neurotic?              68) ______
           A) money                 B) friends              C) problems            D) flexibility

      69) According to Horney, as long as a person is living in accordance with his or her ________, he or   69) ______
          she will develop into a normal, flexible, productive adult.
            A) neurotic need                                    B) real self
            C) tyranny of the should                            D) idealized self

      70) One's life is governed by the tyranny of the should when:                                          70) ______
           A) one's idealized self has been displaced by one's real self
            B) one is normal
           C) one's real self has been displaced by one's idealized self
           D) all of the above

      71) Who lives in accordance with the tyranny of the should?                                            71) ______
           A) neurotics                                       B) mainly children
      C) only normal people                               D) all humans

72) Hortence views herself as being extremely intelligent and overlooks several instances when          72) ______
    people have said that she has the brains of a kumquat. This is an example of what Horney
    referred to as:
      A) compartmentalization                            B) elusiveness
       C) blind spots                                    D) rationalization

73) Horney's concept of ________ is similar to Freud's concept of denial of reality.                    73) ______
     A) compartmentalization                             B) arbitrary rightness
     C) externalization                                  D) blind spots

74) The devout Christian who is ruthless in business is utilizing which auxiliary method?               74) ______
      A) blind spots                                      B) arbitrary rightness
      C) externalization                                 D) compartmentalization

75) To increase the probability of a marriage lasting, Horney advised:                                  75) ______
      A) postpone marriage until later in life
      B) marry someone who will allow you to live an independent life
      C) marry someone as different from your parent of the opposite sex as possible
      D) marry someone who shares your values

76) Horney believed that:                                                                               76) ______
     A) females are biologically inferior to males        B) females are culturally inferior to males
     C) anatomy is destiny                                D) more than one of the above

77) According to Horney, the major goal of psychotherapy is to:                                         77) ______
     A) strengthen the client's auxiliary mechanisms
      B) replace the idealized self with the real self
      C) strengthen the client's ability to externalize
     D) replace the real self with the idealized self

78) In therapy Horney used dream analysis, free association, and instances of transference to           78) ______
      A) what form of the basic evil the client had experienced as a child
       B) which aspects of the client's psyche were underdeveloped
       C) which major adjustment technique the client was using
      D) deep-seated feelings of inferiority

79) Concerning one's ability to change one's personality, Horney was:                                   79) ______
      A) in agreement with Freud                          B) optimistic
      C) pessimistic                                      D) more than one of the above

80) Horney's theory has been praised for:                                                               80) ______
     A) addressing the topic of feminine psychology
            B) addressing the topic of self-analysis
            C) creatively synthesizing a number of other theories
            D) all of the above

      81) For Horney, it is what a person experiences ________ that determines if he or she will have      81) ______
          psychological problems.
            A) socially               B) emotionally          C) biologically            D) financially

      82) The normal person tends to deal with ________ of the 10 neurotic needs, whereas the neurotic     82) ______
          tends to deal with ________.
            A) none; all              B) all; one             C) one; all             D) all; none

      83) The normal person tends to:                                                                      83) ______
            A) move against people                              B) move away from people
            C) move toward people                               D) all of the above

      84) Which of the following terms was used to describe the neurotic's development?                    84) ______
           A) nonexistent            B) lopsided              C) too rapid            D) slow

      85) The tyranny of the should is closely related to the neurotic's:                                  85) ______
            A) idealized self                                    B) despised self
            C) real self                                        D) more than one of the above

      86) ________ is the opposite of arbitrary rightness.                                                 86) ______
            A) Blind spots                                      B) Cynicism
            C) Excessive self-control                           D) Elusiveness

      87) Horney believed that in self-analysis ________ was very important.                               87) ______
           A) transference                                     B) free association
           C) the overcoming of resistances                   D) all of the above

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
    88) Which of the previous theorists share(s) Erikson's goals for psychotherapy? Which are most similar in

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
    89) According to Erikson, personality is determined by:                                         89) ______
         A) free choice                                     B) gender and culture
          C) gender                                         D) culture

      90) The epigenetic principle states that:                                                            90) ______
            A) development occurs in accordance with a genetically determined plan
            B) both progression and regression occur during development
            C) either development occurs in a positive direction or it does not occur at all
            D) for every stage of development there is an erogenous zone
91) Which of the following did Erikson believe about personality development?                           91) ______
     A) The stages of personality development follow a genetically determined sequence.
     B) Each stage of personality development builds on the outcomes of preceding stages.
     C) All stages of personality are present in rudimentary form at birth.
     D) all of the above

92) Each stage of development is characterized by an important turning point which Erikson called       92) ______
      A) crisis                                         B) psychosexual stage
      C) epigenetic choice point                       D) virtue

93) According to Erikson, ________ determines the sequence in which the psychosocial stages will        93) ______
      A) one's social environment                      B) the mother
      C) biology                                       D) more than one of the above

94) According to Erikson, it is ________ that prepare a child to live effectively within a particular   94) ______
      A) crises                                           B) ritualisms
      C) epigenetic principles                            D) ritualizations

95) According to Erikson, during the teenage years an individual must either develop an identity or     95) ______
    experience role confusion. This important turning point is called:
      A) the identity crisis                            B) ego integrity versus despair
      C) generativity versus stagnation                 D) more than one of the above

96) According to Erikson, who does not fear death?                                                      96) ______
     A) the religious individual
      B) the person who looks back on a rich, meaningful, and happy life
      C) the neurotic individual
     D) the person who looks back on his or her life with frustration

97) In his therapeutic practice, Erikson:                                                               97) ______
      A) had his patients sit across from him in an easy chair
       B) minimized dream analysis
       C) concentrated on strengthening the patient's ego
      D) all of the above

98) Erikson's theory has been praised for:                                                              98) ______
      A) having considerable applied value                 B) helping to develop ego psychology
      C) vastly expanding psychology's domain              D) all of the above

99) According to Erikson, it is the individual's ________ environment that determines if a crisis is    99) ______
    resolved positively or negatively.
      A) genetic                                           B) biological
      C) social                                           D) more than one of the above
100) Erikson referred to the stages of development as:                                                 100) _____
       A) crises                                         B) psychosexual
       C) psychosocial                                   D) none of the above

101) According to Erikson, ________ are recurring patterns of behavior that perpetuate           the   101) _____
     beliefs, values, and customs of a culture.
       A) ritualizations                                 B) ritualisms
       C) epigenetic principles                          D) crises

102) According to Erikson, psychotherapy involves:                                                     102) _____
      A) a search for the early traumatic experience that determined the patient's personality
       B) a relationship between therapist and patient in which both parties gain by giving
       C) the practice of the "Golden Rule"
      D) more than one of the above

103) Primarily, dream analysis was used by Erikson to:                                                 103) _____
       A) determine if the dreamer moved toward, away from, or against people
        B) determine the strength of the dreamer's ego
       C) explore first memories and the origins of the dreamer's lifestyle
       D) discover repressed, traumatic experiences

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