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General Psychology 101 Exam 3

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									General Psychology 2010 Exam 3                                              Name: __________________________

Please bubble in the correct answer for each item on the scantron provided.

1. A zygote contains:
        a. 23 chromosomes        b. 46 chromosomes         c. 46 genes          d. 23 genes

2. If all goes well in prenatal development, we will go through the following stages in order:
           a. embryo, fetus, zygote                c. fetus, embryo, zygote
           b. zygote, ovum, fetus                  d. zygote, embryo, fetus

3. Providing children a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to:
        a. conventional morality          b. insecure attachment           c. object permanence     d. secure attachment

4. In the “Nature versus Nurture” debate, “Nature” refers to what?
         a. evolution    b. genes        c. environment           d. learning

5. Akim was extremely upset when his mother left him at the infant nursery at church and he was not reassured or comforted by
   her return a short while later. In fact, he was angry when she returned. Akim shows signs of:
          a. role confusion                b. autism        c. the rooting reflex  d. anxious-ambivalent attachment

6. Infant monkeys raised with a wire mother who provided food and a cloth mother who provided no food:
         a. preferred the cloth mother with no food
         b. preferred the wire mother with food
         c. showed no preference for one mother over the other
         d. shifted their initial preference for the wire mother to the cloth one as they matured

7. ___ determine the biological sex of offspring by providing an _____.
        a. Men; x chromosome              c. Men; x or y chromosome
        b. Women; x chromosome            d. Women; x or y chromosome

8. Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, and cardiac output reach their peak during:
        a. late adolescence (18-19 yrs) c. puberty (12-16 yrs)
        b. early adulthood (20- 24 yrs) d. middle adulthood (30-50 yrs)

9. According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles in adolescence would be aid in the achievement of:
        a. integrity     b. autonomy      c. competence                    d. identity

10. A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is
           conducting a(n) ___ study
        a. longitudinal    b. experimental          c. cross-sectional               d. chronological

11. The awareness that things continue to exist when they are not perceived is known as:
        a. attachment b. object permanence              c. habituation           d. conservation

12. ____ is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical characteristics of objects.
        a. object permanence b. conventional morality             c. ego-centric thought d. the principle of conservation

13. At what age does our reaction time increase and our vision and word recall dramatically decrease?
        a. 25          b. 55             c. 70          d. 80

14. ____ studies are the only way we can examine change over time, because the same people are measured repeatedly over a
        a. Longitudinal         b. Lattitudinal       c. Cross-sectional     d. Experimental

15. Six-year-old Anna genuinely trusts others and sees the world as a basically safe place. Her parents were always responsive
    to her needs but gave her room to develop independence. Anna shows ____ attachment:
         a. avoidant            b. anxious-ambivalent c. secure         d. disorganized

16. Although there are many theories about personality, the concept of “personality” most clearly embodies the notion of:
        a. Consistency over time.      b. self-consciousness.            c. self-actualization     d. gender identity.

17. According to Freud, the personality system that represents our inner child driven by the pleasure principle is the:
       a. ego.           b. self-concept.        c. id.                   d. superego.
18. According to Freud, the personality system that represents our sense of right and wrong (the inner parent) is the:
       a. ego.           b. self-concept.        c. id.          d. superego.
19. Psychoanalysis (Freud’s theory) focused on ___ as a central aspect of personality development, structure, and function.
        a. self-actualization  b. the unconscious      c. locus of control      d. learned helplessness

20. Defense mechanisms are strategies used by the ego to ___.
        a. protect from anxiety-inducing unconscious conflicts                       c. protect against negative self-talk
        b. maximize our potential through self-actualization                 d. avoid developing learned helplessness

21. Four-year-old Timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. However, he starts bed-wetting again soon after his sister is born.
    Timmy's behavior best illustrates:
        a) reaction formation. b) projection. c) regression. d) displacement.

22. The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called:
        a) projection. b) displacement. c) fixation. d) denial.

23. The defense mechanism in which we refuse to acknowledge a threatening thought or feeling is called:
        a) projection. b) displacement. c) fixation. d) denial.

24. Ricardo comes home from work angry because his boss has been on his case a lot lately. He yells at his wife after she
    greets his cheerfully and asks his about his day. What type of defense mechanism is Ricardo demonstrating?
        a. a) projection. b) displacement. c) fixation. d) denial

25. Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of:
       a. free association.    b. a positive self-concept.    c. locus of control.   d. traits

26. The social-cognitive approach to personality focuses on the importance of:
        a. free association.    b. a positive self-concept.      c. locus of control.         d. traits

27. Seligman’s study with dogs who were exposed to inescapable shock demonstrated ___ when given the chance to escape.
         a. unconditional positive regard     c. internal locus of control
         b. learned helplessness                       d. low self-esteem

28. ___ is good for our self-efficacy; We feel like we (rather than external forces) have control of our lives.
        a. internal locus of control      b. external locus of control       c. learned helplessness            d. denial

29. The Big-Five is a ___ theory of personality.
        a. Social-cognitive      b. Humanistic c. Psychoanalytic             d. Trait

30. Which of the following is NOT one of the big-five?
       a. extraversion          b. neuroticism              c. agreeableness            d. obsessiveness

31. Cheri is a very talkative and outgoing person. She strikes up conversations easily with strangers and always has a busy
    social calendar. What can you conclude about Cheri from this description?
        a. she is altruistic      b. she is extraverted c. she is neurotic        d. she is self-actualized

32. Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued
    walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it
    was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in:
        a. the fundamental attribution error      c. diffusion of responsibility
        b. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon        d. the mere exposure effect

33. Attribution is the process of:
         a. facilitating social behavior                            c. losing self-awareness in group situations
         b. revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others       d. explaining others’ behavior

34. Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This
    experiment best illustrated the impact of:
         a. frustration on aggression.          c. team membership on social loafing
         b. groupthink on social conflict       d. role playing on attitudes and behavior

35. Your boss is always cranky. You assume this is because she is having family problems. What type of attribution are you
    making about this behavior?
        a. dispositional        b. common sense        c. motivational          d. situational
36. After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch “Be a Safe Driver” sign in their car windows, California home owners were
   highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive “Drive Carefully” sign in their front yards. This best
          a. the mere exposure effect b. the fundamental attribution error         c. social facilitation   d. the foot-in-the-door

37. The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called:
        a. cognitive dissonance        b. group polarization     c. attribution        d. groupthink

38. What did Soloman Asch’s line-height study demonstrate?
       a. 40% of participants sided with the majority’s wrong decision.
       b. People generally went against the norm of conformity when voicing their decisions.
       c. 70% of participants sided with the majority’s wrong decision.
       d. People with poor vision made perceptual errors.

39. Assuming that Milgram’s obedience research subjects were evil because they were willing to shock a stranger demonstrates:
       a. cognitive dissonance         b. mere exposure       c. a dispositional attribution d. a situational attribution

40. When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the
    following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The
    salesperson appears to have made effective use of:
         a. the bystander effect                       c. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
         b. the fundamental attribution error          d. deindividuation

41. Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called:
       a) aptitudes. b) fixations. c) projections. d) traits.

42. A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five dimension known as:
        a) emotional stability. b) conscientiousness. c) openness. d) agreeableness.

43. After Manny's father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires. His action is
   best explained in terms of the:
        a. mere exposure effect                            c. frustration-aggression principle
        b. foot-in-the-door phenomenon                     d. bystander effect

44. The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people
        a. like familiar more than unfamiliar stimuli.
        b. perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.
        c. become more extreme in their opinions following group discussion.
        d. are more likely to comply with a large request after have complied with a small request

45. ___ love is less physiologically arousing than ____ love, but is longer lasting and based on affectionate attachment.
        a. passionate; companionate               c. passionate; compassionate
        b. companionate; passionate                       d. empathic; compassionate

46. Tasha intentionally reveals her acquaintance’s secrets in order to hurt her feelings. Tasha is demonstrating
       a. frustration    b. reaction formation   c. fixation      d. aggression

47. The ___ demonstrates that even a small difference, such as hat color, can create group division, and is thought to be one of
    the bases of stereotypes.
        a. the bystander effect                         c. the minimal group paradigm
        b. the physical attractiveness stereotype       d. stereotype threat

48. The belief that Hispanics are hardworking is ____, while the refusal to hire a Hispanic for an upper-management position
   is ____.      a. a stereotype; discrimination                  c. prejudice; a stereotype
                 b. discrimination; prejudice            d. discrimination; a stereotype

49. Leon Festinger had participants perform a boring task and then lie about it to another supposed participant. One group was
    paid $1 to lie while the other group was paid $20 to lie. What was the outcome of the study?
        a. All -participants reported liking the task after they were paid.
        b. Only participants who were paid $20 reported liking the task.
        c. Only participants who were paid $1 reported liking the task.
        d. None of the participants reported liking the task, even after they were paid.

50. Helping behavior that is beneficial to others but that clearly requires self-sacrifice is called:
        a. beneficence           b. the bystander effect             c. cognitive dissonance            d. altruism

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