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					                                                                                                        2
                                      THEORY AND RESEARCH
Answer: C      1.   As an anthropologist, Mead’s studies underlined several points about the study of
Page: 25            human development. Which of the following is true?
Guidepost: 1        A. the study of people is abstract
Type: C             B. cross-cultural perspectives interfere with the “universality” of behavior
                    C. theory and research go hand in hand
                    D. impartial investigation by empirical researchers does not influence the
                        interpretation of data

Answer: C      2.   The goal of science includes
Page: 26            A. acquiring knowledge that is verifiable
Guidepost: 1        B. impartial investigation
Type: C             C. elimination of personal interpretations that may distract from observations
                    D. all of the above

Answer: A      3.   A theory is a set of
Page: 27            A. logically related statements which seeks to describe, explain, and predict human
Guidepost: 1            behavior
Type: F             B. facts derived from research
                    C. predictions about future outcomes
                    D. opinions of a well-known authority in a field

Answer: B      4.   A good theory suggests __________ to be tested by research.
Page: 27            A. data
Guidepost: 1        B. hypothesis
Type: F             C. findings
                    D. conclusions

Answer: B      5.   Tentative explanations or predictions that can be scientifically tested are
Page: 27            A. theories
Guidepost: 1        B. hypotheses
Type: F             C. research findings
                    D. conclusions

Answer: C      6.   Inborn traits inherited from biological parents are to _________;as environmental
Page: 27            influences before and after birth are to ____________.
Guidepost: 1        A. genetics; biology
Type: C             B. nurture; nature
                    C. nature; nurture
                    D. mothers heredity

Answer: C      7.   “If children learn aggression from models, then children who watch violent television
Page: 27            shows should be more aggressive than children who watch nonviolent shows.” This
Guidepost: 1        is an example of a
Type: C             A. theory
                    B. finding
                    C. hypothesis
                    D. conclusion



                                              11
Answer: A      8.    Parents who believe that experiences strongly influence the intelligence of their child
Page: 27-28          would take care to focus on all but one of the following:
Guidepost: 2         A. nutritional supplements before pregnancy
Type: C              B. read often to their children
                     C. create varied and stimulating experiences for the child
                     D. provide “learning” toys

Answer: A      9.    Children were described as a “tabula rosa” on which society writes by which early
Page: 28             philosopher?
Guidepost: 2         A. Locke
Type: F              B. Piaget
                     C. Rosseau
                     D. Erikson

Answer: B      10.   If a person’s behavior is viewed as passive and reactive, he would be perceived as
Page: 28             demonstrating the __________ model of behavior.
Guidepost: 2         A. naturalistic
Type: F              B. mechanistic
                     C. organismic
                     D. maturationistic

Answer: C      11.   If a person’s behavior is viewed as active and self-determining, that person would be
Page: 28             perceived as demonstrating the __________ model of behavior.
Guidepost: 2         A. naturalistic
Type: F              B. mechanistic
                     C. organismic
                     D. maturationistic

Answer: C      12.   Organismic theorists emphasize __________ change, while mechanistic theorists
Page: 128            emphasize __________ change.
Guidepost: 2         A. quantitative, qualitative
Type: F              B. behavioral, developmental
                     C. qualitative, quantitative
                     D. organistic, mechanistic

Answer: A      13.   Sitting up, crawling and walking are predicted by earlier behaviors. These
Page: 28             quantitative changes support which theory
Guidepost: 2         A. mechanistic
Type: C              B. developmental
                     C. qualitative
                     D. organistic

Answer: A      14.   Most of the early pioneers in psychology, such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and
Page: 29             Jean Piaget, favored the __________ perspective on human development.
Guidepost: 2         A. organismic
Type: C              B. quantitative
                     C. mechanistic
                     D. behavioristic



                                               12
Answer: C      15.   That children change the world and the world influences the child’s development
Page: 29             suggests that development is
Guidepost: 2         A. unidirectional
Type: C              B. multidirectional
                     C. bidirectional
                     D. unrelated

Answer: C      16.   Freud’s psychosexual stages, Erikson’s psychosocial stages, and Piaget’s cognitive
Page: 30             stages are considered
Guidepost: 2         A. opinions
Type: F              B. hypotheses
                     C. theories
                     D. proven facts

Answer: A      17.   Psychoanalytic theory was developed by
Page: 30             A. Sigmund Freud
Guidepost: 3         B. Ivan Pavlov
Type: F              C. Albert Bandura
                     D. Erik Erikson

Answer: C      18.   To deflect responsibility, Marsha believes that most of her acting out lately has been
Page: 30             caused by unconscious forces within her that motivate her behavior. This perspective
Guidepost: 3         is called
Type: F              A. humanistic
                     B. ethological
                     C. psychoanalytic
                     D. learning

Answer: B      19.   A therapeutic approach aimed at giving patients insight into their unconscious
Page: 29             conflicts is called
Guidepost: 3         A. repression analysis
Type: F              B. psychoanalysis
                     C. psychosexual analysis
                     D. psychoconsciousness

Answer: D      20.   Freud’s theory on human development states that people develop in an unvarying
Page: 30             sequence of maturationally determined stages of __________ development.
Guidepost: 3         A. psychosocial
Type: C              B. psychoanalytic
                     C. psychounconscious
                     D. psychosexual

Answer: B      21.   The proper order of Freud’s psychosexual stages of development is
Page: 30-31          A. anal, phallic, oral, latency, genital
Guidepost: 3         B. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Type: F              C. anal, oral, genital, latency, phallic
                     D. oral, latency, genital, anal, phallic

Answer: A      22.   Chandra is acting in ways typical of a person at an earlier age of development. Freud
Page: 30             refers to this as
Guidepost: 3         A. fixated
Type: F              B. repressing
                     C. sublimating

                                              13
                     D. projecting

Answer: C      23.   According to psychosexual theory, a 4-year-old child would be in which stage?
Page: 30-31          A. oral
Guidepost: 3         B. anal
Type: C              C. phallic
                     D. latency

Answer: B      24.   As an adult, Meghan spends considerable time each day cleaning her apartment,
Page: 30             arranging her socks in a drawer until they are just-so, and making schedules on a
Guidepost: 3         calendar. According to Freud, Meghan is probably fixated in the __________ stage.
Type: C              A. oral
                     B. anal
                     C. genital
                     D. phallic

Answer: C      25.   The stage of psychosexual development that is characterized by relative calm is called
Page: 30             the __________ stage and occurs during middle childhood.
Guidepost: 3         A. oral
Type: F              B. childhood
                     C. latency
                     D. anal

Answer: B      26.   Which of the following is not part of the personality as proposed by Freud?
Page: 31             A. superego
Guidepost: 3         B. libido
Type: F              C. id
                     D. ego

Answer: A      27.   According to Freud, the part of the personality that operates on the “pleasure
Page: 31             principle” (seeking the immediate gratification of desires) is the
Guidepost: 8         A. id
Type: F              B. ego
                     C. superego
                     D. ego ideal

Answer: B      28.   According to Freud, the part of the personality that operates on the “reality principle”
Page: 31             (realistically finding ways to obtain gratification) is the
Guidepost: 3         A. id
Type: F              B. ego
                     C. superego
                     D. conscience

Answer: C      29.   Tanika, a rather demonstrative seven-year old, hits her brother for laughing at her, and
Page: 31             feels guilty about it afterward. According to Freud, these feelings reflect the
Guidepost: 3         operation of the
Type: C              A. id
                     B. ego
                     C. superego
                     D. defense mechanism

Answer: C      30.   Which one of the following psychosexual stages would be most similar to what is
Page: 31             called “conscience?”
Guidepost: 3         A. id

                                               14
Type:   C            B. ego
                     C. superego
                     D. libido

Answer: C      31.   Children see themselves as separate from the outside world when
Page: 31             A. needs and desires are immediately satisfied
Guidepost: 3         B. super-ego incorporates “shoulds”
Type: F              C. gratification is delayed
                     D. the pleasure principle is operating

Answer: A      32.   One of the arguments about Freud’s work is that he developed his theories about
Page: 32             normal or typical development from his experiences with
Guidepost: 3         A. middle class women in therapy
Type: C              B. poor children in Vienna
                     C. men in the Victorian age
                     D. his mother

Answer: A      33.   Unlike Freud’s theory, Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development
Page: 32             A. sees society as a positive force
Guidepost: 3         B. focuses on biological instincts
Type: C              C. covers infancy and childhood but not adulthood
                     D. has much in common with behaviorism

Answer: B      34.   Each of Erikson’s stages involved a major developmental issue that is particularly
Page: 33             important at that time, which he called a __________ in personality.
Guidepost: 3         A. trauma
Type: C              B. crisis
                     C. maturation
                     D. phase

Answer: A      35.   Erikson thought that there needed to be a __________ between the positive and
Page: 33             negative traits that emerged from the resolution of the crisis at each stage of
Guidepost: 3         psychosocial development.
Type: C              A. balance
                     B. skewing toward the positive
                     C. skewing toward the negative
                     D. synthesis

Answer: C      36.   Pauline is in her fourth stage of development according to the developmental stage
Page: 33             theory that Erikson put forth. Under normal conditions, if Pauline lives into old age,
Guidepost: 3         how many stages will she ultimately participate in
Type: F              A. 3
                     B. 5
                     C. 8
                     D. 12

Answer: A      37.   According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, the first stage of development, that
Page: 33             occurs during infancy is
Guidepost: 3         A. trust verses mistrust
Type: F              B. autonomy verses state of doubt
                     C. initiative verses guilt
                     D. industry verses inferiority

Answer: D      38.   According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, a teenage girl would be facing what

                                               15
Page: 33             crisis?
Guidepost: 3         A. intimacy versus isolation
Type: F              B. integrity versus despair
                     C. industry versus inferiority
                     D. identity versus identity confusion

Answer: B      39.   An example of Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt would be
Page: 33             A. an infant learning that she can depend on being fed
Guidepost: 3         B. a 3-year-old trying to fill a cup with water and cheerfully wiping up the water
Type: C                  when it spills
                     C. a 7-year-old learning to read fluently
                     D. a teenager conforming to peer pressure

Answer: C      40.   Freuds research stressed the importance of
Page: 31             A. conscious behavior
Guidepost: 3         B. the role of heredity in parenting
Type: F              C. ways in which early behavior relationships affect later ones
                     D. the uselessness in recalling childhood experiences

Answer: B      41.   The successful outcome of each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages is the development
Page: 33             of the particular virtue of
Guidepost: 3         A. identity
Type: F              B. wisdom
                     C. trust
                     D. integrity

Answer: D      42.   In contrast with Freud, Erikson placed more emphasis on
Page: 33             A. physical development
Guidepost: 3         B. intellectual development
Type: F              C. role of parents
                     D. social and cultural influences

Answer: C      43.   A long-lasting change in behavior as a result of experience or adaptation to its
Page: 33             environment is called
Guidepost: 3         A. modification
Type: F              B. cognition
                     C. learning
                     D. behaviorism

Answer: A      44.   Behaviorists are most concerned with
Page: 33             A. measurable, observable behaviors
Guidepost: 3         B. unconscious determination of behaviors
Type: F              C. development of intelligence
                     D. personality conflicts between parents and children

Answer: B      45.   According to the _________ perspective, people are like machines, reacting
Page: 33             automatically to external stimuli.
Guidepost: 3         A. organismic
Type: F              B. behavioristic
                     C. psychoanalytic
                     D. humanistic

Answer: B      46.   Which perspective emphasizes the influence of the environment rather than thought
Page: 33             processes or unconscious fantasies?

                                               16
Guidepost: 3   A.   psychoanalytic
Type: F        B.   learning
               C.   organismic
               D.   humanistic




                                     17
Answer: D      47.   Behaviorists maintain that human behavior is determined by
Page: 33             A. defense mechanisms
Guidepost: 3         B. self-actualization
Type: F              C. unconscious conflicts
                     D. conditioning

Answer: A      48.   Which one of the following is not a type of associative learning?
Page: 33             A. learning conditioning
Guidepost: 3         B. classical conditioning
Type: C              C. behavior conditioning
                     D. operant conditioning

Answer: A      49.   In classical conditioning, an association is learned between
Page: 33             A. an unconditioned stimulus and a conditioned stimulus
Guidepost: 3         B. an operant response and a reinforcer
Type: C              C. a conditioned stimulus and an operant response
                     D. an internal stimulus and an external stimulus

Answer: A      50.   One of the earliest and most famous examples of classical conditioning in human
Page: 34             development was done by __________ with “Little Albert.”
Guidepost: 3         A. John B. Watson
Type: F              B. Ivan Pavlov
                     C. B.F. Skinner
                     D. Edward Thorndike

Answer: B      51.   The principles of classical conditioning were developed by
Page: 33             A. John B. Watson
Guidepost: 3         B. Ivan Pavlov
Type: F              C. B. F. Skinner
                     D. Edward Thorndike

Answer: A      52.   A girl receives an injection and cries. Each time she receives an injection again, the
Page: 33             same nurse gives it. Her mother notices that the child now cries when she sees this
Guidepost: 3         nurse even if no injection is given. This is an example of
Type: C              A. classical conditioning
                     B. operant conditioning
                     C. fixation
                     D. negative reinforcement

Answer: C      53.   The psychologist who formulated the principles of operant conditioning was
Page: 34             A. John B. Watson
Guidepost: 3         B. Sidney Pressey
Type: F              C. B. F. Skinner
                     D. Ivan Pavlov

Answer: B      54.   The principle that an organism will repeat behaviors when these behaviors are
Page: 34             reinforced is called
Guidepost: 3         A. classical conditioning
Type: F              B. operant conditioning
                     C. pleasure principle
                     D. reality principle



                                               18
Answer: B      55.   A consequence of any behavior that increases the likelihood of that behavior being
Page: 34             repeated is called
Guidepost: 3         A. punishment
Type: F              B. reinforcement
                     C. aversive event
                     D. classical conditioning

Answer: B      56.   Punishment __________ a behavior by bringing on an__________event.
Page: 34             A. increases; aversive
Guidepost: 3         B. suppresses; aversive
Type: C              C. suppresses; positive
                     D. increases; negative

Answer: B      57.   Reinforcement is most effective when it is __________ after the behavior it is
Page: 34             designed to reinforce.
Guidepost: 3         A. delayed
Type: F              B. immediately
                     C. constant
                     D. aversive

Answer: D      58.   An example of negative reinforcement is
Page: 34             A. saying no
Guidepost: 3         B. spanking
Type: C              C. cutting off a child’s allowance
                     D. shutting off a loud, unpleasant sound

Answer: C      59.   Edwin is learning to ride his bike. Each time that he rides onto the gravel driveway
Page: 34             he looses control of the bike and falls. Eventually Edwin will no longer ride in the
Guidepost: 3         driveway. This example represents the learning process of
Type: C              A. negative reinforcement
                     B. intermittent reinforcement
                     C. punishment
                     D. conditioning

Answer: B      60.   Sandro’s father gives him a “high five” every time he feeds his dog without being
Page: 34             reminded. This results in more regular dog feeding. However, when his father cuts
Guidepost: 3         back on the “high fives” Sandro’s dog feeding behavior gradually becomes less
Type: C              frequent. The weakening of the dog feeding behavior is called
                     A. intermittent reinforcement
                     B. extinction
                     C. punishment
                     D. negative reinforcement

Answer: C      61.   The use of operant conditioning to modify or shape human behavior is called
Page: 34             A. classical conditioning
Guidepost: 3         B. punishment
Type: C              C. behavior modification
                     D. reinforcement

Answer: D      62.   The principles of social-learning theory were developed by
Page: 35             A. B. F. Skinner
Guidepost: 3         B. Carl Rogers
Type: F              C. John B. Watson

                                              19
                     D. Albert Bandura

Answer: B      63.   According to social-learning theory, the most important element in how children learn
Page: 35             a language, deal with aggression, develop a sense of morality, and learn gender-
Guidepost: 3         appropriate behavior is
Type: C              A. classical conditioning
                     B. observation and imitation
                     C. punishment of inappropriate behavior
                     D. shaping of appropriate behavior

Answer: A      64.   When children choose the models they want to imitate, they are demonstrating that
Page: 35             social-learning is
Guidepost: 3         A. active
Type: F              B. passive
                     C. unpredictable
                     D. conditional

Answer: B      65.   A combination of conditioning and modeling that can be used to eliminate
Page: 35             undesirable behavior and encourage socially desirable behavior is referred to as
Guidepost:3          A. social learning theory
Type: C              B. applied behavioral analysis
                     C. self-efficacy
                     D. social cognitive theory

Answer: A      66.   ____________develops as children gradually establish guidelines for judging their
Page: 35             own actions and select models who exemplify these guidelines
Guidepost: 3         A. Social cognitive theory
Type: C              B. Applied behavioral analysis
                     C. Social learning theory
                     D. self-efficacy

Answer: A      67.   The perspective on human behavior that is concerned with thought processes and the
Page: 35             behavior that reflects those processes is called the __________ perspective.
Guidepost: 3         A. cognitive
Type: F              B. thinking
                     C. behavioral
                      D. intellectual

Answer: D      68.   The researcher who is best known for his theory of cognitive development is
Page: 35             A. Abraham Maslow
Guidepost: 3         B. Sigmund Freud
Type: F              C. Erik Erikson
                     D. Jean Piaget

Answer: C      69.   The cognitive perspective of Piaget makes which two major points?
Page: 35-36          A. People are controlled by the environment, and behavior develops in a specific
Guidepost: 3             order.
Type: F              B. People are active in their development, and behavior is random at any
                         developmental stage.
                     C. People are active in their development, and behavior develops in a specific order.
                     D. People are controlled by the environment, and behavior is random at any
                         developmental stage.



                                               20
Answer: A      70.   Which of the following is not one of the cognitive stages through which a child
Page: 35             progresses as theorized by Jean Piaget?
Guidepost: 3         A. locomotion
Type: C              B. sensorimotor
                     C. preoperational
                     D. concrete operations

Answer: B      71.   Piaget’s use of questions and flexible exploration of a child’s responses is known as
Page: 35             the __________ method.
Guidepost: 3         A. Socratic
Type: F              B. clinical
                     C. field observation
                     D. interview

Answer: D      72.   Which of the following is not one of the interrelated principles that explains the
Page: 36             gradual development of a child’s mental processes?
Guidepost: 3         A. organization
Type: F              B. adaptation
                     C. equilibration
                     D. cognition

Answer: D      73.   Piaget’s term for the process of taking information and incorporating it into existing
Page: 36             ways of thinking is
Guidepost: 3         A. schematization
Type: F              B. shaping
                     C. accommodation
                     D. assimilation

Answer: C      74.   The process by which a minority group gradually becomes similar to the majority
Page: 36             group, yet preserving many of its own cultural practices and values, is called
Guidepost: 3         A. assimilation
Type: F              B. modification
                     C. acculturation
                     D. adaptation

Answer: A      75.   The process by which a minority group gradually adopts the ways of the majority
Page: 36             group is called
Guidepost: 3         A. assimilation
Type: C              B. modification
                     C. acculturation
                     D. adaptation

Answer: A      76.   From Piaget’s perspective, a child who alters her behavior to more effectively deal
Page: 36             with a new situation is exhibiting
Guidepost: 3         A. accommodation
Type: F              B. primary process thinking
                     C. assimilation
                     D. generalization

Answer: B      77.   According to Piaget, what is the primary force that leads children to change their
Page: 36             ways of thinking to adapt to new experiences?
Guidepost: 3         A. a need for satisfaction of id impulses
Type: C              B. a need for equilibrium

                                               21
                     C. a need for a stable sense of identity
                     D. a need for approval from parents

Answer: B      78.   It is important for parents and teachers to understand how children think so they can
Page: 36             more effectively _________ them.
Guidepost: 3         A. discipline
Type: C              B. teach
                     C. organize
                     D. manage

Answer: B      79.   Piaget’s formal operations stage does not account for the capacity to
Page: 37             A. develop practical problem solving skills
Guidepost: 3         B. deal with ambiguous situations
Type: C              C. deal with competing truths
                     D. all of the above

Answer: C      80.   Which of the following is not a criticism of Piaget’s theory of development?
Page: 37             A. It pays little attention to emotional development.
Guidepost: 3         B. It pays little attention to the influence of education on intellectual development.
Type: F              C. It overestimates the cognitive abilities of young children.
                     D. It does not say much about individual differences in ability.

Answer: D      81.   A major distinction between Piaget’s developmental theory and the information
Page: 37             processing approach is that
Guidepost: 3         A. Piaget sees development as continuous whereas the information processing
Type: F                  approach views development as occurring in distinct stages.
                     B. Piaget sees development as an active process whereas the information processing
                         view sees the organism as passive.
                     C. Piaget focused on perception whereas the information processing approach
                         focuses on thinking and memory.
                     D. Piaget sees development as occurring in stages whereas the information
                         processing approach sees development as continuous.

Answer: B      82.   The information-processing approach to explaining cognitive development compares
Page: 37             the brain to a __________; sensory impressions go in and behavior comes out.
Guidepost: 3         A. calculator
Type: F              B. computer
                     C. modem
                     D. telephone

Answer: D      83.   Which of the following best explains the Neo-Piagetian perspective on cognitive
Page: 37             development?
Guidepost: 3         A. It emphasizes the efficiency with which information is processed.
Type: C              B. It explains individual differences in cognitive ability.
                     C. It explains how qualitative changes in cognition take place.
                     D. All of these are part of the Neo-Piagetian perspective.

Answer: B      84.   Emphasis of the cognitive neuroscience approach to the study of human
Page: 37             cognition focuses on the
Guidepost: 3         A. mind
Type: F              B. brain
                     C. nerves
                     D. neurotransmitters


                                               22
Answer: B      85.   Data from the disciplines of cognitive neuroscience, social psychology, and
Page: 38             information processing have united in the emerging field of
Guidepost: 3         A. social learning theory
Type: F              B. social-cognitive neuroscience
                     C. physiological psychology
                     D. ethological psychology

Answer: D      86.   Which perspective emphasizes the idea that species-specific behaviors enhance the
Page: 38             survival of that species?
Guidepost: 3         A. behavioristic
Type: F              B. social-cognitive
                     C. contextual
                     D. ethological

Answer: B      87.   In the 1930s, two European geologists Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen developed
Page: 38             the scientific discipline of ______________, the study of the behavior of species of
Guidepost: 3         animals.
Type: C              A. evolution
                     B. ethology
                     C. bioecology
                     D. cognitive neuroscience

Answer: B      88.   In the 1950s, the British psychologist __________, extended ethological principles
Page: 38             to the study of human development, focusing attention on the mother-infant bond and
Guidepost: 3         the bonding process that produces attachment.
Type: F              A. Mary Ainsworth
                     B. John Bowlby
                     C. Konrad Lorenz
                     D. Niko Tinbergen

Answer: B      89.   The social worker assigned to monitor the mother and baby workshop claims that
Page: 38             attachment between an infant and caregiver must occur during a critical period to
Guidepost: 3         insure normal development. Which developmental perspective does the social worker
Type: C              support with this statement?
                     A. behavioristic
                     B. ethological
                     C. psychoanalytic
                     D. informative-processing

Answer: B      90.   According to the __________ perspective, development can be understood only when
Page: 39             individual behavior is observed when interacting with the environment.
Guidepost: 3         A. environmental
Type: F              B. contextual
                     C. interactive
                     D. behavioral

Answer: C      91.   Which perspective emphasizes the relationship between an individual’s behavior and
Page: 39             the environment.
Guidepost: 3         A. behavioristic
Type: F              B. ethological
                     C. contextual
                     D. psychoanalytic


                                              23
Answer: C      92.   Which American psychologist developed the bio-ecological perspective, which
Page: 39             involves five interlocking contextual systems; from the most intimate to the most
Guidepost: 3         distant?
Type: F              A. Vygotsky
                     B. Pavlov
                     C. Bronfenbrenner
                     D. Piaget

Answer: A      93.   Dr. Bianchi is studying the way in which infant siblings interact with one another in
Page: 39             the home. According to the ecological approach, Dr. Bianchi is studying the children
Guidepost: 3         in their
Type: C              A. microsystem
                     B. mesosystem
                     C. exosystem
                     D. macrosystem

Answer: B      94.   Dr. Gaipo, who employs the ecological approach to human development, is studying
Page: 40             the relationship between the quality of parent-child interactions in the home, and the
Guidepost: 3         success of children in school. Dr. Gaipo is studying development at the __________
Type: C              level of environmental influence.
                     A. microsystem
                     B. mesosystem
                     C. exosystem
                     D. macrosystem

Answer: D      95.   The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe has significantly altered most
Page: 41             government institutions there. This would reflect a change in people’s __________
Guidepost: 3         according to the ecological approach.
Type: C              A. microsystem
                     B. mesosystem
                     C. endosystem
                     D. macrosystem

Answer: B      96.   Professor Carney studies how frequent moves from one town to another can influence
Page: 41             children’s emotional development over time. According to the ecological approach,
Guidepost: 3         Professor Carney is studying the __________ of children.
Type: C              A. exosystem
                     B. chronosystem
                     C. macrosystem
                     D. minisystem

Answer: C      97.   Sociocultural theory, developed by __________, stresses children’s active
Page: 42             involvement with their environment as the process by which they acquire cognitive
Guidepost: 3         skills.
Type: F              A. Bronfenbrenner
                     B. Piaget
                     C. Vygotsky
                     D. Mead

Answer: D      98.   The concept of the “zone of proximal development” is associated with which
Page: 42             theorist?
Guidepost: 3         A. Freud
Type: F              B. Miller

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                      C. Lorenz
                      D. Vygotsky

Answer: C      99.    ________________ refers to the temporary support a child is given while learning a
Page: 43              task until he/she is capable of going it alone.
Guidepost: 3          A. social interaction
Type: F               B. contextual influence
                      C. scaffolding
                      E. social support

Answer: C      100.   Miguel is almost, but not quite able to write the letter “M.” His dad says, “I will help
Page: 43              you a little this time, but next time you have to try it on your own.” According to
Guidepost: 3          Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, Miguel’s dad is engaging in
Type: C               A. intermittent reinforcement
                      B. imprinting
                      C. scaffolding
                      D. equilibration

Answer: A      101.   Daniel can almost, but not quite, tie his shoes. He needs a small amount of assistance
Page: 42              from his parents. According to sociocultural theory, Daniel is in the
Guidepost: 3          A. zone of proximal development
Type: C               B. sensorimotor stage
                      C. stage of basic trust versus mistrust
                      D. period of intermittent reinforcement

Answer: D      102.   Which theory of human development is universally accepted as the theory that best
Page: 43              explains all facets of development?
Guidepost: 3          A. psychoanalytic
Type: C               B. behavioristic
                      C. sociocultural
                      D. no one theory is able to do this

Answer: D      103.   The scientific method, as applied in any field of study, is based on all but which of
Page: 43              the following essential elements?
Guidepost: 4          A. observation and recording of data
Type: F               B. testing of alternative hypotheses
                      C. widespread public dissemination of results
                      D. application of findings

Answer: B      104.   Research hypotheses have their origin in __________ which reflect the theoretical
Page: 43              orientation of the researcher.
Guidepost: 4          A. speculation
Type: F               B. theories
                      C. data
                      E. experience

Answer: D      105.   When conducting research, scientists will typically measure a __________, and
Page: 44              generalize the results to a
Guidepost: 4          A. cohort; sample
Type: F               B. non-normative group; normative group
                      C. population; sample
                      D. sample; population



                                                25
Answer: C      106.   One of the most reliable sampling methods is the use of __________, which
Page: 45              increases the likelihood that the sample is representative of the population.
Guidepost: 4          A. representative selection
Type: F               B. random assignment
                      C. random selection
                      D. random sample

Answer: D      107.   Which of the following is not an example of a self-report technique?
Page: 45              A. questionnaire
Guidepost: 4          B. diary or log
Type: F               C. interview
                      D. observation

Answer: C      108.   A problem associated with the interview method is that
Page: 46              A. data is gathered from only a few people
Guidepost: 4          B. a single interview may give only a partial picture
Type: F               C. people are not always accurate or honest in answering questions
                      D. interview reports may need to be confirmed by more objective research

Answer: C      109.   One commonly used type of a written interview is a
Page: 46              A. diary
Guidepost: 4          B. case study
Type: F               C. questionnaire
                      D. all of the above

Answer: D      110.   An open-ended interview is
Page: 46              A. most often used in quantitative research
Guidepost: 4          B. is less flexible than a structured interview
Type: F               C. does not allow for follow-up questions
                      D. allows the interviewer to vary the topics and order of questions

Answer: B      111.   When a researcher decides to travel with the circus in order to observe the performers
Page: 46              without altering the environment they live and work in the research is
Guidepost: 4          A. a laboratory observation
Type: F               B. a naturalistic observation
                      C. quantitative research
                      D. a natural experiment

Answer: B      112.   The primary difference between a naturalistic observation and a laboratory
Page: 46              observation is the degree of
Guidepost: 4          A. manipulation
Type: F               B. control
                      C. involvement
                      D. there is no difference

Answer: C      113.   Professor Bailey watches Mavis closely through a one-way mirror as she participates
Page: 46              in her social studies class. This is an example of what research method?
Guidepost: 4          A. clinical study
Type: C               B. case study
                      C. naturalistic observation
                      D. laboratory observation



                                                26
Answer: D      114.   A disadvantage of the use of naturalistic observation is that they
Page: 46              A. study only infancy
Guidepost: 4          B. omit emotional development
Type: C               C. record only cognitive development
                      D. are prone to observer bias

Answer: C      115.   Which of the following is not a problem associated with observational studies?
Page: 47              A. They cannot determine cause and effect relationships.
Guidepost: 4          B. The subjects may behave differently when they know they are being observed.
Type: C               C. It is not possible to gain information regarding relationships between variables.
                      D. Laboratory studies may not generalize to real life.

Answer: A      116.   A plan for conducting a scientific investigation is called a
Page: 47              A. research design
Guidepost: 4          B. hypothetical study
Type: F               C. scientific project
                      D. research grant

Answer: B      117.   In-depth studies of individuals are called
Page: 48              A. naturalistic observation
Guidepost: 4          B. case studies
Type: F               C. interviews
                      D. experiments

Answer: D      118.   In developing his psychoanalytic theory, Freud studied several individuals in great
Page: 48              detail for an extended period of time. This technique is referred to as the
Guidepost: 4          __________ approach.
Type: C               A. laboratory observation
                      B. interview
                      C. experimental
                      D. case study

Answer: B      119.   An in-depth case study of a culture or sub culture is an __________ study.
Page: 49              A. enculturation
Guidepost: 4          B. ethnographic
Type: F               C. acculturation
                      D. ethnic

Answer: B      120.   Cross-cultural research enables researchers to study how human development is
Page: 49              universal and
Guidepost: 4          A. environmental
Type: F               B. cultural
                      C. idiographic
                      D. abnormal

Answer: B      121.   If a researcher sought to find out if a statistical relationship exists between variables,
Page: 48              a(n) __________ study would probably be the most likely research design.
Guidepost: 4          A. relationship
Type: F               B. correlational
                      C. experimental
                      D. case study



                                                 27
Answer: D      122.   A researcher studies the relationship between family, income, and achievement
Page: 48              motivation. A correlation of +1.20 is found. From this, the researcher can conclude
Guidepost: 4          that
Type: C               A. other variables must be negatively correlated with family income
                      B. high income causes high achievement motivation
                      C. increases in income predict higher achievement motivation
                      D. an error was made in calculating the correlation

Answer: B      123.   Dr. Liefeld has studied the relationship between the amount of time children spend
Page: 48              playing video games and their academic performance in school. She finds that as
Guidepost: 4          time spent playing video games increases, grades in school decrease. This finding
Type: C               represents
                      A. a positive correlation
                      B. a negative correlation
                      C. a variable interaction
                      D. a case study approach

Answer: B      124.   Suppose you asked the following two questions of a group of 100 children: How
Page: 48              much time do your parents spend reading to you each day, and what are your grades
Guidepost: 4          in school? You find that children whose parents read to them for more than one hour
Type: C               each day have better grades than children whose parents read to them for only a few
                      minutes each day. What could you conclude from this pattern of data?
                      A. Reading by parents causes children to do better in school.
                      B. Parental reading time and grades are positively correlated.
                      C. Parental reading time and grades are uncorrelated.
                      D. Better students cause their parents to spend more time reading to them.

Answer: B      125.   A strong correlation between variables does not necessarily mean that one variable
Page: 48              __________ the other.
Guidepost: 4          A. determines
Type: F               B. causes
                      C. results from
                      D. negates

Answer: A      126.   The subjects who receive the treatment or independent variable in an experimental
Page: 50              study are called the
Guidepost: 4          A. experimental group
Type: F               B. control group
                      C. dependent group
                      D. independent group

Answer: B      127.   A controlled procedure in which the experimenter manipulates variables to learn how
Page: 50              one affects another is a(n)
Guidepost: 4          A. manipulation
Type: F               B. experiment
                      C. research study
                      D. correlation

Answer: A      128.   The word “manipulation” is most strongly associated with the __________
Page: 50              technique.
Guidepost: 4          A. experimental
Type: C               B. correlational
                      C. case study

                                               28
                      D. interview

Answer: B      129.   The subjects who do not receive the treatment or independent variable in an
Page: 50              experimental study are called the
Guidepost: 4          A. experimental group
Type: F               B. control group
                      C. dependent group
                      D. independent group

Answer: C      130.   The treatment in an experiment is called the
Page: 50              A. experimental group
Guidepost: 4          B. control group
Type: F               C. independent variable
                      D. dependent variable

Answer: D      131.   In an experiment, Professor Daley manipulates the __________ and then looks for
Page: 50              an effect of that manipulation by measuring the
Guidepost: 4          A. dependent variable; independent variable
Type: C               B. control variable; experimental variable
                      C. experimental variable; control variable
                      D. independent variable; dependent variable

Answer: C      132.   In an experiment, one group of children are given a drink each day with a special
Page: 50              vitamin supplement. A second group of children are given the same drink but without
Guidepost: 4          the vitamins. Later, all children are given an IQ test to see if the vitamins had an
Type: C               effect on intelligence. In this experiment, the children’s scores on the IQ test would
                      be the
                      A. independent variable
                      B. cross-sequential variable
                      C. dependent variable
                      D. control variable

Answer: A      133.   In a study of the effects of behavior modeling, one group of children observes role
Page: 50              models who share toys; another group observes role models whose behavior is neutral
Guidepost: 4          (neither initiating sharing nor refusing to share). What is the independent variable?
Type: C               A. observing role models who share or don’t share
                      B. observing negative role models
                      C. group with neutral role models
                      D. group with sharing role models

Answer: A      134.   A group of children is given special training in how to handle their anger. A second
Page: 50              group is treated the same as the first group except for the fact that these subjects do
Guidepost: 8          not receive the special training. The group given the training is the __________ and
Type: C               the group given no training the
                      A. experimental group; control group
                      B. control group; experimental group
                      C. dependent group; independent group
                      D. independent group; dependent group

Answer: D      135.   The chief advantage of experimental methods is that they are
Page: 50              A. more flexible than other methods
Guidepost: 4          B. more generalizable than other methods
Type: F               C. more descriptive of real-life events
                      D. better able to determine cause and effect

                                                29
30
Answer: B      136.   Experimenters can ensure results that are representative of a given population
Page: 51              through
Guidepost: 4          A. random selection
Type: F               B. random assignment
                      C. controlling for all relevant variables
                      D. convenience sampling

Answer: C      137.   A researcher who studies twins accidentally separated at birth and reared in different
Page: 52              environments is using a
Guidepost: 4          A. laboratory experiment
Type: C               B. field experiment
                      C. natural experiment
                      D. correlational experiment

Answer: A      138.   Dr. Saroff is hopeful that her research results will be verified by others through
Page: 52              replication. If she wishes her work to have maximum replicability, what research
Guidepost: 4          technique should she use?
Type: C               A. natural experiment
                      B. laboratory experiment
                      C. case study
                      D. cross-sectional naturalistic observation

Answer: A      139.   The greatest difference between a laboratory experiment and a field experiment is the
Page: 52              degree of
Guidepost: 4          A. control
Type: C               B. manipulation
                      C. random assignment
                      D. correlation

Answer: D      140.   Which of the following is a shortcoming of the laboratory experimental approach to
Page: 52              understanding human development?
Guidepost: 4          A. It is often difficult to randomly assign subjects to different treatment conditions.
Type: C               B. Experiments rarely inform us about cause-and-effect relationships.
                      C. This technique does not work well for the study of aggression.
                      D. The results may not be applicable outside the experimental situation.

Answer: B      141.   Dr. Ellie Cheetham follows the same group of children over a 10-year period,
Page: 53              measuring their performance twice a year. This is which method of data collection?
Guidepost: 4          A. cross-sectional
Type: C               B. longitudinal
                      C. cross-sequential
                      D. clinical

Answer: A      142.   Professor Bingham measures the cognitive skills of 100 30-year-olds and compares
Page: 53              them with 100 50-year-olds. This is an example of which method?
Guidepost: 4          A. cross-sectional
Type: C               B. longitudinal
                      C. cross-sequential
                      D. clinical




                                                31
Answer: A      143.   Which type of study is time-consuming, expensive, and has problems associated with
Page: 53              attrition?
Guidepost: 4          A. longitudinal
Type: F               B. cross-sectional
                      C. cross-sequential
                      D. clinical

Answer: A      144.   Suppose your psychology professor asks you to do a study examining how emotional
Page: 53              reactions change in children between the ages of three and 12 years. Given that the
Guidepost: 4          study needs to be completed in less then two weeks, which type of quasi-
Type: C               experimental method should you employ?
                      A. cross-sectional
                      B. longitudinal
                      C. cross-sequential
                      D. ethological

Answer: A      145.   Which studies have the greatest difficulty with the loss of subjects?
Page: 53              A. longitudinal
Guidepost: 4          B. cross-sectional
Type: F               C. clinical
                      D. case history

Answer: B      146.   Cohort differences are a problem for which kind of studies?
Page: 53-54           A. time-sampling
Guidepost: 4          B. cross-sectional
Type: F               C. cross-sequential
                      D. longitudinal

Answer: C      147.   Which of the following methods was designed to deal with the disadvantages of both
Page: 54              the longitudinal and cross-sectional designs?
Guidepost: 4          A. life-span sampling
Type: F               B. clinical
                      C. cross-sequential
                      D. behavior-sampling

Answer: B      148.   Professor Watt, studies the behavior of children whose parents divorced 6 months
Page: 54              before the children started school and children whose parents divorced 2 years before
Guidepost: 4          the children started school. Both groups of children are then followed and measured
Type: C               over the course of several years. This is which kind of design?
                      A. cross-sectional
                      B. cross-sequential
                      C. longitudinal
                      D. life-span sampling

Answer: D      149.   Research method that allows a researcher to study change in a compressed period
Page: 54-55           of time is called a __________ study.
Guidepost: 4          A. speeded-up
Type: F               B. squeezed
                      C. fast track
                      D. micro-genetic




                                                32
Answer: B                150.     Objections to Watson and Rayner’s study of __________, stimulated the American
Page: 55                          Psychological Association to establish more stringent ethical guidelines for research
Guidepost: 5                      studies that involved human subjects.
Type: C                           A. Fat Albert
                                  B. Little Albert
                                  C. Prince Albert
                                  D. Baby Albert

Answer: C                151.     Which of the following is not one of the ethical guidelines specified by the APA?
Page: 56                          A. right to privacy and confidentiality
Guidepost: 5                      B. right to informed consent
Type: C                           C. right to financial remuneration
                                  D. right to self esteem

Answer: B                152.     In Guidepost 5, the resolution of ethical problems in research is discussed. Which of
Page: 56                          the following is not one of the ethical principles mentioned?
Guidepost: 5                      A. beneficence
Type: C                           B. loyalty
                                  C. respect
                                  D. justice


Essay Questions

153.       Professor Carney has decided to investigate young people between the ages of ten and fifteen years of age
           who have been determined through the school or the court to violent offenders. He is interested in family
           factors that influence the development of children who choose violence in their early lives. He is also
           interested in the influences in a child’s environment that may play a part in his violent behavior.
          List the research methods available to Professor Carney and suggest the kinds of information that he would
           be able to obtain by using each of these methods.
          Discuss both the advantages and the disadvantages of using each of these methods in the investigation of
           this particular topic.

154.       Theoretical perspectives influence the questions that researchers ask, the methods they use and the ways
           they interpret their data. Therefore it is important to recognize the theoretical perspective on which the
           research is based.
          List and describe each of the five theoretical perspectives discussed in your text
          Select any developmental issue and explain how a person might look at the issue from each of the
           theoretical perspectives. (some suggested issues: eating disorders, family violence, sibling rivalry, drug
           abuse, gifted children, children with ADHD)




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