Study Guide for Chapter 1 What Is Personality

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					                        Study Aid for Part Two of Personality Psychology
Exam 2 will consist of 60-70 Questions: Please note that about 50-55 questions will be drawn from all areas of Chapters 4-7
of the textbook. About 6-8 questions will be focused on in-class material. An additional 3-5 of the questions will cover the
selections from the readings book (you should be able to get these without additional studying so long as you have read the

Please note that the textbook has a list of study questions at the conclusion of each chapter. You may also want to study the
glossary terms (in the margins of the textbook). In addition, you may find the list of topics below helpful to review (though
the list is not complete by itself).

    Study Guide for Chapter 4: Motivation and                          Study Guide for Chapter 5: Interior Selves;
                Emotion in Personality                                                   Interior Worlds
         The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you to        The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you to the
the motivational and emotion systems. From the chapter,            significance and nature of mental models of the self, the
you should learn what a motive is, how motives are                 world, and relationships. It also shows how these models
measured, some of the major motives, and what they                 can be assessed, and the expression in a person’s life.
predict. The chapter also explains the relation between            You should understand the major types of mental models
motives and emotions. In regard to emotion, you should             and their nature. In addition, you should be familiar with
understand what an emotion is, and what is function is, as         how models of the self, the world, and relationships are
understood by research in evolutionary psychology. You             assessed, and what is known about how they are
should understand the major approaches to measuring
emotion, the major dimensions of emotion, and how they
                                                                   What are Mental Models?
map onto the major dimensions of personality.
What Are Motives?                                                  …What does the term schema refer to?
…What is a motive, an instinct, a goal?                            …What is the difference between a script and a prototype?
 …Do you understand the major approaches to measuring              …Are models learned or innate?
motives?                                                           …Are models always applied accurately; if not, what sorts
…What is the nature of a projective test?                          of errors occur?
…What is the TAT                                                   …Do people always have the same models?
…What types of motives are measured by projective tests?           What Are Our Models of Ourselves?
…How does self-report of motives vary from this?                   …What are ideal and ought selves?
…What are forced-choice tests?                                     …What does it tell us about a person’s emotionality if
…What are three broad classes of motives studied today?            their ideal and actual self (or ought and actual self) are
…What is a person who is high in n Achievement like?               different?
…What about someone who is high in n Power, or n                   …What are possible selves…feared and desired selves?
Affiliation?                                                       …How do the possible selves of delinquents differ from
…What is known about the sex drive?                                the possible selves of college students?
…What are personal strivings?                                      …How do different possible selves influence recovery
…How do self-report and projective measures of motives             from loss?
compare?                                                           …Are there any unconscious selves?
                                                                   …What is self-efficacy…stories of the self?
What are Emotions and Why Are They Important?
                                                                   What Are Our Models of the World?
...Can you say what an emotion is?
…What is the relation between emotions and motives?                …How does formal education affect mental models and
…Do you know what Darwin thought about emotions?                   earnings?
…What sort of research did Paul Ekman carry out to                 …How do people learn and think about personality types?
support Darwin’s ideas?                                            …What did Mayer & Bower find in their study?
…How do dimensions of emotion map on to dimensions                 …What are archetypes?
of personality?                                                    …How do archetypes contribute to the appreciation of art?
…What dimensions of personality did Eysenck propose?               What Are Our Models of Relationships?
…How did this relate to an ancient Greek theory of                 …What are models of significant others?
personality?                                                       …What is Freud’s concept of transference?
…What do emotional traits predict?                                 …What is a Core Conflictual Relationship Theme?
What Are Happy People Like?                                        …What is the attachment system?
…What variables are most related to happiness?                     …What are the various attachment styles that are
                                                                   commonly studied?
…What is the difference between a role and a                     Study Guide for Chapter 7: The Conscious Self
relationship?                                                       The learning objectives of this chapter are to acquaint
…What is role structure theory (Hogan’s socioanalytic           you with two fundamental issues in the study of
theory)?                                                        psychology: the role of consciousness, on the one hand,
How Good Are Our Mental Models?                                 and the issue of free will versus determinism, on the other.
…What is constructive thinking and what characteristics         Those issues are then examined as they relate to agency
does it involve?                                                parts of personality. Agencies such as the self-as-knower
                                                                and the ego are examined, along with their characteristics
    Study Guide for Chapter 6: Mental Abilities                 and some thoughts about how they are expressed.
         Mental abilities are important to personality, in
part because society rewards those who have certain             What Is the Conscious Self?
mental abilities, moreso than others who do not share           …Know James’ self-as-knower
those capacities. For that reason, people high in mental        …Know Freud’s concept of the ego
abilities often have certain options that others do not have.   …What is the dialogical self?
         The intelligences are of importance because they       What Does it Mean for the Self to be Conscious?
contribute to planning, to understanding one’s mental           …what is “consciousness?” That is, what does the word
models of the self, world, and relationships (examined in       “consciousness” mean?
the last chapter), and to other areas of personality.           …what is sentience
         The aim of this chapter is to help you understand      …what is subjective realism?
what mental abilities are, how they are measured, and           …is consciousness of recent origin? Consider Julian
what they predict.                                              Jayne’s theory
What Is a Mental Ability?                                       …What is the bicameral mind?
…What is a mental ability?                                      Does the Self Possess Free Will?
What Are the Cognitive Intelligences?                           …What is free will?
…What are abstract and concrete reasoning?                      ….What is determinism?
…How has intelligence been defined?                             …Do religions emphasize free will or determinism?
…How does development relate to intelligence?                   …Is science on the side of free will or determinism?
…Who discovered the relationship between intelligence           …what is voluntary cause and control? How is willing
and development?                                                something to happen felt in Dan Wegner’s studies?
…What is a rate IQ and how is it calculated?                    Are There Alternatives to the Conscious Self?
…What is a mental age?                                          …What is an agency part of personality?
…Understand how Deviation IQ’s are calculated.                  …Dissociative identity disorders and the alter
…What are verbal, perceptual-organizational, and spatial        What part of the brain does the ego start to develop from?
intelligences?                                                  …the id and superego
…Understand the concepts of fluid and crystallized              How is the Conscious Self Expressed?
intelligence?                                                   ...Contents of consciousness such as qualia
…What is general intelligence?                                  ...current concerns
…What is the general range of IQ prediction to school           …What is flow and how do you enter a flow state?
grades? Why is IQ’s prediction to high school grades            …levels of consciousness…reflective consciousness
higher than its prediction of elementary school grades?         …self determination theory and intrinsic and extrinsic
(lecture)                                                       motivation
…What is the correlation between occupational prestige          …conscious control and its role in development
and average IQ in an occupation?
…Do people marry others similar in IQ?
What Are the Hot Mental Abilities?
…What is social intelligence?
…What is practical intelligence?
…How is emotional intelligence defined; what are its
major areas of skills?
…What does emotional intelligence predict?
What Is Creativity?
…What are verbal fluency...alternate uses…divergent
…What might cause creativity?
…How is creativity expressed?
Personality Traits Related to Creativity
...What is intellectual absorption?

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