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					                    UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO
                                Course Outline
                        PPSY 607 - Theories of Counseling
                                    Fall 2006
                              Dr. Lia Softas-Nall

Prerequisites: PPSY majors only

Instructor:    Lia Softas-Nall, Ph.D., Professor of Counseling Psychology
               Licensed Psychologist, Certified Counselor
               Office Phone: 351-1631        Email:

Credit Hours: 3

This course is designed for graduate students as an introduction to counseling and learning theories.
Major theories of counseling, learning, psychotherapy, and human development are covered, with an
emphasis on understanding the relationship between theory and counseling techniques.

Course Description:
The study and initial analysis of the major counseling theories and elements of effective
psychotherapy as they apply to the counseling process.


Corsini, R.J. & Wedding, D. (2005) Current Psychotherapies (7th Ed.) Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
(to be used with lectures and paper)

Corey, G. (2005) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (7th ed.). Belmont, CA:
(to be used with review questions)

Course Objectives:
   1. To provide you with information about the therapeutic process and practical elements of the
      counseling interaction.
   2. To expose you to a variety of ethical and professional issues in counseling and to guide you
      in developing a position on these issues.
   3. To discuss major theoretical approaches to counseling and learning.
   4. To introduce counseling techniques and implications of the various theoretical approaches to
   5. To conceptualize cases and identify specific strategies and interventions appropriate for
      clients’ issues.
   6. To raise issues of cultural diversity and multiculturalism related to theories of counseling and
      the therapeutic process.

A.    Helping Relationships- studies that provide an understanding of counseling and
      consultation processes, including (CACREP 22.K.5)
      1.    counselor [and consultant] characteristics and behaviors that influence
            helping processes including age, gender, and ethnic differences, verbal and
            nonverbal behaviors and personal characteristics, orientations, and skills.
            (CACREP 22.K.5.a --also addressed for consultation in 660)
      2.    counseling theories that provide the student with a consistent model(s) to
            conceptualize client presentation and select appropriate counseling
            interventions. Student experiences should include an examination of the
            historical development of counseling theories, an exploration of affective,
            behavioral, and cognitive theories, and an opportunity to apply the theoretical
            material to case studies. Students will also be exposed to models of
            counseling that are consistent with current professional research and practice
            in the field so that they can begin to develop a personal model of counseling.
            (CACREP K.5.c)
      3.     theories of personality development. (CACREP K.3.b) [learning theory
            addressed in EPSY 530.]
      4.    strategies for facilitating optimum development over the life-span. (CACREP
      5.    strategies for working with diverse populations and ethnic groups (CACREP
      6.    use of research to improve counseling effectiveness (CACREP 8.e)

B.    Application of appropriate modalities for initiating, maintaining, and terminating
      counseling, including the use of crisis intervention, and brief intermediate, and long
      term approaches.

  1. Application of a theoretical approach to conceptualize a client's situation, describing
     the counselor's role and appropriate strategies/techniques/interventions.
  2. Comparison of the philosophical assumptions and tenants of a theory with their own
     values, personality and skills.

1.  individual, couple, family, group, and community strategies for working with diverse
    populations and ethnic groups. (CACREP K.2.c)
2.  individual, couple, family, group, and community strategies for working with diverse
    populations and ethnic groups. (CACREP K.2.c)
3.  theories of multicultural counseling, theories of identity development, and
    multicultural competencies. (CACREP 22.K.2.e)
Obligations of the Student:
   1. Attend all sessions.
   2. Complete all required readings before each session (see required materials for each weekend
      in the schedule).
   3. Participate in group work and class discussions.
   4. Complete mid-term and final examinations.
   5. Write a case study paper and discuss it in class. Due the 2nd weekend. Presentations are
      informal and include discussion at the end.

 Letter Grade
 Each test counts 35% of total grade (review questions will be distributed in class).
 Paper 10%. More details the 1st day of class.
 Presentation 10%
 Participation in both small groups and large groups, and attendance count for 10% of total grade.
 Both exams will be multiple choice, about 100 questions each.
 For the class grade 92 – 100% = A, 84 – 92 % = B, 84 – 76% = C.

ACADEMIC CONDUCT: Cheating on examinations, submitting work of other students or authors as your
own, or plagiarism in any form will result in penalties ranging from an "F" on an assignment to expulsion
from the University.

PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT: Students are expected to adhere to the appropriate code of ethics for their
particular program. Any behavior that is deemed unethical will be grounds for dismissal from the program.

Students with disabilities who believe they may need accommodations in this class are encouraged to contact
the Disability Access Center at 970-351-2289 as soon as possible to better ensure that such accommodations
are implemented in a timely fashion.

Note: Faculty cannot discuss grades over the phone.
This is a tentative schedule. Changes may be made by the instructor.
1st Week End
    Ch. 1 – Introduction and Overview
    Ch. 2 – The Counselor: Person and Professional
    Ch. 3 – Ethical Issues in Counseling Practice
    Introduce case and outline for paper

Saturday: 9:00 am
   Ch. 4 – Psychoanalytic Therapy
   Ch. 5 – Adlerian Therapy
   Ch. 6 – Existential Therapy

Sunday: 9:00 am
    Ch. 7 – Person Centered Therapy
    Ch. 8 – Gestalt Therapy
    2:30 pm Mid-term over Chapters 1-8. You are expected to have read these chapters before
    class starts. In addition work on all attached review questions (100).
    Review questions for the 2nd weekend will be given to you at the end of the 1st weekend.
2nd Week End
    Ch. 9 – Reality Therapy
    Ch. 10 – Behavior Therapy

Saturday: 9:00 am
   Ch. 11 – Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
   Final Exam
   Ch. 12 – Feminist Therapy (review but not tested)
   Ch. 13 – Family Systems Therapy (review but not tested).
   Handout in class – Solution Focused Therapy

Sunday: 9:00 am
   Counseling with Children (review, no test)
   Presentations of Case Studies
   Paper Due
   Evaluations and Closure

You are expected to have read book chapters before you come to class.
                                      Theories of Counseling
                                       Review Questions
                                        Midterm Exam
                                       Dr. Lia Softas-Nall

1. It is especially important for counselors who work with culturally diverse client populations to

2. Which one of the following is not considered an experiential and relationship-oriented therapy?

3. Which one of the following is not associated with the cognitive-behavioral action-oriented

4. Which approach is rooted in a humanistic philosophy that emphasizes the basic attitudes of the
   therapist as the core of the therapeutic process?

5. The concept of the authentic counselor is best described as

6. In the text, the main reason given for having counseling students receive some form of
   psychotherapy is to help them to

7. Regarding the role of values in the counseling process, it is most accurate to state that

8. During an initial session, an adolescent girl tells you that she is pregnant and is considering an
   abortion. Which of the following would be the most ethical and professional course for you to

9. An ethnic minority client may be silent during the initial phase of counseling. This silence is
   probably best interpreted as

10. In working with culturally diverse clients, it helps to understand and assess

11. In becoming an ethical practitioner, the clear challenge is to

12. Most ethical codes state that dual relationships

13. Sex between a client and a therapist can be considered a form of

14. In a study of counselors dealing with sexual attractions toward clients (Pope, Keith-Spiegel, and
    Tabachnick, 1986), it was concluded that

15. In the same study cited above, many therapists reported

16. Confidentiality can be considered as

17. Confidentiality must be breached and information must be reported by practitioners when
18. If a therapist determines that a client is suicidal, then

19. Which of the following actions is appropriate when a counselor feels that he or she is
    unqualified to work with a particular client?

20. When taping a counseling session, it is important to

21. Which of the following is not advisable when working with a suicidal client?

22. Among the ethical issues related to cross-cultural counseling are the problems of

23. From a Freudian point of view, anxiety is best described as

24. A person who unconsciously exhibits overly nice behavior to conceal hostile feelings is
    probably using which ego defense?

25. One of the most important Freudian concepts, which consists of pushing unacceptable reality
    or painful material into the unconscious, is

26. A person who exhibits behavior that clearly shows signs of reverting to less mature stages is
    likely to be using which ego defense?

27. Attributing to others the qualities or traits that are unacceptable to our own ego is best described

28. The basic aim of psychoanalytic therapy is

29. A major characteristic of the psychoanalytic therapist is

30. Transference is viewed as

31. The technique whereby the analyst explains the meaning of certain behavior is known as

32. Manufacturing “good” reasons to explain away a bruised ego, or to explain away failures or
    losses, is known as

33. The ego defense mechanism that consists of masking perceived weaknesses or developing
    certain positive traits to make up for limitations is known as

34. The main function of the ego is

35. Which of the following is true about ego psychology (as compared with id psychology ) ?

36. If a person becomes fixated in the oral stage of development, later personality problems may
37. If an infant’s needs are not met, the infant will develop a sense of

38. The crisis involving initiative vs. guilt occurs during the

39. A person who is suffering from feelings of alienation and isolation has probably failed to
    achieve a sense of______during the______ stage of development.

40. All of the following are a part of Jung’s view of development except

41. Who developed the object-relations view that focuses on separation and individuation?

42. Countertransference refers to the

43. In object-relations theory, later relationships build upon

44. According to object-relations theory, the borderline personality disorder is rooted in which
    stage of development?

45. Narcissistic disorders seem to be rooted in traumas and developmental disturbances during
    which phase of development?

46. The techniques of psychoanalytic therapy are aimed at

47. According to Adler, childhood experiences

48. Adler believed that human behavior is

49. In Adlerian counseling, the client/therapist relationship is characterized by

50. The purpose of examining a client’s family constellation is

51. An Adlerian therapist would ask a client to give their earliest recollections in order to

52. Adler views dreams as

53. Adlerian therapy involves a phenomenological orientation. This means that the therapist
    attempts to view the world

54. When Adler spoke of individuality, he referred to

55. Which of the following aspects of family life are assessed when exploring a client’s family

56. In Adlerian therapy, immediacy refers to

57. The Adlerian technique known as “avoiding traps” involves
58. What is the purpose of the initial interview in Adlerian family counseling?

59. Which of the following can be considered a limitation of Adlerian therapy?

60. Who is primarily credited with popularizing and extending Adler’s work by applying Adlerian
    principles to group work?

61. Which child generally receives a good deal of attention, tends to be dependable and hard-
    working, and strives to keep ahead?

62. Which person is not associated with the existential movement?

63. The basic goal of existential theory is

64. According to the existential view, anxiety is seen as a

65. Which might be considered the most crucial quality of a therapist in building an effective
    therapeutic relationship with a client?

66. The existential therapist would probably agree that

67. Anxiety is the result of

68. The existential emphasis is based on

69. The notion of authorship states that we are authors of our life in the sense that we create our

70. A statement that best illustrates “bad faith” is:

71. According to the existentialists, anxiety is generated by

72. The person-centered view of human nature

73. Person-centered therapy is a form of

74. What is the central variable related to progress in person-centered therapy?

75. “Therapist congruence” is a term that refers to the therapist’s

76. Which statement(s) is (are) true of the person-centered approach?

77. Which of the following is not a key concept of the person-centered approach?

78. The person-centered therapist is best described as a
79. “Accurate empathic understanding” refers to the therapist’s ability to

80. Which technique(s) is (are) most often used in the person-centered approach?

81. Rogerian therapists would say that a client is in a state of incongruence if

82. The person-centered therapist’s most important function is

83. From Roger’s perspective the client/therapist relationship is characterized by

84. In the 1960’s and 1970’s Rogers did a great deal to spearhead the development of

85. Concerning research on psychotherapy, it can be said that Rogers

86. One of the limitations of the person-centered approach for counseling ethnic-minorities
    clients is

87. Gestalt therapy is a form of

88. Which of the following is not a key concept of Gestalt therapy?

89. According to Perls, the most frequent source of unfinished business is

90. The basic goal of Gestalt therapy is to assist the client to

91. The impasse is the point in therapy at which clients

92. The Gestalt therapist

93. Gestalt therapy can best be characterized as

94. A Gestalt technique that is most useful when a person attempts to deny an aspect of his or her
    personality (such as tenderness) is

95. The Gestalt approach to dreams

96. Gestalt techniques are aimed at

97. A limitation of Gestalt therapy is that

98. The Gestalt approach can be applied to

99. According to Gestalt theory, people use avoidance in order to

100. Perls saw anxiety as