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Putting the flute together — always avoid touching the keys while

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					Flute
Putting the flute together — always avoid touching the keys while you put the
instrument together!
1. Hold the middle joint at the top.
2. Gently twist the head joint into the middle joint, a little less than all the way in.
3. Line up the far side of the embouchure hold with the center of the first key.
4. Hold the bottom of the foot joint and the top of the middle joint and gently twist
the two together.
5. Adjust the foot joint so that your pinky can easily reach the keys without
straining.

How to hold the flute
1. Stand up straight or sit up straight towards the front of your chair. Put your left
foot forward a little. Hold the flute at the top of the middle joint with your left hand.
2. Place the lip plate on the head joint under your bottom lip without moving your
head to the flute. The keys should be parallel to the floor. The flute sticks out to the
right.
3. Shape your right hand like the letter C and put your thumb under the third to
last key on the middle joint; then bring it slightly back behind the tube.
4. Find the place on your left hand where your first finger meets your palm; put
that across from the thumb key on the middle joint.
5. You should be able to wiggle all your fingers except the right hand thumb
without dropping the flute. This will take some practice!

How to make a sound — Practice with just the head joint if you are beginning.
Part A — The flute embouchure
1. Close your mouth in a normal, neutral way.
2. Center the embouchure hole under right under your lower lip, so the lip rests on
the lip plate.
3. Curl your lower lip out slightly and bring your upper lip straight down, as if
you’re frowning just a little.
4. Blow a steady stream of air but use your lip and cheek muscles to keep the
opening between your lips as small as possible.
5. Make sure the flute is parallel to your lips. Use a mirror to help you.
Part B — tonguing
1. Say “ta.” Notice where your tongue hits to make the “t” sound. Keep saying it
until you can describe it.
2. Whisper ‘ta’ (use lots of air and make it breathy – very silly sounding!).
3. Make your flute embouchure without your flute and whisper ‘ta’ while
maintaining the embouchure; this time, don't use your vocal chords like you do
when you whisper, but still use a lot of air.
4. Do the same as 3, but with your flute, at which point you should get a nice note
beginning with a ‘t.’
5. Once this is comfortable, instead of placing the ‘t’ on the usual spot that you
found in item #1 above, try tonguing with your tongue hitting the bottom of your
upper teeth, slightly touching the back of your upper lip.

Putting your flute away
1. Take the flute apart and put the parts in the case.
2. Thread a small corner of the cleaning cloth through the hole in the swab, then
drape the rest of the cloth over the hole end.
3. Take each joint one at a time and swab it out.
4. Wipe off the tenons (the parts where the joints go together), both the inside and
outside parts.

For information about instrument care (including pictures):
http://www.zacharymusic.com/Zachary_Music/care.htm
Clarinet
Putting the clarinet together
Part A — everything except the reed, which goes in your mouth to soak right now!
1. Rub a tiny amount of cork grease on all the cork joints.
2. Gently twist the bell onto the lower section (the one with no keys hanging over
the cork).
3. Hold the lower section in your right hand making sure you don’t hold down any
open keys. Hold the upper section in your left (the one with the keys hanging over
the cork) and hold down the ring keys.
4. Gently twist the upper and lower sections together, lining up the two tabs. Don’t
rotate the sections all the way around or the tabs will ram into the key mechanisms.
5. Gently twist the barrel onto the upper section and the mouthpiece onto the
barrel, lining up the flat part of the mouthpiece with the thumb keys on the back.

Part B — putting on the reed.
1. Hold the clarinet gently between your knees so that you can look at the flat side
of the mouthpiece.
2. Put the ligature on the mouthpiece so that the screws are on the flat side.
Remember that the ligature is slightly narrower on the top than on the bottom. If it
seems like it doesn’t fit, flip it over.
3. Use one thumb to push the ligature up a little, so there is space at the top.
4. Take the reed, turn it so the flat side is towards the flat side of the mouthpiece,
and hold the thick end above the space you made at the top of the ligature. Slide it
under the ligature carefully and line it up with the top and sides of the mouthpiece.
Don’t touch the top of the reed to line it up.
5. Pull the ligature down so that the top of the ligature is just below the U in the
reed. Tighten the screws just a little.

How to hold the clarinet
1. Stand up straight or sit up straight towards the front of your chair. Do not rest
your elbows on anything.
2. Hold the clarinet by the barrel with your left hand.
3. Make a C with your right hand. Place the thumb rest on the back of the lower
section over your thumbnail. Keep your hand relaxed and your thumbnail facing
you. Let your fingers relax over the ring keys.
4. Make a C with your left hand. Place your thumb on the ring key on the back of
the upper joint. Let your fingers relax over the ring keys.
5. When you bring your clarinet to your mouth to play, make sure you do it
without moving your head to the clarinet.
How to make a sound
Part A — The clarinet embouchure
1. Say “oo” and pucker your lips extremely.
2. Put about 1-2cm of mouthpiece into your mouth and rest your top teeth firmly on
top of the mouthpiece.
3. Let the reed rest on your lower puckered lip. Keep your jaw relaxed and your
bottom teeth away from the reed.
4. Pucker even more, so there is a seal around the whole mouthpiece.
5. Blow a steady stream of air and use your cheek and lip muscles to keep your
cheeks flat, not puffed out.

Part B — tonguing
1. Say “ta.” Notice where your tongue hits to make the “t” sound. Keep saying it
until you can describe it.
2. Whisper ‘ta’ (use lots of air and make it breathy – very silly sounding!).
3. Make your clarinet embouchure without your clarinet and whisper ‘ta’ while
maintaining the embouchure; this time, don't use your vocal chords like you do
when you whisper, but still use a lot of air.
4. Do the same as 3, but with your clarinet, at which point you should get a nice
note beginning with a ‘t.’
5. Once this is comfortable, instead of placing the ‘t’ on the usual spot that you
found in item #1 above, try tonguing with the tip of your tongue touching the tip of
the reed.

Putting the clarinet away
1. Loosen the ligature and slide the reed out through the top. Dry the reed off and
put it away.
2. Remove the mouthpiece and wipe it out using a cloth and your fingers. Put it
back in the case.
3. Turn the clarinet upside down. Drop the weight at the end of the drop cloth
down the bell end and catch it when it comes out the other end.
4. Very gently pull the cloth through the instrument.
5. Take the sections apart and put them back in the case.

For information about instrument care (including pictures):
http://www.zacharymusic.com/Zachary_Music/care.htm
Saxophone
Putting the saxophone together
Part A — everything except the reed, which goes in your mouth to soak right now!
1. Put the neck strap around your neck and hook it to the back of the saxophone.
2. Hold the saxophone by the bell. Loosen the screw at the top.
3. Gently twist the neck onto the saxophone, holding the tiny key closed.
4. Rub a tiny amount of cork grease onto the cork on the neck.
5. Gently twist the mouthpiece onto the neck, with the flat side facing down.

Part B — putting on the reed.
1. Rest the saxophone with the front of the bell on your lap so that you can look at
the flat side of the mouthpiece.
2. Put the ligature on the mouthpiece so that the screws are on the flat side.
Remember that the ligature is slightly narrower on the top than on the bottom. If it
seems like it doesn’t fit, flip it over.
3. Use one thumb to push the ligature up a little, so there is space at the top.
4. Take the reed, turn it so the flat side is towards the flat side of the mouthpiece,
and hold the thick end above the space you made at the top of the ligature. Slide it
under the ligature carefully and line it up with the top and sides of the mouthpiece.
Don’t touch the top of the reed to line it up.
5. Pull the ligature down so that the top of the ligature is just below the U in the
reed. Tighten the screws just a little.

How to hold the saxophone
1. Stand up straight or sit up straight towards the front of your chair.
2. The alto saxophone should be positioned directly in front of your body; the
tenor should be positioned on the right side.
3. The right hand thumb goes under the hook on the back of the lower part of
saxophone. Only the top part of your thumb touches the instrument. Let your
fingers naturally relax over the keys.
4. Without moving your head towards the saxophone, tighten the neck strap so
that the mouthpiece points between your upper lip and your nose.

How to make a sound
Part A — The saxophone embouchure
1. Say “oo” and pucker your lips extremely.
2. Put about 1-2cm of mouthpiece into your mouth and rest your top teeth firmly on
top of the mouthpiece. It should almost feel like the saxophone is holding your
head up.
3. Let the reed rest on your lower puckered lip. Keep your jaw relaxed and your
bottom teeth away from the reed.
4. Pucker even more, so there is a seal around the whole mouthpiece.
5. Blow a steady stream of air and use your cheek and lip muscles to keep your
cheeks flat, not puffed out.

Part B — tonguing
1. Say “ta.” Notice where your tongue hits to make the “t” sound. Keep saying it
until you can describe it.
2. Whisper ‘ta’ (use lots of air and make it breathy – very silly sounding!).
3. Make your saxophone embouchure without your clarinet and whisper ‘ta’ while
maintaining the embouchure; this time, don't use your vocal chords like you do
when you whisper, but still use a lot of air.
4. Do the same as 3, but with your saxophone, at which point you should get a
nice note beginning with a ‘t.’
5. Once this is comfortable, instead of placing the ‘t’ on the usual spot that you
found in item #1 above, try tonguing with the tip of your tongue touching the tip of
the reed.

Putting the saxophone away
1. Loosen the ligature and slide the reed out through the top. Dry the reed off and
put it away.
2. Remove the mouthpiece and wipe it out using a cloth and your fingers. Put it
back in the case.
3. Remove the neck, drop the weight at the end of the drop cloth through the
larger end. You probably won’t be able to pull the cloth all the way through, so
leave some of the cloth sticking out the large end, so you can pull it back the other
way.
4. Turn the saxophone upside down. Drop the weight at the end of the drop cloth
down the bell end and catch it when it comes out the other end.
5. Very gently pull the cloth through the instrument, then put the instrument back in
the case.

For information about instrument care (including pictures):
http://www.zacharymusic.com/Zachary_Music/care.htm
Trumpet
Making sure the trumpet is ready to play:
1. If the valves need a little oil (every other day or so):
• Turn the trumpet upside down.
• Hold the valves down.
• Put 2-3 drops of valve oil through the little hole at the bottom of each valve.
• Gently pump the valves.

2. Once every two weeks or so, take the valves out to clean and oil them
thoroughly:
• Unscrew the first valve from the top of the valve, not the “button” you use to
press the valve down.
• Pull the valve out, wipe it with a rag, then apply a little oil all around the valve.
• Put the valve back in, then gently turn it to the right until you feel it click into
place.
• Gently screw the cap back on, just until it stops. Don’t screw it as tightly as
possible.
• Repeat with the other two valves.

3. Once a month, grease the slides:
• While holding the valves down, gently pull out all the slides.
• Wipe them clean with a rag.
• Use your fingers to put a thin layer of grease around every slide.
• Wash your hands when you are done.

4. Put the mouthpiece in. Give it a little twist and gentle push. NEVER POP THE
MOUTHPIECE WITH YOUR HAND.

Holding the trumpet
1. Hold the valve-cases with your left hand. Put your middle finger in the ring on
the slide attached to the third valve.
2. Shape your right hand like a C. Let your index, middle, and ring fingers gently
rest on the valves without pushing them down. Your thumb will rest under the
leadpipe. Your pinky can flap along with the ring finger or rest on top of the hook.
Do not put your pinky in the hook while playing; it will strain your hand over a
long period of time.

Getting a sound out of the trumpet
Part A — The trumpet embouchure
1. Close your mouth in a normal, neutral way.
2. Press your lips together without curling them in towards your teeth.
3. Push the air out through your tight lips and buzz!
4. Keep the corners of your mouth and your cheeks tight so your cheeks do not
puff out.
5. Now do the first four steps with the mouthpiece centered on your lips.

Part B — tonguing
1. Say “ta.” Notice where your tongue hits to make the “t” sound. Keep saying it
until you can describe it.
2. Whisper ‘ta’ (use lots of air and make it breathy – very silly sounding!).
3. Make your trumpet embouchure without your trumpet and whisper ‘ta’ while
maintaining the embouchure — including the buzz; this time, don't use your vocal
chords like you do when you whisper, but still use a lot of air.
4. Do the same as 3, but with your trumpet, at which point you should get a nice
note beginning with a clear attack.

Putting the trumpet away
1. Remove the mouthpiece and wipe the surface dry with a cloth.
2. Empty out the spit valves.
3. Put everything gently and neatly in the case.

For information about instrument care (including pictures):
http://www.zacharymusic.com/Zachary_Music/care.htm
Trombone
Making sure the trombone is ready to play:
1. Put your trombone together so that the bell part and the slide are at a right
angle (like the letter V, but a little wider), so that when the bottom of the V is on
your left shoulder, the bell is on the left and the slide is on the right. Gently tighten
the screw between the bell part and the slide. Do not screw it as tightly as possible.

2. Once a month, grease the slide:
• Carefully pull the outer slide all the way off.
• Wipe the inner slides clean with a rag.
• Use your fingers to put a thin layer of slide cream only around the socks (the
slightly thicker parts at the ends) of both inner slides.
• Wash your hands when you are done.
• Spray the inner slides with water, then put the outer slide back on very carefully.

3. If the slide feels a little sluggish, spray the inner slides with a little water (every
other day or so). You do not have to remove the outer slide entirely; just pull it out
to 6th or 7th position.

4. Once a month, grease the tuning slide on the back of the bell side of the
trombone:
• Gently pull out all the tuning slide.
• Wipe it clean with a rag.
• Use your fingers to put a thin layer of slide grease (not the same as slide cream!)
around the tuning slide.
• Wash your hands when you are done.

5. Put the mouthpiece in. Give it a little twist and gentle push. NEVER POP THE
MOUTHPIECE WITH YOUR HAND.

Holding the trombone
1. Hold your left hand with your thumb and index finger extended and the other
fingers curled in. (like a pistol)
2. Touch the index finger on the left side of where the mouthpiece meets the slide.
3. Put your thumb along the bottom tube that’s resting on your shoulder and wrap
the other fingers on the first brace (the bar connecting the upper and lower tubes
of the slide).
4. Adjust everything so that your hand is comfortable and still has a firm grip. For
example, if you can’t leave your index finger on the mouthpiece and the thumb on
the bottom, keep your thumb there and move your index finger along the first
brace.
5. Put your right hand thumb behind the second brace above the bottom tube, your
index finger opposite your thumb on the other side of the brace, and your middle
finger below the bottom tube. Relax the other two fingers.

Getting a sound out of the trombone
Part A — The trombone embouchure
1. Close your mouth in a normal, neutral way.
2. Press your lips together without curling them in towards your teeth.
3. Push the air out through your tight lips and buzz!
4. Keep the corners of your mouth and your cheeks tight so your cheeks do not
puff out.
5. Now do the first four steps with the mouthpiece centered on your lips.

Part B — tonguing
1. Say “ta.” Notice where your tongue hits to make the “t” sound. Keep saying it
until you can describe it.
2. Whisper ‘ta’ (use lots of air and make it breathy – very silly sounding!).
3. Make your trombone embouchure without your trumpet and whisper ‘ta’ while
maintaining the embouchure — including the buzz; this time, don't use your vocal
chords like you do when you whisper, but still use a lot of air.
4. Do the same as 3, but with your trombone, at which point you should get a nice
note beginning with a clear attack.

Putting the trombone away
1. Remove the mouthpiece and wipe the surface dry with a cloth.
2. Empty out the spit valves.
3. Lock your slide and unscrew the bell part from the slide.
4. Put everything gently and neatly in the case.

For information about instrument care (including pictures):
http://www.zacharymusic.com/Zachary_Music/care.htm

				
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