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					                            REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA


NORTH EAST DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT
        PLAN 6: 2003 – 2009


                                Masunga




   “Towards Realisation of Vision 2016: Sustainable and Diversified Development Through
                            Competitiveness in Global Markets”




       NORTH EAST DISTRICT COUNCIL
NORTH EAST DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
      MINISTRY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT


                                        P24.00
FOREWORD

The North East District Development Plan 6 (DDP 6) which covers a period of six (6) years
from April 2003 to March 2009 presents projects, which are a product of extensive grass root
consultations with villagers during the drafting period. The plan has incorporated the National
Development Plan 9 theme of “Towards Realization of Vision 2016: Sustainable and
Diversified Development through Competitiveness in Global Markets”.

The North East District does not have a strong private sector that plays an important role in
market activities hence this document does not provide details on that aspect. However,
institutions such as the Village Development Committees, District Development Committee
and various village level organizations play an important role in maintaining an environment
conducive for the development of village level infrastructure and the provision of services such
as schools, clinics, other health facilities, etc. This plan has been to a large extent produced
from the proposals presented by the village level institutions, which includes Dikgosi,
Councillors, Religious leaders, VDCs etc. They have participated in the process of producing
this report through continuous consultations and their involvement.

Owing to limited current statistical data on unemployment and poverty levels yet, the district
like the rest of the country is faced with problems of unemployment, poverty and the continued
threat from the HIV/AIDS epidemic as our most critical issues. The contributing factor to
unemployment has been the problems of continued drought in the district during the period
resulting in a fewer numbers of people engaging in agricultural activities. During the latter part
of DDP 5 the district was struck by Foot and Mouth disease in the areas of Matsiloje and
Matshelagabedi, and then followed by the latest outbreak at Matopi. The incident caused the
killing of over 15 000 cattle in 2002/03.

On the other hand, the economic and political situation in neighboring Zimbabwe is causing
additional problems of influx of illegal immigrants into the country through ungazzeted points
along the border of the district. The situation overstretches the limited resources in terms of
security and administration of justice.

This is the first plan to take strategic planning approach at the district level by aligning gaols
and objectives to address emerging challenges such as economic diversification, employment
creation, poverty reduction, the fight against HIV/AIDS, and public sector reforms like
Performance Management System (PMS), environmental protection, rural development and
human resources development.

The plan has carried forward some of the incompleted projects from DDP5, which have
become a priority in DDP6. Despite the limited or overstretched resources at the disposal of
Government, the North East District through this plan, seeks to achieve all planned activities.




                                                                                                 i
TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD                                                            i
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                  ii
APPENDICES                                                        xii
LIST OF TABLES                                                   xiii
LIST OF FIGURES AND MAPS                                         xiv
LIST OF ACRONYMS                                                 xiv

1        DISTRICT AND PEOPLE                                       1

1.1       DISTRICT GEOGRAPHIC SETTING                              1
1.1.1     Regional Influences                                      1
1.2       INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS                               1
1.2.1     Communication Links                                      2
1.3       DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES                          2
1.3.1     Climate                                                  2
1.3.2     Topography                                               2
1.3.3     Geology                                                  4
1.3.4     Hydrology                                                4
1.3.5     Natural Resources                                        4
1.4       DISTRICT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT                              7
1.4.1     Socio-Cultural Characteristics                          7
1.4.2     Population Characteristics, Density and Distribution    8
1.4.3     Age-Sex Structure                                       8
1.4.4     Migration                                              10
1.4.5     HIV/AIDS and its Economic Implications                 10
1.4.6     Home Based Care Programme and Orphanhood               10
1.4.7     Projected Population Growth Trends, 1991 - 2019        11
1.4.8     Economic Activity                                      11
1.4.9     Employment and Unemployment                            12
1.4.10    Constraints to Development                             13
1.5       DISTRICT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT                          13
1.5.1     Agricultural Sector                                    14
1.5.2     Commercial Activities                                  15
1.5.3     Tourism                                                15
1.5.4     Manufacturing/Industry                                 15
1.5.5     Mining                                                 16
1.5.6     Public Sector                                          16
1.6       STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES          16

2        REVIEW OF THE DDP5 AND LONG TERM DEVELOPMENT
         POTENTIAL                                 17

                                                                   ii
2.1       INTRODUCTION                                             17
2.2       ACHIEVEMENTS/OPPORTUNITIES - DDP5                        17
2.2.1     Agriculture                                              17
2.2.2     Industrial and Commercial Development                    19
2.2.3     Wildlife and National Parks                              19
2.2.4     Tourism                                                  19
2.2.5     Mining                                                   20
2.2.6     Education and Training                                   20
2.2.7     Health                                                   22
2.2.8     Social & Community Development                           23
2.2.9     Immigration, Customs and Excise                          24
2.2.10    District Administration                                  24
2.2.11    Tribal Administration                                    24
2.2.12    Botswana Police                                          25
2.2.13    Government Revenue Office                                25
2.2.14    Physical Infrastructure                                  25
2.3       LONG TERM PLANNING FRAMEWORK                             26
2.3.1     Integrated District Land Use Plans and Structure Plans   26
2.3.2     District Settlement Strategy                             26
2.4       PROBLEM AREAS AND MAJOR UNRESOLVED ISSUES                27
2.4.1     Agriculture                                              27
2.4.2     Industrial and Commercial Development                    27
2.4.3     Wildlife & National Parks                                28
2.4.4     Education & training                                     28
2.4.5     Health                                                   28
2.4.6     Social & Community Development                           29
2.4.7     District Administration                                  29
2.4.8     Tribal Administration                                    29
2.4.9     Government Revenue Office                                29
2.4.10    Immigration, Customs & Excise                            29
2.4.11    Energy Sources and Power                                 29
2.4.12    Physical infrastructure                                  30
2.5       LONG TERM PLANNING FRAMEWORK                             30
2.5.1     Integrated Land Use Plan                                 30
2.5.2     Environmental and Conservation Strategies                31
2.5.3     Revised National Settlement Policy                       31
2.6       LINKS TO NDP9 THEME                                      31

3        DDP 5/UDP 2 DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES              33

3.1       PLANNING FRAMEWORK                                       33
3.1.1     Vision 2016                                              33
3.1.2     National and District Environmental Key Issues           36
3.1.3     Ministry of Local Government Strategic Plan              37
3.1.4     Long Term District Plans                                 37

                                                                   iii
3.2      DDP6/UDP2 – OVERALL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                     39
3.2.1    Summary of Key Issues                                                        39
3.3      DDP6/UDP2 DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                   40
3.4      FRAMEWORK FOR MONITORING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                         41
3.5      FRAMEWORK FOR MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                  42
3.6      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                             42
3.6.1    Evaluation of Key Environmental Issues with Overall Goals and Objectives     42
3.6.2    Evaluation of Policies and Programmes against Overall Goals and Objectives   43

4       ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION                                                    44

4.1      INTRODUCTION                                                                 44
4.1.1    Institutional Framework                                                      44
4.1.2    Consultation Priorities                                                      44
4.2      ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                       44
4.2.1    Tourism Policy                                                            45
4.2.2    Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM)                       45
4.2.3    National Master Plan for Arable Agriculture and Dairy Development (NAMPAADD)
                                                                                   45
4.2.4    Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA)                         45
4.2.5    National Settlement Policy (NSP)                                          45
4.2.6    Waste Management Act                                                      45
4.2.7    Housing Policy                                                            45
4.2.8    National Conservation Strategy (NCS)                                      46
4.3      DDP 6 ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                     46
4.4      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                             47
4.5      PROPOSED ENVIRONMENTAL             STRATEGIES     TO     IMPLEMENT      DISTRICT
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS.                                                       48
4.6      RESOURCE REQUIREMENT FOR DDP 6                                               48
4.6.1    Issues and Strengths                                                         48

5       LAND USE PLANNING                                                             51

5.1      INTRODUCTION                                                                 51
5.1.1    Institutional Framework                                                      51
5.1.2    Consultation Priorities                                                      52
5.2      LAND USE POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                            52
5.2.1    National Policy on Natural Resources Conservation and Development            52
5.2.2    North East District Settlement Strategy                                      53
5.2.3    Wildlife and Conservation Policy                                             53
5.2.4    Tourism Policy                                                               53
5.2.5    Community Based Natural Resources Management                                 53
                                                                                       iv
5.2.6     National Master Plan for Arable Agriculture and Dairy Development (NAMPAADD)
                                                                                    53
5.2.7     Financial Assistance Policy/Citizen Etrepreneural Development Agency      53
5.2.8     National Settlement Policy                                                53
5.2.9     Housing Policy                                                            54
5.2.10    Waste Management Act                                                      54
5.3      DISTRICT LAND USE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT                                  54
5.3.1     District Settlement Strategy (DSS)                                        54
5.3.2     Land Use Resource Assessment                                              54
5.4      LAND USE PLANNING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                     55
5.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                           56
5.5.1     Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives   56
5.5.2     Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                56
5.6      PROPOSED STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LAND USE GOALS                              57
5.7      RESOURCE REQUIREMENT FOR DDP 6                                             57
5.7.1     Performance Targets for DDP6                                              57
5.7.2     Development Budget for DDP6                                               58
5.7.3     Plan Monitoring Program                                                   58

6        SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING                                                     59

6.1      INTRODUCTION                                                               59
6.1.1     Institutional Framework                                                   59
6.1.2     Consultation Priorities                                                   61
6.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                          61
6.2.1     District Settlement Strategy                                              61
6.2.2     National Housing Policy                                                   63
6.2.3     Self Help Housing Agency (SHHA)                                           63
6.2.4     Institutional Housing                                                     64
6.3      SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING                                                     65
6.3.1     Settlement Patterns and Geomorphology                                     65
6.3.2     Housing Demand and Supply                                                 67
6.4      SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                         67
6.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                           68
6.6      RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                             69
6.6.1     Strengths                                                                 69
6.6.2     Issues                                                                    69
6.6.3     Plan Monitoring Program                                                   69

7        AGRICULTURE                                                                70

7.1      INTRODUCTION                                                               70
                                                                                     v
7.1.1    Institutional Framework                                                     70
7.1.2    Strategic Plan for Ministry of Agriculture                                  70
7.1.3    Agriculture Consultation Priorities                                         71
7.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                           72
7.2.1    National Master Plan for Arable Agriculture and Dairy Development           72
7.2.2    Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Policy (Draft)          72
7.2.3    Arable Land Development Programme (ALDEP)                                   72
7.2.4    Tribal Land Act                                                             73
7.2.5    Convention on Combating Desertification                                     73
7.3      AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ACTIVITIES                                              73
7.3.1    Arable Sub Sector                                                           73
7.3.2    Horticulture                                                                74
7.3.3    Livestock Sub Sector                                                        74
7.4      AGRICULTURE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                     75
7.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                            76
7.6      STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 77
7.7      RESOURCES REQUIREMENT FOR DDP6                                              77
7.7.1    Issues and Strengths                                                        77
7.7.2    Development Budget                                                          78
7.7.3    Performance Targets                                                         79
7.7.4    Plan Monitoring Program                                                     79

8       TRADE INDUSTRY WILDLIFE AND TOURISM                                          80

8.1      INTRODUCTION                                                                80
8.1.1    Institutional Framework                                                     80
8.1.2    Strategic Plan for Ministry Trade and Industry                              80
8.1.3    Role of the Private Sector                                                  81
8.1.4    Consultation Priorities                                                     81
8.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                           82
8.2.1    Game Ranching Policy (2002)                                                 82
8.2.2    Ostrich Management Policy (1994)                                            82
8.2.3    Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBRNM) Policy (Draft)          82
8.2.4    Botswana Tourism Master Plan (2000)                                         82
8.2.5    Tourism Policy (1990)                                                       83
8.2.6    Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA) 2001                      83
8.3      TRADE AND INDUSTRY                                                          83
8.3.1    Industrial and commercial Development                                       83
8.3.2    Wildlife and National Parks                                                 84
8.3.3    Tourism                                                                     84
8.4      SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                                 85
8.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                            86
8.5.1    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sectoral Goals and Objectives   86
                                                                                     vi
8.5.2     Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                 86
8.6       STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                 87
8.7       RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                             87
8.7.1     Issues and Strengths for Trade, Industry, tourism and wildlife             87

9        EDUCATION AND TRAINNING                                                    88

9.1       INTRODUCTION                                                               88
9.1.1     Institutional Framework                                                    88
9.1.2     Strategic Plan for Respective Ministries                                   89
9.1.3     Role of the Private Sector                                                 89
9.1.4     Education Consultation Priorities                                          90
9.2       NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                          90
9.3       EDUCATION                                                                  90
9.3.1     Schools                                                                    90
9.3.2     Training                                                                   92
9.4       EDUCATION AND TRAINING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                         94
9.5       FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                           95
9.5.1     Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives    95
9.5.2     Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                 96
9.6       STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE EDUCATION AND TRAINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES          96
9.7       RESOURCE REQUIREMENT FOR DDP6                                              97
9.7.1     Issues and Strengths for Education and Training                            97
9.7.2     Performance Targets for DDP6/UDP2                                          97
9.7.3     Development Budget for DDP6/UDP2                                           98
9.7.4     Plan Monitoring Programme                                                  99

10       HEALTH                                                                     100

10.1      INTRODUCTION                                                              100
10.1.1    Institutional Framework                                                   100
10.1.2    Strategic Plan for Respective Ministries                                  101
10.1.3    Role Of Private Sectors                                                   103
10.1.4    Consultation Priorities                                                   103
10.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                         104
10.2.1    National Policy on HIV/AIDS                                               104
10.2.2    National Health Policy                                                    104
10.2.3    Health Strategy and Plans                                                 104
10.2.4    Environmental Health Policies and Legislations                            105
10.3      HEALTH                                                                    106
10.3.1    Environmental Health                                                      106

                                                                                     vii
10.3.2    Hospital Services                                                         106
10.3.3    District Health System                                                    106
10.3.4    Primary Health Care                                                       106
10.3.5    Control of Pandemic Disease                                               107
10.4      HEALTH SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                        108
10.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                          109
10.5.1    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues With Sector Goals and Objectives   109
10.5.2    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives   109
10.5.3    Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                110
10.6      STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE HEALTH SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES              110
10.7      RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6/UDP2                                       111
10.7.1    Strengths for Health Services                                             111
10.7.2    Issues for Health Services                                                111
10.7.3    Performance Targets for DDP6/UDP2                                         111
10.7.4    Plan Monitoring Programme                                                 112

11       MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND HOME AFFAIRS                                        113

11.1      INTRODUCTION                                                              113
11.1.1    Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                 113
11.1.2    Culture and Social Consultation Priorities                                115
11.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                         116
11.2.1    National Child Welfare Policy                                             116
11.2.2    The National Youth Policy                                                 116
11.2.3    Disability Policies                                                       116
11.2.4    Social Welfare                                                            117
11.2.5    Women and Development                                                     117
11.2.6    Sports and Recreational Policy                                            117
11.2.7    National Registration Act                                                 118
11.2.8    Information Media Policy                                                  118
11.3      LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICES                                       118
11.3.1    Sports and Recreation                                                     118
11.3.2    Social Welfare                                                            119
11.3.3    Culture and Youth                                                         119
11.3.4    National Library Service                                                  119
11.3.5    Civil and National Registration                                           120
11.3.6    Women and Development                                                     120
11.3.7    Museums, Monuments and Art Gallery                                        121
11.3.8    Non-Governmental Organisations                                            121
11.4      LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICES SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES           122
11.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                          123
11.5.1    Environmental Education and Awareness Creation                         124
11.5.2    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) And Strategic Environmental Planning
          (SEP)                                                                  124
                                                                                    viii
11.5.3    Funding for Community Environmental Projects                    124
11.5.4    Dissemination of Environment and Land Related Legislations      124
11.5.5    Review of Policies and Legislations                             125
11.6      STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICE SECTOR
          GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                            125
11.7      RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                 126
11.7.1    Issues and Strength For Labour, Culture and Social Services     126
11.7.2    Performance Targets for DDP6                                    126
11.7.3    Development Budget for DDP6                                     127
11.7.4    Plan Monitoring Program                                         127

12       MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER                                      128

12.1      INTRODUCTION                                                   128
12.1.1    Institutional Framework                                         128
12.1.2    Strategic Planning Framework                                    129
12.1.3    Role of the Private Sector                                      129
12.1.4    Consultation Priorities                                         129
12.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                              130
12.2.1    Waste Management Act                                            130
12.2.2    Minerals Policy                                                 130
12.2.3    Energy Policy                                                   130
12.2.4    The National Settlement Policy                                  131
12.2.5    Tribal Land Act                                                 131
12.2.6    National Water Master Plan [NWMP]                               131
12.2.7    Water Policy                                                    131
12.3      MINING, ENERGY AND WATER                                       132
12.3.1    Mining Sector                                                   132
12.3.2    Energy Sector                                                   133
12.3.3    Water Sector                                                    135
12.4      MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES         136
12.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT               136
12.6      STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER SECTOR    137
12.7      RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP 6                                137
12.7.1    Issues and Strengths                                            137
12.7.2    Development Budget                                              138
12.7.3    Performance Targets and Plan Monitoring Program                 138

13       WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS                             139

13.1      INTRODUCTION                                                   139
13.1.1    Institutional Framework                                         139
13.1.2    Strategic Plan for Ministry of Local Government                 140
                                                                           ix
13.1.3    Strategic Plan for Ministry of Transport, Works and Communications       140
13.1.4    Role of the Private Sector                                               141
13.1.5    Consultation Priorities                                                  141
13.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                        141
13.2.1    Roads Act                                                                141
13.2.2    Local Government Act                                                     142
13.2.3    Transport and Safety Policy                                              142
13.2.4    Civil Aviation Policy                                                    142
13.2.5    Telecommunications Act                                                   142
13.2.6    Meteorological Services Policy                                           143
13.2.7    Postal Services Act                                                      143
13.3      WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION                                       143
13.3.1    Roads                                                                    143
13.3.2    Transport and Road Safety                                                144
13.3.3    Railways                                                                 144
13.3.4    Civil Aviation                                                           144
13.3.5    Central Transport Organisation                                           145
13.3.6    Telecommunications                                                       145
13.3.7    Postal Services                                                          146
13.3.8    Department of Architecture and Buildings                                 146
13.4      WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                 146
13.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                         147
13.6      STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE WORKS, TRANSPORT           AND   COMMUNICATIONS SECTOR
          GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                                     148
13.7      RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS                                                    149
13.7.1    Issues and Strengths                                                     149
13.7.2    Development Budget                                                       149
13.7.3    Perforamnce Targets                                                      149
13.7.4    Plan Monitoring Programme                                                150

14       LAW, JUSTICE AND SECURITY                                                151

14.1      INTRODUCTION                                                             151
14.1.1    Institutional Framework                                                  152
14.1.2    Role of the Private Sector                                               152
14.1.3    Consultation Priorities                                                  152
14.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                        152
14.2.1    Immigration Act                                                          152
14.2.2    Botswana Police Act                                                      153
14.2.3    Immigration and Citizenship                                              153
14.2.4    Botswana Police Service                                                  154
14.2.5    Customs and Exercise                                                     154
14.2.6    Local Police and Customary Court                                         155
14.2.7    Administration of Justice                                                155
14.2.8    Independent Electoral Commission                                         155
                                                                                     x
14.3     LAW JUSTICE AND SECURITY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                156
14.4     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                             156
14.4.1   Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives      157
14.4.2   Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                   157
14.5     STRATEGIES    TO   ACHIEVE LAW, JUSTICE      AND   SECURITY SECTOR GOALS AND
         OBJECTIVES                                                               157
14.6     RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS                                                        158
14.6.1   Issues & Strengths for Law Justice and Security                              158
14.6.2   Performance Targets                                                          158
14.6.3   Development Budget for DDP6                                                  158
14.6.4   Plan Monitoring Programme                                                    158

15       LOCAL GOVERNMENT                                                             160

15.1     INTRODUCTION                                                                 160
15.1.1   Institutional Framework                                                      160
15.1.2   Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                    160
15.1.3   Role of Private Sector                                                       161
15.1.4   Consultation Priorities                                                      162
15.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                            162
15.2.1   Tribal Land Act                                                              162
15.2.2   Local Police Act                                                             162
15.2.3   Waste Management Act                                                         163
15.2.4   Local Government                                                             163
15.2.5   District Councils                                                            163
15.2.6   District Administration                                                      164
15.2.7   Tribal Administration                                                        164
15.2.8   Land Board                                                                   165
15.2.9   Law and Order                                                                165
15.3     LOCAL GOVERNMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                        165
15.3.1   District Council                                                             165
15.3.2   District Administration                                                      166
15.3.3   Tribal Administration                                                        167
15.3.4   Land Board                                                                   167
15.4     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                             168
15.4.1   Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives against Key Environmental Issues   168
15.4.2   Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives Against Key Environmental Issues   169
15.5     STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
                                                                        170
15.6     RESOURCE REQUIREMENT FOR DDP 6                                               170
15.6.1   Issues and Strengths                                                         170
15.6.2   Performance Targets                                                          171
15.6.3   Development Budget                                                           171

                                                                                       xi
15.6.4    Plan Monitoring Program                             171

16       CONTINGENCY PLANNING                                 173

16.1     INTRODUCTION                                         173
16.1.1    Institutional Framework                             173
16.1.2    Disaster Relief Sector Priorities                   174
16.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                    174
16.2.1    National Disaster Master Plan                       174
16.2.2    National Food Security Strategy                     174
16.3     CONTINGENCY PLANS                                    175
16.3.1    Drought                                             175
16.3.2    Veld Fires                                          175
16.3.3    Disaster Management                                 175
16.3.4    Foot and Mouth Disease                              176
16.4     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT     176
16.4.1    Disaster Management Objectives                      176
16.4.2    Drought Management Objectives                       176
16.4.3    Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives           176
16.4.4    Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes        177
16.4.5    Proposed Projects/Activities                        178
16.5     RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS                                178
16.5.1    Issues and Strengths                                178
16.5.2    Performance Targets                                 178
16.5.3    Proposed Projects                                   179

17       PLAN MONITORING AND EVALUATION                       180

17.1     INTRODUCTION                                         180
17.1.1    Institutional Framework                             180
17.1.2    Review of Plan Monitoring Activities During DDP 5   180
17.2     ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING ACTIVITIES                  181
17.3     FINANCIAL AND PERSONNEL CONSTRAINTS                  181
17.4     PROPOSED PLAN MONITORING ACTIVITIES DURING DDP6      181
17.4.1    Project Reviews                                     181
17.4.2    Annual Plans                                        182
17.4.3    Mid Term Review                                     182


APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: DISTRICT COUNCIL PROJECTS                         183



                                                               xii
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1:    Land Tenure in the North East District                                        1
Table 1.2:    Population Characteristics of North East District                             8
Table 1.3:    Commercial Activity in North East District                                   11
Table 1.4:    Employment and Unemployment                                                  12
Table 1.5:    District Population by Major Industry                                        12
Table 2.1:    Planned and Implemented Education Facilities DDP5                            21
Table 3.1:    Ministry of Local Governement Key Result Areas                               37
Table 3.2:    DDP6 Overal Development Goals and Objectives                                 40
Table 3.3:    Key Environmental Issues with Overall Goals and Objectives                   42
Table 3.4:    Evaluation of Policies/Programmes against Ovearll Goals and Objectives       43
Table 4.1:    Goals and Objectives                                                         46
Table 4.2:    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives      47
Table 4.3:    Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                   47
Table 4.3:    Performance Targets                                                          49
Table 4.4:    Development Budget                                                           49
Table 5.1:    Goals and Objectives                                                         55
Table 5.2:    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives      56
Table 5.3:    Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                   56
Table 5.4:    Potential Impacts of Projects and Mitigation measures                        57
Table 5.5:    Performance Targets For DDP 6                                                57
Table 5.6:    Development Budget For DDP 6                                                 58
Table 6.1:    Housing Situation per Institutions in North East District                    64
Table 6.2:    Goals and Objectives                                                         68
Table 6.3:    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives      68
Table 7.1:    Agricultural Sector Goals and Objectives                                     75
Table 7.2:    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives      76
Table 7.3:    Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                   77
Table 7.4:    Agricultural Sector Strategies                                               77
Table 7.5:    Development Budget                                                           78
Table 7.6:    Performance Indicators                                                       79
Table 8.1:    North East Historical Sites                                                  85
Table 8.3:    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sectoral Goals and Objectives    86
Table 8.4:    Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                   86
Table 8.5:    Trade and Industry Strategies                                                87
Table 8.7:    Plan Monitoring Programme                                                    87
Table 9.1:    Day Care Centres in the District                                             90
Table 9.2:    Primary Education Enrollment                                                 91
Table 9.3:    Enrollment of Non-Formal Learners                                            92
Table 9.4:    Planned Enrolment for Zwenshambe Brigades                                    93
Table 9.5:    Planned Enrolment for Senyawe Brigades                                       93
Table 9.6:    Education and Training Sector Goals and Objectives                           94
Table 9.7:    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives      95
Table 9.8:    Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                   96
Table 9.9:    Strategies to Achieve Education and Training Goals and Objectives            96
Table 9.10:   Performance Targets for DDP6/UDP2                                            97
Table 9.11:   Proposed Development Projects for DDP6 – Brigades and Non-Formal             98
Table 11.2:   Planned Projects DDP6 - Secondary School Projects                            99
Table 10.1:   Components of Primary Health Care                                           107
Table 10.2:   Health Sector Goals and Objectives                                          108
Table 10.3:   Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives                   109
Table 10.4:   Evaluation Health Sector Polices and Programs                               110
Table 10.5:   Strategies to Achieve Health Sector Goals and Objectives                    110
Table 10.6:   Performance Targets for DDP6                                                112
                                                                                           xiii
Table 11.1:   Mininstry of Labour and Home Affairs Departments and Divisons                     114
Table 11.2:   Labour, Culture and Social Services Sector Goals                                  122
Table 11.3:   Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives           123
Table 11.4:   Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                        125
Table 11.5:   Strategies to Achieve Labour, Culture and Social Services Goals and Objectives    125
Table 11.6:   Performance Targets for DDP6                                                      127
Table 11.7:   Development Budget for DDP6                                                       127
Table 12.1    Sources of Energy used in Households in Botswana for Lighting, Cooking and       Space
              Heating                                                                           134
Table 12.2:   Minerals, Energy and Water sector Goals and Objectives                            136
Table 12.3:   Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives           136
Table 12.4:   Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                        137
Table 12.5:   Minerals, Energy and Water Sector Strategies                                      137
Table 12.6:   Development Budget                                                                138
Table 12.7:   Performance Indicators and Plan monitoring                                        138
Table 13.1:   Postal Services in North East District                                            146
Table 13.2:   Works, Transport and Communications Goals and Objectives                          146
Table 13.3:   Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives           147
Table 13.4:   Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs                                        148
Table 13.5:   Works, Transport and Communications Strategies                                    148
Table 13.6:   Development Budget                                                                149
Table 13.7:   Performance Targets for DDP 6                                                     150
Table 14.1:   Law, Justice and Security Goals and Objectives                                    156
Table 14.1:   Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives           157
Table 14.3:   Evaluation Of Sector Policies and Programs                                        157
Table 14.4:   Proposed Projects, Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures                      157
Table 14.5:   Development Budget                                                                158
Table 15.1:   District Council Goals and Objectives                                             165
Table 15.2:   District Administration Goals and Objectives                                      166
Table 15.3:   Tribal Administartion Goals and Objectives                                        167
Table 15.1:   Land Board Goals and Objectives                                                   167
Table 15.5:   Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives with Key Environmental Issues           168
Table 16.1:   Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives                                         176
Table 16.3:   Proposed Projects, Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures                      178
Table 16.4:   Proposed Projects                                                                 179


LIST OF FIGURES AND MAPS

Map 1.1:      Geographical Location of the North East District                                   3
Map 1.2:      Administration Boundary                                                            5
Figure 1.1:   Population Pyramid for North East District                                         9
Map 6.1:      North East District Land Use                                                      66


LIST OF ACRONYMS

AD              Agricultural Demonstrator
AIDS            Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus
ALDEP           Arable Land Development Programme
ALSP            Accelerated Lands Servicing Programme
AOJ             Administration of Justice
ARAP            Accelerated Remote Area Development Programme
ARV             Anti Retroviral Therapy
                                                                                                 xiv
BAMB     Botswana Agricultural Marketing Board
BBS      Botswana Building Society
BCG      Bacille Callmtte Guerin
BDC      Botswana Development Corporation
BDF      Botswana Defence Force
BHC      Botswana Housing Corporation
BIDPA    Botswana Institute of Development and Policy Analysis
BLDC     Botswana Livestock Development Corporation
BMC      Botswana Meat Commission
BML      Botswana Material Loan
BNPC     Botswana National Productivity Center
BOCCIM   Botswana Confederation of commerce, Industry and Manpower
BPC      Botswana Power Corporation
BPS      Botswana Postal Services
BR       Botswana Railways
BTC      Botswana Telecommunications Corporation
BTC      Botswana Technology Centre
BVI      Botswana Vaccine Institute

CBNRM    Community Based Natural Resource Management
CBNRMP   Community Based Natural Resource Management Programme
CBO      Community Based Organisations
CBS      Community Based Strategy
CCF      Community Conservation Fund
CEDA     Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency
CHA      Controlled Hunting Area
CITES    Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species
CJSS     Community Junior Secondary School
CMS      Central Medical Stores
CSO      Central Statistics Office
CTF      Community Trust Fund
CWC      Child Welfare Clinic
DA       District Administration
DABS     Department of Architecture and Building Services
DAHP     Department of Animal Health and Production
DC       District Commissioner
DCPF     Department of Crop Production and Forestry
DDC      District Development Committee
DDP      District Development Plan
DEPC     District Education Planning Committee
DHPC     District Health Planning Committee
DET      District Extension Team
DEMS     Department of Electrical and Mechanical Services
DHT      District Health Team
DLUPU    District Land Use Planning Unit
DMSAC    District Multi Sectoral AIDS Committee
DO (D)   District Officer Development
DO (L)   District Officer Lands
DSM      Department of Surveys and Mapping
DSS      District Settlement Strategy
                                                                     xv
DTRP     Department of Town and Regional Planning
DVET     Department of Vocational Education and Training
DWA      Department of Water Affairs
DWNP     Department of Wildlife and National Parks

EWTC     Early Warning Technical Committee

FAB      Forestry Association of Botswana
FAP      Financial Assistance Policy
FMD      Foot and Mouth Disease
FWE      Family Welfare Educator

GDA      General Duty Assistants
GDP      Gross Domestic Product
GFPA     Greater Francistown Planning Area
GNP      Gross National Product

HIV      Human Immuno Deficiency Virus
HATAB    Hotel and Tourism Association of Botswana
HBC      Home Based Care
HIES     Household Income and Expenditure Survey

IFS      Integrated Field Services
IMDC     Inter Ministerial Drought Committee
KRA      Key Result Area

LA       Local Authority
LAC      Livestock Advisory Centre
LB       Land Board
LBRP     Labour Based Relief Programme

MCH/FP   Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning
MFDP     Ministry of Finance and Development Planning
MLHA     Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs
MLG      Ministry of Local Government
MMEWA    Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Affairs
MOA      Ministry of Agriculture
MOE      Ministry of Education
MOH      Ministry of Health
MTIWAT   Ministry of Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism
MTP      Medium Term Plan
MSP      Ministry of State President
MWTC     Ministry of Works, Transport and Communications

NCS      National Conservation Strategy
NDB      National Development Bank
NDDC     National District Development Conference
NDP      National Development Plan
NDMO     National Disaster Management Office
NEDC     North East District Council
NES      National Eco-Tourism Strategy
                                                             xvi
NGO     Non Governmental Organisation
NSP     National Settlement Policy

O&M     Organization and Methods
OP      Office of the President

PDC     Production Development Committee
PHC     Public Health Care
PMS     Performance Management System
PMTCT   Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission

RAC     Rural Administration Centre
RDC     Rural Development Council
RDCD    Rural Development Coordination Division
RECC    Rural Extension Coordinating Committee
RIIC    Rural Industries Innovation Centre
RNPE    Revised National Policy on Education

SADC    Southern African Development Community
S&CD    Social and Community Development
SEA     Strategic Environmental Assessment
SHHA    Self Help Housing Agency
SLOCA   Small Livestock Owners in Communal Areas
SMME    Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises
STD     Sexually Transmitted Disease
SWOT    Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats

TA      Tribal Administration
TB      Tuberculosis
TEC     Total Estimated Costs
TGLP    Tribal Grazing Land Policy
TILB    Tourism Industry Licensing Board

UDP     Urban Development Plan
UB      University of Botswana
UNDP    United Nations Development Programme
UDC     Urban Development Committee

VA      Veterinary Assistant
VCT     Voluntary Counselling and Testing
VDC     Village Development Committee
VET     Village Extension Team
VHT     Village Health Team
VIP     Ventilated Improved Pit latrines
VTC     Vocational Training Centre

WIT     Work Improvement Team
WMA     Wildlife Management Area
WUC     Water Utilities Corporation


                                                        xvii
CHAPTER 1
1         DISTRICT AND PEOPLE

1.1        DISTRICT GEOGRAPHIC SETTING
North east district is the second smallest district in the country. The district fits within the lines
of longitude 27'15 and 28 east, and between latitude 20'30 and 21'25 south.

The district is bordered by the Central District in the west and south with the Shashe River
forming the boundary. In the east and north is Zimbabwe, with the Ramokgwebana River
forming much of the boundary. The Francistown urban area is surrounded by the North East
District, which has a tremendous influence on the delivery of services as well as transfer of
technology to the district.

The district has different types of land ownership as shown in table 1.1. The district has an
area of 5 993 square kilometres. However, in order to increase both the Francistown area and
the tribal land the government bought some freehold farms.

    Table 1.1:   Land Tenure in the North East District
 Type of Land Tenure                           Area in sq kms               % of total land
 Freehold Land                                         2 569                      42.9
 State Land                                            33                         0.5
 Tribal/Communal Land                                  3 391                      56.6
 Total District                                        5993Km                     100%
Source: Draft North East District Settlement Strategy, 2001


1.1.1      Regional Influences
The location of the district, in relation to Zimbabwe and Francistown, means that the district
has been influenced socially, economically, and educationally. Francistown and Bulawayo, the
two major urban areas, sandwitching the district, act as service centres for all the above
activities.

North East residents have acquired urban habits and a considerable number of people have
been educated from these places. The influences are found in other spheres of life like family
connections, cultural affinity and others.

1.2        INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
The district has four local authorities the district administration, tribal administration, land
board and district council. The Tribal Administration is one of the oldest institutions in
Botswana. It administers justice under customary law and support for community initiatives.
The District Administration has the primary responsibility of ensuring effective representation
of central government. Additionally it is responsible for coordinating district development
planning. The land board deals with dermacation and allocation tribal land while the district
council is responsible for provision of services such as sanitation services, health services,
infrastructure services etc.


                                                                                                    1
1.2.1    Communication Links
Access to and communication within the North East District in terms of roads, railways,
telecommunications, etc., is comparatively better compared to other districts in the country.
The District is mainly connected to Francistown and the rest of the country through the
follwing gazetted roads; Ramokgwebana-Ramatlabama, Ramokgwebana-Sebina-Francistown
and Matsiloje-Francistown tarmacked roads and Tshesebe-Mulambakwena earth surfaced road.
The rest of the roads are un-gazetted, with some of them earth surfaced and others dirty. The
area to the south of Matsiloje is mainly characterized by tracks and is not easily accessible,
especially during the rainy season.

The main railway line from Ramatlabama to Ramokgwebana passes through the eastern part of
the district and this line carries passengers and freight both within Botswana and to and from
Zimbabwe. Botswana Telecommunication Corporation (BTC) has done commendable work to
serve the district. The only village, which has not been provided with a public telephone, is
Ditladi. However, reception of radio Botswana broadcasts is weak. Therefore, this issue needs
to be addressed urgently if we are to achieve the ideals of vision 2016 of an informed and
educated nation.

1.3      DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES
1.3.1    Climate
The climate in the North East District has distinct summer and winter seasons. Winters are
generally mild except for occasional cold winds. The minimum temperature can be as low as 5
degrees centigrade with maximum temperatures of 23 degrees. Summers, at times are very hot
with maximum averages of 30 degrees centigrade and minimums of 17 degrees. The district
has fair annual rainfall averages ranging between 400 millimetres (in the south) and 500
millimetres (in the north), but it falls only during a few months from october to march, usually
in thunderstorms.

1.3.2    Topography

The entire North East District is undulating with isolated hills such as Matsiloje, Mpaninpani
and Gungwe Hills. The land rises from 930m in the south to 1300m above sea level to the
north.




                                                                                              2
Map 1.1:   Geographical Location of the North East District




                                                              3
1.3.3    Geology
Masunga lies within the country‟s major dyke, which traverses the country (in a 70km wide
belt in the north east district) stretching between Francistown and central district. Basement
rock outcrops are quite evident in the area. Apart from these outcrops the land is generally flat.
Soils are well drained and moderately deep (about a metre) with medium texture soils
developed from basic igneous and metamorphic rocks. The texture varies from loamy sand to
clay loam. The flood plains of the Rati River and other streams have a high proportion of soils
that have little or no irrigation potential.

1.3.4    Hydrology
The district has several ephemeral rivers and streams. The principal rivers include Shashe,
Vukwi, Tati, Ntshe, Sikukwe, and Ramokgwebana. The direction of drainage is towards the
south. These rivers are able to store considerable amounts of water in the sub-surface sand
layer for most of the year. The rivers and streams carry floodwater after rainstorms during the
rainy season, but for the rest of the year they are dry.

1.3.5    Natural Resources
1.3.5.1 Soils
Soils are generally well drained and moderately deep. The soils are sandy loam and sandy clay
with the gravel about 50 centimetres below the surface. Clay soils occur between Makaleng
and Kalakamati and north of Francistown. Some of this area comprises base rock and very
shallow soils associated with hills and ridges. Substantial portions of the soil are not suitable
for dry-land farming due to their chemical composition and low water holding capacity.

1.3.5.2 Vegetation
The vegetation of the district is characterised mainly by tree savanna with Mophane trees
predominating. Since the north and west of the district are the most cultivated areas, only large
trees have been left of the original woodland. Patchy grass cover is found on most of the
communal lands and those parts of the freehold land, which are not overgrazed. Areas
inhabited by Mophane trees have a poor grass cover.

1.3.5.3 Wildlife
There is very little wildlife in the district and most of it is on the freehold farms. The animals in
this area are under the authority of the department of wildlife and national parks. Freehold land
owners are only allowed to hunt during the hunting season, though the potential for wildlife
tourism is very slim.




                                                                                                   4
Map 1.2:   Administration Boundary




                                     5
1.3.5.4 Energy
Energy supplies in the north east district are mainly made up of electricity connected from
Francistown to Tati Siding and also from Francistown to Masunga through a 66kv line stepped
down to 400 watts internal distribution through 11kv lines. The main consumers are council
and central government departments, primary hospital, the senior and junior secondary schools,
Botswana Telecommunication Corporation, small commercial and industrial businesses and
about 300 domestic consumers. Other sources of energy are paraffin, candles for lighting and
fuel wood, which is almost depleted except in the southern part of the district. Gas is also used
domestically.

1.3.5.5 Water
The district is bordered and crossed by many ephemeral streams and rivers. The principal ones
are the Shashe, Vukwi, Tati, Ntshe, Sikukwe and Ramokgwebana Rivers. A considerable
amount of water is stored in the larger sand rivers throughout the dry season. This provides the
major source of water for both human and livestock populations in the district. The most
common water resources are boreholes, sandpits and wells.

There is one large dam in the district, the Shashe Dam, near Shashe village. There are several
dam sites, which were identified in the district such as Ntimbale and Lower Shashe. Other
important sources of water are acquifers, which are predominatly found in the Makaleng area.

There are also smaller dams in the district, which however, lack maintenance and proper
management and end up having short-term lives. The reasons advanced for the poor state of
smaller dams are, the poor designs and workmanship that lead to their inability to store water
for longer periods. Because of these shortcomings, people who are supposed to maintain them
become reluctant to do so since the dams do not meet people‟s water requirements. The
communities have expressed willingness to maintain these facilities if built properly.

The North East district has many sources of water including boreholes, wells, and pits along its
rivers. There are 140 boreholes in the freehold farms and 50 council operated boreholes. Due to
the absence of adequate ground water sources in the district, more than 30 per cent of the
boreholes drilled are dry while several have saline water, especially in the Makaleng area.
Borehole yields vary from one area to another according to the types of underlying rocks. The
yields range from 1500 to 7000 litres per hour.

Villages such as Zwenshambe, Gulubane and Ramokgwebana have boreholes with very poor
yields. These have been abandoned and the villages get their water sources from other villages
through water transfer schemes.

In Masunga there is a collector well, which is operated during rainy seasons only. This method
helps in supplementing the few low yielding boreholes within Masunga, whose water demand
has kept rising. It is estimated that more than 60% of all boreholes in the district have declining
yields due to the persistent drought that has affected the area. Only the southern parts of the
district have good yielding boreholes. On the issue of private connections, only those villages
with enough water supplies are allowed to be connected to individual consumers.

The water supply responsibility is shared between the Department of Water Affairs and the
Water and Wastewater department of the district council. Since DDP5, a greater share of
responsibility for larger villages, and more rehabilitation work, has been taken by Council.


                                                                                                 6
1.3.5.6 Minerals
Between 1869 and 1966 there were more than 50 gold mines in the district. Silver was also
produced as a by-product of these operations. Mines such as Tekwane, Golden Eagle, Mop
East, Puel Nervack, Penhalonge and Rainbow are believed to still contain unworked gold
reserves.

Copper and nickel ore reserves are being exploited at Selkirk and Phoenix. There are some
known reserves at other places in the northern part of the district. Reserves of arsenic, asbestos,
kyanite and iron also exist. Iron, limestone and lithium in the district are also said to be in
reasonable quantities. The limestone in the Matsiloje hills is being exploited for the
manufacture of cement and soapstone products from the processes. Quarried and blasted
stones are also used for building.

1.4      DISTRICT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
1.4.1    Socio-Cultural Characteristics
Located within the district but administratively separate is the city of Francistown, founded in
1867 and named after Mr Daniel Francis, the first white gold prospector. In the mid 19th
century the Bakhurutse immigrated into the Tati area and settled there. Early in the 19th
century the disturbances that were brought about by a revolution in the Zulu state, resulted in
mass migrations known as the Mfecane. This had created a vacuum in the area as people fled
from the warlike Zulus. It was during the Mfecane that Mzilikazi passed through the Tati
district causing more political disturbances.

Ethnically, the district comprises the Bakalanga, Barolong, Batalaote, and Bakhurutse. In the
1840s the Ndebele under Mzilikazi forced the Bakalanga and Bangwato to flee from the district
southwards into Bangwato land. At that time gold was discovered between the Shashe and the
Ramokgwebana rivers. In 1880 Lobengula, king of the Ndebele leased mining rights to the Tati
Company.

In 1893 after the defeat of Lobengula, the Tati Concession was placed within the Bechuanaland
protectorate. The Bakalanga and Bangwato who had fled to the Tati district began to return,
but there were conflicts between them and the Tati Company. This problem was partially
resolved in 1905 by establishing a reserve of a mere 344 square miles (891km2) in the north
and west of the district for African occupation. By 1913 after the reserve was already
overcrowded the Bakhurutse had to move to Tonota. Other communities also moved into
Ngwato territory. Groups of Rolong, Talaote and Nyai came into the district, thus counter
balancing out migration and overcrowding.

During all this period the people of the district were actively involved in the mining of gold
and other minerals, which were sold to the Arabs and Europeans who traded in valuable
western goods. At the height of this important trade the Rozwi Mambo (a zimbabwean king)
emerged as a strong leader who controlled a monopoly over gold, and prevented the Asians and
Arabs from having direct contact with the Tati inhabitants. In this way the mambo controlled
and engaged in trade with the east coast of southern and central Africa.

The Bakalanga traditionally do not settle in a compact form of settlement, but scatter within a
big geographical area. In most cases when a village is originally established, it is composed
mostly of a family and relatives, e.g. Matenge, Masunga, Butale, Sechele, Gambule etc. The
headmen of such villages bear the same name as the village.


                                                                                                 7
Although the district settlement pattern is not one of compact villages surrounded by zoned
lands and cattle posts, the villagers raise cattle as well as doing arable farming around their
homes. However, the villages dominated by Bangwato and Barolong are composed of wards,
occupied by different families. They have separated their grazing areas and the fields from
their villages

1.4.2     Population Characteristics, Density and Distribution
Table 1.2 shows the population figures from the 2001 census. The North East has a total
population of 49 399 persons of which 53.1% are females showing the dominance of female in
the population structure of the district which compares well with the national scenario. The
district has several sparsely populated and scattered all over the district. With an area of
5993km2, the district has a population density of 8.2 which has increased from 7.2 recorded in
the 1991 census. The population density of the district is more than the national average of 2.9
according to the 2001 population and housing census.

1.4.3     Age-Sex Structure


   Table 1.2:   Population Characteristics of North East District
 AGE            Males           Percentage      Females       Percentage   Total
 00-04          3,168           50.2            3,138         49.8         6 306
 05-09          3,694           51.1            3,539         48.9         7 233
 10-14          3,974           51.6            3,722         48.4         7 696
 15-19          3,279           51.6            3,077         48.4         6 356
 20-24          1,677           46.3            1,944         53.7         3 621
 25-29          1,296           45.3            1,566         54.7         2 862
 30-34          1,024           44.5            1,278         55.5         2 302
 35-39          863             41              1,244         59           2 107
 40-44          752             39.5            1,168         60.5         1 902
 45-49          680             37.7            1,140         62.3         1 802
 50-54          579             39.3            893           60.7         1 472
 55-59          398             38.2            642           61.8         1 040
 60-64          423             39.5            647           60.5         1 070
 65-69          398             38.2            644           61.8         1 042
 70-74          361             38.9            567           61.1         928
 75- 79         253             37.8            417           62.2         670
 80-84          206             39.7            313           60.3         519
 85- 89         82              34              159           66           241
 90- 94         27              24.3            84            76.7         111
 95+            30              36.1            53            63.9         83
  TOTAL         23 164          46.9            26 235        53.1         49 399
Source: Population and Housing Census, 2001.



The age-sex structure can also be studied through the use of the population pyramid see Figure
1. The pyramid has two bar charts connected. One on the left shows males while the right one
represents females. The different age cohorts are shown in the middle from the youngest at the
bottom to the oldest at the top. The pyramid is broad-based showing a young population i.e.
high proportion of children although the age 0-9 age cohorts are smaller than the 10-14,
depicting declining child bearing (fertility). High proportion of children shows the need for
provision of health and educational facilities to cater for children. There is a low proportion of
the older population and particularly skewed towards women showing a lower proportion of
males in the 65-95 age categories.




                                                                                                8
                                    North East 2001
                                    Figure 1. Population by Age and Sex



                                                                    95+
                                                                    90-94
                     Male                                           85-89                      Female
                                                                    80-84
                                                                    75-79
                                                                    70-74
                                                                    65-69
                                                                    60-64
                                                                    55-59
                                                                    50-54
                                                                    45-49
                                                                    40-44
                                                                    35-39
                                                                    30-34
                                                                    25-29
                                                                    20-24
                                                                    15-19
                                                                    10-14
                                                                    5-9
                                                                    0-4
                                                                            0

                                                                                500

                                                                                      1000

                                                                                             1500

                                                                                                    2000

                                                                                                           2500

                                                                                                                  3000

                                                                                                                         3500

                                                                                                                                4000
4500

       4000

              3500

                      3000

                             2500

                                    2000

                                           1500

                                                  1000

                                                         500

                                                                0




                                                               Population


 Figure 1.1:             Population Pyramid for North East District


                                                                                                                                       9
The number of households in North East district was 10 834 in 2001 representing 2.68% of the
total househols in the country. From these 45.4% are male-headed households were while 54.6%
are female-headed households showing predominance of female over males in household
headship. Female-headed households generally have less cash income, lesser land ownership
rights and fewer cattle than their male counterparts. This calls for increasing opportunites for
women when planning and also making them accessible to other economic oppportunities lik their
male counterparts

1.4.4    Migration
The district‟s population during the 1991 and 2001 intercensal period was affected by both natural
increase and migration trends. During that period, North East District gained a total of 5 717
immigrants from various parts of Botswana while outward migration was recorded at 3 820
people.

1.4.5    HIV/AIDS and its Economic Implications
As stated under the social situation of the district, the AIDS pandemic is a serious threat to both
the economies of the district and the nation at large. According to the 2002 sentinel survey carried
out in pregnant women, out of the 196 women who enrolled for the survey 83 were positive
showing a 38.6% HIV prevalence rate. . Francistown and Tutume has the highest HIV rates in the
country. Their close proximity, social attractions and employment opportunities are major factors
in the spread of HIV in the district. Multiple partners, intergenerational sexual activity, casual and
unprotected sex, and prostitution are also factors in the spread of this disease. The scourge is
depleting the country‟s as well as the district‟s valuable skilled human resource that government
has invested so heavily in. It also impacts negatively on productivity in this district as those
affected by the pandemic spend more time in hospital than at work. Further more a lot of resources
and efforts that should have been used for other developments venture are now directed towards
addressing the scourge.

1.4.6    Home Based Care Programme and Orphanhood
The Home Based Care Programme continues to run despite the problems of staffing. The district
had 219 registered home-based care patients in the last quarter of 2002 out of which 131 are
female and 88 are male. The figure represents an increase by 44 more patients from previous
quarter‟s figure of 175. Medical statistics further reveal that, of the 219 patients, 74 were
confirmed HIV positive, 88 were diagnosed with HIV related conditions but refused to test, while
57 have other chronic illnesses. During the quarter, of the 28 deaths recorded, 24 were HIV related
and 4 were due to other chronic conditions. There were currently 93 home-based care patients on
food basket, which depends on the condition of their illness.

Concerning orphans the district recorded the 3.5% of orphans as relates to the district population
being the third largest in the country




                                                                                                   10
1.4.7       Projected Population Growth Trends, 1991 - 2019
The district had a population of 43 354 in 1991. From 1981 to 1991 the district‟s annual
population growth rate was put at 1.9%. This was one of the lowest growth rates in the country,
followed by Southern and Kweneng districts at just above 3.0% per annum.

Due to the high migration to towns because of unemployment and low agricultural productivity,
and as a result of persistent drought, this growth rate is expected to drop even further to as low as
1.7% by the end of 2019. A medium rate of 1.9% for the next 10 years is, therefore, predicted and
a lower medium rate of 1.7% per annum is assumed for the remaining part of the long-term
planning period.

1.4.8       Economic Activity
There are no major economic activities in the district, neither manufacturing nor wholesale
establishments. There are a number of small-scale construction companies carrying out some
maintenance work to various institutions in the district.

There are also some projects supported by the Financial Assistance Policy (FAP), especially in the
horticultural sub-sector that operates under financial and managerial strain. There is no record of
any of these projects successfully developing into medium scale projects. Some of them collapsed
after receiving funding.

The district has several retail commercial enterprises, such as general dealers, restaurants,
butcheries, bottle stores, cooperative shops, chibuku depots, supermarkets, filling stations, and
several miscellaneous shops of a lower order.

    Table 1.3:      Commercial Activity in North East District
Type of Commercial/Industrial Activities                         Total in District
General dealers                                                  82
Fresh produce                                                    22
Super Market                                                     10
Take away Restaurants                                            8
Liquior Resturant                                                44
Bottle stores                                                    2
Bar                                                              54
Specialised Dealer                                               23
Dry Cleaner                                                      4
Pharmacy                                                         0
Hair Dresser                                                     5
Filling Station                                                  3
Motor Dealer                                                     1
Garage/workshop                                                  2
Hair Dresser                                                     6
Hotel Liquor                                                     0
Wholesale                                                        2
Trvale Agent                                                     0
Club Liquior                                                     0
Source: North East District Settlement Strategy, 2001

Agriculture is a dominant activity, although it is mainly for subsistence purposes. The persistent
drought that has ravaged the area during the last few years has reduced the water potentialities. An
effort needs to be initiated to find solutions to low crop production. Extension staffs in the



                                                                                                  11
agriculture sub-sector think that lack of commitment by farmers has also led to poor crop-yields in
the district.

1.4.9        Employment and Unemployment
According to the 2001 census, the district had 14 349 economically active persons (12 years and
above) and this was 29% of the district population. Of these 10 193 were employed persons in
both seasonal and non-seasonal paid jobs while 1647 were engaged in unpaid seasonal and non-
seasonal work. The remaining 2 509 of the economically active population were actively seeking
work. The majority of those employed were in six key villages of Masunga, Matsiloje, Tati Siding,
Makaleng, Tsamaya and Tshesebe. Others were from Mapoka and Zwenshambe.

In addition, there were people who worked in various places but were not paid, for example those
working in family businesses, at lands/farms or cattle posts. For further details see Table 1.4
below.

Economically inactive persons include those doing housework, students, retired persons or others
not stated. The 2001 census showed that the district had 34 988 economically inactive persons.
This was more than the number of economically active persons, which was 14 349 a dependency
ration of 1:2. This literally means that approximately one working person economically supports
two people. Of the economically inactive persons, 6 680 were doing housework, 10 041 were
students and 595 were retired workers, 39 persons were engaged in other activities and 62 persons
did not state their employment status. Unemployment was high among the age group 15-24 and
low among age group 60-64. The high unemployment trend was also evident among the age group
65+.

    Table 1.4:       Employment and Unemployment
Employment                                                       Total             Proportion
Seasonal work paid                                                1 371               2.8%
Seasonal work unpaid                                              1 295               2.6%
Non seasonal work paid                                            8 822              17.9%
Non seasonal work unpaid                                           352                2.6%
Job seeker                                                        2 509               5.1%
Home maker                                                        6 680              13.5%
Student                                                          10 041              20.3%
Retired                                                            595                1.2%
Sick                                                               934                1.9%
Other                                                              39                0.08%
Unknown                                                            62                 0.13
Not applicable                                                   16 699              33.8%
Total                                                            49 399                100
Source: Central Statistics Office, 2001

The district populace employed in non-seasonal work is mostly on construction as represented
24.3% followed by public administration and those engaged in agricultural activity.

    Table 1.5:       District Population by Major Industry
Major Industry                                               Number of People      Proportion
Agriculture                                                      1 226                12%
Fishing                                                             -                   -
Mining and Quarrying                                              296                 2.9%
Manufacturing                                                     607                 5.9%
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                                  90                0.89%



                                                                                                12
Major Industry                                            Number of People            Proportion
Construction                                                   2 490                    24.3%
Wholesale and retail trade                                     1 020                     10%
Hotels and Resturant                                            197                      1.9%
Transport, Storage and Communications                           202                       2%
Financial intermediaries                                        36                       0.4%
Real Estates, Renting and Business Activities                   258                      2.5%
Public Administration                                          1 644                     16%
Education                                                      1 120                    10.9%
Health and Social Work                                          381                      3.7%
Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activities         143                      1.4%
Private Household with Employed Persons                         474                      4.6%
Foreign Mission Internal Organisation                            1                       0.01
Unknown                                                         58                      0.57%
Total                                                         10 243                      100
Source: Central Statistics Office, 2001

Informal sector productivity is rather difficult to quantify due to the fact that most informal sector
activities are carried out within households using family manpower. It is usually the non-cattle
owners who get involved in such activities, which include firewood sellers, bricklayers, carpenters
and other craftsmen

1.4.10       Constraints to Development
Traditional employment like agriculture is not featuring as much as expected in the district. One
factor that accounts for little agricultural activity is the presence of generally poor soils,
insufficient water supplies and poor rainfall throughout the district. This means that ways must be
found to diversify the economy to activities like industry and commerce, small and medium
business sectors, which are not doing well at the moment in the North East District.

Industrial development/activity has been low due to lack of raw materials, lack of basic
infrastructure, water, and skilled labour and general lack of capacity to attract investors to the
district. The poor accessibility to some parts of the district, especially during the rainy seasons,
does not encourage investors to move from accessible and dominant towns such as Francistown
and Selebi-Phikwe. The high HIV prevalence in the district poses a growing concern to
development. The rates are highest in the most productive age group i.e. 20-40. This predisposes
the district populace to high rates of illness, loss of workdays, low productivity and production,
etc.

1.5          DISTRICT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The district has a few economic activities with agriculture being the dominant activity though
practiced on a subsistence basis. Other activities found in the district are commercial, mining,
government sector, and small-scale manufacturing. It is important to note that manufacturing
enterprises referred to here is those assisted under the small-scale financial assistance policy. All
in all, the district‟s economic basis has not diversified as it still largely depends on subsistence
agriculture and to a lesser extent mining. There is a general downward trend in agricultural
productivity in the whole district, which is consistent with what is happening in the rest of the
country. This trend is in line with structural transformation through the share of agriculture fall as
economic development proceeds while other sectors of the economy advance. However this
situation is disturbing for a small country like Botswana, which should at least be able to produce
enough food to meet its domestic requirements. Unemployment still continues to be the biggest
challenge in the district due to low employment opportunities as stated elsewhere in the text.


                                                                                                   13
The North East district is no exception from the rest of Botswana in terms of the standard of
living. Using national figures and looking at the current situation one can infer that the standard of
living for the majority of Batswana is still low. According to the HIES and BIDPA Poverty Study,
about 38% of households were living below the poverty datum line in 1993/94. In the absence of
disaggregated data it will only be fair to conclude that the district is equally affected. The extent
of poverty is further exacerbated by the AIDS pandemic, which is ravaging the country. Poverty
still remains a major challenge and ways of tackling it needs to be identified as a matter of
urgency.

1.5.1    Agricultural Sector
The dorminant agricultural activity is subsistence farming. In addition there are a few other
commercial agricultural activities. These nclude freehold farms, which account for 41.5% of all
land uses in the district. There are however a few commercial undertakings in the district both
under arable and pastoral agriculture. These are poultry, piggery, horticulture, dairy production
and small stock, although their scale of production is small and therefore have minimal impact to
national production. Most, if not all, of these projects were funded through the Financial
Assistance Policy (FAP).

1.5.1.1 Arable Agriculture
Most of the farmers use animal draught power for ploughing operations. Only a few rely on hired
tractors. In 1998/99 total area ploughed was 17477 hectares. Low hectarage was ploughed in the
year 1999/2000 because of floods, 4876 ha were ploughed. In 2000/2001, the total area ploughed
was 6921, which was more than area ploughed in the previous.

There has been a downward trend in food production for the past five years 1995-2000. A number
of factors are attributed to this viz; drought, poor soil fertility, lack of interest by the youth hence
only old people are involved in the activity, poor crop management practices, low adoption of
technology, ongoing government programmes such as drought, and other labour intensive
programmes during the cropping season which seemingly compete for manpower with
Agriculture..

Horticulture production is mostly done at a small-scale level. There are 44.41 ha under horticulture
production in the district. The number of farmers engaged in this production is 21.

1.5.1.2 Pastoral Agriculture
The district livestock production in communal grazing zone is estimated at 41 093 cattle, 29 137
goats, 1 895 sheep, 5 947 donkeys and 95 horses (department of livestock and animal production).
In freehold farms the population of livestock is estimated at 19 081 cattle, 1 409 goats, 616 sheep,
111 horses and 65 donkeys. Even though these farms cover a large portion of the district, they are
characterised by low population density of about 0-5 persons per square kilometre. This means
that most of the land in these farms is under-utilised. Freehold farmers seem to have dual grazing
rights as their cattle roam from their farms into communal grazing areas because most of the farms
have falling and poorly maintained fences. The farms also provide employment on a small scale to
people living in communal areas.



                                                                                                     14
It is important to note that livestock farming in the district is also practised on a subsistence basis.
Farmers only sell animals when there is need for money not when they are ready for market.

Apart from cattle rearing farmers in the district have taken advantage of government support
programmes provided by government to set up income generating undertakings. Some of the
activities referred to above are, poultry production, small stock production, dairy production, and
to a lesser extent piggery.

1.5.2    Commercial Activities
Apart from agriculture, there are also a number of commercial activities in the district. These
include among others, restaurants, general dealers, butcheries, cooperatives, chibuku depots,
supermarkets, filling stations and recently lodges and motels. These provide employment and
essential goods and services to the community of North East District although Francistown still
remains the major centre as a service and goods supplier. There are a total of 182 commercial
activities in the district with an estimated employment of 5461. These comprise of 3 lodges, 53
general dealers, 21 fresh produce, 6 supermarkets, 32 liquor restaurant, 8 bottle store, 28 bars, 2
pharmacies, 5 hair saloons, 4 filling stations, and 2 garages.

1.5.3    Tourism
Tourism in the district is not well developed. The expansion of the hospitality sector, is a positive
development as it is likely to encourage and complement the development of the tourism industry
in the district which is as of now contributing marginally or non at all in terms of total output
and/or developments in the district. This is in line with the broader national/regional objectives of
enhancing the country/region‟s competitiveness in the tourism sector. Although the district is not
rich in game, it has great potential in eco-tourism.

There are sites of historical interest in the district such as the Domboshaba ruins, rock paintings,
old mines especially near Domboshaba ruins and Vukwi ruins and some in Farm 1-NQ, and old
pottery in some caves. As of now the sites remain unknown to the outside world. There is also the
Supa–Ngwao museum located in Francistown, which intends educating communities on
conservation of natural heritage and historic sites as well as promoting cultural festivals. Efforts
are being made to encourage communities to utilise these sites, through CBNRM programme.

1.5.4    Manufacturing/Industry
The manufacturing sector in the district has not yet asserted itself2. There are no large and
medium scale enterprises. Most of the manufacturing businesses found in the district are FAP
funded and their scale of production is small, each with an average employment of 2 people.
According to information from IFS follow-up report (December 2000), there is a total of 130
projects in operation with a total employment of 370. The apparent lack of major manufacturing


1 Note that the exact number of people employed in commercial activities is just an estimate. It is
assumed here that on average each commercial activity employs 3 people.
2 Manufacturing here will be used to represent industrial sector, as it is the most important
component of industry.


                                                                                                     15
businesses in the district may be attributed to the district‟s proximity to Francistown, which is
attractive to investors because of factors such as availability of market, well developed service
sector and modern infrastructure.

There are also a number of construction companies in the district. The exact number of these
companies in the area is not known and while the number of people employed according to the
2001 census is 2490 (24.8%) in absolute numbers recording the largest activity in the district.

1.5.5    Mining
The district is not well endowed with large mineral deposits, however, there are several mining
activities in the district. These include mining of nickel at phoenix and selkirk mines, gold at small
scale at metore joren mine, cement mine at KCL technologies. There are also mining for gravel,
river sand and pit sand like Francistown quarry, Top Drawer and Panda Quarry. The appropriate
number of staff for mines in the North East District eight hundred and sixty one (861) and this is
expected to rise as there is a possibility of mining gold at proposed Mupane gold mine.

1.5.6    Public Sector
The public sector is made up central and local government. It is one of the major sectors in the
district and provides services to residents of the district. Government employs an estimated 1796
people. The government continues to put up infrastructure as a way to create a conducive
environment for investment and economic development. During the DDP5, government a primary
hospital, and a stadium were constructed. Furthermore, a major infrastructure development project
in Tati Siding, which is expected to be complete in 2003, was undertaken. These efforts are
expected create the necessary conditions for attraction of investors in the North-East villages.

1.6      STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is an environmental assessment applied at the
strategic level of the planning hierarchy, that is, policies, plans and programmes. Analysis of
potential environmental consequences at the level performed concurrently and interactively with
the planning process enables incorporation of environmental considerations into plans, policies
and programmes.

The SEA will examine the effect of overall goals and objectives, sectors‟ goals and objectives and
ramifications on policies and programmes. The intention of sea focuses on strategic or priority
issues and creates guidelines or terms of reference and criteria to address detailed issues later at
planning stages. Sea examines development on environment and has potential to inform policy
and plan making, thus promoting sustainable development and ensuring informed decision-
making. The aim of the strategic environmental assessment will therefore be to examine the
proposed developments within the context of the ecological (natural or biological) objectives of
the district, national and international levels. At the local level, the sea will attempt to examine the
relationship between the proposed development and its inherent potential.




                                                                                                     16
CHAPTER 2
2          REVIEW OF THE DDP5 AND LONG TERM DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL

2.1        INTRODUCTION
This chapter will highlight progress made in the implementation of the district development Plan 5
and problems encountered. The main achievements of the District Development Plan 5 include
the improvement in the health status of communities through provision of primary health facilities
such as clinics and health posts in various villages, improved education facilities, increased access
through provision of road infrastructure, improved public health through provision of sanitary
facilities and refuse collection. However it is important to note that the district experienced some
failures owing to some bottlenecks and natural disasters. The main bottlenecks, which hampered
development, were lack of skilled manpower, lack of funding, and shortage of staff and office
accommodation. The floods that occurred in 2000 also affected the district, like elsewhere in
Botswana. The impact of the floods was a real set back as a lot of time and resources was directed
at correcting the damage caused.

2.2        ACHIEVEMENTS/OPPORTUNITIES - DDP5
2.2.1      Agriculture
2.2.1.1 Crop Production and Forestry
A total of 700 people benefited from ALDEP packages. The demand for the programme was so
high that its Total Expenditure Ceiling was exhausted before the end of the plan period resulting in
the programme being halted. However farmers who had already made down payment when the
programme was stopped continued to be assisted.

National Fruit Tree Nursery: Masunga Nursery: The nursery is fully operational. It is currently
producing 20,000 tree seedlings per year and generates P5 800.00 per annum.

Ditladi Nusery: The project was a carry over from DDP4/NDP7 TO DDP5/NDP8. Funds were
sub-warranted to dabs and the initial tendering were done in 98/99 but due to some delays with
DABS, the project was re-tendered during the current financial year and award of tender is still
awaited.

Horticulture: Efforts to promote horticultural activities in the district still continue. The
construction of a fresh produce market in Francistown is complete. The market has already started
operating. The area earmarked for horticulture at Impala, has been developed although it is still
awaiting water connection. About 12 farmers who have been allocated plots have started
operating with an estimated employment of 41 people.

Conservation: The planned conservation projects were implemented as follows:

         13 diversional channels measuring 3510m in 288ha.
         48 gully control structures measuring 341m



                                                                                                  17
      88 contour banks measuring 20198.80m in 368.60ha
      The matsiloje conservation project is practically complete. What remains is installation of
       electricity to intensify drawing of water from the river.

Development of Extension Services: The district did not implement all the planned staff houses in
the district. Out of the five houses planned only one was constructed in Makaleng leaving a
backlog of 4 houses. In addition, two of the three houses planned for electrification have been
wired but have not yet been connected to the Botswana Power Corporation grid. The houses are in
Matshelagabedi, Matsiloje and TatiSiding. The section is faced with the following constraints

      Iadequate water suppy - the nursery has capacity to produce 30 000 seedlings but due to
       shortage of water production has reduced to 20 000 annually. It is anticipated that with the
       construction of the Ntimbale Dam and the development of the Maintengwe well field the
       district water shortage problem will be addressed.
      Possibilities of using water from the sewerage ponds for watering the nursery will be
       considered.
      Conflicting land use especially in the village of Tsamaya. The area which was earmarked
       for horticulture is no longer there due to village growth encroachment into the lands area.
      Construction of gully control structures was delayed due to shortage of machinery.
      Shortage of animal draught power furthered by restriction of ivestock movement in the
       district due to FMD.

2.2.1.2 Animal Health and Production
During the year 2002, an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease was reported at Matsiloje and
Matshelagabedi areas and towards the end of the year another outbreak was reported in Matopi
and Tseteng areas. This led to the killing of 12000 cattle in Matsiloje/Matshelagabedi and 4000
cattle in Matopi/Tseteng areas. Famers were compensated in cash and with animals and a labour-
based programme was introduced as a relief measure.

The department is currently constructing an electric fence between Botswana and Zimbabwe
where the FMD is suspected to be coming from. The fence is expected to prevent cross border
movements of animals. The project is undertaken at a cost of P6 million and is anticipated to be
completed by the end of 2003. Further more the department through the labour-based disaster
relief programme is relocating watering points and cattle crushes from near the borderline as a
measure to further prevent the across the border crossing of livestock.

Service to Livestock Owners in Communal Areas (SLOCA): A total of 24 SLOCA applications
have been approved with a total grant of P119,400 since the beginning of the DDP5. These
included water reticulation, handling facilities, fodder storage baw, drift fences and spray races.
The SLOCA grant is too small in view of the size of the projects the grant is financing. The district
proposed the increased of SLOCA grants from P13 000 to P50 000

Fencing Policy: The suitability study for two portions of farm 77 NQ for the north east district has
been done. Details of allocation are with land board.

Commercial Farming: Poultry projects: a total of 47 broiler and 6 layer projects are operating with
an employment of 173 people. Total FAP grant for these projects is P1, 850,006


                                                                                                  18
Dairy projects: total number of projects operating is 10 with an employment of 28 people. The
milk concentration center at Tshesebe will be carried forward to ddp9 due to lack of funding.

2.2.2    Industrial and Commercial Development
2.2.2.1 Integrated Field Services
The Production Development Committee (PDC) approved 174 projects since the beginning of the
plan period. Total investment and total grant for these projects were P17 001 301.64 and P9 885
404.62 respectively. The projected employment was 766 and compared to actual employment of
208. Out of these approved projects 18 were cancelled as they failed to pay their contributions
while 12 projects started and later collapsed. All in all 144 projects are operating.

The district office is manned by one officer, which makes it difficult to adequately carry out
follow-ups of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are followed up to verify materials and equipment
received in order to authorise payments. They are also visited to check progress on their projects
and offer advice.

2.2.2.2 Commercial Affairs
There are also a number of commercial activities in the district. These include restaurants, general
dealers, butcheries, cooperatives, chibuku depots, supermarkets, filling stations and of late lodges
and motels. There are a total of 182 commercial activities in the district with an estimated
employment of 5463. These comprise of 3 lodges, 53 general dealers, 21 fresh produce, 6
supermarkets, 32 liquor restaurant, 8 bottle store, 28 bars, 2 pharmacies, 5 hair saloons, 4 filling
stations, and 2 garages.

2.2.3    Wildlife and National Parks
The department of wildlife has facilitated the formation of a total of 45 school based wildlife
clubs, 35 of which are for primary schools, 9 for community junior secondary schools and 1 for
the senior secondary school.

There are however, no community projects in the districts but a workshop has been held for
councillors and chiefs in the district to sensitise them on Community Based Natural Resource
Management. There is potential in the district for CBNRM as there are some historical sites like
Domboshaba ruins that communities could use for tourism.

2.2.4    Tourism
Historical sites in the district are being developed as part of prmoting cultural tourism. The
community conservation fund was established during DDP5 to fund Community Based Natural
Resources Management Program (CBNRMP). The district has not yet benefited from this fund
although mobilisation of communities was done.



3 Note that the number of people employed in commercial activities is just an estimate. It is
assumed here that on average each commercial activity employs 3 people.


                                                                                                 19
2.2.5    Mining
The district is not well endowed with large mineral deposits, however, there are several mining
activities taking place in the district. These are Shashe and Selkirk mines. The minerals found in
these mines are gold and nickel respectively. The mines employ a total of 730 people. In addition
to the above, there is a relatively new cement mine near Matsiloje. There is also small-scale
mining in freehold farms e.g. Near Sechele village where gold is also mined.

2.2.6    Education and Training
2.2.6.1 Non-Formal Education
In its attempt to establish learning oriented society the department has managed to maintain an
annual enrolment of 600-900 learners out of the planned 1200. Through the programme, 53 young
literacy learners were transferred to different primary schools and placed at different levels while
85 learners have graduated from the literacy programme. In addition, the department was able to
successfully launch two new activities namely literacy at the workplace in government, private and
parastatal institutions, and “English as a second language” and as a post literacy activity.

The department managed to undertake a pilot exercise of the adult basic education course even
though it was not budgeted for in the DDP5. A survey for the out of school education for children
in rural and urban areas has been conducted to identify the children and their needs.

Training on post literacy related skills (candle making, poultry, sewing & knitting etc.) has been
conducted every financial year.

2.2.6.2 Primary Education
The district has achieved very little in meeting the need for primary school facilities. For this plan
period, the district was allocated P10 million to implement recommendation 14 of the Revised
National Policy on Education. An assessment was done to identify all items needed per school
and a breakdown done per year. The district therefore gave priority to teacher‟s quarters and
classroom blocks following on the eradication of backlog on these core facilities. The district also
implemented this programme by use of the drought relief labour intensive programme. The table
below indicates the achievement made by need per item and the existing backlog. Although the
backlog is high, the district has been successful in reducing classroom backlog.

The thrust of the education construction was to a large extent pursuant to the Revised National
Policy on Education. The policy amongst others, emphasises on the provision of adequate facilities
to provide a conducive teaching and learning environment. To that extent, the distrct has not been
able to implement all the planned projects due to limited financial allocation.

In preparation for the new feeding menu to be introduced to the district beginning of DDP6, the
district is modifying 7 kitchens constructed through the 2001/2 drought relief programme, 12
kitchens will be constructed through the 2002/3 drought relief programme, 2 through the disaster
relief programme and the remaining 20 will constructed through the education construction capital
programme.




                                                                                                   20
    Table 2.1:      Planned and Implemented Education Facilities DDP5
Facility             Planned projects/items   Approved Projects          Achievement               Total      Back log
                       1997/98-2002/2003      1997/98-2002/2003                                 Implemented
                                                                  Capital      Drought Relief     Projects
                                                                  LG 1102       Programme
Classrooms                    55                    33              33              18              37          18
Teachers quarters             332                   152             152             78              105         227
Latrines/toilets              133                   10              48              33              10          123
Administraion                 41                    21               -               -               -          41
blocks
Kitchens                      41                      -              -                 19            -          41
Store rooms                   123                                                                               123
Bus                            1                     1               1                                           0
Library                        -                     3               -                  -            0           3
Solar/elect.                  82                     7              60                 10           70          12
Source: Education Department - NEDC, 2002


2.2.6.3 Secondary Education
Junior Secondary Education: There are ten (10) Junior Secondary Schools within the district,
which are adequate to admit all standard seven-school leavers from the primary schools. Some of
them are already experiencing a short fall in the number of Form 1 students to be admitted.

Extensions to the academic areas, teachers‟ houses and hostels where necessary have been done in
schools as follows:

Batanani – extension to
    Home economics block
    Toilet block
    2 x 6 bay ablutions
    Cycle maintenance to buildings/facilities

Matsiloje - buildings
    6 x 3 bedroom teachers houses
    1 x art room block
    1 x science lab
    Cycle maintenance to existing facilities

Pelaelo – extension to
     Home economics lab
     Toilet block
     Cycle maintenance to existing facilities

Tashatha – buildings
    2 x 3 bedroom teachers houses
    1 x double classroom block
    1 x science laboratory
    Cycle maintenance to existing facilities.

Thamani – extension to
    Home economics block


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       Toilet block
       Cycle maintenance to existing facilities.

All the junior secondary schools have been supplied with computers. The cycle maintenance and
extensions in the remaining junior secondary school will continue into the next plan period.

These will include the extension to office accommodation as well as upgrading of sporting
facilities.

Senior Secondary Education: The district has only one Senior Secondary School - Masunga Senior
Secondary School. The school facilities are being extended by putting more staff houses and also
undertaking remedial works to existing facilities. By the end of DDP5 the project was
experiencing difficulties, the contractor had cash flow problems hence shortage of materials
onsite.This hampered the progress of the project.

Brigades: Zwenshambe brigade has not implemented the development projects under phase II as
was anticipated in the DDP5. This has affected the starting of the planned courses in the plan
period. Although the envisaged expansion of the brigade has not taken place, enrolment has risen
from 128 in 1997 to 192 in 2001. The brigade has also produced 62 graduates in business studies
out of which 80% are working in various parts of the country. The installation of electricity
improved performance of some units such as sorghum mill, carpentry, and building. The brigade
has secured a piece of land for the expansion of the brigade.

Senyawe brigade gives training of Building works, Computer Operations and Accounting. The
brigade has 128 instructors and 10 support staff. Most of the projects planned for have been
undertake this includes fencing of the Brigade, Purchase of equipment for computer classes, staff
houses, classroom blocks and building slab.

2.2.7    Health
2.2.7.1 Health/Clinics Department
The department has made strides in provision of infrastructure to ensure that the overall goal of
health for all by the year 2000 and beyond is achievable.

All projects that were approved were successfully implemented with the exception of construction
of a maternity wing at Matshelagabedi. By the end of DDP5 the maternity wing was completed
except for the sluice facility which had to be installed prior to the fuctioning of the maternity wing.
The completed projects include, construction of two health posts at Matopi and Botalaote/toteng,
upgrading of health post to clinic at Ramokgwebana and to clinic with maternity in
Matshelagabedi, seven staff houses, and electrification of health facilities in 17 villages, which
were electrified through the rural electrification program during DDP5.

With regard to manpower for the new projects the council has not achieved much because of the
manpower ceilings. However 21 out of 70 posts were approved and are filled. In addition, 10
home based care posts were approved and are currently filled. The shortage of nurses still exists in
the district.




                                                                                                    22
The department has critical shortage of nurses‟ houses and shortage of transport. This is an
acumalted backlog since DDP4; the current plan will attempt to address this shortage.

2.2.7.2 National AIDS Programme
The district launched the District Multi- Sectoral Aids Committee (DMSAC) in November 1998
and later formed sub-committees to encourage greater participation. Since the inception of the
DMSAC, it has undertaken several activities including community mobilisation by conducting
kgotla meetings, facilitating in conducting of a „need assessment on HIV/AIDS‟ study, and
workshops. Other achievements include the training and orientation of Family Welfare Educators
and nurses on Home-Based Care Strategy, the formation of Village AIDS Committees to provide
community based HIV/AIDS service delivery in the district, and HIV/AIDS sensitization sessions
with various target groups to effect a multi-sectoral approach in tackling the epidemic.

Health programmes such as Home-Based Care Programmes, PMTCT etc have been started during
the period under review and have progressed well. Porta cabins have been procured to facilitate
counseling since there is shortage of consulting rooms in clinics. Lay counselloers have also been
employed in attempt to address issues of inadequate counseling services. Equipment such as
television sets and VCRs have been purchased to facilitate health education.

2.2.7.3 Environmental Health
Most of the planned projects under the District Development Plan have been implemented. The
projects undertaken include 66 VIP latrines, 100 dry compost latrines, and purchase of vacuum
tanker through the National Rural Sanitation Programme (NRSP). In addition to the above, the
district has been allocated funding to construct a sanitary landfill during the 2001/2002 financial
year though the landfill was not yet completed by the end DDP5 equipemt of the landfill was
procured. The District Council was also able to complete fencing of dumping site at Kalakamati,
conduct Malaria control spraying exercise, and purchase of water testing kits. A total of two 7
tonne trucks and 4x4 hilux vehicle were procured through through Malaria Decentralisation
Programme package.

Littering has been a cause of concern of concern throughout the plan period, health education
campaigns have been held to mobilise communities to clean the surroundings. Clean-up
campaigns and village competition have also been conducted to encourage communities to district
villages clean.

According to the 2001 Population and Housing Census it has been established that only 13% of the
10 384 households in the district were accessible to adequate sanitation facilities while 62.4% had
inadequate facilities, 24.3% had no saniation facilities at all and the remaining 0.3% was not
known. The district will during DDP6 intensify in the provision of saniation facilities through the
subisdised NRSP.

2.2.8    Social & Community Development
2.2.8.1 Village Infrastructural Projects
The district implemented 24 out of the 105 projects in DDP5 under the LG 1109 programme. The
achieved projects include 5 day care centres, 2 community halls, 5 houses (i.e. 3 x 4 houses & 2 x


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LA2 houses), 2 storerooms for the destitute programme, guesthouse, kgotla toilet, and a stand
pipe.

2.2.8.2 Training Support Component
The department also managed to organise 5 courses under training support component of LG 1109
programme between 1998 and 2000. These courses include, VDC leadership course, 3 workshops
and a youth training course.

2.2.8.3 Social Welfare
The number of destitue persons has been increasing in the district showing increasing poverty
levels. The main contributory factor has been the narrow ecoomic base of the district with low
commercial and industrial activities even poor informal sector. Low rainfall and poor soil have
largerly lowered production in the agriculture sector lowering household food security. Shortage
of food, low employment opportunities and low literacy levels have resultantly made a proportion
of the district eligible for destitute person programme.

2.2.9    Immigration, Customs and Excise
The immigration offices and six (6) housing units have already been constructed in Masunga and
three departments are occupying the buildings. The departments are civil registration, national
registration and immigration. Equipment and furniture will be supplied once the project is
finished.

The major constraint facing the department is the influx of Zimbabwean emigrants into the district,
both legal and illegal. This has also led to high level of assaults, rape, burglary and breakings. The
immigration office has been repatriating Zimbabweans to their country. This is a costly exercise.
Kgotla meetings will continue to be held sensetise members of the public about harbouring
Zimbabwean illegal emigrants.

2.2.10   District Administration
District administration has managed to establish a standing District Disaster Preparedness
Committee, which is made up of civil servants and local representatives. The district also
successfully managed to assist communities affected by floods in 2000 by providing temporary
shelter and supplying them with food and clothing.

2.2.11   Tribal Administration
The department managed to increase the number customary court presiding officers by one to
speed up case hearings, and increased the number of local police officers. It is anticipated that
more courts will be upgraded as planned. The department constructed 8 out of the 12 customary
courts planned. The construction of the remaining four customary courts may be carried to DDP 6
as funds under this vote have been exhausted.

Communication: Telephones have been installed in most of the customary courts except in 4
customary courts while four courts were issued with local police radios.



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Transport: Since the beginning of the plan period the department received 11 vehicles and a
combi, which were distributed to customary courts in the district. The customary courts which
benefited are, Matsiloje, Gulubane, Tatisiding, Masunga, Mapoka, Tshesebe, Ditladi, Senyawe,
and Jackalas 1.

2.2.12    Botswana Police
Construction of Tshesebe Police Station started in February 2000 at the cost P3 380 000 for a
double storey office block, one high cost house, five medium costs, twenty-five low cost and six
servants quarter houses, all at the cost of P1 376 393. Towards the end of DDP5 it was almost
complete and handing over is expected beginning of DDP6. A four kilometre tarred road from the
Police Station to the main road is also expected to be complete by October 2003 at the cost of P2,6
million.

2.2.13    Government Revenue Office
The department has managed to decentralise payments of imprests, goods and services. These
payments were initially done at the Attorney General at head quarters.

2.2.14    Physical Infrastructure
2.2.14.1 District Housing and Land Servicing
For the entire plan period, about 102 housing units were planned to be constructed and funds
amounting to P5.1 million were allocated for the project. This number comprises 24 for district
administration, 18 for tribal administration, 23 for the district council and 18 for land board. Since
the beginning of the plan period about 13 houses for the District Council and Land Board were
successfully completed within the stipulated time. Currently about 21 houses for district
administration and tribal administration are under construction. In addition, the district council
has been allocated funds to construct about 14 houses for its staff during the 2001/2002 financial
year.

Council in conjunction with land board has prepared local area plans for Makaleng, Matopi,
Jackalas 1 and Tsamaya villages. Preparation of layout plans for Masunga, Tatisiding,
Matshelagabedi and Shashe Bridge has been completed.

Land servicing project is ongoing at a cost of P68 million in Tatisiding. The project entails
tarmacking of internal roads and drainage, sewerage network, water supply scheme and streetlighting.
Additional works entailing servicing of 110 industrial plots will be included during DDP6 as well as
Phase II Infrastructural development of Masunga Village. It is anticipated that the projects will
nhance the viability level of the district making it a lucrative area for investment; additionally creating
empoyment for the district population.

2.2.14.2 Transport and Communications
Council Roads: The district council continues to provide road infrastructure in order to improve
communication. During this plan period, 111.60 km of roads was gravelled, and 17 out of the 34
planned culverts were constructed. However no bridges were constructed as planned in the DDP5.
According to the plan, kilometres to be gravelled were 2 per road and the total length to be


                                                                                                        25
gravelled was 48 kilometres. However during implementation the whole length of the road was
gravelled as it was realised that spot improvement could not make roads passable as the soils in the
North East area is generally clay and collapsible.

2.2.14.3 Water and Waste Water
This has been the most difficult area to develop due to lack of water sources in most parts of the
district. Nevertheless, the main achievements in DDP5 include improvement of the health status of
the communities through improved water supply and sanitation in most of the villages in the
district. The district has been able to undertake 44 water development projects out of the planned
62 projects in the whole district. These projects include provision of additional water source and
rehabilitation, provision of additional standpipes, extension and construction of sewerage ponds
and effluent disposal in Masunga, and procurement of equipment.

About 55% of the district villages still have water shortage problems. Water bowsers have been
procured to bowse water to hardhit villages. Maitengwe wellfield and Ntimbale Dam will
explored during DDP6 to improve the water situation in the district.

The infrastructural development project in Tatisiding includes provision of sewer network in the
area.

2.2.14.4 Energy Sources and Power
The main thrust for the sector was to make use of the Rural Electrification Programmme. Through
the programme, villages of Jackalas 1, Matsiloje, Makaleng, Mapoka,, Ramokgwebana, Moroka,
Sekakangwe, Nlapkhwane, Mosojane, Senyawe Themashanga, and Siviya were electrified since
the beginning of the plan period.

2.3      LONG TERM PLANNING FRAMEWORK
2.3.1    Integrated District Land Use Plans and Structure Plans
The district land use plan has not yet been done except for the portions 25 and 27 of farm 77NQ,
which were bought by government to augment tribal land. The need to have a land use plan was
identified during DDP4. The production of the plan was to be carried out early DDP5. The plan
was supposed to address balanced development relating to mixed activity of arable agriculture,
livestock production, mining activities, and settlement location and growth.

A 24-year Structural Plan for Masunga village, Greater Francistown Planning Area - including
Tatisiding, Shashe Bridge and Matshelagabedi were developed. Layout plans for the three clusters
in Masunga i.e. C, D and E extensions. These are earmarked for servicing during DDP6.

2.3.2    District Settlement Strategy
The North East District Settlement Strategy (NEDSS) is updated to capture new developments.
The thrust of the strategy is to guide the District Council in locating and prioritising development
opportunities within the objectives of the National Settlement Policy. The NEDSS formulates
strategies that will




                                                                                                 26
         Elaborate the NSP at the district level and facilitate its implemetation
         Review the land use patterns and designateland to the use that will derive the optimum use
         Provide guidelines on the settlement to be promoted for growth
         Propose for the provision of infrastructure service for the next 24 years based on the
          projected population
         Facilitate coordination and implementation of sectoral plans
         Ensure equitable distribution of economic resources linked with resource potential area –
          promote balanced development
         Provide for protection of scarce resources and environmetal manangement.

The preliminary draft of North East District Settlement Strategy (2000-2004) has been completed
and is to be forwarded to relevant institutions for comments.

2.4        PROBLEM AREAS AND MAJOR UNRESOLVED ISSUES
2.4.1      Agriculture
2.4.1.1 Crop Production and Forestry
The following were identified as hampering developments in the sector:

         Shortage of water; the nursery has the capacity to produce 30,000 seedlings but due to
          shortage of water production was reduced to 20,000.
         Conflicting land uses; the area earmarked for horticulture in Tsamaya is no longer
          available owing to village encroachment into the dam area.
         Construction of gully control structures was delayed mainly because of lack of machinery.
         Lack of implementation capacity by DABS delayed construction of the planned staff
          houses. The houses that were planned for electrification have not yet been electrified due
          to delays from DEMS and BPC. Some projects like the district agriculture offices in
          Masunga still remain unfunded.

2.4.1.2 Animal Health & Production
         SLOCA funding is limited resulting in a backlog of applications.
         SLOCA grants were said to be small in view of the size of the projects they fund, such as
          borehole equipping, water reticulation, kraals and crushes, and dip tanks.
         Lack of skilled manpower hamper implementation of programmes in the district.

2.4.2      Industrial and Commercial Development
2.4.2.1 Integrated Field Services
Shortage of manpower made it difficult to undertake all the planned activities in DDP5, which
include conducting follow-ups, training would-be entrepreneurs, and disseminating information on
FAP.




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2.4.3    Wildlife & National Parks
       There are administrative issues such as payment of subsistence allowances to primary
        school teachers that hinder wildlife clubs activities.
       The emergence of environmental education clubs in schools facilitated by ministry of
        education is another problem in that they play the same role in conservation but compete
        for the same resources.

2.4.4    Education & training
2.4.4.1 Non-Formal Education
The programme has not been able to achieve its stated objectives due to the following problems:

       Lack of manpower to cover all clusters.
       Inadequate funds for payment of literacy teachers.
       Unstipulated condition of service for literacy teachers.
       Lack of structures for holding learning sessions.
       Lack of transport.
       Groups embarking on home economics activities are in most cases not in production
        because of group dynamics, lack of market, and low quality of products.

2.4.4.2 Primary Education
       Cost escalations in the construction sector have reduced the number of projects to be
        implemented.
       Funding limitation and capacity constraints leading to fewer projects implemented. The
        backlog on core facilities remains high.

2.4.5    Health
2.4.5.1 Primary Health Care
       Manpower Constraints: there is still shortage of manpower. As a result of the manpower
        ceiling, the department is not able to create posts for the new facilities e.g. the upgraded
        clinics and new health posts need family welfare educators but presently upgraded clinics
        still have one family welfare educator.
       Inadequate Transport: the other problem, which hinders progress, is shortage of transport in
        the health facilities and district health team.

2.4.5.2 National AIDS Programme
       Historically, there has been a problem of compiling accurate statistics on HIV/AIDS in the
        district, as testing facilities were available only in Francistown prior to the opening of the
        Masunga Primary Hospital.
       Another problem identified is the lack of adequate transportation to cover the district and
        publicize HIV/AIDS messages.
       Efforts should be made to include a provision for HIV/AIDS programme implementation
        in all sectoral budgets.



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2.4.5.3 Environmental Health
The construction of VIP latrines was not done from 1997/98 up to 1999/2000 due to delays by the
Ministry of Local Government to approve funding. This resulted in a backlog of 600 VIP latrines.
The 600 VIP latrines were constructed during 2002/03 financial year and they are all complete.

2.4.6     Social & Community Development
The planned projects were not all achieved mainly due cost overruns owing to delays by
communities to mobilise the required 10 percent contribution. This is so because the communities
prefer to work in other government programmes such as drought relief and labour intensive road
works where there are incentives.

2.4.7     District Administration
The problem faced by District Administration is that of co-ordinating regionalised departments
mostly based in Francistown. The majority of departments get instructions from their parent
ministries hence little allegiance is paid to the co-ordinating department. Shortage of staff also
hampers the efficiency of the department.

2.4.8     Tribal Administration
The department has identified lack of transport, shortage of staff and stafe houses as factors that
hampered efficient service delivery during the plan period.

2.4.9     Government Revenue Office
The government revenue office is constrained by shortage of staff, and lack of transport to perform
its duties.

2.4.10    Immigration, Customs & Excise
The following were identified as constraining the department:

        Shortage of staff houses.
        Lack of adequate manpower to man the Masunga office.
        Influx of emigrants – both legal and illegal this overwhelms the existing staff.

2.4.11    Energy Sources and Power
The major constraint is that consumer connection in the electrified villages is very low despite the
availability of electricity.




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2.4.12     Physical infrastructure
2.4.12.1 District Housing and Land Servicing
The district was not able to achieve its target due to the lack of implementation capacity of DABS.
This delayed implementation of the program in that the whole program was halted pending DABS
completing district and tribal administration houses. As a result a backlog of 49 housing units
developed. The move to transfer implementation of district housing for central to district council
has been a good move and it is anticipated that the shortage of housing problem will be alleviated.

Land servicing in the district is moving at a slow pace as the financial allocation for the project
was exhausted prior to end of plan period.

2.4.12.2 Water and Waste water
The department was not able to implement sewerage scheme projects as planned as a result of
inadequate developments in the villages of Tsamaya, Tshesebe, Matshelagabedi and Makaleng.
The department experienced the following problems;

         Lack of water sources: A number of water improvement projects could not be carried out
          whilst others were partially done because of lack of water sources in the following villages
          -: Pole, Kgari, Masingwaneng, Mbalambi and Ramokgwebana.
         Lack of funding: Some projects, like rehabilitation of water supply and additional water
          source at senyawe, were not implemented due to lack of funding.
         Lack of skilled manpower: Lack of skilled manpower like engineers made implementation
          of DDP5 projects very difficult.
         Implementation of unplanned emergency projects: Installation of Matopi water supply and
          construction of f/town – Masunga emergency water pipeline and catering for settlement
          areas like Gungwe, Mbali, and Ntemane reduced the allocated funds for the planned
          projects.

2.4.12.3 Transport and Communications
The implementation of the district roads program during the ddp 5 was largely constrained by the
following:

         Increase of construction costs which limited the number of projects implemented. This
          increase in costs was mainly caused by inadequate water in the district, and unavailability
          of suitable material (gravel) within reasonable distance.
         Lack of funding to undertake the planned projects such as Kgari and Ntshe bridges and
          lack of machinery and equipment such as bull dozers and tipper trucks.
         Free hold farms continue to hinder development of roads. For example letsholathebe-
          sechele and matsiloje – matopi have not been undertaken as planned as they pass through
          freehold farms.

2.5        LONG TERM PLANNING FRAMEWORK
2.5.1      Integrated Land Use Plan
The major constraints in land use planning are:


                                                                                                   30
         Lack of human resources
         Shortage of land; the district is dominated by freehold farms which cover 50% of the land
          mass.
         Conflicting land uses; this is further exacerbated by the mushrooming of settlements which
          are encroaching into land earmarked for agriculture, and other uses. In addition, tribal land
          in the district exists as pockets divided by free hold farms. This hinders development
          especially roads linking the pockets.

2.5.2      Environmental and Conservation Strategies
During DDP 6, the district‟s environmental objectives include forming community trusts to
conserve the environment and utilise natural resources, rehabilitation of some degraded land by
constructing drifts and planting trees, and educating the community about conservation of natural
resources. The core goal that encompasses the objective is to foster environmental friendly
practices through formulation, review and facilitation of relevant environmental policies and
legislation as well as promotion of research and monitoring. The continued over exploitation of
natural resources e.g. Cutting of live trees, mining of river sand pit sand and gravel, especially for
commercial purposes, therefore defeats the objectives of environmental and conservation
strategies.

2.5.3      Revised National Settlement Policy
The National Settlement Policy is concerned with the geographical location of development in the
country and the opportunities and services various settlements have to provide for their residents.
It is also concerned with the physical and equitable distribution of the population to productive
resources and basic social services. Therefore the reduction of the population range of tertiary
centres from 500 to 250 meant that more settlements now qualify to be provided with social
services like health, education etc thus overstretching the already minimal resources of the district.
There are already some concern and uncertainty about the feasibility and sustainability of the
policy. For example, it is feared by some that arable and cattle-post areas might lose land to
proliferation of settlements and villages.

2.6        LINKS TO NDP9 THEME
The theme for the national development is “towards realisation of vision 2016: sustainable and
diversified development through competitiveness in global markets”. This theme is important in
ensuring that NDP9/DDP6 programmes and activities reflect the national goals and objectives as
enshrined in the vision 2016. The DDP6 is directly linked to the theme as the activities and
programmes proposed aim at meeting the national goals and objectives.

The economy of the district is still dependent on agriculture and to a lesser extent on mining.
Depicting a narrow and undiversified local economy. In view of this factor, the communities
proposed construction of factory shells, market stalls, and major village infrastructure
development projects as a way to encourage the development of industry, which will help to
diversify the economy. It is also evident that the district has potential to further diversify within
the agriculture through irrigation, though this may be curtailed by insufficient water supply.
Streams could be dammed for irrigation purposes.



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In addition to the above, a lot of projects proposed entailed primary school facilities, primary
health facilities and road construction. These are in line with the overall national goals and
objectives and the vision 2016. Some of the pillars of the vision are; “an educated and informed
nation, and a prosperous, productive and innovative nation”. These objectives will be achieved
through provision of the above infrastructure.




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CHAPTER 3
3        DDP 5/UDP 2 DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

3.1      PLANNING FRAMEWORK
Planning framework for the development process is based on the formation of overall goals and
objectives, leading to planned activities, programs and projects with set targets. The planning
framework is guided or is based vision 2016, macro-economic outline and policy framework, the
National Development plan, strategic plans of the Ministry of Local Government and other
ministries, Strategies of the relevant parastatals and lastly the socio-economic status of the district
in terms of opportunities, constraints and challenges. The plan assumes that all factors will remain
constant and finance will be availed to carry out projects as stated and scheduled. The plan further
assumes that manpower will be available to implement the plan and will be exercise high level of
productivity.

3.1.1    Vision 2016
Vision 2016 provides a broader framework for longterm planning. It forms the basis for planning
and represents the ideals and aspirations of the country. The vision also has direct focus on
national principles of democreacy, development, self-reliance and unity. The District Development
Plan 6 and National Development Plan 9 has been aligned to the vision 2016 whose theme is
“Towards Realisation of Vision 2016: Sustainable and Diversified Development through
Competitiveness in the Global Markets.”

3.1.1.1 An Educate and Informed Nation
The plan puts education as a priority area and will pursue all strategies which will be towards
achieving that all the district populace has basic education which will enable assimilation of new
developments and innovations. The strategies pursued will not be confined to classroom learning
but also focus on non-formal education, distance learning, environmental education, crafts and
business skills. The plan recognises that global competitiveness largely accentuates on the
manpower being able to withstand competition with the outside world as such education is very
essential.

The district will continue to upgrade schools and provide facilities as stated in the revised policy
so as to create an environment conducive to teaching-learning. During DDP5 the schools in the
district have performed well as exhibited by one junior school in 2002 becoming second in the
country. Such efforts are excellent and need to be encouraged through provision of requisite
equipment and intensification on the education process itself through provision of audio-visual in
school and further improvement will be made through the use of communication linkages such
television, radio and availability of print media in the district. With regard to tertiary education the
district has two brigades the Zwenshambe and Senyawe. With the only 2 brigades with limited
number of students to enrol this has left the district with little opportunities for tertiary education.
These have poorly performed over the years and need to be upgraded to be able to reach the
required standard.



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3.1.1.2 A Prosperous, Productive and Innovative Nation
The North East district has little economic activities largely overshadowed by its proximal position
to Francistown. It should be well noted that proximity to the city of Francistown has both negative
and positive aspects. The negative being that it competes with Francistown in luring investment
and as such Francistown as a service centre with both financial and business services, out-rightly
disqualifies/beats the district. It should however be noted that some areas of the district which
serve as dormitory to Francsitown have potential of growing into investment centres. That is in the
event there is land shortage in Francistown; these can serve as alternative business/investment
location especially with the availability of serviced land. The district will therefore during DDP6
venture in to land servicing in view of promoting industry

The minimal commercial activities existing in the district are not diversified and more skewed
towards general dealers and bars resultantly with low employment level. Production is very low in
the district. The crop sub-sector has under-performed during DDP5 due to persistent drought, lack
of water and declining interest in agriculture. Pursuant to competitiveness and diversification as
the theme accentuates, the district is set to exhaust and capitalise in areas and formulate strategies
where it has competitive advantage. These strategies will involve land servicing of potential
investment locations, improvement of communication network and linkages, intensification on the
promotion of the informal sector through use available government programmes and taking
advantage of the available market for local produce in Francistown and Zimbabwe.

3.1.1.3 A Compassionate, Just and Caring Nation
Pursuant to this ideal provision of social safety will be strengthened to ensure large coverage.
Community structures and political structure will continue to be used to assist in the identification
of the disadvantaged people in the society. The revised destitute policy has largely attempted to
address the previous concerns as regards service provision. The policy will go a long way in
improving the livelihood on the disadvantaged populace. It takes into account the dependants of
the destitute person.

Efforts to restore the disintegrating traditional family support system will be instigated through use
of local chiefs and existing traditional structures. The spirit of volunteerism as a good social fibre
will be encouraged through social mobilisation especially with regard to Home-based Care
Volunteer work.

Efforts to destigmatise the HIV/AIDS will be encouraged, care and show compassion towards the
sick will be encouraged.

Newly constructed building will provide for disabled and the existing ones will be modified to
ensure that there is no connotation of segregation through the type of construction undertaken.
Additionally efforts will made to integrate special education into the normal school system as the
policy suggests. Transport will also be procured during the plan period to ferry disabled pupils to
and from school. Communities will be mobilised through different forum and social welfare
supports system to encourage parents to take disabled children to school.




                                                                                                   34
3.1.1.4 A Safe and Secure Nation
To address the issue of national security the department of tribal administration, administration of
justice, the police and other law enforcement officers such as bye-law officers are responsible for
the security of the nation. To address crime prevention law enforcement facilities will continue to
be improved i.e immigration offices in Matsiloje, upgrading of police station etc. The district is
having a serious influx of Zimbabweans and there has been a considerable crime cases reported to
have been committed by illegal immigrants from Zimbabwe. Formation of locally-based crime
prevention structures will be encouraged, strengthening and empowerment of existing ones will
also be done to ensure a standing partnership with the community on such matters.

Drought has been persistent in the district interfaced with foot and mouth outbreak. The two have
persisted as problems to the district. Cases of veld fire outbreak and floods do occur but are not
common. To circumvent these problems, a contingency plan will be drawn in effort to allow for
preparedness in the event there is occurrence of these emergencies. Village-based Committees
responsible for disaster management will be formed and a clear-cut reporting system will also be
formulated. This will hamper a fragmented and disjointed approach to management of disaster.

3.1.1.5 An Open, Democratic and Accountable Nation
The vision ideal advocates for transparency and good governance, and further calls for an
accountable and responsible nation that can be able to recognize good political leadership and vote
for it. Some residents of the district like the rest of the country, absolve themselves from the
responsibility of choosing the right political leadership and do not recognize voting as a
constitutional right. This has been exhibited by low participation during election, kgotla meetings,
political rallies, educational rallies and other forms of decision-making meetings. This has resulted
in the district populace failing to recognize failure on the part of the leadership and has also
furthered the ignorance of the members of the public regarding development plans, existing pieces
of legislations and government policies and programmes.

To address the above the different district-based government departments will engage in
educational tours, rallies and open-air meetings to sell their services and ideas to the people. The
Independent Electoral Commission will embark on social mobilization and public education on
voter rights. Further to that communities will also be sensetised on accountability and collective
responsibility.

3.1.1.6 A Moral, Tolerant, United and Proud Nation
The vision 2016 stresses the importance of cultivating and preserving moral values of society.
Through cultural activities, dissemination of tradition and cultural values and precepts will be
pursued. There has been a declining effect on cultural values and norms exhibited by the extraction
of the social (moral) fibre of respect especially among the youth. A collaborative action from all
stakeholders including the Dikgosi, associations and different cultural groups towards restoration
of cultural values and beliefs will be pursued. It will be unfortunate for the district to loose its
ethnicity and that will be prevented through establishment of cultural villages where traditions,
history and evolution of ethnic group in the district will be displayed. The same could also be done
in open meetings.




                                                                                                  35
Peace, harmony and unity among the district membership is very important and will be
encouraged by interacting different community groups in different foras. Compassions and
tolerance will be encouraged also especially for economically disadvantaged people and towards
those with physical disability. Identification of such people will also be done in a concerted way
such that no one is missed out and all the needs are addressed through existing government
programmes.

Collaborative effort with cultural groups and religious fronts will be intensified in view of
promotion of moral ethics and productivity and disregard laissez-faire and permissive tendencies.

3.1.2    National and District Environmental Key Issues
3.1.2.1 Land Shortage
Inequitable distribution of land, competing livestock and arable and wildlife uses, non existent
sub-market value, lease rentals and the absence of coherent land policy have resulted in land
degradation, speculative land acquisition, non-development, non-compliance, encroachment,
overgrazing and an increasing number of land disputes.

Land in the district is very limited as the district is surrounded by freehold farms and there is no
room for expansion of the district except through acquisition/purchase of freehold farms. For areas
adjacent to the city of Francistowmn there is a lot of influx into those areas and land grabbing for
speculative purposes as exhibited by exponential growth of population in such areas e.g. Tatisiding
and Matshelagabedi.

3.1.2.2 Water
Water consumption is growing and water is increasingly becoming a scarce resource. Water
consumption has increased due to a gradual shift form the traditional method of living to
modernisation where a considerable amount of water is consumed per day as opposed to the
traditional 20 litres consumption per day per person for rural areas (old design manual). Boreholes
and wells are drying up and, underground stocks are largely unknown and aquifers becomes
polluted. Interest in water demand management and water harvesting is growing but still lacking
broad societal acceptance and support. Water shortage has become a growing daily concern in the
district.

3.1.2.3 Natural Resource Utilization
The major concern is over-harvesting of natural resources such as sand, gravel and other
aggregates. Some contractors extract without prior permission, while some members of the public
extract gravel haphazardly. There is need for identification of one controlled area which
communities will agree on it and fence it. Burrow pits are mostly left open without being
rehabilitated and in certain areas become dumping areas.

3.1.2.4 Pollution and Waste Management
Land and soil pollution takes place through littering, in landfills and via large unmonitored
industrial practices. Waste management has been a problem in the district owing to requisite
adequate personnel and equipment. As such collection of waste has been irregular and insufficient.


                                                                                                 36
Consequently the problem of haphazard waste disposal erupted. Littering has also been a growing
concern and mostly pronounced around the busy shopping areas

Surface and groundwater pollution through effluent discharge, hazardous chemicals‟ disposal and
nitrates from human waste is on the increase Medical waste is posing an emerging problem related
to the HIV/AIDS home based care programme. The secrecy surrounding the HIV/AIDS disease
inhibits proper management and disposal of this waste.

3.1.2.5 Energy
Land degradation and the cutting of live trees remain serious concerns for firewood usage as a
traditional means to provide energy. As an alternative solar energy use will be promoted during the
plan period.

3.1.3        Ministry of Local Government Strategic Plan
The Ministry‟s responsibility is to provide basic physical and social infrastructure to the
communities. The Ministry‟s strategic plan is that of ensuring efficient operation of local
authorities through policy direction, capacity building and supervision. The key result areas are as
reflected in table 3.1 below:

    Table 3.1:       Ministry of Local Governement Key Result Areas
KRA                                           Objectives
Customer Satisfaction                         To ensure customer satisfaction through timely delivery of quality service.

                                              To ensure continuous improvement in service delivering through a two way
                                              communication process.
Policy Implementation                         To improve Local Authorities project implementation through timely submission of
                                              project memoranda.
                                              To ensure education dissemination of information and effective consultation of
                                              communities.
Improved Quality of Life                      To promote sustainable self-reliance among communities through Community Based
                                              Strategy and LG 1109.
                                              To improve quality of life by coordinating and providing basic infrastructure and
                                              services.
                                              To reduce the level of crime by adopting community policy.
Productivity and Organisation Effectiveness   The local authorities recognise the need to developmental human resource strategies to
                                              improve the level of productivity.
                                              Promote effective understanding of Batswana of Botswana‟s culture by facilitating
                                              documentation of customary laws.
                                              Ensure coordination of departmental activities through the development and
                                              implementation of sound policies, guidelines and effective leadership teams




3.1.4        Long Term District Plans
The North East District does not have a land use plan, however long term planning is elaborated in
Draft District Settlement Strategy (DSS), draft structural plan for Masunga, Greater Francistown
Structural Plan and village plans. After the main long term plans have been finalised village plans
will receive similar attention and be finalised




                                                                                                                                37
3.1.4.1 District Settlement Strategy
The settlement strategy is a 24 year plan (2000 – 2024) spatial plan, which proposes hierarchy of
settlements and gives the district guidance in the prioritisation of development within the confines
of the National Settlement Policy. The DSS intends to elaborate both National Development Plan
and National Settlement Policy at the District level and to facilitate their implementation. It will
identify the settlement hierarchy in the District and provide guidelines for the location of
infrastructure and services in each hierarchical level of settlement. Furthermore the strategy will
facilitate economic growth through the promotion of agricultural, industrial and public service
growth and development, promote growth in settlement, which will serve as central service centres
for surrounding settlements. The plan furthers the efficient use and conservation of natural
resources thereby attaining sustainable development.

The plan has emphasised the need for a Water Point Survey, which will assist in identification of
alternative water sources in view of limited water resources in the district.

3.1.4.2 Greater Francistown Planning Area
The plan was to provide a guide for the expansion of Francistown city. This was to provide a
framework for integrating economic, social, institutional and physical development with Greater
Francistown.

3.1.4.3 Northern Regional Master Plan
The objective of regional planning is to get optimal utilisation of services and economies of scale
in the region. It seeks to provide guidance in the provision of services and infrastructure in the
region in terms their centrality and adequacy and their role promoting regional growth. It further
assesses socio-economic status of various settlements, existing physical linkages and strategise the
development of weaker ones. The northern regional plan will be a 24 year plan and will be
considered for preparation during DDP6.

3.1.4.4 Masunga Land Use Plan
There is no development for the district headquarters but there is the land use map which has
zoned the village in to different land uses. The plan has been approved by the land board and the
council and served as an agreed basis for development of the villages.

3.1.4.5 Detailed Layout Plans
Detailed layout plans were prepared for different clusters in Masunga. Layout plans were also
prepared for other villages such as Tatisiding, Makaleng and Shashe Bridge.




                                                                                                 38
3.2        DDP6/UDP2 – OVERALL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
3.2.1      Summary of Key Issues
3.2.1.1 Environmental Issues
         Shortage of Land for livestock and Crop Production because a large portion of the district
          is covered by freehold farms, resulting with the need to purchase land to augment tribal
          land.
         Loss of Agricultural land to other development e.g. settlement expansion.
         Slow implementation of Community Based Strategy aiming at communities utilizing
          natural resources sustainable to meet their economic needs.
         Rehabilitation of Gullies in the district. The district is mostly covered by streams,
          therefore, becomes prone to erosion.
         Cutting of live trees for firewood and indiscriminate collection of river sand , pit sand and
          gravel as a result of the construction boom, especially in greater Francistown Planning area
          (GFPA).
         Absence of integrated Land Use Plans making land delivery difficult for land authorities.
         Non-observance of land development covenant. Most of allocated land remains
          undeveloped for a long time, seeking strict monitoring and enforcement of Land
          development covenant. Mostly land is acquired for speculative purposes
         Delay in servicing of demarcated plots, in the process delaying land allocation.
         Indiscriminate and illegal extraction of soil, sand and aggregates is a growing concern.
          Extraction is done haphazardly leaving the district scenery undesirable.

3.2.1.2 Socio-Economic key issues
Poverty: Poverty is prevalent in the district especially among women who are mostly headed a
larger proportion of households than their male counterparts. The poverty situation is aggravated
by high rate of unemployment among the same group as most of them are unskilled or semi skilled
to secure proper paying jobs. The other factor is lack of employment opportunities in the district
due to low industrial and commercial activity. Drought has also persisted over the years
impoverishing the district populace reliant on land-based/agriculture resources.

Erosion of Self Reliance: Community participation on development activities is observed to be
deteriorating. Communities‟ interest is cash oriented than voluntary work. This has not only
inevitably lowered community participation but also destroyed the self-reliance fibre envisioned in
Vision 2016.

The lack of self-reliance is further observed to be replaced by reliance on government. This was
deemed to be aggravated by government intervention through poverty alleviation and economic
empowerment strategies. These have created dependence, which will need a radical paradigm
shift.

Waste Management: The Home based Care Programme as a responsive tool and support structure
was formed without prior thought of disposal of clinical waste in homes. In view of the stigma
attached coupled with insufficient manpower and equipment for collection of such waste has
resulted in improper disposal of clinical waste in homes.




                                                                                                    39
Crude dumping of waste by the general public and littering were also mentioned as areas of
concern.

Low Production in the Agricultural Sector: The crop sub-sector was found to be performing below
the mark largely due to lack of well-formulated and targeted policies subservient to enhancing
productivity in the sub-sector. Abuse of ALDEP was indicated specifically the draught power
package which never met its intended use.

Persistent drought and general loss of interest in rain-fed arable agriculture, very minimal arable
land for cultivation and inadequate water for irrigated agriculture have attributed to the decline in
the performance of the sub sector. This has therefore resulted in low contribution of arable
production as a supplementary food resource in the household food basket. In that situation the
district populace reliant in agric production and land-based resources have remained the
economically weak become worse-off.

As a way to enhance production, communities recommended servicing of lands areas especially
water provision.

HIV/AIDS: The virus has infected a considerable number of the rural people. Households are
unable to cope with the results both socially and economically. Community members are left
financially and emotionally drained by the disease. Though the framework in terms of structures at
institutional and community levels do exist to fight the virus, the stigma and lack of openness
continue to reverse efforts made in the fight against the epidermic.

Unemployment and Underemployment: There are low-income opportunities existing in the village
precipitated by lack of diversified rural economy. Those employed are employed in low income
earning activities or in the temporary relief intervention such as Drought or Disaster Relief
Programme (Labour Intensive Public works Programme) and temporary employment in the
construction sector. The employment level of the district according to 2001 statistics was recorded
at 41.6% while 2 509 people were recorded as actively seeking work representing the showing an
unemployment level of 10.2%. Statistics for the underemployed district populace was not available
in the census results.

3.3           DDP6/UDP2 DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 3.2:        DDP6 Overal Development Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                         Objectives
                                                              To put up factory shells in certain areas like Matsiloje, Tati
                                                              Siding, Matshelagabedi and Moroka villages to encourage
                                                              industrial development.
To promote industrial and commercial development.
                                                              Intensification of information dissemination on CEDA, public
                                                              education and extension support.
                                                              Plan and service industrial plots in the designated areas.
                                                              Apply appropriate technology, taking into account the weather
                                                              conditions in this country.
                                                              Make more land available through acquisition of freehold
                                                              farms.
To increase agricultural productivity
                                                              Apply land reclamation practices and conservation of fertile
                                                              agricultural land.
                                                              Promotion of small agriculture holdings including horticulture
                                                              production.




                                                                                                                        40
Goals                                                                                  Objectives
                                                                                       Produce integrated pest control measures e.g. quelea birds and
                                                                                       armyworm
                                                                                       Construct dams to promote irrigation and livestock watering.
                                                                                       Construct dams, introduce rain harvesting measures, build
                                                                                       small earth dams and introduce recycling of water for
                                                                                       woodlots.
To ensure adequate water supply for both human and other uses.                         Connect North East District to the planned lower Shashe Dam
                                                                                       and Ntimbale Dam.
                                                                                       For Peri Urban areas - Water supplied by WUC through
                                                                                       Council must be on a cost recovery basis.
                                                                                       Intensify primary health programmes.
                                                                                       Adopt improved waste management measures.
To work towards achieving basic health care and social welfare by the end of the       Conduct mass educational campaigns on major social issues,
plan period.                                                                           e.g. HIV/AIDS, TB, STD, teenage pregnancy, etc.
                                                                                       Conduct appropriate health research activities, e.g. TB and
                                                                                       AIDS.
                                                                                       Introduce effective co ordination of DDC, DET and VETS.
                                                                                       Train grassroots institutions.
                                                                                       Regularly monitor and review both the District Development
                                                                                       Plan and related institutional structures.
To strengthen district institutions.
                                                                                       Achieve adequate staffing of key Central and Local
                                                                                       Government posts.
                                                                                       Improve communication linkages between the district based
                                                                                       local authorities and farms.
                                                                                       Identify potential sources of revenue for councils.
                                                                                       Ensure cost efficiency by sound budgeting, expenditure and
                                                                                       financial management.
To ensure a sound financial base for Council.                                          Introduce the cost recovery and cost-sharing principle to
                                                                                       ensure sustainability in the provision of services.
                                                                                       Improve collection of fees on the provision of basic services
                                                                                       such as health, education, water, waste collection, etc.
To continue to sensitise the village institutions/individuals to appreciate the need   Promote environmental conservation awareness through
to identify, plan and implement projects and programmes that meet their socio-         educational campaigns and initiatives.
cultural, ecological, and economic needs through sustainable utilization of            Development of nature and culture preservation site at specific
available resources even natural resources.                                            areas.
                                                                                       To develop land policy that will ensure optimal use of land.
To promote orderly and progressive use of land in the district
                                                                                       To develop an integrated land use plan for the district.
                                                                                       Development an eco-tourism strategy joining it with other
                                                                                       places on interest in the nearby district and settlements.
Promotion of tourism
                                                                                       Preparation of an inventory of places of interest and of
                                                                                       historical/cultural value in district.

                                                                                       To develop systems which will foster protection of the
                                                                                       environment by developers including government institutions
To ensure protection and conservation of the environment.                              To incorporate Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in
                                                                                       our development processes.

                                                                                       To pursue human resource development to ensure the
                                                                                       relevance and good performance of the strategies for economic
                                                                                       empowerment
                                                                                       Improvement of the education system as well as provision of
Human Resource Development
                                                                                       facilities and an environment conducive for learning.
                                                                                       Creating opportunities for lifelong learning such as distance
                                                                                       learning and non-formal education.
                                                                                       Efficient allocation of human resources




3.4            FRAMEWORK FOR MONITORING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Performance targets will be set per sector and with verifiable indicators to facilitate the monitoring
of the plan.

The monitoring and implementation of the plan is the mandate of Plan Management Committee
and DDC. The committee is comprised of chief executives of the four local authorities and


                                                                                                                                                  41
planners. The district commissioner and council secretary are co-managers and they perform the
duties of these committees. DDC is composed of all heads of department of local government,
central government and parastatals in the district. Each member reports progress of the plan
implementation regularly and quarterly progress report are sent to the Ministries of Local
Government, Lands and Housing, Finance and Development Planning (Rural Development Co-
ordination Division) and copies to all permanent secretaries. The core function of DDC is to co-
ordinate the DDP, therefore forms framework for monitoring sector goals and objectives.

3.5         FRAMEWORK FOR MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Verifiable indicators will be set to facilitate monitoring of sector goals and objectives.
The mandate of DDC is to prepare and co-ordinate the DDP and for monitoring environmental
goals and objectives, there are sub-committees which have the responsibility of advising DDC on
environmental issues. The sub-committees include DLUPU that is composed of professional
officers from local government and central government. DLUPU report regularly to DDC and
advice land board on application on environmental issues. Its main function is to prepare and co-
ordinates district land use plan. Another sub-committee is DET. It evaluates and monitors the plan
by ensuring preparation, implementing and monitoring annual plans. During DDP 6, these
committees, especially DLUPU will carry environmental reviewing and prepare District
environmental Action Plan as a framework for monitoring environmental goals and objectives.

3.6         FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
In DDP 6, the emphasis is on the need to conserve and preserve our environment in development
processes, so that all projects and programmes are socially, economically and ecologically
sustainable. In most cases, planning does not consider the natural environment. Development
programmes and projects are often implemented with little or no consideration of the environment.

In order that adverse effects of development on the environment are minimised it is important that
environment issues are integrated in development policies and programmes. During DDP 6
preparation, the NED attempted to integrate environmental issues into the development processes
based on the principles set out in the Environmental Planning Manual.

3.6.1       Evaluation of Key Environmental Issues with Overall Goals and Objectives


    Table 3.3:      Key Environmental Issues with Overall Goals and Objectives
Goals and Objectives                         Environmental Key Issue       Strategy
Promote industrial and commercial            Air pollution.                Groundwater conservation and protection.
development – broadening the district        Waste disposal.               Demand of waste management plans from industries.
resource base.                               Ground water contamination.   Enforcement of available legislation e.g Waste
                                                                           Management Act.
Community     empowerment      through       Loss of biodiversity.         Develop an incentive for sustainable use of natural
community natural resource management                                      resources.
projects.                                                                  Establish community collection of natural resources user
                                                                           fee.
Ensure sustainable financial    base   for   Nil                           Nil
council.
Ensure adequate water supply.                Ground water depletion.       Groundwater conservation.
                                                                           As a long term water recycling.
                                                                           Use of water from ponds.
                                                                           Rain water harvesting,
                                                                           Planting of crops with low water consumption.



                                                                                                                               42
Goals and Objectives                             Environmental Key Issue                     Strategy
                                                                                             Public education on water conservation methods.
Increase Productivity in the agricultural        Land      degradation,    overgrazing,      Waste management plans for small agriculture holding
sector – promotion of livestock production,      increased demand for water, pollution,      with possibility of pollution.
arable production, small holdings.               waste disposal, migration of wildlife       Use of recycled water for irrigation.
                                                 during construction of cordon fences,
                                                 over utilisation of some tree species
                                                 used for drift fences and field
                                                 parameter fences.
                                                 Conflict with wildlife management.
Strengthening of local structures and district   Nil                                         nil
institution.
Promotion of Tourism Development.                Loss of biodiversity.                       Undertake an EIA
                                                 Mushrooming of settlement around the
                                                 tourism project.
                                                 Opening access to fragile eco-system.
Improving the infrastructural level of the       Land degradation through over-              Re-planting of trees.
district.                                        extraction of sand and other                Rehabilitation of burrow pits.
                                                 aggregates, cutting down of trees, soil     Controlled mining of aggregates.
                                                 erosion, and damage of ecosystem.           Creation of dongas.




3.6.2         Evaluation of Policies and Programmes against Overall Goals and Objectives


    Table 3.4:        Evaluation of Policies/Programmes against Ovearll Goals and Objectives
Goals and Objectives                             Environmental Issues                                  Policies and Programmes (Environmental)
Promote industrial and commercial                Air pollution from industrial emissions.              Industrial Development Policy
development – broadening the district            Poor waste disposal from industry.                    Privatisation Policy
resource base                                    Increase in waste generated around industrial and     Waste Management Act
                                                 commercial centres.
                                                 Ground water contamination.
Community     empowerment      through           Loss biodiversity.                                    National Conservation Policy
community natural resource management            Lack of ownership and economic benefit by the         Community Based Natural Resources Mgt
projects                                         community from the environment that surrounds         Policy draft
                                                 it.
                                                 Underutilisation and improper usage of natural
                                                 resources.
Ensure sustainable financial       base   for    Nil                                                   Nil
council.
Ensure adequate water supply.                    Ground water depletion.                               National Water Master Plan
                                                 Lack of conservation in the use of water.             National Settlement Policy
                                                                                                       District Settlement Strategy
                                                                                                       Transboundary agreements (Multi-lateral
                                                                                                       Environmental Agreements) and protocols
Increase Productivity in the agricultural        Overgrazing.                                          National Conservation Policy
sector – promotion of livestock production,      Land degradation.                                     National Agriculture Master Plan
arable production, small holdings.               Overgrazing.                                          Water Master Plan
                                                 Increased demand for water Groundwater
                                                 pollution.
                                                 Waste disposal from small holdings.
                                                 Lack of knowledge of better farming techniques.
Strengthening of local structures and district   Nil                                                   Nil
institution.
Promotion of Tourism Development.                Loss of biodiversity.                                 Tourism Act
                                                 Improve conservation.                                 Eco-Tourism Strategy
                                                 Generate revenue to protect the environment.          Transboundary agreements and protocols
Improving the infrastructural level of the       Land degradation through over-extraction of sand      District Land Use Plan
district.                                        and other aggregates.
                                                 Cutting down of trees, Soil erosion.




                                                                                                                                                43
CHAPTER 4
4          ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION

4.1        INTRODUCTION
The North-East district freehold farms occupy an area of 2 569 km2 which is 42.9% of the district
land. Many rivers and streams that are in the district are susceptible to environmental problems
like soil erosion and land degradation due to excessive extraction of sand and gravel hence
requiring sound environmental conservation strategies. Furthermore Vision 2016 has advocated
for the sustainable use of renewable and non-renewable resources and that be a fully integrated
approach towards their conservation and development for sustainable use of natural resources.
Therefore by the year 2016 Batswana will take pride in their clean and unlittered surroundings.

4.1.1      Institutional Framework
Environmental conservation in the district is the responsibility of various institutions. These
include the Land Board, Council, Tourism, Agriculture, and others. Non-Governmental
Organizations and Community Based Organizations are also important players in the management
of the environment. Coordination of these institutions is the responsibility of the District Land Use
Planning Unit (DLUPU). DLUPU is a sub-committee of the District Development Committee. The
Land Board Secretary chairs DLUPU and the Lands Officer is the Secretary.

4.1.2      Consultation Priorities
Environmental conservation issues that arose from community consultations included the
following:

         Population pressure arising from the size of the district as well as land tenure
         Over-utilization of natural resources like sand, gravel and firewood.
         Pollution of water sources especially by pit latrines
         Land degradation arising from overgrazing by livestock
         Indiscriminate waste disposal
         Poor environmental policing and monitoring.

4.2        ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
There are some environmental policies that the district needs to pay attention to. If the district does
not implement them properly they can lead to adverse ecological impacts. However, projects in
DDP 6 will be subjected to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA), Audit and monitoring. These environmental management tools will be assisted
where necessary by environmental management plans and systems. The fore-going policies
include the following:




                                                                                                    44
4.2.1    Tourism Policy
The proliferation of tourism activities in the district will bring both positive and negative aspects
of developments, e.g. on the positive side there will be employment creation and ready markets for
local produce such as vegetables and handicrafts. The negative aspect is that the increased tourism
is likely to destroy the district heritage such as the limited cultural and archaeological sites.

4.2.2    Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM)
The CBNRM policy was introduced in order for the community to take responsibilities in
conservation of their natural resources. In the process the residents are able to raise some funds to
develop their communities. This will in turn lessen the dependency on government grants.

4.2.3    National Master Plan for Arable Agriculture and Dairy Development (NAMPAADD)
This programme is meant to improve arable agriculture and dairy production. This will lead to
self-sufficiency in food production and dairy products in the district. Because of the intensive
nature of the proposed developments, there is likelihood of some negative impacts. Waste from
extensive agricultural production and use of artificial fertilizers could lead to ground water
pollution and loss of biodiversity.

4.2.4    Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA)
These are basically financial assistance packages meant to assist local entrepreneurs to venture
into viable projects. In the process, they are expected to create employment and alleviate poverty
in the rural areas. In the absence of an integrated land use plan, haphazard land allocation arising
from increased demand for land partly due to CEDA loans could lead to loss of bio-diversity and
groundwater pollution. This is due to the fact that an inventory of natural resources and their
location in the district has not been done.

4.2.5    National Settlement Policy (NSP)
NSP was meant to guide the provision of services to settlements based on economic criteria to
ensure that public resources are used efficiently. The provision of services to small settlements that
are spread over a wide geographic area is not cost effective since the cost per unit is high. The
provision of services to small settlements has also lead to loss of a lot of fertile agricultural land to
settlements.

4.2.6    Waste Management Act
The piece of legislation is meant to manage waste generation and disposal. It will result in proper
waste disposal and recycling. If the act is not enforced the waste generated by projects resulting
from the above policies could be dumped at illegal sites and pollute the environment.

4.2.7    Housing Policy
The policy direction in the housing sector during DDP5 was guided by the 1981 National policy
on Housing and the Revised National Policy on Housing of 2000. Housing delivery will be
facilitated through the design and development of affordable housing schemes for all income



                                                                                                      45
groups. The National Policy on Housing aims at the provision of decent and affordable housing for
all Batswana with a safe sanitary environment. The negative aspect of this development is that use
of sanitary facilities like pit latrines in residential areas could lead to pollution of ground water
sources more especially that most of the villages in the district use boreholes. Furthermore the
increased use of modern building material results in excessive use of natural resources such as
river sand, gravel and water.

4.2.8         National Conservation Strategy (NCS)
The primary goals in formulating the strategy are to pursue policies and measures that promote
sustainable use of natural resources and minimizing negative environmental effects. Furthermore it
provides the broad framework for many sectoral ministries and interest groups throughout the
country for dealing with environmental issues.

4.3           DDP 6 ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
During DDP 6, the district‟s environmental objectives include forming community trusts to
conserve the environment and utilise natural resources, rehabilitation of some degraded land by
constructing drifts and planting trees, and educating the community about conservation of natural
resources. The core goal that encompasses the objective is to foster environmental friendly
practices through formulation, review and facilitation of relevant environmental policies and
legislation as well as promotion of research and monitoring. The continued over exploitation of
natural resources e.g. cutting of live trees, mining of river sand, pit sand and gravel, especially for
commercial purposes, therefore defeat the objectives of environmental and conservation strategies.

    Table 4.1:         Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                               Objectives
                                                                    To conduct workshops for 42 villages on conservation by 2005

                                                                    To form two community based conservation trust every two years till March
                                                                    2009.
To foster environment friendly practices through review and
facilitation of implementation of relevant environmental policies
                                                                    To educate the community on rainwater harvesting by 2005.
and legislation as well as promotion of research and monitoring.
                                                                    To Develop District Environmental Strategy by 2005.

                                                                    To facilitate research on key environmental issues for duration of DDP 6.
                                                                    To prepare and implement district waste management plan by 2009.
To improve waste management in the district through
                                                                    To privatize refuse collection in selected villages by 2003.
preparation of district waste management plan.
                                                                    To educate community on waste management till 2009.
                                                                    To collect data on existing burrow pits by 2003.
To minimize adverse environmental impacts of wasteland by
                                                                    To assess potential use of burrow pits and waste dumps by 2003.
reclaiming burrow pits and waste dumps.
                                                                    To carryout geo-technical surveys by 2005.
                                                                    To develop and implement the district fire management strategy by 2009.
To reduce loss of biodiversity through improved fire
management strategy.
                                                                    To conduct public seminars on fire management till 2009.
                                                                    To collect data on rehabilitable gullies by 2003.
To reduce soil erosion by rehabilitating gullies.
                                                                    To rehabilitate gullies by 2009.




                                                                                                                                                46
4.4          FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
It should be noted that these environmental policies and programs are aimed at enhancing
environmental protection and as such their adverse potential impacts are stated in the table below.

    Table 4.2:       Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                      Objectives                             Environmental Key Issues            Strategy
                                           Conduct workshops for 42 villages      Littering and indiscriminate        Proper waste management
                                           on conservation by 2005.               waste disposal
                                                                                                                      Educate community on waste
To foster environment friendly practices   Form     2     community     based     Loss of biodiversity                management
through review and facilitation of         conservation trusts every two years
implementation        of        relevant   until March 2009
environmental policies and legislation
as well as promotion of research and       Educate community on rainwater
monitoring                                 harvesting by 2005.

                                           Develop district environmental
                                           strategy by 2005.
                                           Prepare and implement waste            Negative impacts will          be   Plan preparation
                                           management plan by 2009.               known after the plan
To improve waste management in the
                                           Privatize refuse collection       in
district through preparation of district
                                           selected villages by 2003
waste management plan
                                           Educate community on waste
                                           management till 2009
                                           Collect data on existing burrow pits   Soil erosion                        Tree planting
                                           by 2003
To minimize adverse environmental
                                           Assess potential use of burrow and
impacts of waste land by reclaiming
                                           waste dumps by 2003
burrow pits and waste dumps
                                           Carryout geo-technical surveys by
                                           2005
                                           Develop and implement the district     Littering and waste disposal        Provision of sanitary facilities
                                           fire management strategy by 2009                                           Provide fire breaks
To reduce loss of biodiversity through
                                                                                  Loss of vegetation
improved fire management strategy
                                           Conduct public seminars on fire
                                           management till 2009




    Table 4.3:       Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies and Programs                              Goals and Objectives                            Environmental Issues
                                                   To raise incomes in rural areas in order to     Destruction of district heritage such as the
                                                   reduce urban drift                              limited cultural and archeological sites
Tourism Policy
                                                   To promote rural development and to
                                                   stimulate the provision of other services in
                                                   remote areas of the country.
                                                   Diversify economic development in rural         No negative impacts anticipated as the projects
                                                   areas through sustainable use of natural        will be meant to conserve the environment
Community    Based Natural           Resources     resources.
Management (CBNRM)
                                                   Ensure communities benefit from the
                                                   management of their natural resources.
                                                   Increased    agricultural     output   and      Pollution to ground water resources
National Master Plan for Arable Agriculture and    productivity
Dairy Development (NAMPAADD)
                                                   Diversification of the agricultural base
Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency         Empowerment of citizen entrepreneurs.           Loss of biodiversity and ground water pollution
(CEDA)
                                                   Provide a comprehensive set of guidelines       Loss of fertile agricultural land to settlements
                                                   for national physical planning and to
National Settlement Policy (NSP)
                                                   provide a framework for guiding the
                                                   distribution of investment in a way that



                                                                                                                                                   47
Policies and Programs                      Goals and Objectives                            Environmental Issues
                                           reflects the settlements‟ population size,
                                           economic potential, level of infrastructure
                                           and settlements‟ role as service
                                            centres.
                                           To channel more Government resources to         Increased extraction of natural resources like
                                           low and middle lower income housing in          gravel and sand
                                           both urban and rural areas.

                                           To promote housing as an instrument for
Housing Policy                             economic empowerment and poverty
                                           alleviation.

                                           To foster partnership with private sector and
                                           all major employers in home development
                                           and facilitating home ownership.
                                           Provide framework for the development of a      Pollution of   ground    and   surface   water
                                           affordable      and     sustainable     waste   resources.
Waste Water/Sanitation Management Policy
                                           water/sanitation      infrastructure      and
                                           management                                      Water-borne diseases




4.5         PROPOSED ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES TO IMPLEMENT DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTAL
            PROGRAMS.
As stated earlier DDP 6 projects, policies and programs are subjected to some environmental
management tools e.g. EIA, audit and management plans designed to assist conserve the
environment. Projects on environmental conservation are intended to rehabilitate the degraded
environment and manage resource utilization without degrading the environment. Therefore, the
activities to be carried under environmental conservation do not have a significant environmental
impact.

4.6         RESOURCE REQUIREMENT FOR DDP 6
4.6.1       Issues and Strengths
The success of the district plan implementation is mainly based on availability of adequate
resources. The resources also have to be used efficiently. For the formulation of a sustainable plan
and implement it very easily, a SWOT analysis has to be performed. The analysis reveals the
strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats within the system of structures that assist plan
implementation.

4.6.1.1 Strengths
         Sound legislation in place that provides framework within which to operate.
         Availability of relevant structures for implementation and enforcement of environmental
          policies and programs.
         Abundant natural resources and historic/cultural sites.

         Issues
         Lack of relevant policies to protect historic/cultural sites.
         Lack of land use plan encourages mushrooming of settlements and loss of agricultural land
          to other uses.
         Shortage of tribal land, putting more pressure on natural resources.
         Lack of capacity to enforce and disseminate information on environmental legislations.


                                                                                                                                     48
    Table 4.3:       Performance Targets
Goal                                            Activity                                  Start           Finish       Monitoring
                                                Conduct workshops for 42 villages         April 2003      April 2005   Report to DLUPU, DDC,
                                                on conservation                                                        Land Board and council.
                                                                                          April 2003      Mar 2008
                                                Form two community               based
                                                conservation trust                        April 2003      April 2005
To foster environment friendly practices
through, review and facilitation of             Educate the community on rain             April 2003      April 2005
implementation of relevant environmental        water harvesting
policies and legislation as well as promotion                                             April 2006      Mar 2009
of research and monitoring.                     Develop District Environmental
                                                Strategy

                                                Facilitate research     on    key
                                                environmental issues for last half
                                                of DDP 6.
                                                Prepare and implement district            April 2003      June 2003    Regular presentation to
                                                waste management plan.                                                 DDC, Land Board and
                                                                                                                       Council
To improve waste management in the district
                                                Privatise refuse        collection   in   April 2003      July 2003
through preparation of district waste
                                                selected villages                                                      Report to reference group
management plan.
                                                                                          Mar 2004        June 2004    every three months.
                                                Carry-out          geo-technical
                                                investigation
To minimize adverse environmental impacts       Collect data on existing burrow           Aug 2003        Nov 2003     Submit report to Dept of
of waste land by reclaiming burrow pits and     pits                                                                   Lands.
waste dumps.                                                                              Mar 2004        June 2004
                                                Assess potential use of burrow pits                                    Report to reference group
                                                and waste dumps.                          Mar 2004        Mar 2004     every three months
                                                Carryout geo-technical survey.                                         Report      to    DLUPU,
                                                                                                                       District       Conservation
                                                                                                                       committee and ARB
                                                To develop and implement the              April 2003      Dec 2008     Report to DLUPU, DDC,
                                                district fire management strategy.                                     NCSA,       land     board,
To reduce loss of biodiversity through
                                                                                                                       Council and ARB
improved fire management strategy.
                                                Conduct public seminars on fire           April 2003      Mar 2009
                                                management.

                                                Collect    data    on     rehabilitable   April 2003      July 2003
To reduce soil erosion by rehabilitation
                                                gullies
gullies
                                                                                          April 2004      March 2009
                                                Rehabilitate gullies approximately




    Table 4.4:       Development Budget
Goal                                                      Activity                                                     Amount (PULA)
                                                          Conduct workshops for 42 villages on conservation            50 000

                                                          Form two community based conservation trust                  to be determined
To foster environment friendly practices through,
review and facilitation of implementation of relevant
                                                          Educate the community on rain water harvesting               50 000
environmental policies and legislation as well as
promotion of research and monitoring.
                                                          Develop District Environmental Strategy                      10 000

                                                          Facilitate research on key environmental issues
                                                          Prepare and implement district waste management plan.        50 000
To improve waste management in the district through
                                                          Privatize refuse collection in some villages.                To be determined
preparation of district waste management plan.
                                                          Educate community on waste management.                       50 000
                                                          Collect data on existing burrow pits                         100 000
To minimize adverse environmental impacts of
wasteland by reclaiming burrow pits and waste             Assess potential use of burrow pits and waste dumps.
dumps.
                                                          Carry geo-technical survey.




                                                                                                                                              49
Goal                                                   Activity                                                Amount (PULA)
                                                       To develop and implement the district fire management   50 000
To reduce loss of biodiversity through improved fire   strategy.
management strategy.
                                                       Conduct public seminars on fire management.
                                                       Collect data on rehabilitable gullies.                  100 000
To reduce soil erosion by rehabilitating gullies.
                                                       Rehabilitate gullies appropriately




                                                                                                                               50
CHAPTER 5
5       LAND USE PLANNING

5.1      INTRODUCTION
North East District which is the second smallest district in the country covers an area of 5 993
km2. It consists of freehold farms covering an area of 2 569 km2, state land 33 km2 and tribal land
3 391 km2. The District is bordered and crossed by many ephemeral streams and rivers. The soils
are generally well drained and moderately deep, characterised by tree savannah. Land Use
Planning in the district is determined by many factors viz mushrooming of settlements, shortage of
tribal land and extensive freehold farms within tribal land.

Effective and efficient land and environmental management must be guided by sound land use
planning in order to zone land in a manner that fertile agricultural land will be preserved and use
natural resources in a sustainable manner. This will be going in line with the aspiration of Vision
2016.

5.1.1    Institutional Framework
Land use planning is a cross sectional issue involving ministries, departments, parastatals, private
sector and community at grass roots level. The ministries are at decision-making level and are
advised by district authorities on issues of the environment. The responsibility of land use
planning lies with the Ministry of Lands and Housing. It co-ordinates land use planning at national
and local levels.

The ministries involved in land use planning process have strategic plans targeted at the
sustainable use of natural resources. These include, Ministry of Local Government, Ministry of
Lands and Housing, Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Trade, Wildlife and Tourism.

5.1.1.1 Ministry of Local Government
The mission statement of the Ministry of Local Government is desired future excellence on service
delivery, development coordination, capacity building and customer care in its quest for
continuous development.

5.1.1.2 Ministry of Lands and Housing
Ministry of Lands and Housing also carry development coordination targeted to land use planning.
The mission statement for the Ministry of Lands and Housing is to provide excellent service in
management and development of land, facilitation of housing delivery as well as promotion of
environmental protection in development process.

In North East District the two ministries are represented by the Land Board that is responsible for
tribal land administration and allocation while the Council is responsible for land use planning and
service provision.



                                                                                                 51
5.1.1.3 Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Agriculture, with its five departments of Animal Health & Production, Crop
Production & Forestry, Agricultural Research, Co-operatives and Ministry management is also
much involved in land use planning process. Its mission statement is to be committed in providing
leadership in the development of sustainable, diversified and competitive agriculture and
conservation of natural resources to contribute to the achievement of sustainable environment. In
North East the ministry is represented by three departments namely Crop Production and Forestry,
Animal Health and Production and Co-operatives while the rest are based in Francistown.

5.1.1.4 Ministry of Trade, Wildlife and Tourism
The other involved is the Ministry of Trade, Wildlife and Tourism. Its mission statement is to
create an environment conducive for business, protects consumer rights, and manages wildlife
resources to meet local and global challenges. All the ministries plans are in line with government
aspirations to transform the public service through PMS and WITS. The ministry is represented by
the departments of Integrated Field Services based in Masunga village while Wildlife and National
Parks, and Tourism cover the district from Francistown.

5.1.2      Consultation Priorities
         Shortage of tribal land for livestock and crop production because a large portion of the
          district is covered by freehold farms. This necessitates purchase of freehold farms to
          augment tribal land.
         Loss of agricultural land to other development e.g. settlement expansion.
         Rehabilitation of gullies in the district. The district is mostly covered by streams and rivers
          that make it become prone to erosion.
         Cutting of live trees for firewood and indiscriminate collection of river sand, pit sand and
          gravel as a result of the construction boom, especially in greater Francistown planning area
          (GFPA).
         Absence of integrated land use plans making land delivery and management difficult for
          land authorities.
         Most of allocated land remains undeveloped for a long time. This calls for strict monitoring
          and enforcement of land development policies and procedures.
         Slow process of planning and surveying of plots for different uses resulting in delay in land
          allocation.
         Sale of plots especially in peri-urban settlements.

5.2        LAND USE POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
5.2.1      National Policy on Natural Resources Conservation and Development
The 1990 National Policy on Natural Resources Conservation and Development is founded on
sustainable development. Development planning aims to meet the needs of present generation
without the expense of future generation. One of the tenets of Vision 2016 is a prosperous
productive and innovative nation.




                                                                                                      52
5.2.2    North East District Settlement Strategy
The district is well placed to realize these policies because of its vast potential of natural resources
that can be harnessed for the welfare of the community. The North East District Settlement
Strategy will help realize these policies as it needs to set out clearly the wishes, needs and
aspirations of the community with regards to land use and development in general.

5.2.3    Wildlife and Conservation Policy
The goals of preservation and conservation expressed in the Wildlife and Conservation Policy are
consistent with objectives of Tourism Policy, the district‟s potential on tourism and utilization of
natural resources for economic benefits could have adverse impact on the ecology. They form
portion of the District Land use Plan and other management plans for example Management Plan
for collection of River Sand, Pit Sand and Gravel will be a step in the right direction.

5.2.4    Tourism Policy
There are a few tourism related projects allocated land in the district. These include lodges,
cultural villages and change of land use from cattle ranching to game ranching especially in
freehold farms.

5.2.5    Community Based Natural Resources Management
Communities are slowly realizing that they can form trusts and utilize natural resources for their
economic benefits. They intend to form trusts to control harvesting of river sand, pit sand and
gravel. Others have been allocated land as trust to create botanical garden and rock rabbit park and
a lodge.

5.2.6    National Master Plan for Arable Agriculture and Dairy Development (NAMPAADD)
The scheme is meant to improve the performance of the agricultural sector through the
introduction of improving technologies and mechanisms. Tati district is among the first priority
areas targeted for development of rain fed agriculture. The minimum land parcel that can be
farmed viably under mechanized rain fed conditions is 150 ha and farms with land less than 150 ha
are encouraged to form cultivation groups to meet the minimum requirement that is not practical
for North East as the average farm size for farmers is 5 ha.

5.2.7    Financial Assistance Policy/Citizen Etrepreneural Development Agency
There is shortage of land in the district, however, projects were started using FAP and still projects
are starting and others improved through CEDA.

5.2.8    National Settlement Policy
The district is small in land mass and has many villages and more settlements are lobbying to be
recognized as villages because NSP has reduced population threshold for defining a village from
500 to 250.




                                                                                                     53
5.2.9    Housing Policy
The policy strives for better housing for Batswana. The policies could encourage loss of
agricultural land, crowding and inadequate service provision.

5.2.10   Waste Management Act
The fact that the Act is not effectively enforced, therefore, the waste generated by projects
resulting from the above policies could be dumped at illegal sites and pollute aquifers.

5.3      DISTRICT LAND USE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
There is no integrated land use plan for the district. It is anticipated that during DDP 6 it will be
produced to ensure successful implementation of goals and objectives of land use planning. Land
use planning should be guided by encouraging community to stay within village boundaries,
conserving natural resources, minimizing natural and man made disasters. This could be achieved
by integrating land use plan and national policies. In the district it is important to release a highest
degree of mixed land use, therefore the land use plan has to establish whether there are merits in
the situation or whether the situation must be discontinued.

5.3.1    District Settlement Strategy (DSS)
Long term planning is elaborated in the District Settlement Strategy (DSS) that is to be
implemented. It needs to recognize that the trend of few households breaking away and changing
agricultural land to settlement and calling for unbudgeted services is unwarranted and must be
discouraged. DSS is unsuccessful in this endeavor as there is no integrated land use plan to guide
development. Lack of land use plan could also encourage unsustainable use of natural resources.
An integral land use plan is overdue for the North East.

5.3.2    Land Use Resource Assessment
Given the District‟s fragile natural resource base measures have to be taken to ensure optimal use
of its resources. Furthermore, as the district is well endowed with ephemeral rivers, there is a need
to allocate land for economic activities along these rivers. Land use resource assessment can be
viewed as shown below.

5.3.2.1 Soil
Soils in the district are mostly fertile for agricultural use despite being prone to erosion because of
many streams. Some parts of the district, the soils are fertile but due to their high clay content
require mechanization to work for particular arable use. The major problem is erosion, shortage of
land, and high potential for pollution from use of chemicals.

5.3.2.2 Vegetation
Vegetation in the North East District is mainly characterized by tree savanna with mophane tree
predominating. The northern and western part of the district is mostly cultivated area, leaving
large trees on original woodland. Patchy grass cover is found on communal lands and on freehold
farms not overgrazed. Areas with mophane trees have poor grass cover.


                                                                                                     54
5.3.2.3 Water
The district has many ephemeral streams and rivers. The principal ones are Shashe, Vukwi, Tati,
Ntshe, Sikukwe and Ramokgwebana. A considerable amount of water is stored in larger sand
rivers throughout the year. This provides the major source of water for both human and livestock
population during dry seasons. The most common sources being boreholes, sand pits, small dams
and wells.

5.3.2.4 Wildlife
The district has little game except a few in freehold farms. The animals are under the authority of
DWNP. The potential for Wildlife Tourism is very small. A few freehold farmers have resorted
from cattle ranching to wildlife ranching. Despite the little wildlife tourism potential, the district
has a great potential for Cultural Tourism. It has many cultural and historic sites.

5.3.2.5 Minerals
Up to 1966 there were more than 50 gold mines in the district. Though closed some of these
mines are believed to still contain unworked gold reserves. There are gold explorations in the
district, e.g. Muphanephane Mine in the Matsiloje area. Copper and Nickel ore reserves are being
exploited at Selkirk and Phoenix. Reserves of arsenic, asbestos, Granite and iron also exist. There
is also cement mining in Matsiloje hills.

5.4          LAND USE PLANNING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Based on consultation priorities and critical assessment of issues in the district, the land use and
conservation objectives during DDP 6 are:

    Table 5.1:       Goals and Objectives
Goals                                             Objectives
                                                  To prepare North East District Land Use Plan by 2005.

To facilitate efficient and equitable land        To provide water point survey by 2005.
distribution in North East District through
appropriate policies.                             To prepare Management Plan for collection of pit sand, river sand and gravel by 2004.

                                                  To prepare village layout for 3 villages by 2005.
To speed up land allocation through land          To service 500 demarcated plots in Masunga and Tati Siding every two years until 2008/09.
servicing and streamlined land allocation
procedures                                        To improve coordination between all land authorities.
To facilitate the purchase of freehold farms to   To facilitate the purchase of 4 freehold farms by 2005.
augment tribal land and for village expansion.
                                                  To facilitate relaxation of legal requirements for repossession of common law plots by 2003.

To facilitate speedy development of allocated     To repossess and re-allocate 100% of the customary rights undeveloped in Tati Siding,
land in the district through relevant policies.   Masunga and Matshelagabedi by 2003.

                                                  To inventories allocated land in North East by 2004.
                                                  To carryout education campaigns through the whole period
To encourage development of freehold farms in
the entire district.
                                                  To inventories freehold farms in the district by 2004.
                                                  To inventories existing borrow pits, quarries and waste dumps sites in North East District by
                                                  2004.
To facilitate reclamation of wasteland through
assessment of potential use of land.
                                                  To assess potential uses of borrow pits along roads by 2004.




                                                                                                                                              55
                                                        To rehabilitate dongas by planting trees for four villages every two years for the entire DDP 6.

                                                        To discourage allocation of burrow pits within the Greater Francistown Planning area
                                                        To conduct public campaigns on land use concern every year in the District for the duration of
To improve the perception of customers towards          DDP.
land allocating authorities in the district through
public education on land matters.                       To conduct workshops on land allocation procedures every two years for Land Board members,
                                                        land overseers and staff for the entire plan.



5.5           FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
5.5.1         Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives


    Table 5.2:        Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                   Objectives                                          Environmental Key Issues           Strategy
                                        Prepare NED land use plan by 2005.                  Nil                                Nil

To facilitate efficient and equitable   Provide a water point survey.
land distribution in the district.
                                        Prepare management plan collection sand
                                        and gravel by 2004.
                                        Prepare layout plans for three villages on          Cutting trees.                     Tree planting
                                        quarterly basis.
                                                                                            Disturbance of the ecological      Engage human        labour
To speed up land allocation.
                                        Service 500 demarcated plots in Masunga             system.                            than machines.
                                        and Tati Siding every two years.
                                                                                            Dust pollution
To purchase freehold farms to           Purchase 4 freehold farms by 2005.                  No        negative      impacts    Nil
augment tribal land.                                                                        anticipated.


5.5.2         Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs


    Table 5.3:        Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies and Programs                                 Goals and Objectives                           Environmental Issues
District Settlement Strategy                          To provide a hierarchical order of             Ground water pollution and other aquifers.
                                                      settlements for efficient service provision
Tourism Policy                                        Maximize      sustainable      social    and
                                                      economic benefits from tourism resources
Self Help Housing Agency                              Promote home ownership to low and              Excessive use of natural resources like sand and
                                                      middle income lower groups                     gravel
Waste water / Sanitation Management policy            Provide framework for the development          Pollution of ground and surface water resources.
                                                      of a affordable and sustainable waste
                                                      water / sanitation infrastructure and          Water-borne diseases
                                                      management
National Settlement Policy                            Protect environment through sustainable        Haphazard settlements affect environmental
                                                      land use planning                              sensitive areas
Housing Policy                                        To channel more Government resources to        Increased extraction of natural resources like gravel
                                                      low and middle lower income housing in         and sand
                                                      both urban and rural areas.

                                                      To promote housing as an instrument for
                                                      economic empowerment and poverty
                                                      alleviation.

                                                      To foster partnership with private sector
                                                      and all major employers in home
                                                      development and facilitating home
                                                      ownership.




                                                                                                                                                      56
5.6           PROPOSED STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LAND USE GOALS


    Table 5.4:        Potential Impacts of Projects and Mitigation measures
Goal                                           Projects                                    Negative Impact                 Mitigation
                                               Preparation of land use plan, water         Nil                             Nil
To facilitate efficient and equitable land
                                               point survey, and management plan and
distribution through appropriate policies
                                               village layout.
To speed up land allocation through land       Land servicing                              Tree cutting, ecological        Tree-replanting
servicing and streamlined land allocation                                                  disturbance
procedures                                                                                 Loss of biodiversity
                                               Purchase freehold farms                     Nil                             Nil
To facilitate the purchase of more land to
argument tribal land and for village
                                               Compensate owners of ploughing fields
expansion.
                                               affected by villages‟ expansion.
                                               Initiation of relaxation of repossession    Cutting down trees, cross of    Tree         re-planting,
                                               requirement. Plot repossession and          biodiversity, dust and noise    archeological     impact
To facilitate speedy development of            reallocation.                               pollution, destruction of       assessment before plot
allocated land in the district through                                                     artifacts    and    excessive   demarcation,        Land
relevant policies.                                                                         extraction of construction      Board to manage site for
                                                                                           materials.                      extraction of building
                                                                                                                           materials.
To facilitate management of freehold           Inventorising freehold farms                Nil                             Nil
farms by the district.
To facilitate reclamation of wasteland         To inventories and assess potential use     Nil                             Nil
through assessment of potential use of         of borrow pits. Rehabilitate dongas.
land.
To improve the perception of customers         Conduct   public       campaigns      and   Nil                             Nil
towards land allocating authorities in the     workshops
district through public education on land
matters.




5.7           RESOURCE REQUIREMENT FOR DDP 6
5.7.1         Performance Targets for DDP6


    Table 5.5:        Performance Targets For DDP 6
Goal                                         Activity                                Start Date     End Date        Monitoring
To facilitate efficient and equitable land   Prepare land use plan                   June 2003      Dec 2004        Quarterly reports to DLUPU,
distribution through relevant policies       Prepare water point survey                                             DDC, Land Board, Council
                                             Prepare Management Plan                 June2003       Dec 2004        and LDC
                                             Prepare village layouts
                                                                                     April 2005     June 2006

                                                                                     March 2003     April 2004
To speed up land allocation through          Land Servicing                          April 2003     March 2007      Quarterly reports to DLUPU,
land servicing and stream lined land         Revise land allocation                  Feb 2004       April 2008      DDC, Land Board and Council
allocation procedures.                       Guide lines
To facilitate the purchase of more land      Facilitate purchase                     Feb 2004       April 2005      Quarterly reports to DLUPU,
to augment tribal land and for village                                                                              DDC
expansion.
To facilitate speedy development of          Initiate  relaxation     repossession   April 2003     Aug 2003        Present to Land Board and
allocated land in the district through       requirements                                                           Lands.
relevant policies                                                                    April 2003     April 2005      Bio-monthly reports to Land
                                             Repossess & allocate 100% of                                           Board, DLUPU and DDC
                                             customary titles in Tati Siding,        April 2003     Dec 2004
                                             Masunga and Matsiloje

                                             To inventories allocates land.
To facilitate management of free hold        Inventories freehold farms              April 2004     Dec 2004        Present Report to DLUPU,
farms by the district.                                                                                              Lands and DDC.
To facilitate reclamation of waste land      Inventories waste dumps.                Feb 2005       April 2005      Submit report to Lands and
through assessment of the potential use      Assess potential of waste dumps                                        Land Board.




                                                                                                                                                57
Goal                                        Activity                               Start Date        End Date       Monitoring
of land.                                                                           April 2005        Aug 2005

To improve public perception towards        Conduct public education               June 2003         July 2009      Regular reporting to DDC
Tati Land Board through public              Conduct workshops for Land Board
education.                                                                         May 2004          May 2009




5.7.2         Development Budget for DDP6


    Table 5.6:        Development Budget For DDP 6
Goal                                                                       Activity                                           Amount (Pula)
To facilitate efficient and equitable land distribution through relevant   Prepare land use plan                              P2 000 000
policies.
                                                                           Prepare water point survey

                                                                           Prepare Management Plan

                                                                           Prepare village layouts
To speed up land allocation through land servicing and stream lined        Land Servicing                                     P50 000 000
land allocation procedures.
                                                                           Revise land allocation guide lines
To facilitate the purchase of more land to augment tribal land and for     Facilitate purchase                                P15 000 000
village expansion.
To facilitate speedy development of allocated land in the district         Initiate relaxation repossession requirement       P50 000
through relevant policies.
                                                                           Repossess and allocate 100% of customary titles
                                                                           in Tati Siding, Masunga and Matsiloje

                                                                           To inventories allocated land.
To facilitate management of free hold farms by the district.               Inventories freehold farms                         P50 000

To facilitate reclamation of waste land through assessment of the          Inventories waste dumps.                           P50 000
potential use of land.
                                                                           Assess potential of waste dumps
To improve public perception towards Tati Land Board through public        Conduct public education                           P100 000
education.
                                                                           Conduct workshops for Land Board



5.7.3         Plan Monitoring Program
The mandate of DDC is to prepare and co-ordinate the DDP and for monitoring environmental
goals and objectives, there are sub-committees which have the responsibility of advising DDC on
environmental issues. The sub-committees include DLUPU that is composed of professional
officers from local government and central government. DLUPU report regularly to DDC and
advise land board on application on environmental issues. Its main function is to prepare and co-
ordinates district land use plan. Another sub-committee is DET. It evaluates and monitors the plan
by ensuring preparation, implementing and monitoring annual plans. During DDP 6, these
committees, especially DLUPU will carryout environmental review and prepare District
Environmental Action Plan as a framework for monitoring environmental goals and objectives.




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CHAPTER 6
6       SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING

6.1      INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with policies and acts relating to housing and settlements. It describes the
Government‟s effort as regards improvement of housing in the Country. It also highlights on
Government policies, which seek to facilitate provision of housing to the public in general and in
particular disadvantaged groups such as women and the disabled as mentioned in Vision 2016.
The chapter further describes progress made by the North East District in preparation of the
district‟s settlement strategy and implementation of the housing policy. It is important for the
finalisation of the settlement strategy during this plan period in order to curb mushrooming of
settlements that is common in the district

6.1.1    Institutional Framework
Housing is a cross-sectional issue involving a lot of ministries and other government departments.
Departments whose functions have a direct effect in the housing delivery system in Botswana are
as outlined below.

6.1.1.1 Department of Surveys and Mapping
The Department of Surveys and Mapping is charged with the responsibility of collecting, analysis,
preparation, evaluation and dissemination of land information. The department also designs and
implements cadastral surveys for the delivery of residential, commercial and industrial plots in
state lands.

6.1.1.2 Department of Lands
The department is mandated to oversee the allocation use and management of state land through
government policies and statutes.

6.1.1.3 Land Boards
Land Boards countrywide have been established to be responsible for tribal land administration
and allocation of land for residential, commercial, industrial, civic and community, and
agricultural uses. Likewise, Tati Land Board in the North East District exists for the same
purpose.

6.1.1.4 Department of Housing
The Department of Housing is a professional service department within the Ministry of Lands and
Housing that is responsible for the designing and formulation of national housing policies,
monitoring and provision of guidance to local authorities both urban and rural, private developers
and other institutions in the implementation of the national housing programmes and related
infrastructure projects.


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6.1.1.5 Attorney General‟s Chambers (Deeds Registry)
Deeds Registry is headed by a Registrar who shall have the power to do any act or thing that may
lawfully be done under Deeds Registry Act: The Registrar

      Register grants or leases of land lawfully issued by the government or any other competent
       authority.
      Attest or execute and register deeds of transfer of land.
      Register cessions of registered mortgage bonds.
      Register cancellations of registered mortgage bonds.

6.1.1.6 Department of Town and Regional Planning
The department provides professional and technical advice to both the Minister of Lands and
Housing, and Town and Country Planning Board. It also provides guidance and professional
support to physical planners in local authorities in all matters related to the preparation,
implementation and control of development of detailed plans and layouts and all other relevant
planning issues.

But in the overall National Housing and Settlement are the primary responsibility of Ministry of
Lands, Housing and Environment and Ministry of Local Government.

6.1.1.7 Ministry of Lands, Housing and Environment
The primary responsibility of housing and settlement lies mainly with Ministry of Lands, Housing
and Environment whose main function entails:

      National Physical Planning, which involves determination of optimal utilization and proper
       ordering of land space through policies and Laws.
      Administering of land both in urban areas and rural areas through established institution.
      Provision of services, information on surveying, mapping and remote sensing that lay the
       foundation for physical planning, infrastructure, provision and progressive land
       administration.
      Establishment of settlement, which may be due to different social, economic and
       environmental reasons.
      Provision of excellent services in management and development of land.
      Facilitation of housing delivery.
      Propmotion of environmental protection with other partners in development.

6.1.1.8 Ministry of Local Government
The Ministry of Local Government mainly provides civil, political and administrative function in
the district through the established local government institution, Council, District Administration,
Tribal Administration and Land Board. The Ministry‟s major responsibilities are:

      Provision of basic physical and social infrastructure.



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         Ensuring efficient operation of Local Authorities through policy direction, capacity
          building and supervision.
         Social welfare and community mobilization to facilitate participation in development
          process.

In addition to this responsibilities the Ministry of Local Government provide basic housing for all
local authorities employees within the framework of policies provided by Ministry of Lands,
Housing and Environment.

6.1.2      Consultation Priorities
Public sector reform is one of the major emphases of NDP9. Its is a broad based term entailing,
right sizing the public sector, productivity with a view to increasing overall economic efficiency
and effectiveness. Also there is the issue of environment, which is also a priority for NDP9.

As a way of implementing policy thrust of NDP 9, North East District adopted these two
principles as the basis for DDP6 consultation. It is a proven fact that accommodation plays a
pivotal role as far as productivity of staff is concerned therefore staff housing is one of the major
challenges of DDP6. Integrating environmental concerns in our development processes also is a
major challenge, which North East District has to address itself to. The following are therefore
specific consultation priorities for North East District Plan 6:

6.1.2.1 Institutional Housing
         Provision of adequate housing for staff of North East District
         Protection of environment
         Securing land in advance for project

6.1.2.2 Self Help Housing Program (SHHA)
         Facilitation of housing delivery system through sustainable loan systems
         Provision of adequate land for SHHA beneficiaries
         Protection of the environment
         Fast tracking the roll out SHHA to the rest of the District
         Awareness campaign for Rural Housing Policy

6.2        NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
There are a number of policies, which were prepared to try and address the issue of land use and
settlement proliferation and National Housing concerns. National Settlement Policy is one such
policy. The objective of the National Settlement Policy is to rank settlement in a hierarchical
order for efficient and equitable provision of social services and physical infrastructure.

6.2.1      District Settlement Strategy
North East District is a district characterized by mixed land use activities and proliferation of
settlement, which often came as a result of some families turning their ploughing areas into
permanent residence away from the provision of the National Settlement Policy.


                                                                                                  61
This practice in itself makes provision of social, economic infrastructure and other government
programmes such as SHHA difficult to implement.

North East District is currently preparing its District Settlement Strategy. This is done with the
leading help of Department of Town and Regional Planning in Francistown. Major challenges of
this district strategy are:

      To promote balanced development and ensure an equitable distribution of economic and
       social activities linked to resource potential areas.
      To propose infrastructure and services for the twenty-four (24) years based on the
       projected population for the district.
      To facilitate the coordination and implementation of sectoral development programmes and
       projects in the district.
      To provide a guideline to the local authorities in the district on the settlement, which they
       should promote for growth based on the established settlement hierarchy and resources
       within their catchment area.
      To review the existing land use patterns and designate land to the use that will derive the
       maximum benefit from it.
      To elaborate both the National Development Plan and the National Settlement Policy at the
       district level facilitating their implementation.

By fully addressing these challenges the North East District expect to achieve the following:

      Facilitate economic growth rate of the district.
      Create additional employment opportunities to curtail rural-urban migration.
      Facilitate efficient use and conservation of the natural resources thereby attaining
       sustainable development.
      Provide a framework for social and physical infrastructure provision.


Presently the district has three areas with approved development plans governed by Town and
Country Planning Act and these are Tati siding, Shashe Bridge and Matshelagabedi. All these
settlements fall under the Greater Francistown Planning area. More areas like Masunga are
planned to be declared Planning Areas during DDP6.

Town and Country Planning Act apply in these areas but due to lack of capacity by the district,
implementation of these plans has not been fully monitored. This has resulted in developers in
these areas flouting the Town and Country Planning Act by not observing development setbacks.
Failure by developers to observe building setbacks result in unnecessary government expenditure
when government want to put up infrastructure. This is so since government has to pay
compensation to people whose properties have been affected by infrastructure. A case in point is in
Tati siding where the Government is paying well over one and a half million in compensation that
could have been avoided.




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6.2.2    National Housing Policy
The need for a housing policy became apparent in the 1980s. This was triggered by growing
urbanization of Botswana‟s population, which came with new challenges and rising expectations.
A consultant was engaged in 1996 to review the Housing Policy and make appropriate
recommendations. Some of the major findings reported to be hindering housing delivery system
were:

Lack of Land for Housing: Land has been established as a major input in the delivery of housing.
Land transaction, title deed, high serviced land costs, lack of efficient utilisation of land, shortage
of land surveyors and centralisation of land management have been identified as some of the
bottlenecks hindering land delivery process.

Housing Finance: Housing finance was identified as one of the major inputs to housing delivery.
The available housing finance is mostly urban focused and is mainly targeted to private sector
housing development. This does not cater for the majority of the people especially in rural areas.
To try to curtail this, the Government of Botswana introduced Rural Housing Policy as part of an
overall housing and poverty alleviation.

In trying to facilitate housing delivery system North East District engaged in the preparation of
layout plans for the villages of the district. Three hundred (300) plots have been made available
for survey in Masunga area. As soon as base maps for other areas within Masunga are made
available 1500 plots will be availed through preparation of village layout plans.

Another area on the list of preparation of layout plans in Matshelagabedi. The pre-planned plots in
this village have been exhausted. As soon as land has been acquired and base map prepared by
Land Board, Council will design 2000 plots.
Other villages still have layout plans to last them for one or two years before being exhausted.

6.2.3    Self Help Housing Agency (SHHA)
Self Help Housing Agency (SHHA) is a programme, which was recently introduced in the non-
township areas, to facilitate the provision of affordable housing to low and middle income ranging
between P4 400 to P36 400 per annum. The program ensures this by means of providing building
material loans and Technical advice to the beneficiaries of the SHHA scheme.

The National Housing Policy (Government Paper No. 2 of 2000) provides the general framework
within which rural housing system should operate. The general thrust of the policy is to prepare a
National Plan of action to guide the National Development Programmes, settlement planning and
shelters provision as a preparatory process for Housing, consisted of key institutions from all
sector that have a significant influence on human settlements and shelter.

According to the policy “the Government‟s long term goal is to ensure safe and sanitary housing
for everyone”. The short term goals is to encourage the building of houses for all income levels at
a price which would ensure that no citizen of an urban area is forced to reside in an unauthorized
settlement and to improve the quality of housing in rural area by offering the Physical Planning of
such settlements and the introduction of modified version of the SHHA scheme in a forming of
SHHA Loan.



                                                                                                    63
The major focus of the Government is to facilitate housing development in the rural areas. Efforts
will be made to integrate shelter provision with job creation and income generation. In addition
SHHA in the rural areas is still at the grassroots stage, but housing demand can be estimated that
about 40% to 50% of households own their houses in the rural areas and major villages
respectively, looking at the migration of those who have already applied for SHHA loan effect
from November 2001. Government Paper No. 2 of 2000 on housing recommends the following
housing delivery system.

         Emphasis on low-income group ranging from P4 400 to P24 300 per annum.
         Middle-income group ranging from P24 300 to P36 400 per annum. The program is
          administered by the District Councils Self Help Housing Agency (SHHA)
         Efforts would be made to improve the standard of living in urban and rural areas in a
          balanced manner and to utilize the human and natural resources in an economically,
          socially, ecologically and sustainable manner.
         All developments will be preceded by planning and engineering studies as well as
          environmental impact assessment.
         Under the policy, settlements designated as primary centers will be accorded a higher
          priority for development. The rural primary centers referred to as major villages will be
          upgraded to urban standard in terms of infrastructure and services, including a few
          secondary centers designated as sub- districts and district headquarters.

In this case Masunga will be given the first priority as District Headquarter. Tati Siding and
Matshelagabedi villages will also be considered to be upgraded to urban standard because of all
feasibility study carried out in the area and surveyed to the cadastral standard.

It is also planned to allow the provision of basic services. Settlements with population of over
1000 will be planned and developed.

6.2.4       Institutional Housing
Institutional housing for the four local authorities is the responsibility of Ministry of Local
Government through Department of Local Government Development. Staff accommodation
continues to be a problem for North East District. Although these four local authorities engage in
construction of staff houses every financial year, but the need for more housing continues to grow.
This is mainly due to the fact that more Government programs are introduced which result in more
personnel being employed who in turn increase housing demand.

Presently the following housing stock exists in the district: -

   Table 6.1:       Housing Situation per Institutions in North East District
Institution                  Housing Stock          Current Housing Shortage    DDP 6 Planned Houses
Council                      221                    40                          77 plus 2 Flats
District Admin               84                     28                          32
Tribal Admin                 28                     -                           54
Land Board                   35                     None                        9
Primary Education            332                    234                         120
Primary Health               52                     -                           21
Totals                       836                    302                         313 – 2 Flats
Source: NED Housing Situation Analysis, 2003




                                                                                                       64
Note that the shortage indicated is based on existing manpower as depicted in the establishment
registers of these institutions. In addition a nation wide program to address education facilities
backlog is currently planned to address the backlog situation in the districts.

6.3      SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING
6.3.1    Settlement Patterns and Geomorphology
North East District is relatively flat. However it is doted by a number of hill outcrops such as
Matsiloje in Matsiloje Village, Mupanipani in Matsiloje. Gungwe hills in Gungwe Village,
Mambidi hills in Jackalas II, Kalakamati Hills in Kalakamati Village that seem connected
geographically.

The land rises from 930m in the south to 1300m above sea level to north resulting in a number of
dongas and cross of rivers and streams flowing mostly to the south. Settlements in the district are
most linear in nature extending along linear feature such as streams or roads. The villages in this
district are dispersed all over the district with population ranging for 200 to 4800. There are 42
recognized villages, but more and more breakaway families are coming up to seek recognition as
settlements from the Government. This is fuelled by local politics, which takes advantage of lack
of land use plan.

Shortage of land in the district has led to congestion mainly of land activities in some settlement in
the district making provision of infrastructure and other social services extremely difficult and
costly. The average distance between villages in the district is 7 km or less. Other types of
residential developments in the district are found in the city of Francistown. Land use includes
residential, commercial, industrial, civic and community, agriculture recreational and other Land
users.




                                                                                                   65
Map 6.1:   North East District Land Use




                                          66
6.3.2      Housing Demand and Supply
There is acute shortage of residential land use in the district. This residential land use pressure is
more pronounced in the areas falling under greater Francistown. This has lead in extreme cases to
squatting.

Out- Immigration of people from the city to areas in its periphery and migration of people from far
place to areas near the city continue to increase pressure on residential land use in areas like Tati
Siding, Matshelagabedi, Shashe Bridge and Ditladi. This has resulted in the Land Board
compulsorily acquiring agricultural land in the periphery of the villages to argument the already
stressed residential land use type.

Shortage of land for residential purposes has hundred housing supply in the district especially in
areas near the city of Francistown where the housing demand is high. For instance in Tati Siding
alone the waiting list is 12 000 and there is no land, as the remaining ploughing areas have not
been acquired.

The housing stock resulting is below average in peripheral areas and moderately above average in
areas falling under greater Francistown. In trying to pick the standard the housing stock, the
district has engaged in infrastructure provision in selected areas like Masunga and presently in Tati
Siding. More infrastructure in planned for Masunga with P2.12 million approved for infrastructure
design during the financial 2003/2004 and probably other areas under greater F/town planning area
in DDP6.

6.4        SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The North East District Settlement and Housing goals and objectives were derived from a series of
consultations with the communities of North East District. The micro economic outline and the
policy frame work for NDP 9 was used to inform or direct the consultation. The following goals
and objectives were derived;

         To facilitate home ownership by eligible residents of the District by rolling out SHHA
          Scheme to all the villages in the district starting from 2003.
         To avail plots to eligible citizen to enable those eligible to apply for SHHA by preparing
          four village plans with 1000 plots every year starting from 2003.
         To promote environmental awareness and facilitation of its integration into development
          process by 2003
         Integrate tree planting or landscaping in all government projects by year 2003.
         By introducing environmental tax bye-law for all construction projects.
         To facilitate reclamation of wasteland by zoning this wasteland into land use that can
          derived optimum benefit.

The district will do this through community projects and the target is to start five project of this
nature every year from year 2003. The district‟s role in these projects will be to facilitate and the
community and NGOs will do most of the work.




                                                                                                   67
    Table 6.2:         Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                                          Objectives
To secure land in the district for distribution to eligible developers.        To facilitate the purchase of farms and fields for village expansion.
                                                                               To promote the concept of Community Based Natural Resource
                                                                               Management.

                                                                               To control natural resource harvest like pit sand, river sand and gravel
To facilitate land Reclamation in the District.
                                                                               by having pre determined points where they could be harvested.

                                                                               To zone areas which are deemed sterile for development to land use that
                                                                               can derive maximum benefit.
To facilitate home ownership in the district by providing Self Help            To prepare layout plans for four villages every year to speed up land
Housing loans to eligible citizens.                                            allocation.
                                                                               To introduce environmental tax – byelaw         to be enforced on all
                                                                               construction projects especially government projects.

To protect, conserve and enhance the quality of the environment in the         To integrate tree planting or landscaping in all government construction
district.                                                                      or development process.

                                                                               To promote the use of human labour instead of machines in site clearing
                                                                               to ensure selective cutting of trees.
To facilitate housing ownership and delivery in the district.                  To build four satellite offices in the district to help fast track the roll out
                                                                               of Rural Housing programme.



6.5           FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
Vision 2016 has emphasized the need to conserve and preserve our environment, the nation‟s
greatest asset, in our development processes. This is in order that all projects carried out are
socially, economically and environmentally sustainable.
In trying to reach our communities through programs and projects that will ultimately uplift them
from poverty and other socio-economic hardships, the environment is often the victim. This
development programs and projects are often implemented with little or no consideration given to
our national asset, the environment.

To significantly reduce the adverse effect of development on the environment, it is imperative that
we integrate environmental issues in our development policies, programs and projects. Below
shows a development approach that North East District adopted to try and integrate environmental
issues in the development processes in the district.

    Table 6.3:         Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                          Objectives                        Environmental Key Issues                Strategy
Secure land in the district for distribution   Purchase of farms and fields      Loss of natural vegetation.             Tree planting.
to eligible developers.                        for village expansion.
                                               Control natural resource          Burrow pits.                            Have pre-determined collection
Facilitate land reclamation in the district    harvest like river sand, pit      Soil erosion.                           points.
                                               sand and gravel.
                                                                                                                         Rehabilitate burrow pits.
Facilitate home ownership in the district      Prepare layout plans for four     Indiscriminate cutting of live          Plant trees.
by providing SHHA loans to eligible            villages every year.              trees.
citizens.
                                               Introduce environmental tax       Indiscriminate cutting of trees.        Enforcement of tax bye laws.
                                               bye laws.
Protect, conserve and enhance the quality
of the environment in the district.            Promote the use of human          Non selective cutting of trees.         Preserve trees spices.
                                               labour instead of machines in
                                               bush clearing.




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6.6        RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6
For North East District Plan 6 to realize its goals and objectives, there is need for resources to be
available and organized in a sustainable fashion.

To have a sustainable plan and ultimately implement it with utmost ease a SWOT analysis has to
be performed. This analysis will reveal the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats within
the system of the structures that will help see to implementations of the plan.

6.6.1      Strengths
         Sound legislation in place that provides a framework within which to operate.
         Abundant River sand and pit sand means that people can cheaply secure them for building
          purposes.

6.6.2      Issues
         Shortage of land for allocation.
         Housing loan repayment period too short taking into consideration that the cost of housing
          has gone high.
         Mushrooming of settlements.
         Cutting of more trees to make way for housing construction.

The SHHA department has to establish itself administratively and otherwise during the DDP6 in
order to reach more people in North East District by securing more offices in Masunga and
building some satellite offices in areas like Tati Siding. About ten more officers are needed to
implement the Rural Housing Policy. These officers will form the four units within Self Help
Housing Agency, which are Administration, Technical Unit, Accounts and Community Dev.
Transport will also be required to make the unit perform its functions effectively.

6.6.3      Plan Monitoring Program
Plan monitoring will be done through quarterly progress reports to the District Development
Committees, Council Committees and Full Council. These will also be presented to the ministries
of Lands and Housing and Local Government. Areas that fall within the Greater Francistown will
be monitored by the Francistwon Town Council, Department of Town and regional Planning,
Department of Lands and Departrment of Surveys and Mapping through Stateland Allocation
Committee. The Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Museum and Art Gallery and that of
Tourism will play a significant role in monitoring wildlife, archeological and tourism activities
respectively, as there are quite a significant number of their activities in the District.




                                                                                                  69
CHAPTER 7
7          AGRICULTURE

7.1        INTRODUCTION
Agricultural sector is an important source of food and has a high contribution in rural income,
employment and investment opportunities. Hence it is the third largest employer in the District
according to the 2001 Population and Housing Census with 1 226 people i.e. 12 %. Subsistence
farming is practiced in most parts of the district. The main crops grown are sorghum, millet,
groundnuts, beans and watermelons. In the north and Tati Siding arable and pastoral farming are
mixed, whereas Makaleng and Matsiloje are the only areas, which have defined lands for arable
and grazing areas. Commercial farming is mainly conducted in freehold farms. The main activity
carried out is the livestock production and game ranching. Fodder and vegetable production are
done in small quantities. Agricultural sector is currently performing poorly in the District because
of poor soils, persistent drought and unreliable rainfall pattern. Although free hold farms occupy
41.5% of the districts land, most of them are underutilized or not optimally used.

 The total number of cattle in the district is estimated at 30 000, 11 700 goats, 1100 sheep, 4100
donkeys and 6 horses, with owners of the livestock mostly aged between forty and eighty years.
Livestock grazing is still being practiced in communal land. However, majority of farmers do not
own grazing land. Generally there is a problem of shortage of land for both arable and pastoral
farming in the district.

7.1.1      Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Agriculture is made up of five (5) departments – Animal Health and Production,
Crop, Production and Forestry, Agricultural Research, Co-operatives and Ministry Management.
However in the North East District the ministry is represented by three departments namely Crop,
Production and Forestry, Animal health and Production and Co-operatives while other

7.1.2      Strategic Plan for Ministry of Agriculture
The vision of the Ministry of Agriculture is committed to provide dynamic leadership in the
development of sustainable, diversified and competitive Agriculture and Conservation of Natural
resources to contribute to the achievement of food security, poverty alleviation and socio-
economic growth in partnership with stakeholders.

The mission of the Ministry of Agriculture is to formulate and implement innovative policies,
programs, and regulatory framework and provide quality service to our customers in order to
promote diversified, competitive and sustainable agricultural sector through:

         Development and transfer of appropriate agricultural technologies.
         Timely prevention and control of pests and diseases of plants and animals.
         Development of Cooperatives and farmers associations.
         Conservation of Agricultural resource.


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The main policy objectives of the Ministry of Agriculture are:

       To improve food security and standard of living at both household and national level.
       To diversify the agricultural production base.
       To increase output and productivity to ensure competitiveness in the market through
        maintenance of proper business records.
       To increase employment creation for the growing labour force in the North East District
        through encouragement of formation of viable cooperative enterprises.
       To conserve scarce agricultural and land resources for future generations and formation of
        cooperative groups.

The most appropriate pillar for the agricultural sector is prosperous, productive and innovative
society. The agriculture sector‟s contribution to the countries revenue has been declining over the
past decades. Through its various policies the sector has been trying to bring back the country‟s
agriculture sector to life. Recent developments such as NAMPAADD encourage farmers to be
more productive and practice commercial farming, which seemed to be non-existent in Botswana
culture. With the introduction of CEDA more farmers are now willing to purchase land and
practice commercial farming which can feed this nation.

7.1.3    Agriculture Consultation Priorities
The consultations established the following planning priorities:

Shoratge of Water: There is a shortage of water in the District. It was suggested that government
should build /construct multi purpose dams in the district for human consumption, watering
livestock, small-scale businesses and irrigation purposes. It is also important that communities
should be encouraged to make full use of rainwater through water harvesting techniques from
rooftops, and by collecting surface runoff. Currently in the district, only institutional houses are
provided with tanks for harvesting rainwater while communities do not.

Shortage of Land: The district also has a problem of shortage of land as mostly free hold farms
surround it; this has a negative impact on the grazing areas and land for cultivation. It also
weakens economic status of the communities who rely on agriculture for a living. The new
settlement policy also poses a problem on the livestock industry as land that is available would be
used more on residential and for ploughing purposes hence grazing land is not given priority.
Soil Erosion: The North East District has a problem of soil erosion mainly because of the many
rivers that run through the district. This has resulted in the formation of gullies and dongas. As
such conservation measures should be put in place to prevent soil erosion in fields.

Natural Disasters: The district is also prone to foot and mouth disease outbreaks, which threatens
to wipe out the livestock industry in the area. This has become a major problem since most
villages are bordered by Zimbabwe where most of the outbreaks are reported. Continuous
monitoring of the veterinary fence should be done and repairs/maintenance to the damaged parts
should be made immediately if the disease is to be controlled.




                                                                                                 71
7.2        NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
7.2.1      National Master Plan for Arable Agriculture and Dairy Development
The plan seeks to improve performance of the agricultural sector, by modernizing it through the
introduction of improved technologies, efficient use and management of human, land and water
resources, mechanization and commercialization of agricultural operations. The plan focuses on
rain fed agriculture, irrigated agriculture, dairy farming, infrastructure, post harvest facilities,
irrigation water supply, institutional reforms, promoting business opportunities, risk minimization
and plan implementation. NAMPAADD is mainly targeted to three critical sub-sectors:

         Rain fed agriculture
         Irrigated agriculture
         Dairy farming

Rainfed Agriculture: NAMPAADD has identified first and second priority an area suitable for
rainfed agriculture and Tati Agricultural District is among the first priority areas. The minimum
size of land that can be farmed viably under mechanized rainfed conditions is 150 hectares.
Farmers with less than 150 ha are encouraged to join cultivation groups to form units of 150 ha
each. The fields do not necessarily have to be adjacent.

Currently in Tati Agricultural District the average field size is 5 ha. As such formation of
cultivation groups will require about 30 farmers in a cluster, which practically is not manageable.

Irrigated Agriculture: Areas suitable for vegetable production were identified basing on soil
suitability, availability of water, production parameters and marketing aspects. Under irrigated
agriculture, Tati agricultural district was not identified as a potential area. However, this does not
discourage farmers who are interested in venturing in this business.

The area of concern is the fact that the Department of Geological Survey has indicated that there is
no ground water in Tati agricultural District that can satisfy irrigation projects. It will not be wise
to advise farmers to drill boreholes for irrigation purposes. The problem could be addressed
through the construction of multi- purpose dams, more so the terrain for dam construction is very
good in the District.

7.2.2      Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Policy (Draft)
CBNRM is a development approach that supports natural resource conservation and its objective
is to diversify economic development in rural areas through the sustainable use of natural
resources and to increase opportunities for community organization to obtain direct benefits from
the use of natural resources. There are no CBNRM projects in the district so far, but mobilization
of communities by the department of wildlife and national parks has been done.

7.2.3      Arable Land Development Programme (ALDEP)
The second phase of ALDEP commenced in July 1996 after winding up of the first phase in 1993.
The second phase objectives focused on the strengthening of extension services and training,
technology transfer, and encouraging the previous beneficiaries to efficiently utilize the packages
obtained in phase one.



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ALDEP was a down payment/grant scheme, where eligible farmers were required to make a down
payment of 10 % or 15% of the total cost of the package for males and females respectively, and
the government paid a balance of 85% and 90% for males and females respectively.

Eligible farmers were assisted in obtaining the following packages: animal draught power (either
donkeys or cattle), water catchment tank, scotch cart, fencing material, plough, cultivator, harrow,
planter, and threshing machine and mini silos in District. This phase was suspended pending
review in August 2001.

7.2.4    Tribal Land Act
The Tribal Land Act provide for the establishment of the Tribal Land Boards: to vest tribal land in
such boards to define the powers and duties of such boards and to provide for matters incidental
thereto.

Since there is a problem of shortage of land in the district, the land board has resorted to buying
ploughing fields from members of the community to augment the shortages. This solves the
problem of shortage of land for residential purposes but increases shortage of land for ploughing
and grazing hence there is a conflict in allocation of land in the district.

7.2.5    Convention on Combating Desertification
The North East District already has a problem of desertification in areas surrounding the railway
line and near the Francistown City. This is because wood harvesting is being practiced
commercially in these areas resulting in deforestation. However measures such as planting of trees
during National Tree Planting Day will be carried out during the plan. Bush fires also result in loss
of vegetation; maintenance of firebreaks and construction where they are not available will be
carried out during the plan period to control deforestation.

7.3      AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ACTIVITIES
Tati Agricultural District consists of eleven agricultural extension areas. Tati Agricultural District
services most of the North East District villages whilst other villages are serviced by Tonota
Agricultural District; these are Matsiloje, Matopi, Matshelagabedi, Patayamatebele, Ditladi and
Shashe Bridge.

7.3.1    Arable Sub Sector
 The Department of Crop Production and Forestry is one of the major extension arms of the
Ministry. It consists of five major divisions – Crop production, Plant Protection, Forestry, Range
Ecology and Bee-keeping, Land utilization and Extension. These are supported by the
administration support services. In the North East the ministry is represented by the following
departments: Crop Production, Forestry, Animal Health and Production, all of which operate from
Masunga while the remaining two operate from the Francistown Region. The department of Crop
Production and Forestry‟s core business is to empower the farming communities through
transferring appropriate technologies (innovations) to improve productivity and competitiveness of
the arable sub sector and ensure sustainability as well as profitability.



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In the North East district about 70% of farmers who own land do plough at the start of each
ploughing season provided there is adequate rainfall. The main crops grown are sorghum, millet,
groundnuts and beans mainly because they are able to withstand periods of drought and high
temperatures. Most farmers in the North East cultivate on average 3-5 hectares per household and
the average age of those who take part in farming activities ranges from forty to seventy five years.
Poor farming methods, poor techniques and inadequate funds are some of the issues, which result
in low agricultural production. Arable farming has been declining in the past four years due to the
persistent drought that has been affecting the district. More people who have been relying on
agriculture for a living are now being employed in the Labour Intensive Programme.

However, the department intends to improve performance of the crop sub-sector by pursuing the
following strategies during DDP 6:

       High quality advisory and technical services to customers.
       The development of appropriate extension messages.
       Efficient and effective extension delivery services characterised by regular farm visits,
        farm demonstrations and farmer training.
       Cultural practices that promote moisture conservation such as double ploughing, minimum
        tillage in small holder sub-sector.
       Introducing drought tolerant and early maturing varieties of crops.
       Carrying out on-farm demonstrations to enhance adoption of technologies.
       Intensifying the use of integrated pest management.

7.3.2    Horticulture
Horticultural development is geared towards diversifying the rural economy and creating
employment and income generation opportunities. The sector has not been performing well due to
shortages of water. Farmers should be encouraged to practice water-harvesting techniques to
augment shortages of water that are prevalent in the district. A market does exist in the district
however if the supply exceeds demand farmers can always sell their produce to customers in
Francistown and other districts bordering the North East. Farmers are being encouraged to start
small-scale vegetable production by applying for funds through CEDA. The department will focus
on the following in order to strengthen the sector:

       Development of a marketing information network and collection of production baseline
        data.
       Establishment of demonstration plots.
       Mobilisation and strengthening of existing horticultural/marketing associations.
       Improvement of horticultural productivity through targeting 5 farmers per year.

7.3.3    Livestock Sub Sector
The department of Animal Health and Production‟s objective is to improve livestock extension,
control trans – boundary diseases, improve programme delivery in order to satisfy stakeholder as
well as promote diversification. This is achieved through projects such as Improvements to
Disease Control, Animal Disease Emergency Control, SLOCA, Dairy Improvement, Livestock
Marketing Facilities, Livestock Water Development, Artificial Insemination Services, Fisheries



                                                                                                  74
Development, Ostrich Demonstration and Training Farm, Poultry Development, Improvements to
National Veterinary Laboratory and Improvements to Livestock Advisory Centers.

The North East district is prone to outbreaks of Foot and Mouth disease due to its proximity to
Zimbabwe where most outbreaks originate. The department of Animal Health and Production will
continue to monitor the outbreaks and maintain the cordon fence that has been constructed to curb
cross border infections. Since the district has shortage of land for livestock farming purposes,
acquiring farms surrounding or near tribal land should be greatly emphasized if NAMPAADD is
to be implemented in the district. Already the Department of Lands is negotiating with government
to buy four farms, which could be used for farming purposes if approved. The department is also
being faced with the problem of shortage of water for livestock, rehabilitating the existing
structures for watering livestock would solve this problem and constructing dams where feasible.

The Livestock Identity and Trace –Back System( LITS) programme will be implemented in the
District during the plan period.

Cooperatives sub-sector

The department of co-operative development is responsible for the registration of co-operative
societies and ensuring compliance with the co-operative societies act, encouraging formation of
co-operative societies, assisting in efficient operation of co-operative societies through business
advice and provision of human resource development programmes to the co-operative movement.
It is divided into primary and secondary societies. Primary societies includes thrift & loan societies
which provide savings and credit facilities to members, consumers co-operatives, marketing and
multipurpose societies which market livestock and farm produce, and sell consumer goods and
farm inputs to members and a small number of producer co-operatives.
Co-operatives create employment for the rural people in their areas of operation. The co-operative
groups that operate in the North East district are, Kuzwibatila poultry, Laedza piggery,
Tshwaraganang poultry, Ntimbale ranch and Bonatla small stock.

7.4           AGRICULTURE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 7.1:        Agricultural Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                                       Objectives
                                                                            Increase vaccination coverage of livestock diseases to 95% by march
                                                                            2007.

                                                                            Revive of livestock farmers committees in five extensions areas by
To improve livestock production in the district through effective disease
                                                                            march 2008.
control and prevention measures.
                                                                            Construction of four loading ramps by march 2004.

                                                                            Distribute 50kg fodder seeds to five farmers per extension area by
                                                                            march 2008.
To facilitate dissemination of available information to North East          Conduct six workshops annually
farming communities and stakeholders through extension agents.

To sensitize staff on HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns through                  Create HIV/AIDS awareness in three veterinary camps by march 2004
organized counseling, issuing of condoms and formation of sub-
Committees in respective work places.




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Goals                                                                       Objectives
                                                                            Rehabilitate two dams in Tati district by march 2005.

                                                                            Constructed three dams in Tati district by march 2008.

Provision of assistance for both livestock and arable farmers by            Drilling and equipping of boreholes by 2008/09.
providing physical infrastructure.
                                                                            Construct 3 dams in Tati district by march 2008.

                                                                            Construct one staff house in Tati district by march 2008.

                                                                            Construct two ALDEP type houses by 2006/07

                                                                            Electrification of one house by 2003/04.
Ensure a continuous flow of goods and services from natural resources
without damaging their capacity to recover through sustainable              Rehabilitation and reclamation of graded land in five strategic areas by
utilization.                                                                2008/09.




7.5           FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT


    Table 7.2:        Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                        Objectives                                   Environmental Issues         Strategies
To improve livestock production in the       Revive of livestock farmers committees       Clearing of bushes.          Replanting of trees.
district through effective disease control   in five extensions areas by march 2008.
and prevention measures.                                                                  Excavation of rocks.         Rehabilitation of burrow pits
                                             Construction of four loading ramps by                                     and affected sites.
                                             march 2004.                                  Littering.
                                                                                                                       Provision of refuse bags.
                                             Distribute 50kg fodder seeds to five         Soil erosion.
                                             farmers per extension area by march                                       Provision of septic tanks.
                                             2008.                                        Land degradation.

                                             Create HIV/AIDS awareness in three
                                             veterinary camps by march 2004.


Provision of assistance for both livestock   Rehabilitate two dams in Tati district by    Clearing of bushes.          Replanting of trees.
and arable farmers by providing physical     march 2005.
infrastructure.                                                                           Excavation of rocks.         Rehabilitation of burrow pits
                                             Construct three dams in Tati district by                                  and affected sites.
                                             march 2008.                                  Littering.
                                                                                                                       Provision of refuse bags.
                                             Drilling and equipping of boreholes by       Soil erosion.
                                             2008/09.                                                                  Provision of septic tanks.
                                                                                          Land degradation.
                                             Construct 3 dams in Tati district by
                                             march 2008.

                                             Construct one staff house in Tati district
                                             by march 2008.
Ensure a continuous flow of goods and        Construct two ALDEP type houses by           Clearing of bushes.          Replanting of trees.
services from natural resources without      2006/07
damaging their capacity to recover                                                        Excavation of rocks.         Rehabilitation of burrow pits
through sustainable utilization.             Electrification of one house by 2003/04.                                  and affected sites.
                                                                                          Littering.
                                             Rehabilitation and reclamation of graded                                  Provision of refuse bags.
                                             land in five strategic areas by 2008/09.     Soil erosion.
                                                                                                                       Provision of septic tanks.
                                                                                          Land degradation.




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    Table 7.3:       Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies and Programs                                   Goals/Objectives                                            Environmental Issues
                                                        To reform small-scale farming by introducing modern         Over grazing
                                                        agricultural and commercially oriented practices.
                                                                                                                    Land Degradation
National Master Plan For Arable Agriculture and Dairy
Development.
                                                                                                                    Littering

                                                                                                                    Soil Erosion
                                                        To diversify economic development in rural areas            Over grazing
                                                        through sustainable use of natural resources
                                                                                                                    Land Degradation
Community Based Natural Resource Management
                                                                                                                    Littering

                                                                                                                    Soil Erosion
                                                                                                                    Over grazing

                                                                                                                    Land Degradation
Tribal Land Act
                                                                                                                    Littering

                                                                                                                    Soil Erosion
                                                                                                                    Over grazing
                                                        To facilitate technology transfer, strengthening training
                                                        and extension services.                                     Land Degradation
Arable Land Development Program
                                                                                                                    Littering

                                                                                                                    Soil Erosion




7.6          STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 7.4:       Agricultural Sector Strategies
Projects                               Potential Impact                        Action
Loading Ramps                          Cutting of trees, Land degradation,     Planting of trees, Land rehabilitation, Provision of waste
                                       Littering, Soil Erosion                 disposal bins
Drilling and equipping of bore-holes   Cutting of trees, Land degradation,     Planting of trees, Land rehabilitation, Provision of waste
                                       Littering, Soil Erosion                 disposal bins
Computerization                        Nil                                      Nil
House Electrification                  Nil                                      Nil
Construction of houses                 Cutting of trees, Littering             Planting of trees, Provision of waste disposal bins
Construction of dams                   Cutting of trees, Land degradation,     Planting of trees, Land rehabilitation Provision of waste
                                       Littering, Soil Erosion                 disposal bins
Rehabilitation and reclamation of      Cutting of trees, Land degradation,     Planting of trees, Land rehabilitation, Provision of waste
degraded land                          Littering, Soil Erosion                 disposal bins




7.7          RESOURCES REQUIREMENT FOR DDP6
7.7.1        Issues and Strengths
7.7.1.1 Strengths
          Trained personnel and farmers.
          Availability of funds (donor funding).
          Availability of training facilities.
          Access to research findings.



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         Introduction of new government reforms and programs.
         Technical support.

7.7.1.2 Issues
         High ratio of farmers in relation to available personnel.
         Poor communication.
         Untargeted farmer training, which is not district specific.
         Misplacement of staff.
         Inadequate staff accommodation.
         Recurrence of drought.
         Desertification.
         Frequent Foot and Mouth disease outbreaks.
         Brain Drain.
         Shortage of transport.
         Shortage of land and water.

7.7.2       Development Budget


    Table 7.5:      Development Budget
Project                                   Project Description                        Location         Estimated Cost   Implementation
                                                                                                                       Year
AG 101 - Livestock Marketing Facilities   Loading Ramps                              North East       P 372 000.00
AG 102 - Livestock Water Development      Drilling and equipping of bore-holes       North east       P 1 700 000.00
AG 103 - Ministry Of Agriculture          Computerisation of the following           Masunga
Computerisation                           offices (Department of Animal Health
                                          and Production, Department of Crop
                                          Production and Forestry and Co-
                                          operatives)
AG 206 - SLOCA                                                                       North East       P 3 150 048.00

AG 216 - Improvements to Disease          House Electrification                      Makaleng         P 166 000.00     2003/04
Control
AG 301 - Arable Lands Development                                                    North East       P 2 890 000.00
Programme
AG 302 - Irrigation and Water             Construction of dams                       Nlaphkwane
Development                                                                          Pole
                                                                                     Masingwaneng
AG 315 - Development of Extension                                                    A/ds Shashe      P 440 476.00     2006/07
Services                                                                             A/ds Tsamaya
AG 354 - Horticultural Development                                                   North east       P 112 500
AG 358 - Soil Conservation                Rehabilitation   and    reclamation   of   Matshelagabedi   P 1 129 800
                                          degraded land                              Mapoka
                                                                                     Masingwaneng
                                                                                     Jackalas1
                                                                                     Shashe Bridge




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7.7.3        Performance Targets


    Table 7.6:       Performance Indicators
Objectives                                                                 Indicators
Revive livestock farmers committees in five extensions areas by march      Livestock Farmers Committee revived in five extension areas by March
2008.                                                                      2008.
Construction of four loading ramps by march 2004.                          Four loading ramps constructed by March 2004.
Distribute 50kg fodder seeds to five farmers per extension area by         50 kg fodder seeds distributed to five farmers per extension area by
march 2008.                                                                March 2008.
Create HIV/AIDS awareness in three veterinary camps by march 2004.         HIV/AIDS awareness created in three veterinary camps by March 2004.
Rehabilitate two dams in Tati district by march 2005.                      Two dams in Tati District rehabilitated by March 2005.

Constructed three dams in Tati district by March 2008.                     Three dams constructed in Tati District by March 2008.
Drilling and equipping of boreholes by 2008/09.                            Boreholes drilled and equipped by 2008/09.
Construct one staff house in Tati district by march 2008.                  One staff house constructed in Tati District by March 2008.
Construct two ALDEP type houses by 2006/07                                 Two ALDEP type houses constructed by 2006/07.
Electrification of one house by 2003/04.                                   One house electrified by 2003/04.
Rehabilitation and reclamation of graded land in five strategic areas by   Graded land rehabilitated and reclaimed
2008/09.                                                                   in five strategic areas by 2008/09.




7.7.4        Plan Monitoring Program
Plan monitoring in the form of monthly, quarterly and annual reports will be provided during the
course of the plan period to effectively assess performance of the agriculture sector. Reports to
District Drought Relief committee, District Extension Team and District Development Committee
would be made quarterly to monitor progress of projects to be implemented.




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CHAPTER 8
8       TRADE INDUSTRY WILDLIFE AND TOURISM

8.1      INTRODUCTION
The Trade, Wildlife and Tourism Sector in the North East plays an insignificant role in the
economy of the district. The trade sector has created employment for at least 1020 people in the
district in accordance with the 2001 population census. There are generally limited employment
opportunities due to low formal and informal sector employment. Manufacturing sector in the
district is very small given the District‟s proximity to Francistown, which is a more attractive
location.

The North East has potential for nature- culture based tourism, which has not yet been fully
exploited for the benefit of local communities. In an effort to ensure that revenues accrued from
tourism are spread throughout the country, the eco-tourism strategy was initiated. The strategy
also aims at diversifying the tourism product. The integral part of the programme is the inventory
of historical sites and heritage attractions.

 However through the Government policies and programs such as CEDA and CBNRM
programme, where communities are expected to utilize these financial programs to diversify the
economy, which is overly reliant on agriculture.

The vision 2016 pillar of a Prosperous, Productive and Innovative Nation has most relevance to
the mandate of the Ministry of Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism. This extensively covers
sustainable growth and diversification under which the issues of productivity, stakeholder
partnership, citizen empowerment, use of Local Resources, Global Competitiveness,
Industrialization, Science And Technology, Manufacturing, trade, small scale business, tourism
and wildlife management fall.

Vision 2016 advocates for the development of a diversified economy in various sectors including
mining, agriculture, manufacturing, services and tourism. In response to this challenge, the
Ministry has, through its strategic plan, committed itself to providing an environment conducive
for sustainable diversification of the economy.

8.1.1    Institutional Framework
In the North East, the Ministry of Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism is represented by the
departments of Integrated Field Services that operates from the District Headquarters in Masunga,
Wildlife and National Parks, and Tourism, which operate from Francistown.

8.1.2    Strategic Plan for Ministry Trade and Industry
The vision of the Ministry of Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism will have enabled Botswana
to be a vibrant, self-sustaining and diversified economy, ranked among the best in the world and,
made it a destination of preferred choice for investors and tourists by 2016.



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The mission statement of the Ministry of Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism will be to create
an environment conducive for business, protect consumer rights, and manage wildlife resources to
meet local and global challenges. It will be regarded as a proactive, dynamic and results- driven
organization facilitating economic prosperity for Batswana.

The Ministry subscribes to the following set of values, which are the foundation of its culture:
Integrity, effective communication, professionalism, motivated employees, productivity, team
work and innovation/creativity.

8.1.3    Role of the Private Sector
The private sector and NGOs are important stakeholders in the wildlife tourism industry. They
have shown a tangible interest in improving communities as well as the department of Wildlife
and National Parks and Tourism. The private sector provides technical expertise (through research
for example) and compliments some government development projects through capacity building
and funding. The private sector plays a much bigger role in commercial activities in the district,
there are currently 94 general dealers, 16 fresh produces, 9 supermarkets, 27 liquor restaurants, 68
bars, 11 specialized dealers, 15 salons, 3 filling stations, 5 garage workshops and 1 pharmacy.
These projects altogether have created employment for 1020 people in the North East.

Some companies undertake joint venture partnership with communities from which communities
learn the business aspect of the wildlife industry. NGOs on the other hand mobilize, train and
empower extension workers and communities to develop and initiate successful CBNRM projects.
The private sector is consulted by the Government through various bodies on governmental
policies, regulations, programs and legislative issues. Environmental Heritage Foundation has
taken up initiatives to help communities of Jackals 1 and Ramokgwebana to set up projects
involving land reclamation and botanical garden. It has also helped communities of Tati Siding
with funds to register a trust, which will oversee community environmental initiatives.

8.1.4    Consultation Priorities

Lack of inventory of potential tourism sites: A number of sites exist throughout the North East
District, but the majority of them are totally undeveloped in terms of accessibility and visitor
oriented presentation. An inventory of these sites will be developed and an assessment in terms of
their potential use for tourism purposes will be carried out.

Shortage of land/conflicting landuses: Since there exists a problem of shortage of land in the
district, the outcome of the consultations was that, this problem limits to some extent the type of
projects requested to small, micro and medium projects excluding completely large-scale projects
[horticulture, dairy farming, and poultry], which could be enhancing the commercial sector in the
district.

Insufficient financial assistance grants: Communities would like to see the Financial Assistance
Policy grant increased so that they can be able to undertake large-scale projects but since FAP has
been replaced by CEDA, it should be noted that their concerns have been answered. One of the




                                                                                                 81
issues that potential beneficiaries of CEDA have raised is the cumbersome nature of the
application forms and these needs to be addressed during the DDP6 period.

8.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
8.2.1    Game Ranching Policy (2002)
The policy is aimed at increasing economic returns from wildlife resources outside protected areas.
It also promotes the use of game ranches in the conservation of threatened and endangered species.
Game ranching in the North East is still at an infancy stage with eight licenses issued but only two
game ranch operating in Matsiloje at the moment and four ostrich farms, this is the case currently
in the country at large.

8.2.2    Ostrich Management Policy (1994)
The policy aims to preserve the ostrich population and promote their conservation through
sustainable utilization. Ostriches are a viable resource and it is the intention of the government to
exploit this resource for the development of the nation. The department of Wildlife and National
Parks intends to start educational campaigns to mobilize people to start taking into consideration
ostrich farming as an essential business in diversifying the economy during implementation of
District Development Plan 6.

8.2.3    Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBRNM) Policy (Draft)
CBNRM is an approach that links conservation with development and the ministry has been
involved with CBNRM projects for communities since 1989 by offering technical and capacity
building support. There are now over 20 Community Based Organizations (CBO‟s) throughout the
country that utilizes wildlife and veld products. The Community Conservation Fund (CCF) was
established to fund CBNRM projects. The district has not yet benefited from this fund, as there are
no CBNRM projects formed yet but mobilization is on going. A workshop was held for the
district‟s leadership (councilors, chiefs and VDC representatives) to sensitize them on CBNRM
program.

8.2.4    Botswana Tourism Master Plan (2000)
The Botswana Tourism Master plan was finalized in May 2002 and it serves as a basic guideline
for the development of tourism, enabling decision makers to agree on the principles for the
direction for the next decade. The Plan forms the end of an opinion-building phase but more
especially it should be regarded as the starting point of an implementation process. It will also
ensure that tourism plays a leading role in the economic growth of the country. Some of the
recommendations are currently being implemented and these include an awareness campaign
through a local drama group, the design of a grading system and the formulation of a National
Eco-tourism Strategy (NES), whose final draft has been drawn. Other issues that still need to be
done include the establishment of a national tourist board, strengthening of the private sector
through HATAB which is the umbrella organization, zoning of land to address land issues and the
promotion of domestic tourism. The plan will ensure that tourism plays a leading role in the
economic growth of the country.




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8.2.5    Tourism Policy (1990)
The government‟s position on tourism in contained in the Tourism Policy, Government Paper No.
2 of 1990. This policy was born out of the realization that; the industry has not been given due
prominence in the past: the potential of the industry is growing at a rapid rate, so much that it is
regarded as possible generator of economic activity in many parts of the economy and the country;
Batswana were not likely to benefit from the realization of the potential unless a new framework
of policy is put in place.

The overall objective of the tourism policy is to obtain on a sustainable basis, the greatest possible
net social and economic benefits for Batswana from their tourism resources, scenic beauty,
wildlife and unique ecological, geological and cultural characteristics. The policy seeks to shift the
mix of tourists away from those who are casual campers towards those who occupy permanent
accommodation. Encouraging the latter while discouraging the former, through target marketing
and the imposition of higher fees for the use of public facilities.

The policy also introduced a number of additional programmes like the reorganization of the
system of concessions, rents and taxation and the introduction of a system of licensing and
regulation for accommodation establishments. A system of grading for these enterprises will also
be introduced.

8.2.6    Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA) 2001
As a reformation and consolidation of FAP and the SMME schemes, the government established
the CEDA, where potential investors are assisted through highly subsidized loans, training,
monitoring and mentoring, as well as provision for venture capital fund. This was another
government‟s effort to deal with the real constraints affecting the development of citizens
businesses and citizen participation in the economy. The venture capital fund is available to both
citizens and foreigners whereas the financial assistance policy is in the form of loans at subsidized
rates are available to citizens. The Department of Tourism will continue to encourage Batswana to
invest in the tourism industry through CEDA. However, in the next development plan there is
need to review CEDA in order to determine if it is achieving its primary objectives. At the moment
CEDA is administered only in Gaborone, there is need to decentralise its activities to the districts
as potential clients travel several kilometres to get the service.

8.3      TRADE AND INDUSTRY
8.3.1    Industrial and commercial Development
The industrial and commercial sector does not perform satisfactory in the entire District despite the
fact that villages of Masunga, Tshesebe and Tati Siding have fully planned and developed
industrial and commercial sites. There are few entrepreneurs in the private sector who have opened
some commercial activities such as bakeries, grain milling, and motor garages. According to the
Tati Land Board report of 2002, 347 plots for industrial activities were made available throughout
the District. Most of the activities, which take place in these plots, are more service oriented e.g.
garages/workshops, supplies, warehouses and poultry farming.

The Ministry of Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism offer some investment incentives in the
form of loans through CEDA. The industrial and commercial sector in the District is not doing



                                                                                                   83
well due to lack of markets, poor management and lack of entrepreneurial skills, shortage serviced
land and poor infrastructure such as roads and electricity.

During DDP 6 the District will consider building stalls in strategic areas to assist small businesses.
Communication links will be improved as well and electricity provided in eleven villages. The
Tati Land Board will also facilitate acquisition of serviced industrial and commercial plots with
less delay.

8.3.2    Wildlife and National Parks
The Department of Wildlife and National Park‟s aim is to take the management of wildlife to the
people to ensure their appreciation, participation and benefit from natural resources. This entails
involvement of communities and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO‟s) in the utilization and
Conservation of environmental assets. Through this, communities will realize the economic value
of wildlife, and nature based tourism that forms an important growth Industry.

The North East Region is not rich in wildlife resources but there is no doubt that the area has
several historical/cultural and archaeological sites which offer a good potential for tourism. These
include the Domboshaba Ruins, Kalakamati Rock Paintings and many more. In order to exploit
these resources, and develop and promote tourism in this region, the Department of Tourism has
established an office in Francistown. The office serves Francistown and the North East District
and also shares Tutume Sub District with the Selibe-Phikwe office. Community
education/mobilization will be done in conjunction with the Wildlife Department, which
administers the Community Conservation Fund (CCF) so that information on tourism related
projects could be provided to the communities.

8.3.3    Tourism
Tourism is not well developed in the district. But there are quite a number of sites, which have
been developed for tourism related activities as indicated in table 8.1. There is a problem of
destruction of the historical sites; some artifacts are reported missing or stolen. There is also
inadequate information on location of some historical sites and areas of scenic beauty. The
strategy during DDP 6 would be to sensitize the community on the importance of the historical
sites. The District will also explore the possibility to identify scenic beauty and market them.




                                                                                                   84
    Table 8.1:            North East Historical Sites
Site Name                                         Description of Sites
Vukwi Ruins                                       The site includes large alluvial traces near the village of Vukwi. The site is good for camping
                                                  and also as a picnic sport. The Vukwi river scenic at this site with big boulders and pools of
                                                  water usually remains even after the rest of the river.
Domboshaba Ruins                                  The site is located on the western side of Masunga village, about 6.5 km from Kalakamati.
                                                  The most interesting features on the site are stonewalls and the ancient mud floors that are
                                                  associated with the popular Zimbabwe ruins. There are indicators that this place is being
                                                  vandalized as some artifacts were reported to be missing.
Nlapkhwane Rock Paintings                         The site is located on the northern side of Nlapkhwane village on the Botswana- Zimbabwe
                                                  border. Although very little is known about the site the rock paintings depicting wild animals
                                                  are attractive. It is believed that the area is an extension of Matopo area in Zimbabwe.
Tati Training Institute                           The Institute is believed to be the first in the District and the country. The ruins are located
                                                  on the eastern side of the Tati river around Mulambakwena village.
Mambindi ruins                                    These are ruins found at Jackalas I.
Mowana Magic Tree                                 Found at the Themashanga turn-off. Tourist as well as locals put money under the tree with
                                                  the belief that they are offering to ancestors.
Rock Paintings                                    These are found near Themashanga and Mapoka village
Source: North East Settlement Strategy – Draft Final, 2000



8.4           SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Table 8.2:                Trade and Industry Sector Goals and Objectives
Goal                                                                     Objective
                                                                         To develop an inventory of historical sites in the district.

                                                                         To mobilize and train communities in the North East District that has
To promote and facilitate sustainable utilization and conservation of    potential resources in establishing Community Based Organization by
wildlife resources through active participation of communities.          2004.

                                                                         To have viable projects in 60% of the Schools with environmental
                                                                         clubs in the district by 2005
                                                                         To have reduced the killing of problem animal by 10% per annum by
                                                                         year 2006.
To minimize human- wildlife conflict by ensuring that Batswana
appreciate and benefit from their environmental assets.
                                                                         To have reduced the length of time taken to attend to problem animal
                                                                         reports to five days by 2004.

                                                                         To have trained all communities that experience problems from large
                                                                         animals to undertake problem animal control by 2003
                                                                         To conduct at least three start Your Business Course for the
To facilitate the development of viable projects by encouraging          entrepreneurs in the NE District by 2003.
entrepreneurs to conduct feasibility study for every new project.
                                                                         To conduct at least four Training Needs Analysis Course in the North
                                                                         East District by the year 2003.

To foster Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA)              To facilitate two workshops where entrepreneurs in the North East will
                                                                         be briefed about CEDA and its requirements by the year 2003.




                                                                                                                                              85
8.5          FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
8.5.1        Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sectoral Goals and Objectives


    Table 8.3:       Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sectoral Goals and Objectives
Goal                                            Objective                                       Environmental         Strategies
                                                                                                Issues
                                                To develop an inventory of historical sites     Clearing of bushes    Replanting trees.
                                                in the district.
                                                                                                Littering             Provision of refuse bags.
To promote and facilitate sustainable           To mobilize and train communities in the
utilization and conservation of wildlife        North East District that has potential          Overgrazing           Keeping low stocking rates.
resources through active participation of       resources in establishing Community Based
communities.                                    Organization by 2004.                           Soil erosion          Rehabilitation of affected
                                                                                                                      land.
                                                To have viable projects in 60% of the
                                                Schools with environmental clubs in the
                                                district by 2005
                                                To have reduced the killing of problem          Clearing of bushes    Replanting trees.
                                                animals by 10% per annum by year 2006.
                                                                                                Littering             Provision of refuse bags.
                                                To have reduced the length of time taken to
To minimize human- wildlife conflict by         attend to problem animal reports to five        Overgrazing           Keeping low stocking rates.
ensuring that Batswana appreciate and benefit   days by 2004
from their environmental assets.                                                                Soil erosion          Rehabilitation of affected
                                                To have trained all communities that                                  land.
                                                experience problems from large animals to
                                                undertake problem animal control by 2003
                                                To conduct at least three start Your            Littering             Provision of refuse bag
                                                Business Course for the entrepreneurs in
To facilitate the development of viable
                                                the NE District by 2003.
projects by encouraging entrepreneurs to
conduct Feasibility study for every new
                                                To conduct at least four Training Needs
project.
                                                Analysis Course in the North East District
                                                by the year 2003.
                                                To facilitate two workshops where               Littering             Provision of refuse bags
To     foster   Citizen   Entrepreneurial       entrepreneurs in the North East will be
Development Agency (CEDA).                      briefed about CEDA and its requirements
                                                by the year 2003.



8.5.2        Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs


    Table 8.4:       Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies and Programmes                     Goals/Obectives                                                      Environmental Issues
                                            To promote the use of game ranches in the conservation of            Land degradation
Game Ranching Policy                        threatened and endangered species and to increase economic
                                            returns from wildlife resources.                                     Overgrazing
                                            To preserve the ostrich population and promote their                 Land degradation
Ostrich Management Policy                   conservation through sustainable utilization.
                                                                                                                 Overgrazing
Community Based       Natural   Resource    To obtain on a sustainable basis, net social benefits for Batswana   Land degradation
Management                                  from their tourism resources, scenic beauty, wildlife and unique
                                            ecological, geological and cultural characteristics.                 Overgrazing
                                            To assist potential investors in setting up or expanding             Land degradation
Botswana Tourism Master Plan                businesses in areas of manufacturing, agriculture, mineral
                                            processing and linking services.                                     Overgrazing
                                            To assist potential investors in setting up or expanding             Land degradation
Tourism Policy                              businesses in areas of manufacturing, agriculture, mineral
                                            processing and linking services.                                     Overgrazing
                                            To assist potential investors in setting up or expanding             Land degradation
Citizen   Entrepreneurial   Development
                                            businesses in areas of manufacturing, agriculture, mineral
Agency
                                            processing and linking services.                                     Overgrazing




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8.6           STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 8.5:        Trade and Industry Strategies
Project                                                Potential Impacts                 Mitigation Measures
Start your business course                             Littering                         Provision of plastic bags and waste bins including proper
Bookkeeping Course                                                                       disposal of the waste.
Start up Wildlife utilization projects (Guinea fowl,   Soil degradation and erosion.     Selective cutting of trees
ostrich farms and game ranches)                        Change of land use
                                                       Cutting of trees
Facilitate formation of Community Based Natural        Littering                         Proper waste disposal measures would be used (provision
Resource Management organizations.                                                       of waste bins).




8.7           RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6
8.7.1         Issues and Strengths for Trade, Industry, tourism and wildlife
8.7.1.1 Strengths
          Availability Trained personnel.
          Availability of funds.
          Availability of training facilities.
          Availability of transport.

8.7.1.2 Issues
          Shortage of office accommodation.
          Misplacement of staff.

    Table 8.7:        Plan Monitoring Programme
Goal/Objective                                   Strategy                              Target            Monitoring
To mobilize and train communities in the         Facilitate     formation      of      End of 2006.      Presenting monthly and quarterly reports
North East District that has potential           Community Based Organizations                           to District Extension Team and District
resources in establishing Community Based        in Gambule, Matsiloje and                               Development Committee.
Organizations by 2004.                           Nlaphkwane
To increase participation of Batswana in the     Start up wildlife utilization         End of 2009       Presenting monthly and quarterly reports
wildlife sector with the view to realize its     projects i.e. Guinea fowl farms,                        to District Extension Team and District
economic value by the end of the plan            Ostrich farming and game                                Development Committee.
period.                                          ranching.

To facilitate the development of viable          Start your business course (10)       End of 2009       Presenting monthly and quarterly reports
projects by encouraging entrepreneurs to                                                                 to Production Development Committee
attend courses offered by IFS                    Basic Book keeping course (20)                          and District Development committee.

                                                 (P 60 000)




                                                                                                                                              87
CHAPTER 9
9          EDUCATION AND TRAINNING

9.1        INTRODUCTION
Vision 2016 envisages that Botswana will be an educated and informed nation by its 50th year of
independence. In line with this, the Ministry of Education through other ministries like Ministry of
Local Government will provide quality education and training that is accessible to learners of all
age groups to enable individuals to attain their potential and contribute to the national socio-
economic and technical advancement. In providing quality education and training, the ministry
will provide an enabling environment or learning through efficient and effective management of
the national education and training system.

9.1.1      Institutional Framework
To carry out its mandate at national level, the Ministry of Education consists of nine departments
namely, Primary Education, Secondary Education, Teachers Training and Development,
Curriculum Development and Evaluation, Non Formal Education, Student Placement and Welfare,
Teaching Service Management, Vocational Education and Training and Examination Research
Division. Out of the nine departments, only two of have offices in Masunga and they are Non-
formal and Primary Education whilst Secondary Education operates from Francistown. There are
no special schools/centres within the district for people with disabilities. Screened children with
disabilities are therefore sent to appropriate schools/centres in areas where they are located. During
this plan period special education units will be constructed in new schools planned for at
Tatisiding and Patayamatebele.

At District level Primary Education is the joint responsibility of two departments, that of Primary
Education in the District Council and of Primary Education in the Ministry of Education. The two
departments work hand in hand in managing Primary Education within the District

9.1.1.1 Department of Primary Education – Council
The Department is responsible for:

         Provision of infrastructure, stationery and equipment to primary schools.
         Provision of the auxiliary staff in Primary schools.
         Transportation of pupils and Teachers during educational tours and sporting activities.
         Administration of Primary School feeding program.

9.1.1.2 Department of Primary Education – Ministry of Education
         Provision of curriculum materials to schools.
         Giving professional advice to both Council and schools.
         Inspecting schools and advising the authorities on conditions prevalent in schools through
          written reports.
         Administration of teacher‟s welfare.



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Although provision of primary school facilities and materials is the domain of the two
departments, the private sector like contractors, publishers, and business community are partners
in the development of primary education through building of school infrastructure and provision of
books and stationery to support curriculum delivery.

9.1.2    Strategic Plan for Respective Ministries
9.1.2.1 Ministry Of Education
The mandate of the ministry is to provide quality education and training that is accessible to
learners of all age groups and to create opportunities for life-long learning to enable individuals to
attain their full potential and contribute to the national socio-economic and technological
advancement. To achieve its mandate, the ministry has set itself key results areas viz:

       A high level of HIV/AIDS awareness.
       A competent national human resource.
       Quality and relevant education and training.
       Open access to and equity in life-long education.
       An enabling learning environment.

9.1.2.2 Ministry Of Local Government

The mandate of the Ministry of Local Government (in relation to Local Authorities) is to provide
basic physical and social infrastructure (e.g. water provision, primary school and clinics
construction) to the community. The other core business as stipulated in the ministry strategic
plan is that of ensuring efficient operation of local authorities through policy direction, capacity
building, and supervision. To achieve its mandate, the ministry has set itself key results areas viz:

       Customer satisfaction.
       Policy implementation effectiveness.
       Improved quality of life of communities.
       Productivity and organizational effectiveness.

9.1.3    Role of the Private Sector
There are no privately owned primary and secondary schools in the district except for Day Care
Centres. There are three privately owned day care centres in the district, which are at Tatisiding,
Masunga and Senyawe village. Day care centres in the district play the role of furnishing young
children below school going age, with a place for developing wholly i.e. the children have a
chance to develop their mental abilities or cognitively, spiritually, socially, physically and
otherwise. The children acquire love for learning and gain exposure to the learning environment.
Therefore when children graduate from the centre, they have confidence to sit in class, speak
openly and freely and they are freer at primary schools than children who have not been to day
care centres.




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9.1.4       Education Consultation Priorities
Most communities have seen the importance of education especially to their children. They
suggested more additional schools especially vocational centres and education centres in the
district.

9.2         NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
The National Policy on Education aspires for the provision of quality, equity and access to basic
education, which are considered a fundamental human right. The education system therefore aims
at developing moral and social values, cultural identity and self-esteem, good citizenship and
desirable work ethics. The District Development Plan is therefore designed to address the policy
needs, which the Revised National Policy on Education (RNPE) and the vision 2016 aspire for.
However, the RNPE may be constrained by the implementation capacity to undertake the projects
by council. These implementation constraints are mainly in terms of inadequate manpower and
financial resources.

9.3         EDUCATION
9.3.1       Schools
9.3.1.1 Pre-School Education
Although the RNPE recognizes pre-school education as an important integral component of the
education system, it is still not well established. There is therefore need for clear guidelines from
the Ministry of Education on how it is going to be incorporated within the education system and
that of structure. Issues that need to be revolved relate to development of syllabus. However,
there are 21-day care centres in the whole district. As alluded to above, these do not have a
syllabus to follow. Out of the 21-day care centres 1 is run by council, 3 are privately owned, and
17 are run by communities through VDCs. The table below contains the details;

   Table 9.1:     Day Care Centres in the District
Name of Village              Name of Centre          Ownership               Remarks
1. Tatisiding                Itsoseng Day Care       Community Based         Operating
2. Tatisiding                Disneyland              Private                 Operating
3.Shashe Bridge              Shashe Day Care         Community Based         Operating
4. Masunga                   Boswa jwa Ngwana        Private                 Operating
5. Senyawe                   Pretty Angel            Private                 Operating
6. Masunga                   Masunga Day Care        Council                 Operating
7.Themashanga                Themashanga Day Care    Community Based         Operating
8. Siviya                    Siviya Day Care         Community Based         Operating
9. Matsiloje                 Matsiloje Day Care      Community Based         Operating
10.Masukwane                 Masukwane Day Care      Community Based         Operating
11. Tsamaya                  Tsamaya Day Care        Community Based         Operating
12. Jackalas I               Jackalas I Day Care     Community Based         Operating
13.Zwenshambe                Zwenshambe Day Care     Community Based         Operating
14. Sekakangwe               Sekakangwe Day Care     Community Based         Operating
15. Kalakamati               Kalakamati Day Care     Community Based         Operating
16. Gulubane                 Gulubane Day Care       Community Based         Operating
17. Sechele                  Sechele Day Care        Community Based         Operating
18. Mambo                    Mambo Day Care          Community Based         Operating
19. Makaleng                 Makaleng Day Care       Community Based         Operating
20. Matenge                  Matenge Day Care        Community Based         Operating
21. Mapoka                   Mapoka Day Care         Community Based         Operating
Source: Social and Community Development, 2003




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9.3.1.2 Primary Education
The North East District has 41 schools with an enrolment of twelve thousand and sixty two
(12,062) pupils and an establishment of five hundred and six teachers (506). Due to the growth of
the enrolment, three new schools have been included in the DDP6 Plan period. Refer to item 16.7.

    Table 9.2:     Primary Education Enrollment
                                                           EXISTING                      BACKLOG
SCHOOL                                                    FACILITIES
                      Classes   Enrollment   Teachers   C/Rooms      T/Q   1X2 C/Rooms      1X2 W/C   T/Q
Makaleng                12         282          13         12      11           0              0       1
Mambo                    7         131           7          7       7           0              0       1
Gulubane                11         322          12         11       8           0              0       4
Masingwaneng             7         161           8          7       7           0              0       1
Matopi                   6         108           7          7       7           -              0       -
Matshelagabedi          20         679          22         21      17           1              2       5
Matsiloje               15         377          16         15      10           0              0       6
Mapoka                  15         389          16         18      11           0              1       5
Moroka                  21         501          18         21      14           0              1       4
Jackalas No 1           14         276          15         13      10           1              1       5
Ramokgwebana            14         315          14         14       7           0              0       5
Kgari                    8         168           9          8       6           0              0       3
Masukwane               11         171          10         11       8           0              1       2
Pole                     6         101           7          8       5           0              0       1
Butale                   8         156           9         10       6           0              0       3
Mbalambi                12         315          13         11       7           1              1       6
Sekakangwe              88         233           8          8       5           0              0       1
Nlapkhwane              19         524          20         20      11           2              1       9
Mulambakwena            11         309          13         13      16           0              1       0
Zwenshambe              15         422          17         15       8           0              1       8
Letsholathebe            8         164           8          8       6           0              0       2
Masunga                 19         677          23         21      14           1              2       9
Mosojane                10         222          12         13       2           0              0       -
Vukwi                    6         77            7          6       7           1              0       -
Ditladi                 12         322          13         13       9           -              1       4
Pelotelele               8         224          10         11       9           -              1       1
Tatisiding              22         924          23         24      16           0              2       7
Siviya                  14         360          15         14       6           -              1       7
Jackalas No 2           14         332          15         14      14           0              1       1
Themashanga             19         517          20         19      15           0              1       5
Tsamaya                 17         483          17         17       8           0              1       7
Mowana                   6         120           7          8       5           0              0       2
Tshesebe                13         322          14         13      11           0              1       1
Senyawe                 17         427          18         18      13           0              0       5
Mabudzane                6         114           7          8       5           0              0       2
Gungwe                   7         105           7          6       6           0              -       1
Kalakamati               8         216           8         10       6           -              -       2
Matenge                  7         109           7          7       6           -              -       1
Sechele                  7         124           7          8       4           -              -       3
Gambule                  7         141           7          7       7           -              -       -
Botalaote/Toteng         7         142           7          8       7           -              -       -
Total                  554        12062        506        503      357          7             21      130
Source: North East District Council, 2003


9.3.1.3 Secondary Education
The District has 8 Junior Secondary Schools and 1 Senior Secondary School with an enrolment of
3716 and 1270 respectively. The total establishment for both the Senior and Junior Secondary
Schools is 76 and 220 respectively.




                                                                                                       91
9.3.1.4 Private Schools
There are no Primary, Secondary and Tertiary private schools in the district except for three-Day
Care Centres, which are in Tatisiding, Masunga and Senyawe.

9.3.1.5 Non-Formal Education
In its attempt to impart the Revised National Policy on Education in establishing a learning
oriented society the department targeted 1 200 adult literacy learners every financial year. The
2001 population and housing census report shows that adult literacy in the district is 67.3%.
Below is a table to reflect this:

   Table 9.3:   Enrollment of Non-Formal Learners
Year                          Total No. Of Learners    M                 F
1997                          993                      319               674
1998                          1190                     328               862
1999                          1014                     328               686
2000                          684                      228               456
2001                          835                      268               567
Source: North East Non-formal District Annual Report, 2001

The decreases in learners‟ figures are attributed to a number of factors such as the floods disasters:
    Adult learners were engaged in re-building their houses.
    The absence of Literacy Group Leaders as the programme is unable to attract and keep
       such people in the programme.
    Improper monitoring and supervision of literacy groups due to lack of transport have also
       lead to this decrease.

9.3.1.6 Special Education
The Government is committed to the education of all children including the disabled ones and
therefore will intensify efforts to increase access to education for disabled children. The district
has one rehabilitation officer under clinics department, who is responsible for the welfare of
disabled persons. In its endeavour to implement the 1994 Revised National Policy on Education
which envisages equal opportunities for all persons regardless of their disabilities, the Clinics
Department screen/assess and place children with disabilities in special school/centres according
to their disabilities. The department of primary education has planned for special education
facilities in the new primary schools to be constructed during the plan period at Tatisiding and
Patamayatebele. The department will also buy two minibuses (16 Seater) for disabled children
within the district. Tashatha CJSS in Tatisiding has been expanded by adding a unit of the Deaf
that caters for the students with such needs from the whole of the north from Dibete.

9.3.2     Training
9.3.2.1 Vocational Training
The only tertiary training institution in the district is the Brigade. There are two Brigades in the
district namely, Zwenshambe Brigade and Senyawe Brigade. The Brigade is an autonomous
community based institution engaged in Vocational Training and Commerce. The institution is
registered under the Trust Laws of Botswana governed by the Board of Trustees made up of


                                                                                                   92
representatives from the community, the Brigade Staff, the Trainees, the Ministry of Education
(DVET) and Ex-Officio Members. The Ministry of Education through Department of Vocational
Training (DVET) and the Board of Trustee helps in seeing that the Brigade runs smoothly. The
Ministry of Education [DVET] also provides a subsidy for training materials, and other logistics
(such as stationery, protective clothing, and printing for training purposes, student food, sports
activities, etc) and technical advice as well as professional advice on the smooth running of
brigades. On the other hand, the board of trustees is responsible for the day-to-day operation of
the brigade.

Zwenshambe Brigade Development Trust

Zwenshambe Brigade has three (3) units, namely the Building and Plastering, Business and
Secretarial Studies, Carpentry and Joinery with a total of one hundred and ninety two (192)
trainees and an establishment of seventeen (17) Instructors and twelve (12) support staff.

Due to the high demand of places for Vocational and Technical Education, one (1) unit for Auto-
Mechanics and an expansion of the Business and Secretariat Studies is being embarked on under
DDP5 plan period. The Business School will be based in Masunga to cater for the working class
in the evening.

    Table 9.4:       Planned Enrolment for Zwenshambe Brigades
Course                            2004               2005          2006          2007          2008
Carpentry                          80                 80            80            80            80
Building                           80                 80            80            80            80
Auto Mechanics                     16                 32            48            48            48
Secretarial                        40                 40            40            40            40
Panel Beating                       -                  -            16            32            48
Welding                             -                  -            16            32            48
Plumbing                            -                  -            16            32            48
Auto Electrical                     -                  -            16            32            48
Draughting                          -                  -            16            32            48
Total                              216                232           328           408           488
Source: Zwenshambe Brigade, 2003

Senyawe Brigade Development Trust

Senyawe Brigade has two (2) Training Units, namely the Building & Plastering and the Business
& Computer Studies, with a total of one hundred and twenty (120) trainees and an establishment
of eight (8) Instructors and eleven (11) support staff.

A two-classroom block and a staff house are under construction with funds received from a donor
(Breweries KMS Trust). It is hoped that the classroom block will be completed in time for the May
2003 intake of new Accounting and Secretarial Classes.

    Table 9.5:       Planned Enrolment for Senyawe Brigades
Course                                        2004          2005          2006          2007    2008
Building and Plastering                        80            80            80            80      80
Accounting                                     40            40            40            40      40
Computer Studies                               20            20            20            20      20
Secretarial                                    20            20            20            20      20
Carpentry                                       -             -            16            32      48
Dressmaking                                     -             -            16            32      48




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Course                                                        2004              2005               2006                2007                2008
Plumbing                                                                                            16                  32                  48
Livestock Management                                                                                16                  32                  48
Horticulture                                                                                        16                  32                  48
Total                                                         160               160                240                 320                 400
Source: Senyawe Brigade, 2003


9.4           EDUCATION AND TRAINING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 9.6:        Education and Training Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                                         Objectives
Sector Goals And Objectives-Central Govt
                                                                              To strengthen managerial and supervisory mechanisms in schools
                                                                              through continued support to the school management teams.

                                                                              To regularly conduct inspection in all schools so as to improve
                                                                              teaching and learning procedures.
To provide quality education to all school age going children in the
                                                                              To encourage teachers to intensify the existing school development
district.
                                                                              programmes so as to improve their professional being.

                                                                              To improve testing procedures through the Criterion Referenced
                                                                              Testing Programme

                                                                              To instill the spirit of self-supervision in all our school through
                                                                              management workshops and seminars.
                                                                              To ensure that HIV/AIDS school committees give support to those
                                                                              infected and affected.

                                                                              To ensure that HIV/AIDS coordinators in schools are given the
To strengthen coordinating of HIV/AIDS activities in schools.                 relevant training to address HIV/AIDS issues.

                                                                              To encourage equal treatment of both teachers and pupils irrespective
                                                                              of their health status.

                                                                              To inculcate behavioural change in sexuality.
Primary Education Sector Goals and Objectives
                                                                              To construct all the planned development projects before the end of
To provide conducive learning environment for a cross-section of              District Development Plan 6.
learners by development of adequate and accessible infrastructure and
provision of enough equipment, stationery and materials.                      To modify certain identified existing facilities to make them accessible
                                                                              to children with special educational needs before the end of DDP6.

Secondary Education Goals And Objectives
                                                                              To establish HIV.AIDS coordination and monitoring committees and
                                                                              provide support.
To strengthen the departments coordination of HIV/AIDS activities and
enhance individuals knowledge and understanding.
                                                                              To infuse HIV/AIDS concept in the secondary education curriculum
                                                                              and support community outreach activities.

                                                                              To train personnel to offer support to infected individuals.
                                                                              To implement curricular at secondary school level for the development
                                                                              of learners, who have broad knowledge and skill base, who are critical
To offer learning opportunities that produce graduates with knowledge         thinkers, creative, resourceful and independent.
and skills required for life in a rapidly changing technological and socio-   To implement curricular and institutional activities that promotes
economic environment.                                                         community participation.

                                                                              To implement vocational curricular that creates opportunities for
                                                                              promotion of business studies and entrepreneurship training.
                                                                              To create more spaces at senior secondary school level such that 70%
To increase skills level for effective participation in the global economy.
                                                                              of junior certificate output could be admitted.

                                                                              To introduce countrywide e-bases management information system
To promote access and use of information and communication                    with components for e–learning during the plan period.
technology to the management and delivery of education and training.
                                                                              To provide Internet access to students in all secondary schools by the
                                                                              end of the plan period.



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Goals                                                                           Objectives
Non-Formal Education Goals And Objectives
To create, empower the population and maintain a fully literate life by         To review, retain, upgrade, re-deploy the literacy group leaders and
providing access to learning opportunities for its clients in the NE            Adult Education
District.
                                                                                To plan, design and implement /life skills
To strengthen the Department operations by posting qualified staff in the       To post qualified staff in two villages of North East District by 2003
NE District.
                                                                                To construct residential, and office accommodation at the selected
                                                                                villages by 2008
To improve access to education through provision of adequate facilities.
                                                                                To establish and equip resources and learning centers in selected
                                                                                villages of the NE by the end of the plan period.
To improve access of education through provision of adequate transport          To mainstream and infuse HIV/AIDS AND STD issues into the
NE District                                                                     departments programmes and learning /teaching materials by Vision
                                                                                2016.
Zwenshambe Brigade- Goals and Objectives
                                                                                To construct all the planned development projects before the end of
To provide vocational skills to a cross section of students who are             the District Development Plan 6.
predominately primary and secondary school leavers through
development of adequate and accessible infrastructure and equipment.            To intensify Training with Production to give students practical
                                                                                experience during the plan period.
Senyawe Brigade-Goals and Objectives
                                                                                To construct more classroom blocks and acquire adequate equipment
                                                                                to cater for the programs indicated in the table on planned enrolment.
To provide an environment conducive for learning and holistic training
programmes that emphasizes „Learning with Production‟ for a cross-
                                                                                To expand the production program as per plan to enhance the practical
section of learners by development of adequate infrastructure, practical
                                                                                aspect of training.
training, provision of appropriate equipment, and upgrading of local staff.
                                                                                To send staff for upgrading courses through the Ministry of Education
                                                                                (DVET)




9.5           FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
Sustainable development demands an environmentally conscious nation. In the current
development plan period a deliberate effort has been made to consider environmental goals in the
development hierarchy.

The implementation of any physical infrastructure project has a great impact on the environment.
It is on account of this that any project must be socially, economically and environmentally
sustainable. All sectors involved in industrial construction would be made aware of the need for
environmental preservation and conservation through public education and national policies that
give direction as to how construction should be undertaken to avoid natural resource depletion.

9.5.1         Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives


    Table 9.7:        Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goal                                     Objectives                           Potential Impact                        Mitigation measures
To provide conducive learning            To construct all the planned         Deforestation and desertification       Conduct    an    Environmental
environment for a cross-section of       development projects before          due to bush clearing during             Impact Assessment.
learners by development of adequate      the    end     of    District        construction.
and accessible infrastructure and        Development Plan 6.                                                          Replanting      of    tree     and
provision of enough equipment,                                                Excessive extraction of river sand      landscaping.
stationery and materials.                                                     pit sand.
                                                                                                                      Rehabilitation of used burrow
                                                                              Burrow pits.                            pits.

                                                                              Loss of Biodiversity.                   Designation of       river    sand
                                                                                                                      extraction points.
                                                                              Uncontrolled dumping of rubble.




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Goal                                      Objectives                          Potential Impact                         Mitigation measures
                                                                                                                       Controlled disposal of rubble e.g.
                                                                              Underground water pollution.             Land filling.

                                                                              Soil Erosion.

                                                                              Pressure on water resources.
To create, empower the population         To review, retain, upgrade, re-     Littering                                Provision of refuse receptacles.
and maintain a fully literate life by     deploy the literacy group
providing access to learning              leaders and Adult Education.                                                 Intensify    public      education
opportunities for its clients in the NE                                                                                cleanliness.
District.                                 To     plan,     design     and
                                          implement /life skills.
To improve access to non-formal           To     construct     residential,   Excessive extraction of river sand       Replanting      of     tree     and
education through provision of            classroom,       and      office    pit sand                                 landscaping.
adequate facilities.                      accommodation         at     the
                                          selected villages by 2008.          Burrow pits.                             Rehabilitation of used burrow
                                                                                                                       pits.
                                                                              Loss of Biodiversity.
                                                                                                                       Designation of        river     sand
                                                                              Uncontrolled dumping of rubble.          extraction points.

                                                                              Soil Erosion.                            Controlled disposal of rubble e.g.
                                                                                                                       Land filling.
                                                                              Pressure on water resources.




9.5.2         Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs


    Table 9.8:         Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies and Programs                             Goals and Objectives                                Environmental Issues
National Education Policy                         To construct all the planned development            Deforestation and desertification due to bush
                                                  projects before the end of District                 clearing during construction.
                                                  Development Plan 6.
                                                                                                      Excessive extraction of river sand pit sand

                                                                                                      Burrow pits

                                                                                                      Loss of Biodiversity

                                                                                                      Uncontrolled dumping of rubble

                                                                                                      Underground water pollution

                                                                                                      Soil Erosion

                                                                                                      Pressure on water resources
Teacher Capacity Building Program                 Facilitate students and teachers‟ use of            Air and noise pollution in areas where generators
                                                  Information Communication Technology                will be used.
                                                  (ICT) to increase their knowledge base on
                                                  HIV/AIDS prevention




9.6           STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE EDUCATION AND TRAINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 9.9:         Strategies to Achieve Education and Training Goals and Objectives
Proposed Projects                                            Potential Impacts                                Mitigation Measures
                                                             Deforestation and desertification due to         Conduct an Environmental               Impact
                                                             bush clearing during construction.               Assessment.
Construction of Classrooms,         Teachers    quarters,
Hostels, and Other facilities
                                                             Excessive extraction of river sand pit sand.     Replanting of tree and landscaping




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Proposed Projects                                 Potential Impacts                       Mitigation Measures
                                                  Burrow pits.                            Rehabilitation of used burrow pits

                                                  Loss of Biodiversity.                   Designation of river sand extraction points

                                                  Uncontrolled dumping of rubble.         Controlled disposal of rubble e.g. Land
                                                                                          filling
                                                  Underground water pollution.

                                                  Soil Erosion.

                                                  Pressure of water resources.
                                                  Littering                               -Provision of waste receptacles
Workshops and seminars.
                                                                                          -Public education




9.7           RESOURCE REQUIREMENT FOR DDP6
9.7.1         Issues and Strengths for Education and Training
9.7.1.1 Strengths
          Community involvement in day-to-day school activities.
          Change in sexual behaviour.
          Networking with stake holders.
          School management team members are all qualified.
          90% of primary teachers are qualified.
          Provision of basic education services.

9.7.1.2 Issues
          Poor results in some schools.
          Resource constraints including finances and lack of equipment.
          Limited use of information technology.
          10% of untrained primary school teachers.
          Epidemics e.g. HIV/AIDS within the learning environment.
          Lack of harmonization of policies and Acts.
          Limited funds for implementation of projects.
          Population escalation or decline.
          Unexpected natural disasters.
          Lack of special education facilities.

9.7.2         Performance Targets for DDP6/UDP2


    Table 9.10: Performance Targets for DDP6/UDP2
Project                                Location           Goal/Objective                 Performance Indicator
Construction of Education Facilities   District           Improve access to education    Completion of the projects by the end of the
                                                                                         plan period
16 Seater Combi for Disabled [2]       District           Transportation of   disabled   Purchase of the 16 seater by the end of
                                                          students to their respective   2004/2005
                                                          schools




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9.7.3        Development Budget for DDP6/UDP2
9.7.3.1 Primary Education
For primary education projects refer to Chapter 15.

9.7.3.2 Vocational Training and Non-Formal Education
The table below provides details for Brigades and Non-Formal project proposals for DDP6. Some
information on the budget and year of implementation of some projects for Non-Foramal
(represented by * in the table) was not available at the time of plan preparation. Therefore, this
information will be obtained from the respective institutions during the impelmentation phase.

    Table 9.11: Proposed Development Projects for DDP6 – Brigades and Non-Formal
Project                                     2003/2004   2004/2005     2005/2006     2006/2007   2007/2008   2008/2009
Zwenshambe Brigade
Panel Beating                                                         1,200,000
Welding                                                               1,400,000
Plumbing                                                              1,200,000
Electrical                                                                                      1,300,000
Computer maintenance lab                                                                        1,400,000
Draughting                                                                                      2,300,000
6 x Staff houses                                                                                1,800,000
Senyawe Brigade
Hostel Blocks                                           1,500,000
Staff houses                                            200,000
Computer Lab                                                          500,000
Carpentry workshop                                                    1,000,000
Welding Workshop                                                      1,000,000
Business Studies                                                                    1,000,000
Central Admin block                                                                 500,000
Non-Formal Education
Design and implement Adult Basic            *           *             *             *           *           *
Education Programme, post literacy out of
school education for children.
To train 8 Adult Education and 80           P18000.00   P20000.00     P50000.00     P40000.00   P40000.00   P40000.0
facilitators /LGLs on approaches and
methods of delivering out of school
education curricular.
Construct LA2 house at Tsamaya                          P250 000.00
Construct office at Tsamaya village                                   P350 000.00
Purchase of 1 double cab vehicle            *           *             *             *           *           *
Production of learning teaching HIV/AIDS    *           *             *             *           *           *
and post literacy materials
Formation and monitoring of committees      P5000.00    P5000.00      P5000.00      P7000.00    P7000.00    P7000.00
in the 42 villages
Conduct 60 mobilization workshops           P18000.00   P20000.00     P20000.00     P20000.00   P20000.00   P20000.00




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Secondary Schools Projects ED 801

The following is a list of projects the Ministry of Education funded during DDP6.

    Table 11.2: Planned Projects DDP6 - Secondary School Projects
Projects                    Quantity     Name of School      Village                  Total Cost
Classroom,                     1         Batanani CJSS       Mapoka                  1 155 275.00
Teacher‟s Quarters             3
Laundry room                   1
Kitchen                        1         Maenjani CJSS       Sekakangwe              1 859 838.00
Classroom                      1
Hostel Block                   3
Ablution Block                 1
Laundry room                   1
Classroom                      1         Maruje CJSS         Masunga                 150 150.00
Classroom                      1         Matsiloje CJSS      Matsiloje               876 150.00
Teacher‟s Quarters             3
Laundry Room                   1
Kitchen                        1         Pelaelo CJSS        Makaleng                1 968 225.00
Classroom                      1
Teacher‟s Quarters             4
Kitchen                        1         Ramoja CJSS         Ramokgwebana            1 384 600.00
Classroom                      1
Teacher‟s Quarters             4
Classroom                      1         Shanganani CJSS     Tsamaya                 542 750.00
Teacher‟s Quarter              1
Laundry Room                   1
Classroom Blocks              1.5        Tashatha CJSS       Tati Siding             786 500.00
Toilet Block                   1
Classroom Block                1
Teacher‟s Quarters             2
Hostel Blocks                  2
Ablution Blocks                2
Laundry Room                   1
Classroom                      1         Thamani CJSS        Tshesebe                1 207 788.00
Teacher‟s Quarter              3
Laundry Room                   1
Classroom Block                1         Zwenshambe CJSS     Zwenshambe              2 254 800.00
Classroom                      1
Pavilion                       1
Teacher‟s Quarters             3
Ablution Blocks                2
Laundry Room                   1
Total                                                                               12 186 076.00




9.7.4        Plan Monitoring Programme
The achievement of the goals through the objectives set out is to be monitored through site visits,
project and programme reports and their evaluation. Progress will be reported to Education
Planning Committee, DDC and Full Council all stake holders. The construction of new facilities,
conducting workshops will improve the quality of education in the district.




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CHAPTER 10
10       HEALTH

10.1     INTRODUCTION
Vision 2016 envisages that by the year 2016 all Batswana will have access to good quality health
services, including both preventive and curative services within reasonable travelling distance.
Health has been given special attention in Vision 2016 because one of the ultimate goals of this
long-term vision is to have a healthy nation that is fully involved and can contribute meaningfully
to development. The district has major urban influences due to its location and proximity position
to Francistown. The socio- economic status of the district also influences health patterns and
behaviors. The Government is the main provider of the health care in the district and is
supplemented by private practitioners in Francistown who also cover the district.

10.1.1   Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Health is responsible for Health Policy formulation on behalf of the Botswana
government. The Ministry is guided by a National Health Policy that was officially adopted
through Presidential Directive CAB 21 (B) 195 of July 1995. The Ministry has five [5]
departments namely: Ministry Management, Primary Health Care, Hospital Services, Health
Manpower and Technical Support Services.

Ministry Management: Plays the role of enabler through coordination of overall administrative and
resource support services [finance, transport, material and facilities] within all the departments of
the Ministry.

Primary Health Care: Responsible for integration of preventive, promotive, rehabilitative, and
appropriate curative health care through the participation and involvement of community groups at
all levels of the health delivery system.

Hospital Services: Covers broad areas include: Diagnosis Service, Support to Primary Health Care,
Treatment Services, Research, Professional Standard and Management of Health Services.

Health Manpower Department: is responsible for ensuring that human resources for health in all
disciplines and all levels of the service are provided, equitably distributed and optimally utilized.

Technical Support Services: provides technical support to all the departments within the Ministry
in terms of the development, implementation and maintaining the National Drug Policy.

Masunga Primary Hospital: Has a 50-bed capacity (including 8 costs) located in Masunga Village.
It serves a general population of 49399 [according to 2001 population and housing census], of
which 38532 (i.e. 78%) fall in the immediate catchment area. The hospital serves as a referral
point for eight clinics and 24 health post in various villages of the district. During 2002 a total of
318 clinical, confirmed HIV/AIDS and related conditions were documented. This was an increase




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of 4.6% compared to 2001 where there were 304 cases. One hundred and twelve [112] hospital
deaths out of a total of 156 that occurred in 2002 were a result of conditions.

District Heatlth Team: The District Health Team (DHT) under the North East District Council has
two main sections, Clinics, and Environmental Health.

Clinics Department: Responsible for the provision of curative, preventative, rehabilitative and
promotive health services. The first contact period for clients is the mobile stop. From mobile
stops clients are seen at Health Posts, which are managed by Registered Nurses with or without
maternity.

The clinics are managed by Registered Midwives. Doctors see clients in the clinics and some of
the busy Health Posts once or twice a month. From the clinics patients are referred to Masunga
Primary Hospital. Patients may also be referred directly to the hospital from the Health Post or
Clinic without being seen by the DHT doctors, when circumstances demand. The clinics section is
also responsible for attending to needs of disabled clients, through the rehabilitation programme.

The Environmental Health Section is responsible for the control of factors in the environment that
may have deleterious effects on human health. It also refers to the theory and practice of
assessing, correcting, controlling and preventing physical, chemical, biological, social and
psychosocial factors in the environment that can potentially affect the health of present and future
generations. This control is carried out through the following functions:

        Control of communicable diseases
        Food quality monitoring
        Sanitary refuse collection, storage and disposal
        Proper disposal of human excreta
        Pollution control
        Water quality monitoring

The section is headed by the Senior Environmental Health Officer and has Environmental Health
Technicians at the DHT. They are also sanitation attendants in some villages responsible for litter
picking. The section is also responsible for ensuring that each household and business premise
have adequate and safe sanitation facilities and water supply. The section is also responsible for
monitoring food hygiene in shops, restaurants and supermarkets.

10.1.2    Strategic Plan for Respective Ministries
10.1.2.1 Ministry of Health
The mandate of the Ministry of Health (in relation to Local Authorities) is to provide basic health
care and infrastructure development in the form of hospitals, clinics, health posts, mobile stops and
nurses‟ accommodation. In order to achieve its mandate the ministry has set itself the following
Key Result Areas:

        Improved health status of the nation.
        Customer satisfaction.
        Organisational efficiency and effectiveness.


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      Human Resource Management (HRM).

10.1.2.2 Ministry of Local Government
The mandate of the Ministry of Local Government (in relation to Local Authorities) is to provide
basic physical and social infrastructure (e.g. Water provision, primary school and clinics
construction) to the community. The other core business as stipulated in the ministry strategic
plan is that of ensuring efficient operation of local authorities through policy direction, capacity
building, and supervision. To achieve its mandate, the ministry has set itself key results areas viz:

      Customer satisfaction.
      Policy implementation effectiveness.
      Improved quality of life of communities.
      Productivity and organizational effectiveness.

The key areas in the strategic plan of the Ministry of Local Government that relate to health
include:

      Increasing the training of staff (20%) in specialized skills, which includes the health cadre.
      Support the self-development of staff in private study.
      Develop and implement a Ministry HIV/AIDS policy based upon the national policy on
       HIV/AIDS.
      Develop a proactive HIV intervention strategy.

10.1.2.3 Ministry of Lands, Housing and Environment
The Ministry of Lands and Housing is responsible for managing land and related functions,
facilitation of national housing development programmes and promoting environmental
management throughout the country. In the management of land the ministry responsibility entails:

The key areas in the Ministry of Lands and housing strategic plan that relate to health include:
    Increasing the amount of land available for equitable distribution.
    Facilitating the reclamation of wasteland.
    Facilitating home ownership.
    Fostering environment friendly practices.
    Promoting environmental education and its facilitation into the formal education system.
    Creating an environment conducive for employee motivation.

10.1.2.4 National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA)
NACA was established during DDP5 and launched on 29/10/2000. NACA is responsible for
coordinating, facilitating, and monitoring and evaluating the coordinated efforts that are geared
towards addressing the HIVAIDS scourge and its impact. It also provides a common vision for all
who participate and contribute to the national HIV/AIDS response. NACA serves as the secretariat
to the National AIDS Council. The strategic plans developed in the Medium Term Plan II focus on
two major objectives: (i) preventing the spread of HIV and (ii) mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS
at all levels of society.



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10.1.3    Role Of Private Sectors
The private sector plays an important role in the provision of health care. They provide
infrastructure, curative and prevention services, counseling, communication and electricity to our
facilities. They work in collaboration with the health department to disseminate information on
health related issues to the community at large. The district does not have private health services
but receives private health services from Francistown.

Large private sector areas such as the mines and some commercial farms provide health services to
their employees (and dependants). This reduces the burden on the health department. Traditional
Healers also provide services to patients in the district although no formal arrangement exists for
referrals between traditional and conventional medical practitioners.

Environmental Health issues and concerns are multi sectoral and each concern is institutionalized
in different sectors of government and parastatals with distinctive values and perspectives. Non-
Governmental Organizations that have interest on the environment such as Environmental
Heritage Foundation Botswana, Kalahari Conservation Society and others have always supported
the district on environmental issues. The North East District Council has privatized litter picking
and disposal services in Tatisiding. Refuse collection by use of donkey carts is underway in
different parts of the district.

10.1.4    Consultation Priorities
The district is faced with a number of issues of primary health concern

        HIV/AIDS Pandemic - This is seriously affecting the district in all sectors and across all
         ages. District Multi Sectoral AIDS Committee (DMSAC), Prevention of Mother Child
        Transmission (PMTCT), Voluntary Counselling and Testing [VCT] and Home Based Care
         [HBC] are meant to address this issue
        TB – The number of cases has been rising due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS
        Hypertension and Diabetes – with a high proportion of old aged persons and obesity.
         Those diseases are quite prevalent and require attention
        EPI - The Expanded Programme for Immunization has not adequately covered the district
         targets. This has been a result of irregular supply of vaccines, reduced child welfare clinic
         attendance due to irregular supply of rations and severe staffing shortage.
        Decentralise Anti-Retroviral Drug [ARV] program in the district
        The district is experiencing shortage of nursing staff due to transfers, promotions, further
         education, resignations and deaths. The fact that the district is rural reduces the attraction
         to work in the area. There are also vacancies within the DHT, which makes day-to-day,
         function difficult.
        The district has a serious problem of clinical waste disposal. Currently clinical waste is
         disposed of at Nyangagwe Hospital. This is a temporary measure, which may be revoked
         at any time. The district is still awaiting the completion of the landfill, which will also
         accommodate clinical waste.
        The District Health Team has insufficient transport to carryout supporting supervisory
         functions.




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        Due to lack of facilities the district is faced with a serious problem of inadequate food
         quality monitoring. Currently there is no abattoir or slaughterhouse in the district. Meat
         sold to the public is not inspected and animals are slaughtered in unhygienic conditions.

10.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
10.2.1    National Policy on HIV/AIDS
The Medium Term Plan [MTP] for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in Botswana (I and II
- 1989-93, 1997-2002 respectively), have provided policy and strategic guidance since the
inception of the National AIDS Control Programme.

The National policy on HIV/AIDS and MTPII define the roles and responsibilities of sectors,
communities and the individual. The policies also suggest strategies that can be adopted and also
mentions the rights and responsibilities of the infected and non-infected. The policies need to be
updated to include the issue of Anti-retroviral Treatment and its consequences. There are new
issues, which can have far reaching consequences if not well elucidated such as issues of criteria
for treatment, monitoring and treatment responsibility, and improvement/upgrading of hospital
facilities and services. The North East District is among the most affected districts but is not yet
able to access these services. The 2002 sentinel survey shows that the rate is 38.6% for the district.
Thus there is need for a review of procedure in order to enable patients from the district access
these services. The district also needs to have its staff prepared (trained) to handle the patients who
will need to be reviewed or who might develop complications while under treatment.
Once the district is involved in the roll out of the ARV programme, issues of infrastructure
development might have to be considered. This could involve expansion of the hospital laboratory
or building a more advanced laboratory than the one originally envisaged in the Tati Siding clinic
expansion project.

10.2.2    National Health Policy
The National Health Policy is meant to guide health workers in their decision-making and make
members of the public aware of Government Policy in relation to the provision of health care. The
public health services, the private health services and the Non-Organisation that provide health
care constitute the health system of Botswana. The main objectives of the policy is; access by all
citizens of Botswana to essential health care, what ever their own financial resources or place of
domicile, and the assurance of an equitable distribution of health resources and utilization of
health services. The national health policy has not been reviewed since 1995. This needs to be
done so that Antiretroviral Therapy (ARV) and the changing relations between Ministry of Health
and Ministry of Local Government are captured.

10.2.3    Health Strategy and Plans
The department of Primary Health Care in the Ministry of Health is responsible for integration e.g.
preventive, promotion, rehabilitative and appropriate curative health care through the participation
and involvement of community groups at all levels of the health care delivery system.

Hospital Services in the Ministry covers diagnostic services, support to Primary Health Care,
treatment services, research, professional standards of care and management of health services.



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The Ministry of Local Government provides for Primary Health Care Services through the Local
Government Service Management Department and the Sanitation and Waste Management
Department.

Both the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Local Government strategic plans have a strong basis
in Performance Management System and strong links with Vision 2016. “Health remains one of
the integral parts of the of the pillars of Vision 2016 because the ultimate aim of this long term
vision is to have a healthy nation that is fully involved and can contribute meaningfully to
development”. (MOH Strategic Plan 2001-2006). The goals of the Ministry of Health are:

        To improve the efficiency and cost effectiveness of health care delivery
        To ensure equitable distribution of health services
        To improve the quality of health care
        To train appropriate skilled personnel
        To strengthen Primary Health Care Programmes

This is on the basis that health is an integral part of all development programmes, which constitute
the Primary Health Strategy and is therefore aligned to NDP8. The key result areas (KRAs) in the
Ministry of Health Strategic Plans include:

        Improved Health status of the nation
        Customer satisfaction
        Organizational efficiency and effectiveness
        Human resource management

The Ministry intends to achieve the following objectives within the next four to six years:

        Provide quality health services to Batswana in order to improve their health status
        To improve the life expectancy of Botswana through the implementation of PHC strategy
        To provide customer focused health services in order to increase customer satisfaction
        To improve quality service delivery through development and implementation of
         comprehensive health policies and standards by end of NDP 9.
        To enhance the Ministry of Health efficiency and effectiveness through the implementation
         of innovative performance management initiatives
        To review existing HRM health plans in order to come up with a comprehensive plan
         consistent with the current health needs of the country. The North East District has
         strategic objectives for its own attainment

10.2.4    Environmental Health Policies and Legislations
The Health Department is expected to enforce and apply the following Acts: Food Control Act,
Control of Smoking Act, Public Health Act, and Waste Management Act. This requires officers to
be knowledgeable of legal technicalities required. Some of these Acts do not have regulations and
this makes their enforcement somewhat difficult. The Public Health Act, being the most widely
used legal instrument has some loopholes, the most serious one being Regulations that are in most
cases not applicable to the rural settings. The Botswana Waste Management Act 1998, was set up
to help in minimizing and reducing wastes in industries, commerce and households, maximizing



                                                                                                105
environmentally sound waste reuse and recycling and promoting environmentally sound waste
collection, treatment and disposal. According to the Act, local authorities are charged with the
responsibility for the collection and disposal of domestic waste.

There is still an urgent need for promulgation of policies for environmental health such as
occupational health, trade licensing, food control, rural sanitation, environmental protection and
management in order to comply with the requirements of Agenda 21 on sustainable development.
It is imperative that these policies and/or guidelines be made and implemented so that sustainable
environmental protection could be equally realized in both urban and rural areas

10.3     HEALTH
10.3.1   Environmental Health
The quality of environmental health services in North East District like in other rural areas is an
area of growing concern hence the importance of environmental cleanliness and protection, as well
as environmental management must be given a national priority. The concept of sustainable
environmental protection and development should be achieved through systematic incorporation of
environmental concerns in the development policies, programmes and projects. In the North East
District for instance, there is still a number of environmental health problems such as uncontrolled
practices of dumping of solid waste, indiscriminate littering attitude by some members of the
community, inadequacy of refuse storage receptacles, unavailability of on-site sanitary
conveniences such as pit latrines, and poor food as well as water hygiene. This scenario poses
serious environmental and social hazards to the residents of the area.

10.3.2   Hospital Services
The district has a primary hospital based in Masunga that serves as the primary referral hospital.
The hospital provides basic main functions such as laboratory services, x-ray, surgical services and
dental services and has in-patient and outpatient services. Cases that cannot be handled at this level
are transferred to Nyangagbwe Referral Hospital in Francistown, which is 100 km away.

10.3.3   District Health System
The District Health System is based on Primary Health Care. The North East District has 36 health
facilities operating under the District Council. These are eight clinics with maternity, three clinics
without maternity and 25 health posts. The clinics and health posts are manned by Registered
Midwives and registered nurses respectively and assisted by Family Welfare Educators (FWEs)
and General Duty Assistants (GDAs). The District Health Team oversees the clinics and health
posts. The District Health Team also oversees the Environmental Health Section.

10.3.4   Primary Health Care
The Primary Health Care is the system of provision of health care in the district. As indicated
earlier, this is through health clinics and health posts. This also includes control of the
environment to prevent disease occurrence and management of any environmental health issues.
This primary health care provides preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitation services. The
main areas of service provision in the district are as depicted in the table below:




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    Table 10.1: Components of Primary Health Care
Program                                             Service
Child Welfare Clinics                               Expanded Program in Immunization (EPI)
                                                    Nutrition
                                                    Integrated Management of Childhood Infection (IMCI)
Maternal Health Care                                Antenatal Care
                                                    Delivery Care
                                                    Postnatal Care
                                                    Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT)
Family Planning                                     Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)
                                                    Tubercolousis (TB)
                                                    Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV)
General Out Patient                                 Health Education (runs through all areas)
                                                    Environmental Health Care
                                                    Home Based Care




With the introduction of the ARV Programme in Botswana, this district will be involved indirectly
in the pilot phase due to its proximity to Francistown where some patients referred for specialized
care will be recruited.

Due to the high mortality caused by HIV/AIDS, the minors and elderly are becoming an
increasingly large percentage of the population with the resultant burden of caring for orphans,
shoulded by the erderly.

10.3.5       Control of Pandemic Disease
10.3.5.1 HIV/AIDS:
The district is one of the hardest-hit in terms of HIV/AIDS prevalence in the country. The 2002
sentinel survey shows that the prevalence rate is 38.6% for the district. Its close proximity to
Francistown, which has high prevalence rate, the mobility of the population and the poor economic
base are all factors that contribute to the rise in the prevalence rate. Unemployment, high fertility
and teenage pregnancy are also important factors. The district is implementing a number of
programmes to curb the spread. These include: -

         PMTCT Programme.
         Voluntary Counseling and Testing.
         Formation of DMSAC, sector AIDS committee and Village Aids Committees.
         Intensive health education and promotion activities.
         Planning for the ARV programme.
         STI prevention and treatment.

10.3.5.2 Tuberculosis:
Due to the high HIV/AIDS prevalence, the number of TB cases in the district has risen. The
district has fully adopted the National TB policy and is actively implementing Directly Observed
Treatment for Shortcourse [DOTS]. Follow up visits are made to defaulting patients to ensure
compliance. The constraints facing the program are: - delay in seeking treatment, poor compliance
and default by some patients especially when they begin to feel better. Isoniazid Prevention
Therapy has not been introduced into the district. Another constraint is the inability of clinics to
carry out tests, as they do not have laboratories or the requisite personnel.



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10.3.5.3 Malaria Control
The North East District, though not in a malaria endemic zone, does experience cases of malaria, a
number of these cases being imported from Tutume and Zimbabwe. In 2001 the district treated 34
cases of confirmed malaria and 832 of unconfirmed cases.

Vector Control through indoor – spraying and environment control is conducted district wide
annually, while vector spraying is done on a regular basis on request. Insecticide impregnated nets
are also provided through clinics at a cost. Health education activities are also conducted to
prevent infections and promote early treatment.

10.4         HEALTH SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 10.2: Health Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                                   Objectives
Clinics
To provide quality health services to North East District in order to   To increase immunization coverage among under fives by 50% by 2003
improve their health status                                             and by 75% by 2004

                                                                        To reduce maternal morbidity by 50% by 2004

                                                                        To increase CWC attendance from 70 to 90% by end of 2003

                                                                        To reduce PMTCT decliners to half current rates by 2003
To provide customer focused health services in order to increase        To resuscitate and strengthen District Health Services Coordinating
customer satisfaction.                                                  Committee by holding 4 meetings a year

                                                                        Provide 24hrs clinic care in 3 clinics by 2004 and 8 clinics by 2005

                                                                        Train 80% of nurses and doctors in North East District in PMTCT and
                                                                        80% in ARV by 2003

                                                                        Orientate and train 50% of nurses and all doctors in reproductive health
                                                                        by2003

                                                                        Conduct two refresher courses for nurses/year till 2004
To increase access to health services by the community and thus         Upgrading of Tsamaya clinic to 24hrs by 2005
improve cost effectiveness
                                                                        Extension of Tsamaya rehabilitation center by 2005

                                                                        Construction of new health post at Patayamatebele by 2005

                                                                        Upgrading of health posts in Tshesebe to clinic by 2005

                                                                        Construct staff houses in Tsamaya, Tati Siding and Tshesebe by 2005
Environmental Health
Improve refuse/waste collection service and management, reduce          Establish centralized refuse transfer station at Tsamaya for collection of
landfill and incineration cost, and reduce demand for natural           waste from the eastern region by 2005.
resources.
                                                                        To reduce the monetary and environmental costs of land filling and
                                                                        incineration by establishing waste recycling project at Masunga Sanitary
                                                                        Landfill by 2004, and at Tsamaya Refuse Transfer Station by the year
                                                                        2006.

                                                                        To privatise waste collection service at Matsiloje, Tati-Siding and
                                                                        Matshelagabedi beginning of 2003\2004 financial year.

                                                                        To provide for effective storage and collection of waste at public places of
                                                                        gathering such as shopping centers, markets and Border posts by providing
                                                                        skips in the following villages:




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Goals                                                                    Objectives
                                                                         To prevent indiscriminate disposal of human excreta through out North
                                                                         East District by constructing 200 Sub-Structures for On-Site Sanitary
                                                                         Conveniences annually throughout the Plan period (Total 1000) and water-
                                                                         borne public toilets at Ramokgwebana Border post by 2004, and Tati-
                                                                         Siding by 2005.
To ensure safety of all food including meat that is sold to the public   To construct Improved Slaughter Houses at Masunga by 2004 and at
in the North East District.                                              Tsamaya by the year 2005.

To ensure community satisfaction through quality/ prompt service         To improve supervision of sanitation crews hence service delivery
delivery throughout the entire North East District.                      throughout the North East District by installing two-way radio
                                                                         communication in all waste management vehicles with control centers at
                                                                         Masunga and Tati-Siding offices by 2005.

                                                                         To ensure prompt service delivery to people in the southern region of the
                                                                         North East District by building sanitation depot at Tati-Siding by 2007
                                                                         thereby bringing services closer to the residents of the area.




10.5          FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
10.5.1        Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues With Sector Goals and Objectives
Sustainable development demands an environmentally conscious nation. In the current
development plan period a deliberate effort has been made to consider environmental goals in the
development hierarchy.

The implementation of any physical infrastructure project has a great impact on the environment.
It is on account of this that any project must be both socially, economically and environmentally
sustainable. All sectors involved in industrial construction would be made aware of the need for
environmental preservation and conservation through public education and national policies that
give direction as to how construction should be undertaken to avoid natural resource depletion.

10.5.2        Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives


    Table 10.3: Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goal                                   Objectives                                  Potential Impact               Mitigation measures
To provide quality health services     To increase immunization coverage           Indiscriminate littering and   Waste Incineration
to North East District in order to     among under fives by 50% by 2003 and        waste disposal
improve their health status.           by 75% by 2004.

                                       To reduce maternal morbidity by 50% by
                                       2004.

                                       To increase CWC attendance from 70 to
                                       90% by end of 2003.

                                       To reduce PMTCT decliners to half
                                       current rates by 2003.
To provide customer focused health     To resuscitate and strengthen District      Littering                      Provision of sanitary facilities
services in order to increase          Health Services Coordinating Committee
customer satisfaction.                 by holding 4 meetings a year.

                                       Provide 24hrs clinic care in 3 clinics by
                                       2004 and 8 clinics by 2005.

                                       Train 80% of nurses and doctors in
                                       North East District in PMTCT and 80%
                                       in ARV by 2003.

                                       Orientate and train 50% of nurses and all




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Goal                                      Objectives                                   Potential Impact                Mitigation measures
                                          doctors in reproductive health by2003.

                                          Conduct two refresher courses for
                                          nurses/year till 2004.
                                          Upgrading of Tsamaya clinic to 24hrs by      Bush clearing.                  E.I.A.
To increase access to health              2005.
services by the community and thus                                                     Sand/soil excavation.           Re-planting trees/shrubs.
improve cost effectiveness.               Extension of Tsamaya rehabilitation
                                          center by 2005.                              Building         waste/rubble   Rehabilitation of burrow pits.
                                                                                       creation.
                                          Construction of new health post at                                           Soak-away construction.
                                          Patayamatebele by 2005.                      Increased water demand.
                                                                                                                       Clearing rubble.
                                          Upgrading of health posts in Tshesebe to     Increased clinical waste.
                                          clinic by 2005.                                                              Waste incineration.
                                                                                       Gground water pollution.
                                          Construct staff houses in Tsamaya, Tati                                      Identification of sand collection
                                          Siding and Tshesebe by 2005.                                                 points.
To ensure safety of all food
including meat sold to the public in      To construct improved slaughter houses
the North East District.                  at Masunga by 2004 and at Tsamaya by
                                          the year 2005.



10.5.3        Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs


    Table 10.4: Evaluation Health Sector Polices and Programs
Policies and Programs                                Goals and Objectives                          Environmental Issues
National Education Policy.                           To     construct  all    the   planned        Deforestation and desertification due to bush
                                                     development projects before the end of        clearing during construction.
                                                     District Development Plan 6.
                                                                                                   Excessive extraction of river sand pit sand.

                                                                                                   Burrow pits.

                                                                                                   Loss of Biodiversity.

                                                                                                   Uncontrolled dumping of rubble.

                                                                                                   Underground water pollution.

                                                                                                   Soil Erosion.

                                                                                                   Pressure on water resources.
Teacher Capacity Building Program.                   To promote HIV/AIDS awareness                 Air and noise pollution in areas where generators
                                                     among Primary School children using           will be used.
                                                     TVs and VCR.




10.6          STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE HEALTH SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 10.5: Strategies to Achieve Health Sector Goals and Objectives
Proposed Projects                                    Potential Impacts                             Mitigation Measures
Upgrading of Tati Siding clinic to 24hrs.            Bush clearing.                                E.I.A

Upgrading of clinics to include maternity wing.      Sand/soil excavation.                         Re-planting trees/shrubs

Upgrading of health posts to clinics.                Building waste/rubble creation.               Rehabilitation of burrow pits

Construction    of      new      health      post    Increased water demand.                       Soak-away construction
(Patayamatebele).
                                                     Increased clinical waste.                     Clearing rubble




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Proposed Projects                               Potential Impacts         Mitigation Measures
Extension of Tsamaya Rehabilitation Centre.
                                                Ground water pollution.   Waste incineration
Construction of staff houses.
                                                                          Identification of sand collection points.
Waste transfer station (Tsamaya). Abattoir at   Bush clearing.            E.I.A.
Masunga and Tsamaya.
                                                Sand/soil excavation.     Replanting trees.

                                                Building waste/rubble.    Rehabilitation of burrow pits.

                                                Abattoir waste.           Identification of sand collection points.

                                                Offensive smells.         Recycling of waste products such as skins, horns,
                                                                          hooves etc and construction of soak away for liquid
                                                                          waste.
On Site Sanitation                              Ground water pollution    -Sub structures to be sealed and water tight
                                                                          -Frequent emptying of pits




10.7          RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6/UDP2
10.7.1        Strengths for Health Services
          Availability of trained personnel.
          Customer focused departments.
          Community development.
          Provision of basic sanitation services.
          Consultation and communication with community leaders.
          Reaching out to grass root level.
          Privatization of refuse collection.

10.7.2        Issues for Health Services
          Resource constraints including finance and lack of equipment
          Old and inadequate infrastructure
          Epidemics e.g. HIV/AIDS within the health profession
          Shortage of transport e.g. Ambulances and waste carriers
          Public indiscriminate littering
          Lack of harmonization of policies and Acts
          Resistance to change by external customers
          Poor service delivery
          Poor co-ordination and supervision of industrial class employees
          Resource constraints including finances and lack equipment
          Lack of information technology

10.7.3        Performance Targets for DDP6/UDP2
The implementation of project will be phased in accordance with priority. Issues of immediate
concern such as transport, radio communication, water and electrification will be done first while
the processing of construction works will proceed at a slower pace because of their inherent
procedural requirements.
Manpower development will proceed along with these projects implementation.



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    Table 10.6: Performance Targets for DDP6
Project                         Location            Goal/Objective                                  Performance Indicator
Primary Health Infrastructure   District            To improve access to health services by the     Completion of all proposed
                                                    community and thus improve cost effectiveness   projects during plan period.
Waste Transfer Station          Tsamaya             Improve refuse/waste collection service and     Completion of projects by the
                                                    management.                                     year 2006.
Abattoir                        Tsamaya & Masunga
                                                    To ensure safety of all food e.g. meat.
Onsite Sanitation               District            Reduction in indiscriminate littering.          Completion of project during
                                                                                                    plan period.
                                                    Improve refuse/waste collection service and
                                                    management.



10.7.4       Plan Monitoring Programme
The achievement of the goals through the objectives set out is to be monitored through site visits,
project and programme reports and their evaluation. The expansion of facilities, construction of
new facilities together with training/orientation of staff in various disciplines and areas will
improve access, improve the quality of care and lead to a reduction in disease burden i.e. maternal
morbidity and mortality, immunisable diseases and HIV transmission.




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CHAPTER 11
11       MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND HOME AFFAIRS

11.1     INTRODUCTION
The Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs is responsible for a wide range of cultural and social
services that are essential for the social and economic development of the country. It provides
cultural services through the National Museum and Art Gallery while social services are provided
through National Registration, Prisons and Rehabilitation, Labour and Social Security, Women‟s
Affairs, Sports and Recreation, Industrial Court and Immigration and Citizenship. There are,
however, only six departments and divisions under this Ministry, which are represented in the
district namely: National Registration Division, Civil Registration and Vital Events, Immigration
and Citizenship, Sports & Recreation, Labour and Social Security and Youth and Culture. The
Ministry shares some of the social services responsibilities with the Ministry of Local
Government, in particular the Division of Social Services. At district level, some of the social
services responsibilities are undertaken by district councils, which are providing for destitute
persons, orphans and home based patients. A strategic plan for the Ministry of Labour and Home
Affairs exists and all line departments have drawn their plans in line with the overall strategic
objectives of the Ministry.

The Ministry recognizes the pivotal role that the Non-Governmental Organizations play in
delivery of service and development. At the district level, there are a number of Non-
Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community Based Organizations, which play an
important role in development. Some of these are the Environmental Heritage Foundation (EHF)
of Botswana and Rural Industries Promotions Company (RIPCO). There are also women‟s
organizations such as BCW (Botswana Council of Women), YWCA (Young Women Christian
Association) and Elegant, which play an important role in development of the district. The BCW
and YWCA operate projects such as Day Care Centers within the district.

The vision pillar of “compassionate, just and caring nation” is achieved through provision of
social welfare services. The objective of the ministry is to cater for all needy persons irrespective
of their origin, gender and disability as the vision accentuates. The rehabilitation services available
in the district and programmes designed for development of women through NGOs further
promote the ideal of empowering women and taking them aboard in development activities.
“Morality and Tolerance” may be promoted through partnership with NGOs, religious
organisations, local and political leaders. Promotion of morality will be emphasized especially
among the youth as they have lately shown social ill and unacceptable (deviant) behavior.
Tolerance will be mostly promoted among the ill in view of the escalating proportions of the ill
populace, home-based and in the hospitals.

11.1.1   Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
11.1.1.1 Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs
The mandate of the Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs is to create and maintain national
harmony and to preserve and promote national culture as essential element for national unity,


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democracy and socio-economic development of the nation. The ministry is made up of ten
departments, two divisions and the Industrial Court. They are as follows:

    Table 11.1: Mininstry of Labour and Home Affairs Departments and Divisons
Departments                                    Divisions                                      Courts
Ministry Management                            National Registration Division                 Industrial Court
Immigration and Citizenship                    Civil Registration and Vital Events Division
Prisons and Rehabilitation
Culture and Youth
National Museum, Monuments and           Art
Gallery
Sports and Recreation
National Library Services
Labour and Social Security
National Archives and Records Services
Women‟s Affairs Department




There are, however, only six departments and divisions under this Ministry, which are represented
in the district namely: National Registration Division, Civil Registration and Vital Events,
Immigration and Citizenship, Sports & Recreation, Labour and Social Security and Youth and
Culture.

11.1.1.2 Ministry of Local Government
The mandate of the Ministry of Local Government (in relation to Local Authorities) is to provide
basic physical and social infrastructure (e.g. Water provision, primary school and clinics
construction) to the community. The other core business as stipulated in the ministry strategic
plan is that of ensuring efficient operation of local authorities through policy direction, capacity
building, and supervision. To achieve its mandate, the ministry has set itself key results areas via:

         Customer satisfaction.
         Policy implementation effectiveness.
         Improved quality of life of communities.
         Productivity and organizational effectiveness.

All the above have a direct bearing on the operations and responsibilities of local authorities as it
is part of their core business hence their achievement is dependent on the full commitment of local
authorities. Local authorities will therefore ensure that the overall results areas of local
government are achievable through the following;

Customer satisfaction
    To ensure customer satisfaction through timely delivery of quality service.
    To ensure continuous improvement in service delivery through two way communication.

Policy Implementation
    Improve local authorities‟ project implementation through timely submission of project
       memorandums.
    To ensure education, dissemination of information, and effective consultation of
       communities.



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Improved quality of life of communities
    To undertake social mobilization and consultation with communities and provide an
      enabling environment for enhanced participatory development.
    To promote sustainable self-reliance amongst communities through programmes such as
      LG 1109, Community Based Natural resource Management.
    To improve community quality of life of Batswana by coordinating and providing basic
      infrastructure and services.
    To reduce the level of crime by adopting community policing.

11.1.1.3 Ministry of Trade, Industry, Tourism and Wildlife
The Ministry developed several strategies for use in the delivery of its mandate and to provide
relevant effective, efficient service to its customers and other stakeholders. The key issues that the
Ministry considered in developing its core strategies are Export Development and promotion,
Citizen Entrepreneurship Development, Eco-Tourism Development and Promotion,
Comprehensive Problem Animal Control and Investment Promotion. To achieve its mandate, the
Ministry has set itself key results areas viz;

        Conducive environment for sustainable economic activities established and maintained.
        Advocacy role played.
        Industrial information availability.
        Sustained wildlife populations and its habitats.
        Customer and stakeholders‟ satisfaction.
        Ministry performance enhanced and results delivered.

11.1.1.4 Information and Broadcasting
The Department of Information and Broadcasting through its divisions aims at being at the
forefront of providing quality information, education and entertainment to the people of Botswana.
To achieve its mandate the department has set its key results areas viz:

        Customer satisfaction.
        Informed and educated nation.
        Motivated and skilled employees.

11.1.2    Culture and Social Consultation Priorities
Most communities have seen the values and importance of registering events. Since civil
registration is done only in the district headquarters [Masunga], some communities have indicated
the need for mobile visits to their villages on monthly basis. They also suggested more additional
officers for civil registration, schools, banks, insurance and other institutions have started
demanding birth and death certificates.




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11.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
11.2.1    National Child Welfare Policy
In order to become a safe and secure nation a National Child Welfare Policy will be developed to
provide necessary protection of the children, strengthen capacity related to child rights and
facilitate public awareness of the United Nations Convention on the rights of Children (UNCRC)
and the African Charter on Rights and Welfare of the Child. At district level Department of Social
and Community Development [S&CD] implement acts and policies that deal with children making
sure that they match the current living situations and align with the children‟s conventions and
declarations.

11.2.2    The National Youth Policy
The Department of Culture and Youth in its endeavour to develop the youth is guided by the youth
policy. The policy defines youth as people with the age range of 12 to 29 years. The policy seeks
to address problems faced by the contemporary youth, which include unemployment, health,
education and training, crime and violence including HIV/AIDS issues. In order for the
department to implement the Youth Policy the National Action Plan for Youth has been
developed. The action plan outlines the activities that need to be carried out, the timeframes of
such actions as well as agencies that must act upon these. It operationalizes the youth policy and
states strategies and priority area of action. The Division of Youth at district level is tasked with
the responsibility of providing grants for empowerment of Youth, conducting seminars for skills
training and assisting the Youth Council with aspects of youth development.

11.2.3    Disability Policies
The Government of Botswana, a few years after attaining independence, began to gauge the need
for helping people with disabilities. The Multi- Sectoral National policy for people with
disabilities was developed to guide those parties interested in disability issues, in order to involve
them in the process effectively. The policy objective is to combat the incidence of disability and to
promote the quality of life for people with disabilities. Among others, the principles of National
Policy for Care of People with disabilities will be:

        Recognition and protection of human rights and dignity of every individual
        To ensure that the person with disabilities has a responsibility and a right to determine
         his/her own well-being.
        To ensure that the integration of the person with disability into society is actively
         promoted.
        To ensure that equal opportunities of all members of society are aimed at, but will vary
         according to the needs and abilities of the individual.

The district has one rehabilitation officer who is responsible for the welfare of disabled persons.
There are 1309 registered people with disabilities in the district and most of them have physical
disabilities. There are no special schools/centres within the district for people with disabilities. We
therefore sent screened children with disabilities to appropriate schools/centres in areas where they
are located. In its endeavour to implement the policy at district level, the health department
[clinics] provides the following services to people with disabilities:




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        Screening/assessment of persons with disabilities and refer them to appropriate
         rehabilitation centres/specialists for advanced care and advice.
        Placement of children with disabilities in special schools/centres according to their
         disabilities.
        People with disabilities are supplied with appliances/mobility aids such as wheelchairs,
         walking frames and walking frames.
        Workshops and seminars are organised for people with disabilities and their families in
         order to sensitise and educate them on various services and programmes available in the
         district that are meant to benefit all persons with disabilities through out the district.

11.2.4    Social Welfare
The Revised National Policy on Destitute Persons is designed to assist the individuals within the
society, who due to their lack of capabilities cannot provide for the families basic human needs
such as food, shelter and clothing. Most of the beneficiaries of the destitute programme are the
disabled, old people, children in need of care, drought induced people, and the mentally
handicapped. The Revised Policy comes up with a number of measures ranging from the
defination of destitute persons, eligibility for assistance, types of assistence, rehabilitation and
many others. The department of Social and Community Development sees to it that the destitute
policy is implemented in the district by assisting the genuine destitute persons to ensure their good
health and welfare.

11.2.5    Women and Development
Accordingly a Policy on Women in Development has been developed to improve the status of
women and provide a basis for continuous review and monitoring of women‟s issues in the
development process. The main goal of the Policy is to achieve effective integration and
empowerment of women in order to improve their status, enhance participation in decision-making
and role in the development process. The department of Social and Community Development is
responsible for implementation of policy on women and development. At district level the home
economist unit under the department of Social and Community Development deals with
empowerment of women through formation of income generating groups. The groups in question
are, Shanganani candle group, Laedza piggery, Bonatla Small Stock and Tshwaragano Poultry
Group. The unit also works in collaboration with the Women‟s Affairs Department in organising
the commemoration of international women‟s day every year in March and mobilizes communities
to participate in gender workshops and seminars.

11.2.6    Sports and Recreational Policy
The Department of Sport and Recreation has developed a National Sport Policy that demonstrates
a declaration by the Government to awaken sports consciousness in the entire citizenry and ensure
mass and elite participation in sports for the attainment of physical, mental, social and moral
development of the people. The purpose of the sports and recreation policy is to provide a
framework for the development of an active, healthy and productive society, in line with the
national long-term vision. The Department of Sports and Recreation in Masunga has been able to
initiate and implement various sports development programmes as part of the „strategy for
developing the nation on through sport‟. Such initiatives are Junior Sports Development Program,
District Sports Festival. The junior sports development program, which will be held in June 2003,


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aims at developing sporting skills, promoting fun and enjoyment as well as encouraging young
people to participate in sporting activities. The district sports festival, which is held annually,
involves young and old generations to show their capability by playing both morden and cultural
sports such as koi, mmele, morabaraba etc. These activities are held annually.

11.2.7    National Registration Act
The Department of National and Civil Registration is mandated by the National Registration Act
of 1986 to register all citizens aged 16 years and above for purposes of issuing them with National
Identity Cards (OMANG). Embedded in the issuance and use of Omang is the security element.
The Civil Registration division is responsible for administration of the Lotteries and Betting Act
and the Change of Name Act. At the district level the department is responsible registration of
births, deaths, marriage and issuing of identity cards.

11.2.8    Information Media Policy
The functions of the Department of Information and Broadcasting were laid down in the 1969
Policy as:

        To interpret the policy and actions of Government to the people by continuing service of
         information and public relations, and campaigns and concentrated publicity on particular
         subjects.
        To encourage and assist the people of Botswana to take an increasing interest in and
         responsibility for the economic, cultural and political development of their country.
        To advice Government on public opinion and in the field of public relations.
        To develop and exploit media which will assist Ministries and Departments in performing
         their routine and extension duties.
        To publicise Botswana outside its borders.

The Sekakangwe Hill FM Radio and TV terrestrial transmitters have been commissioned and
Radio Botswana FM signal are effectively accessed on FM 91.9 meter band. Botswana television
signal is clear with the help of just a roof-mounted aerial.

11.3      LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICES
11.3.1    Sports and Recreation
The department of sports and Recreation is responsible for promotion and development of sports
and recreation activities in the country in line with the pillars of Vision 2016. The theme for sports
during NDP9 will be “Sport for National Development: Maintaining the Momentum Towards
2016”. This will be effected through the implementation of the National Sport and Recreation
Policy. The department has constructed an integrated sport facility in the district. In addition it
will continue to network with the Botswana National Youth Council, Botswana National Sport
Council, Local Authorities, Department of Youth and Culture with a view to extending
opportunities beyond the school day by encouraging these bodies to provide a range of after school
activities for all pupils irrespective of their age. The mandate of the Department in Masunga is to
implement various sports development initiatives as part of the „strategy for developing the nation
on through sport‟. Such initiatives are Junior Sports Development Program, District Sports
Festival. The junior sports development program aims at developing sporting skills, promoting fun


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and enjoyment as well as encouraging young people to participate in sporting activities. The
district sports festival involves young and old generations to show their capability by playing both
morden and old traditional games such as koi, mmele, morabaraba etc. These activities are held
annually.

11.3.2    Social Welfare
The Division of Social Services, which falls under the Ministry of Local Government develops,
coordinates, monitors and evaluates implementation of social services programmes, with particular
focus on among others, vulnerable groups such as children, destitutes, female headed households,
women and people with disabilities. To fulfill its mandate, the department networks with local
and international agencies. This mandate is consistent with creating a compassionate, just and
caring nation. The Division, also gives financial support to NGOs that provide welfare services,
such as Botswana Christian Council, Day Care Centres and several other welfare providing NGOs.
In an effort to provide income maintenance to the elderly, an Old Age Pension Scheme was
introduced in 1996, by the Government, which pays all Batswana over the age of 65 and above.
During DDP6, the division of social services will pursue the following programmes:

        Child Welfare Services and Protection of Children‟s Rights
        Provide Orphan Care Services
        Provide Family Welfare Services which entail AIDS in the work place.
        Provide Community Home Based Care Programme and Casework.
        Home Economics and Early Childhood Education and Care Program

11.3.3    Culture and Youth
The department of Culture and Youth is charged with the responsibility to coordinate and preserve
culture and to create an enabling environment for Youth and the general public to participate in
cultural development in this country. The department of Culture and Youth is composed of
Culture and Performing Arts, Youth and National Celebration Divisions. However, only the
Division of Youth is represented in the district. Youth work was initially with the Ministry of
Local Government under the Social and Community Development Department. The department
was transferred to the Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs following the recommendation of the
1985 Organisation and Methos Review Exercise. Subsequently, the Youth offices were
established in the district in April 2000. The Division of Youth is tasked with the responsibility of
providing grants for empowerment of Youth, conducting seminars for skills training and assisting
the Youth Council with aspects of youth development. To fulfil its mandate, the department is
guided by the National Youth Policy, which was adopted in 1996, the National Action Plan for
Youth, which was approved by Parliament in June 2001, and the National Policy on Culture,
which was adopted in December 2001.

11.3.4    National Library Service
The Botswana National Library Service does not have offices in the      District. However, Branch
Library is planned for DDP6/NDP9. The department‟s mission is           to provide the nation with
information and promote its utilization for educational, research       and recreational purposes.
Provision of services is through a network of public, educational and   special libraries. The North




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East residents are currently using Francistown Library when ever they need information while still
waiting for the one proposed under NDP9. The core responsibilities of the department are:

        To provide and manage the public library system through the establishment of branch
         libraries, reading rooms and mobile libraries.
        To advise Government, Parastatals, Non-Governmental Organisations in the development
         of their libraries and information centres.
        To collect and preserve for posterity, literacy culture of Botswana.

All these activities will contribute towards the achievement of an educated and informed nation,
which will in the long run translate into a prosperous, productive, innovative and accountable
nation.

11.3.5    Civil and National Registration
The Department of Civil and National Registration in the North East is responsible for registration
of births, deaths, marriages, trade unions and employees‟ organizations as well as administration
of the Lotteries and Betting Act and the Change of Name Act. The Department started its
operation in the district in 2003. The department is experiencing a serious problem of people not
coming to collect their identity cards, birth, and death certificates. Through workshops and kgotla
meetings people are encouraged to come forward and collect their certificates and identity cards.

The department is mandated by the National Registration Act of 1986 to register all citizens aged
16 years and above for purposes of issuing them with National Identity Cards „Omang‟.
Embedded in the issuance and use of Omang is the security element. As such the use of Omang
will in the long run facilitate, to some extent, the attainment of a safe and secure nation. The
national Identity cards are also important in;

        Providing some of the necessary data used for effective district planning and formulation
         of socio-economic policies.
        Ensure that only persons eligible for voting in the general elections do vote in the North
         East District.
        Fighting against criminal activities in the case of fraud and other fake claims in the North
         East District.

11.3.6    Women and Development
The Government of Botswana recognises the wide-ranging contribution of women to the socio-
economic, political and cultural development of the nation. Government further recognises that the
contemporary situation of women warrants the existence of effective national machinery, at a
recognizable level, to adequately articulate women‟s issues and needs. Specific strategies adopted
as a means to improve the status of women ensure that:

        Specific and sectoral policies are gender sensitive.
        The education sector develop specific strategies to educate and train more women,
         especially for employment purposes.
        The economic planning and employment sectors adopt programmes to eliminate/eradicate
         household poverty.


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        Planning system take into account women‟s contribution to sustainable development
         [including the informal activities of women in the home, agriculture, etc].
        National legislation, customs and socio-cultural values are reformed to ensure gender
         equality and equity as well as the advacement of women.
        Gender analysis and impact assessment frameworks and research are developed and
         continuously reviewed.

At district level the home economist unit under the department of Social and Community
Development deals with empowerment of women through formulation of income generating
groups. There are currently four groups in Masingwaneng which, are funded by the Women‟s
Affairs department through Home Economist unit to undertake various projects. The groups in
question are, Shanganani candle group, Laedza piggery, Bonatla small stock and Tshwaragano
poultry group.

11.3.7    Museums, Monuments and Art Gallery
The primary goal of the National Museum is to preserve and promote Botswana‟s cultural
properties for now and for prosperity. Oral traditions also form part an integral part of this process.
This is achieved through:

        Collection of natural and cultural objects for storage and display.
        Information generation and dissemination to the public through available media.
        Research into art, natural sciences, ethnography, archaeology and education.
        Networking with other professional local and international organisations.
        Identification and establishment of cultural and natural monuments or landscapes.

There is potential in the district for Community Based Natural Resource Management as there are
some historical sites such as Domboshaba Ruins, Vukwi Ruins, Mambindi Ruins at Jackalas II and
Rock Paintings that communities, could use for tourism.

11.3.8    Non-Governmental Organisations
11.3.8.1 Environmental Heritage Foundation [EHF] Botswana
The Environmental Heritage Foundation [EHF] exists to provide an effective and efficient fund
administrative and project management structure in the form of a model that serves to empower
NGO‟s and community based organisations (CBO‟s), which implement community environmental
and conservation projects. Environmental Heritage Foundation has established a Satellite Office in
the city of Francistown that aims to provide services to the communities of the region more
effectively and efficiently. The office shall provide services relating to environmental conservation
and activism to the communities in the northern region of Botswana including the Central District,
Ngamiland, Chobe and the North East District.

11.3.8.2 Rural Industries Promotions Company (Botswana) [RIPCO ( B)]
Rural Industries Promotions Company [Botswana] RIPCO (B) administers special project
activities in the areas of photovoltaic electricity, that provides lighting to rural settlements, and
community environmental conservation that builds empowerment and capacity for communities to
implement natural resources related project activities.


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During the plan [DDP6] period RIPCO (B) would pioneer to develop a satellite office in the city
of Francistown or within the surrounding areas as part of its decentralisation strategic intent. The
office shall provide services to northern Botswana. This would entail a requirement for industrial
and residential purposes for the company to have substantial presence in the North East district
during the span of DDP6, for which a request is therefore being made.

11.4          LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICES SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 11.2: Labour, Culture and Social Services Sector Goals
Goals                                                                        Objectives
Culture and Youth
To promote the participation and contribution of young women and men         To grant 18 out of school youths funds to start income generating
in Botswana‟s socio – economic development.                                  projects.

                                                                             To conduct one (1) business management skills workshop for out of
                                                                             school youths every year.
To develop a coordinated contribution and participation by all               To conduct youth development stakeholder workshop every year.
stakeholders involved in youth development programmes and activities.
To promote social responsibilities amongst the youths.                       To conduct one (1) leadership workshop for out of school youths every
                                                                             year.

                                                                             To conduct one (1) peer education workshop for out of schools every
                                                                             year.
To fight the spread of HIV/AIDS among the youths.                            To conduct two (2) HIV/AIDS awareness workshops for out of school
                                                                             youths every year.
To promote active participation of young people in recreation sports and     To provide six (6) youth groups recreation equipment during the plan
leisure.                                                                     period.
To recognise, and promote young peoples‟ talents.                            To conduct two youth rallies every year.
Immigration/National Registration
To register all qualified citizens who are eligible for registration and     To undertake 4 field trips in the North East District to register and
distribution of National Identity Card.                                      distribut ready identity cards annually starting 2003.

                                                                             To address kgotla meetings on issues affecting National Registration
                                                                             during the year 2004.

                                                                             To address stake holders, councillors and chiefs during year 2004.
To facilitate the formation of National Registration Act in identifying      To sensitise villagers along the boarder line of the dangers of false
illegal immigrants.                                                          declaration during visits at Jackalas 1, Moroka, Mapoka, Nlapkhwane,
                                                                             Mbalambi and Gungwe.

                                                                             To inform Chiefs and community of North East District on the
                                                                             implication of non-citizens obtaining National Identity Cards annually
                                                                             starting April 2003-2006.
Civil Registration
To reduce number of incomplete birth, death and stillbirth forms in          To correct pending birth, death and stillbirth forms in ten villages by
North East by March 2006.                                                    calling informants and undertaking home visits trips in North East every
                                                                             year.
To reduce the number of customary letters based on assumption by             To create awareness for Tribal Administration staff working in the
headmen/sub-chiefs in the North East by March 2006.                          North East district on the importance of registering customary marriages
                                                                             every year.
To reduce the number of pending births, deaths and stillbirths certificate   To distribute 90 % of pending certificates in all the villages in the North
in the North East by the year 2006.                                          East through trips by March 2003.
To promote efficiency and effectiveness among civil registration staff       To serve the public in an effective and efficient manner in the North
by March 2006                                                                East District by March 2003.
Information and Broadcasting
To increase consumption of DIB products and services through                 To put in place a mechanism to ensure continuous research to determine
continuous marketing and promotions.                                         audience needs and develop a training strategy to maximise utilization
                                                                             of available resources by the end of the plan period.
To increase accessibility to DIB products and services to atleast 95% of     To expand the reach of all DIB products and services by 2004.
the audience.
To improve working conditions within DIB within DIB for increased            To adopt strategic management principles in order to achieve effective
productivity and motivation.                                                 communication and develop human resources.
Sports And Recreation
To promote mass participation in sport and recreation regardless of age,     To ensure that all Batswana are aware of the benefits of participation in




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Goals                                                                          Objectives
gender and ability through community based programmes, provision of            sport and recreation and have equal opportunities to become involved in
facilities and mobilisation of voluntees.                                      all aspects of sport and recreation.
Women and Development
To lobby and advocate for the economic empowerment of and poverty              To review public policy programmes and implementation.
alleviation among women, children, youth and the most vulnerable.
                                                                               To lobby for a comprehensive social safety net for the most vulnerable.

                                                                               To undertake research and develop business         and entrepreneurship
                                                                               skillsTo advocate for strategic programmes to     target poverty among
                                                                               children and the youth.
To lobby and advocate for equal participation in leadership and decision       To sensitise chiefs, members of parliament and    councillors on gender
making at the family, community, local and national level.                     and development issues particularly on power      sharing and decision
                                                                               making.

                                                                               To sensitise varios stakeholders on gender and development issues
                                                                               particularly on power sharing and decision making.

                                                                               To review existing policies, structures and programmes thet have an
                                                                               impact in the area of power sharing and decision making.
To review all education policies and programmes with a view of                 To lobby and advocate for implementation for the pre-school
mainstreaming gender at all levels of the education system.                    recommendations in the National Commission on Education.

                                                                               To review and analyse existing NGO pre-shool programmes for gender
                                                                               sensitivity.

                                                                               To review the entry age policy.
Environmental Heritage Foundation
To diversify the fund management               portfolio   for   sustainable   To establish an endowment fund through seed capital from Government,
environmental financing by 2006                                                Private Sector, Donor community and others to yield returns for
                                                                               environmental financing by May 2005

                                                                               To enhance the institutional capacity of EHF for fund management
                                                                               portfolio through strengthening human resources, constructing office
                                                                               building, acquisition of transport facilities and development of a
                                                                               marketing plan by May 2004
To increase the investment portfolio for EHF‟s sustainability in               To generate income through consultancy services, service delivery
Northern Botswana by 2006                                                      undertakings, information services in the North East District by May
                                                                               2004
To strengthen and diversify partnerships in the North East District by         To increase relationships with Government, Private sector, Donors and
2006                                                                           NGOs/CBOs, in the North East District through joint consultancies and
                                                                               joint environmental projects by 2004.




11.5          FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT


    Table 11.3: Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                          Objectives                              Environment Key Issues         Strategy
To promote participation and contribution      To conduct workshops,youth ralies       Littering                      Provide sanitary facilities
of young women and men in socio-               and grant out of school youths with
economic development                           funds to start income generating
                                               projects.
Register all qualified citizens who are        To address kgotla meetings, stake       Littering                      Provide sanitary facilities
eligible for registration and distribution     holders and undertake trips within
National Identity Cards                        the district to register and
                                               distribute identity cards.
To reduce the number of pending births,        To distribute 90% of all pending        -                              -
deaths and stillborn certificates within the   certificates in all villages around
district                                       the district
To increase accessibility to Department        To expand the reach of all DIB          -                              -
of Information and Broadcasting products       products and services by 2004
and services




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11.5.1    Environmental Education and Awareness Creation
Sustainable development demands an environmental conscious nation and in the current
development plan period a deliberate effort has been put to consider environmental goals in the
development hierarchy. The capacity of communities, officers, individuals and organisations in
setting and executing environmental goals may need particular attention as notable from DDP 6
consultation meetings. Outcries for these incapacities have always been noted from country wide
consultations through workshops, meetings and seminars conducted by EHF too. On that note
EHF has laid specific programs that shall have diverse target groups so as to instil and integrate
environmental activism during the plan period. The program shall include specific interventions
such as:-

        Community mobilisation methodologies and campaign strategies.
        Training of community leaders (CBO‟s , Tribal and Local authorities, and Politicians).
        Training of Land Board members, Technical Officers and Administrative machinery.
        Training of Agricultural Resource Conservation Committees.
        Training of District Planners and Officers on EIA and its incorporation into District
         Planning and implementation processes.

11.5.2    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) And Strategic Environmental Planning (SEP)
Conserving the environment can only be realised through careful and considerate execution of
economic and social goals. That requires prioritisation and multi-faceted approach to development.
Methodologies such as EIAs and SEPs have been put in place to make harmoniously pursuing
development objectives cognisant of environmental and ecological considerations. EHF shall
provide consulting expertise in Government and Private Sector developments that may so require
undertaking these crucial and critical exercises that mitigate the impact of economic and
development projects.

11.5.3    Funding for Community Environmental Projects
During the plan period, EHF shall continue to mobilise and effectively manage funds for
community environmental management and conservation purposes. This shall entail liaison and
commitment from financing and supporting partners such as Private Sector, donors and
Government to continue replenishing EHF‟s established and modest Trust Fund. EHF shall
continue to support community projects that lay emphasis on environmental education and
awareness creation, waste management, range land degradation, fuel - wood depletion, biological
diversity, and pollution of water, air and soil. Some of the community projects that have been
considered for initial support in the North East District are attached to this submission.

11.5.4    Dissemination of Environment and Land Related Legislations
Environmental management and land resources management usually suffer a tragedy of the
commons syndrome. This can only be controlled through appropriate legislation of which EHF
shall take a leading role in disseminating, for assimilation into our culture, values and norms.
Living examples of the information to be disseminated include waste management,
overexploitation of natural resources, veld fires and others.




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11.5.5        Review of Policies and Legislations
The EHF shall continue to take part in structures and forum through which valuable ideas and
inputs that relate to good governance for the sole purpose of sustainable development can be
provided. Such structures shall include local, district, regional, national and international platforms
where EHF would take active participation in ensuring that the necessary reviewed are generated.

    Table 11.4: Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies & Programs                     Goals/Objectives                                                    Environmental Issues
National Youth Policy                   To promote the participation and contribution of young              Indiscriminate littering
                                        women and men in Botswana‟s socio-economic development
Disability Policy                       To combat the incidence of disability and promote the quality       -
                                        of life for people with disability
Destitute Policy                        Ensures that destitute persons are provided with human basic        -
                                        needs like food, shelter and clothing
Sports & Recreation Policy              To provide a framework for the development of active,               Indiscriminate littering
                                        healthy and productive society, in line with the national long-
                                        term vision
National Registration Act               Ensures that registration of eligible persons is carried out        -
                                        efficiently.
Information Media Policy                Ensures that people have access to the services provided by         -
                                        the DIB




11.6          STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICE SECTOR
              GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 11.5: Strategies to Achieve Labour, Culture and Social Services Goals and Objectives
Proposed Projects                                       Environmental            Mitigation Measures             Resources
                                                        Impact


Immigration/National Registration
Workshops and Seminars                                  Littering                Provision of dust-bins and      Transport
                                                                                 plastic bags.
                                                                                                                 Finance
                                                                                 Provision of refuse bags
                                                                                                                 Human Resource

Civil Registration
Home visits trips and Kgotla meetings

Enlighten health personnel on the importance of         Littering                Provide refuse bags             Human resource
correct completion of birth, death and still births
forms through seminars.
Seminars/Workshop                                       Littering                Provide refuse bags             Human resource
Sports and Recreation
District Sports Administration Workhops

Districrt Sports Festivals                              Littering                Provide refuse bags             Human resource ie. coaches

Junior Sports Programme

National Library Service




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Branch Library [Masunga                              Bush Clearing           Re-planting trees/shrubs      -Land
                                                                                                           -Plant seedlings
                                                     Sand/soil excavation    Clearing rubles               -Funds for human resourse, transport
                                                                                                           and equipment
                                                     Building                Identification    of   sand
                                                     waste/rubble creation   collection

                                                     Increased       water
                                                     demand

Culture and Youth
Conduct youth rallies and workshops                  Littering               Provide refuse containers     Finance, human and transport.
                                                                             and clean the area after
                                                                             activity.
Environmental Heritage Foundation [EHF]
Community Empowerment for Environmental              -                                                     Finance, human and transport.
Management at Matsiloje Village                                              None
Development of a Nature and Culture Preservation     Bush clearing           Proper planning               Finance, human and transport.
Site at Jackalas No.1 Village
                                                                             Undertake inventory and
                                                                             vegetation studies
Community           Environmental     Conservation   Bush clearing           Proper selection of plant     Finance, human and transport.
Initiatives at Tati Siding                                                   species suitable for the
                                                                             area

                                                                             E.I.A
Waste Management Partnerships in Masunga and         No       anticipated    -                             -
Catchment area                                       impacts.




11.7          RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6
11.7.1        Issues and Strength For Labour, Culture and Social Services
11.7.1.1 Strengths
          The existence of a guideline in the form of the youth policy, National Action Plan, Sports
           and recreation policies, and other programmes.
          Availability of programmes and funding to address vulnerable groups.
          The establishment of the Botswana National Youth Awards to honour youth contribution to
           the country‟s development is an incentive for youth to actively participate in the
           development of the country.

11.7.1.2 Issues
          Lack of capacity in terms of resources, like shortage of staff and unskilled manpower.
          Youth issues are dealt with by different organisations and lack of a coordinated effort is a
           disadvantage.
          Inadequate empowerment of District Youth Council hampers their youth development
           duty.
          Lack of funds to undertake projects

11.7.2        Performance Targets for DDP6
Performance targets for DDP6 will be measured in terms of the projects to be implemented each
financial year of the plan. Implementation of the projects is phased in accordance with priority.




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    Table 11.6: Performance Targets for DDP6
Project                                     Location          Goal/Objective                    Performance Indicator
Workshops, seminars, youth ralies, kgotla   District          Facilitate active participation   Conducting all intended activities
meetings, sports festivals                                    by all stakeholders.              during the plan period.
Construct LA 2, Non Formal Office           Tsamaya           Reduce office accommodation       Completion of the projects by 2006.
                                                              backlog.
Branch Library                              Masunga           To provide a conducive            Completion of the project by 2007.
                                                              learning environment for
                                                              everyone in the district.
Development of a Nature and Cultural        Jackalas II       Preserve natural resources.       Nature and Culture site being being
Preservation Site                                                                               developed by the end of the plan
                                                                                                period.




11.7.3        Development Budget for DDP6


    Table 11.7: Development Budget for DDP6
Component             Location    Cost (P)          2003/04   2004/05         2005/06           2006/07        2007/08      2008/09
Branch Library        Masunga     16 100 000
Basic      Business   District    10 000            10 000    10 000          10 000            10 000         10 000       10 000
skills workshop
Skills training       District    15 000            15 000    15 000          15 000            15 000         15 000       15 000
Leadership            District    10 000            10 000    10 000          10 000            10 000         10 000       10 000
courses
Youth festivals       District    15 000            15 000    15 000          15 000            15 000         15 000       15 000




11.7.4        Plan Monitoring Program
To monitor implementation of projects and programmes, quarterly progress reports will be
prepared and circulated to the relevant ministries and stakeholders. In addition, review of
implementation will be conducted midway through the plan where recommendation will bee made
on areas that need to be improved. During the DDP6, EHF shall continue to provide an efficient
and effective fund administration and project management structure in the form of a partnership
model that serves to empower NGO‟s and community based organisations (CBO‟s), which
implement community environmental conservation projects.




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CHAPTER 12
12       MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER

12.1     INTRODUCTION
This chapter main focus is on minerals, energy and water sector DDP 6 policies and programmes.
Most of the policies and programmes are a continuation of the previous plan. The proposed
projects and strategies are aimed at achieving vision 2016 ideals. The Ministry of Minerals,
Energy and Water Resources (MMEWR) core responsibility is to coordinate, formulate and direct
all national policies pertaining to water, energy and minerals.

Of the seven pillars, a “Prosperous, Productive and Innovative Nation” is the one more inclined
to the minerals, energy and water affairs ministry in different ways. With regard to minerals it
envisages increased benefits from down stream processing of minerals and trade including
diamond polishing and jewelling. In relation to energy, it recognizes that energy is a pre-requisite
for successful industrialization and that Botswana must seek to develop cost effective sources of
energy, and to cooperate with its neighbours to realize benefits from economies of scale in
electricity generation and supply. With regard to water, the pillar refers to the development of the
national and district water supply strategy that will make water affordable and accessible to all,
including those who live in small and remote settlements.

12.1.1   Institutional Framework
12.1.1.1 Botswana Power Corporation (BPC)
Botswana Power Corporation is a parastatal under MMEWR responsible for electricity generation
and supply.

12.1.1.2 Water Affairs
The Department of Water Affairs is responsible for national water resources planning and
development at the national level. This is undertaken in consultations with major stakeholders such
as Water Utilities Corporation, Ministry of Local Government, district councils, Ministry of Lands
and Housing through Land Boards as well as the Ministry of Agriculture. The department also
cooperates with District Council Health units, Ministry of Health and the National Conservation
Strategic Coordinating Agency in the area of water quality. It must be noted that rural water
supply and distribution is the responsibility of DWA at construction stage only, i.e. during design
and construction section, later the projects are handed over to Council to operate and maintain.

12.1.1.3 Water Utilities Corporation
Water Utilities Corporation, which is a parastatal within MMEWR is responsible for urban water
supply and distribution hence its relevance to the North East District will not be discussed under
this chapter.




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12.1.1.4 Water and Waste Water
The North East District Council Water and Waste Water Department is responsible for providing
portable safe drinking water supply to 42 villages and 9 settlement areas as well as operation and
maintenance of sewerage works in the District e.g Masunga, Tati Siding (still under construction)
and all governmental institutions in the district.

12.1.1.5 Ministry of Agriculture
The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for agricultural water development.

12.1.2   Strategic Planning Framework
12.1.2.1 Ministry of Minnerals, Ennergy and Water Resources
The Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources vision fully commits it to complete
customer satisfaction in the provision of products and services in accordance with best
international practice. This vision envisages an organization with employees who are fully
committed to serving their customers and stakeholders well, and processes that are customer
focused. The vision also envisages world-class standards in the delivery of services. The proposed
projects and strategies have taken cognisance of the goals and objectives of the Ministry‟s strategic
plan.

12.1.2.2 Ministry of Local Government
The Ministry of Local Government through Councils is responsible for provision of basic physical
and social infrastructure i.e. water, health care, primary education, roads network. The other
responsibility is to ensure that there is efficient operation of local authorities through policy
direction, capacity building and supervision. This mandate can only be achieved if the following
key result areas are achieved: Customer satisfaction, policy implementation effectiveness,
improved quality of life of communities, productivity and organizational effectiveness.

12.1.3   Role of the Private Sector
The private sector plays a minor role in the district with regards to minerals, energy and water
sector. However the mining sector has a significant role, as there are already two mines operating
in the district, these are Phoenix mine in Matsiloje and Cement mine. Prospecting is still ongoing
at Mopane where gold is to be mined. Regarding the water and energy sector the private sector
does not play any significant role with no developments being undertaken by it.

12.1.4   Consultation Priorities
The district is seriously affected by shortages of water as currently 48% of villages are
experiencing acute water shortage. Hence during consultations communities continuously
complained of lack of water in their respective villages. This was found to be exacerbated by
illegal livestock watering as most boreholes have dried up. Furthermore, communities indicated
that the Financial Assistance Policy projects exacerbated the problem of shortage of water, as they
believe that the projects increased the use of water hence water demands were difficult to meet.
The other issue raised was policy conflicts affecting water provisions and agricultural development
policy. Communities complained that new agricultural policies do not come up with suggestions of


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where to draw water or identify water sources to augment already existing sources, which are
already overstrained, hence create unnecessary water shortages, which could be avoided.

The other issue, which was of major concern to the communities, was illegal extraction of sand
especially from companies outside the district. They felt that communities through VDC‟s should
be given the mandate to regulate extraction of aggregates from rivers, which run across their
villages‟ thereby creating employment and revenue for them.

12.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
12.2.1   Waste Management Act
The Waste Management Act is meant to provide ways of managing waste generation and disposal.
If this act is not enforced effectively, waste generated could be dumped haphazardly at illegal sites
and pollute aquifers, wetlands and the environment at large.

Even though the act states that no person shall cause or effect movement of controlled waste
within the country or the trans-boundary movement of controlled waste without being registered as
a waste carrier. Currently there is only one registered waste carrier with the Department of
Sanitation and Waste Management in the District. The strategy during DDP 6 would be to ensure
that all existing waste carriers in the District are registered.

12.2.2   Minerals Policy
The main objective of the minerals policy is to maximize economic benefits for the nation from
development of mineral resources. According to the Department of Mines, before independence
there were more than 50 gold mines in the North East District. Silver was also produced as a by-
product. Quite a number of mines such as Tekwane, Golden Eagle, Mop East Puel Nervack and
Penhaloge and Rainbow still contain unworked gold reserves.

The Tati Nickel mine is currently exploiting copper and nickel ore at Selkirk and Phoenix near
Matsiloje at a rate of 3.6 million tonnes. Joren (Pty) Ltd operates Somerset mine near Sechele and
produces some 36 000 tonnes of gold ore annually.

The old gold/silver mines that are presently closed are Bonanza-Mineral Holdings on old Matsiloje
road, Rainbow Mine- Kudu mining company- Matsiloje, Golden Eagle-Monarch Goldfield on old
Matsiloje road and New Zealand in Matsiloje.

12.2.3   Energy Policy
The objectives of the energy policy during DDP 6 are: Economic Efficiency, Energy Security,
Social Equity, Environmental Quality and Sustainability and Gender Equity.

A large proportion of the District population use fuel wood for cooking and lighting. There is
generally shortage of fuel wood in the District as a whole. The use of coal as a source of energy is
very limited in the District. According to 1991 Housing and Population Census, there were only 5
households or less than 1% using coal in the entire District.




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Solar energy is not widely used except in secondary schools, where it is used for heating and for
electric fencing in some commercial farms. Even though the District enjoys sunshine most parts of
the year, the use of this resource is very limited.

12.2.4   The National Settlement Policy
The policy‟s main thrust is to provide a comprehensive set of guidelines for national physical
planning and to provide a framework for guiding the distribution of investment in a way that
reflects the settlements size, population, economic potential, level of infrastructure and their role
as service centres.

The major issue of concern is the provision of water to small settlement particularly those whose
population is below 250. Therefore there should be harmonisation of National Settlement Policy
and Water Act during DDP 6.

The North East settlement strategy that is currently in draft form will augment the National
Settlement Strategy by providing guidelines for the provision of services in human settlements.
Since the policy recognizes a settlement when it has 250 people and provision of water can only be
done when there are 150 people, there is a conflict in these two policies as they encourage
mushrooming of villages thereby increasing water demand and the need to provide water
rehabilitation services which in turn increases government‟s costs in bringing essential services to
the communities. There is need to harmonize the two policies so that mushrooming is controlled to
some extent thereby cutting unnecessary costs of providing services to many scattered small
settlements.

12.2.5   Tribal Land Act
The Act provide for the establishment of tribal land boards and sub – Land board. In terms of the
act custody of tribal land rests with the Land Board.

Generally, tribal land comprises residential, agricultural and commercial areas. Tribal land has the
highest densities of livestock and human populations than free hold. As a result there is shortage of
tribal land in the District due to the fact that most of the land is under freehold. Therefore there is
need to acquire more land to augment the existing land.

12.2.6   National Water Master Plan [NWMP]
The key objective of the NWMP during DDP 6 will continue to be providing the framework for
water development. The National Water Master Plan is a guiding plan for all large water
development projects.

12.2.7   Water Policy
The thrust of the water policy during the entire plan period will be to undertake a study with the
view of improving the operation of the major villages water supply schemes. The study will
among other things cover: placing all water distribution in the country under WUC, establishment
of a number of regional water distribution agencies or companies and grouping the 17 major
villages and nearby smaller villages with big villages operated by District Councils and



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establishing an agency or company to run these, while the smaller villages continue to be operated
by the District Councils.

The District has several streams and rivers, all of which are ephemeral. The big rivers are Shashe,
Vukwi, Tati, Ntshe, Sikukwe and Ramokgwebana. The rivers store a considerable amount of water
in the sub-surface layer for most of the years. This water provides most of the residents with water
for human and livestock consumption.

Most of the surface water is not retained due to few large dams in the District. There are only two
dams that have been developed in the District being Shashe dam on Shashe River and Madabe
dam on Ramokgwebana River. There are other sources of water such as boreholes, wells and pits
along these rivers. More than 30% of the boreholes drilled are dry while several have saline water
especially in the Makaleng area. The yields range from 1 500 to 7 000 litres per hour. There are
also numerous small dams constructed by Ministry Of Agriculture, which assist small farmers.

There is generally shortage of water in the district even though there are several streams. Therefore
construction of Ntimbale dam and Maitengwe well fields development project will help ease the
problem of water shortages in the district.

12.3     MINING, ENERGY AND WATER
12.3.1   Mining Sector
There are two privately owned mining operations in Matsiloje. These are gold and cement mining
activities done at small scale-supplying consumers in the North East district and other areas in the
vicinity of the district. Unfortunately the cement mining is not able to meet the demand for cement
in the region.

The other mining activity entails mining of sand and aggregates. Of these, gravel and river sand
are extensively used within the district and neighboring towns for numerous construction projects
that are carried out by the private contractors, government and individuals. Though impact
analysis has not been undertaken, it is evident that the adverse effects of extraction have often
resulted in loss of biodiversity and poor visual quality due to lack of rehabilitation.

Gallery Gold that holds a mining lease is currently not in production. It has completed pre-
feasibility study over Mupane gold project near Matsiloje) in early 2002. The results were
encouraging and the company is proceeding with a fully-fledged feasibility study.

KCL Technologies was issued with a license in 1999, it operates a lime pit for cement and
soapstone products near Matsiloje. The mine produces approximately 30 000 tonnes of lime stone
annually. In addition Mobile Mixing Concrete extract sand from the rivers of Tati and Ntshe for
construction purposes.

Quarrying activities are carried out on the east of Tati Siding by Quarries of Botswana and it
produces crushed stone for building and road construction at an annual rate of about 100 000
tonnes.




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Most of the mining activities that exist in the District were carried out before the amendment of
the Mines and Minerals Act. Then, it was not requirement to submit an Environmental Impact
Assessment was undertaken and one good example is the quarrying activities in Tati Siding.

12.3.2   Energy Sector
As investment and population continue to grow in North East, so will the demand for energy.
While some people in the primary centers of the District use gas for their domestic needs, a
significant proportion of the population still use firewood in the District. From the environmental
point of view, this contributes to desertification and it is associated with negative impacts.
Therefore there is need for legislation that would guide consumers, especially government
institutions to use alternative sources of energy. Figure 1 shows the proportion of all households
that use various energy sources for lighting, cooking and gives the trend in the proportion of
households using different energy sources for heating from 1981 to 2001.

12.3.2.1 Solar Energy
It has been realized that there is tremendous potential for solar energy, which should be exploited
for the benefit of settlements that are not within reach of the national grid. The district in effort to
conserve energy has been providing solar energy in institutional housing as an alternative for
electricity. Provision of solar energy has also been done in areas without electrical power. At
present solar energy in the district is limited to heating, electricity generation for powering
telecommunications equipment, lighting and refrigeration in homes, schools and clinics.

12.3.2.2 Wind Energy
Due to the fact that the wind speed in the country is low and as a result it is hardly used in the
district maybe for pumping water in commercial farms.

12.3.2.3 Wood Fuel
Fuel wood is the main source of cooking energy in the District. Individuals in the vicinity of small
settlements collect wood free of charge. In large settlements it is generally purchased from traders
who use donkey carts and motorized transport to fetch it from surrounding areas. Fuel wood is still
the cheapest cooking fuel.

The most worrying some factor is the depletion of fuel wood especially in areas along highways
and railway lines. There is growing habit of cutting live trees firewood, which need to be
addressed during DDP 6.

There is shortage of fuel wood, and the reliance on wood could have serious negative impacts, as it
would lead to the depletion of the remaining woodland in the District. Government Institutions
would be encouraged to use alternative sources such as coal, solar energy and electricity during the
plan period.

12.3.2.4 Coal
Coal is hardly used in the district except in boarding school where it is used for heating water. The
use of coal is generally hampered by the unavailability of affordable coal fire equipment, as the


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ones currently available are very expensive. The other issue of concern is the quality of coal,
which needs to be upgraded.

12.3.2.5 Electricity
There is a 66kv line from Francistown to Masunga to service RAC, Senior Secondary School,
Primary Hospital and several commercial and residential areas. Generally, power demand has been
increasing. In the past, generators were used to provide electricity to residential areas and
businesses.

There are a handful of people who can afford private connection in the district due to high cost of
installing transformers. This is due to lack of productive activities, employment and incomes in
most villages. Electricity is mostly used for lighting. The availability of electricity has not
necessarily influenced many people to apply for connections due to cost implications.

The Government of Botswana has taken a step to connect 13 qualifying villages during DDP 6
under the rural electrification programme. These are Matenge, Butale, Sekuke, Mambo,
Masingwaneng, Kgari, Letsholathebe, Sechele, Gulubane, Jackalas 2, Gambule, Mbalambi and
Masukwane.

The North East district has 42 villages and 20 have electricity while 13 will be connected during
DDP 6 and the network for Masunga, Moroka and other five qualifying villages will be expanded
as well during the current plan period.

In addition the Department of Electrical and Mechanical services provides diesel generators in
government institutions/offices located in villages, which are not connected to the national grid.

12.3.2.6 Paraffin and Gas
Paraffin is predominantly used for lighting particularly in small villages and the prices are
controlled and Value Added Tax is not levied on this source of fuel. Whereas the use of gas for
cooking and heating has tremendously increased particularly in areas where fuel wood has been
depleted. The price for gas is not controlled and as such is open to possible exploitation of the
consumers, particularly the poor.

12.3.2.7 Energy, Conservation and Management
The District will expand the use of solar even to areas where electricity exist in order to conserve
energy. In addition the street lights which will be provided during the plan period will have auto
switches to switch off during day time in order to reduce energy consumption.

    Table 12.1 Sources of Energy used in Households in Botswana for Lighting, Cooking and
               Space Heating
Sources of energy        Number Of households/proportion
                         Heating                         Lighting              Cooking
Paraffin                 13 217.48 (1.22)                712 877 .20 (65.80)   44 852.76 (4.14)
Gas                      12 350.76 (1.14)                10 834 (0.46)         204 979.28 (18.92)
Coal                     1 191.74 (0.11)                 -                     1 625.1 (0.15)
Electricity              29 576,82 (2.73)                144 308.88 (13.32)    13 650.84 (1.26)
Wood                     87 7012.3 (80.95)               20 692.94 (1.91)      80 7891.38 (74.57)




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Sources of energy            Number Of households/proportion
                             Heating                         Lighting         Cooking
Solar power                  1 408.42 (0.13)                 3 250.2 (0.30)   650.04 (0.06)
Total
Source: 2001 Population and Housing Census


12.3.3        Water Sector
12.3.3.1 Water Supply and Water Demand
The current water demand in the North East District is 8400 cubic meters per day. It is worth
mentioning that water demand is continuously increasing as during the year 2001 the demand
stood at 3916 cubic meters per day. However there is a shortfall of 484 cubic meters of water per
day in the North East District. Water supply situation in the North East District is worsening since
there is lack of rainfall, which causes borehole yields to drop. To address this problem the Council
has resorted to bowsing in severely affected villages and completion of Maitengwe Well field
project and Ntimbale Dam will help solve this serious shortage of water. The North East District
Council is responsible for supplying portable water to 42 villages, 5 settlements and 3 matimela
kraals. The supply is from 49 boreholes, 4 collector wells, 1 Department of Water Affairs
connection and 3 Water Utilities connections. The Council buys water from Water Utilities
Corporation for Masunga, Tati Siding and Matshelagabedi at high rates and then subsidies at
village rates.

12.3.3.2 Water Quality
All customers should be provided with adequate and good quality water to enhance quality of life
and facilitate economic development. The main source of water for rural villages is ground water
and the district complies with standards set by Botswana Bureau of Standards to ensure that water
provided is of good quality. Currently water is being supplied from Francistown,
Maitengwe/Goshwe development and underground water from boreholes in some villages. In
others water is pumped from Francistown into bowsers then taken to villages with acute water
shortages.

The water quality in the District is generally fine except in areas which has been contaminated by
pit latrines e.g. Matsiloje area.

12.3.3.3 Water Conservation and Management
The sustainability of the districts development depends on the conservation and management of
water sources. Attention should be paid to improve planning and administrative measures required
to protect water resources from over development and deterioration in quality. This would be
managed by increased education and participation by communities in natural resources
conservation.

The district has embarked on rainwater harvesting technique through provision of rainwater tanks
in all institutional housing, schools, clinic etc. This will go a long way in conservation the much-
needed water in the district.




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12.4          MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 12.2: Minerals, Energy and Water sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                Objectives
To improve the quality of life of communities in     To develop Maitengwe well field water transmission pipeline to 33 villages in the North East
the North East District by providing safe,           District by the year 2004/05.
palatable and good quality water together with
good sanitation and effluent disposal.               To rehabilitate water sources in 15 villages of the North East by the year2005/ 2006.

                                                     To improve water reticulation in 17 villages in the North East by the year 2009.

                                                     To rehabilitate and expand Masunga sewerage scheme, upgrade Tatisiding sewerage scheme
                                                     and construct new ones in Matshelagabedi, Tshesebe and Tsamaya by the year 2008/2009.

                                                     To construct Ntimbale and Dikgathong dams and conduct a feasibility study and detailed
                                                     design for Madabe dam by 2004/05
To provide adequate and affordable energy            To electrify two qualifying villages per financial year effective 2004/05.
services to households and rural communities and
provide a basic essential to economic                To expand power lines network for six villages effective 2003/04.
development.
                                                     To provide streetlights by 2005/06.
To promote conservation and protection of            To provide a conducive environment for prospecting and new mine development by 2008/09.
mineral resources through development and
implementation of effective mineral conservation,    To identify and develop strategies for dealing with extraction of aggregates from rivers by
protection strategy and policies.                    2008/09.

                                                     To ensure environmental protection through use of environmentally friendly technologies
                                                     throughout the plan period.




12.5          FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT


    Table 12.3: Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                    Objectives                                 Environmental Issues                    Strategies
To improve the quality of life of        To develop Maitengwe well field water      Disturbance of soil            living   EIA(new projects)
communities in the North East            transmission pipeline to 33 villages in    organisms.
District by providing safe, palatable    the North East District by the year                                                Re- planting of trees
and good quality water together with     2008/2009.                                 Cutting of live trees
good sanitation and effluent disposal.                                                                                      Provide sanitary facilities
                                         To rehabilitate water sources in 15        Improper disposal of solid and
                                         villages of the North East by the year     liquid waste                            Provision of dustbins/skips
                                         2005/ 2006.
                                                                                    Burrow pits                             Burrow pits rehabilitation
                                         To improve water reticulation in 17
                                         villages in the North East by the year
                                         2008/ 2009.

                                         To rehabilitate and expand Masunga
                                         sewerage scheme, upgrade Tatisiding
                                         sewerage scheme and construct new
                                         ones in Matshelagabedi, Tshesebe and
                                         Tsamaya by the year 2008/ 2009.

                                         To construct Ntimbale and Dikgathong
                                         dams and conduct feasibility study and
                                         detailed design for Madabe dam by
                                         2004/05.
To provide adequate and affordable       To electrify two qualifying villages per   Cutting of trees                        Replanting of trees
energy services to households and        financial year effective 2004/05.
rural communities and provide a          To expand power lines network for six      Disturbance     of      soil   living   Provision of dustbins/skips
basic   essential   to   economic        villages effective 2003/04.                organisms
development.                             To provide auto switches to switch off
                                         streetlights during daytime to reduce      Littering
                                         energy consumption by 2005/06.



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    Table 12.4: Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies/Programs                                  Objectives                                     Environmental Issues
Waste Management Act                               Provide ways of managing waste                 Air pollution
                                                   generation disposal.
Minerals Policy                                    Maximize economic benefits for the             Haphazard dumping
                                                   nation from development of mineral
                                                   resources.                                     Environmental degradation
Energy Policy                                      Provide a least mix of supply reflecting       Wood depletion
                                                   total life cycle costs externalities such as
                                                   environmental damage.                          Air pollution due to high carbon content fuel
National Settlement Policy                         Provide a comprehensive set of guidelines      Overgrazing
                                                   for national physical planning.
Tribal Land Act                                    Establishment of tribal land boards.           Soil erosion
                                                   Provide basis for water development
National Water Master Plan                         projects.                                      Deforestation



12.6         STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER SECTOR


    Table 12.5: Minerals, Energy and Water Sector Strategies
Proposed Project                                  Potential Impacts                                 Mitigation Measures
Construction of Ntimbale Dam & Dikgathong         Cutting of trees                                  Environmental Impact Assessment to be
Dams.                                                                                               carried out.
                                                  Land degradation
                                                                                                    Re-planting of trees where necessary.
                                                  Change of land use

                                                  Migrant work force
Systematic    Water      Quality     Monitoring   Nil                                               Nil
Programme.
Water supply rehabilitation (including tank).     Effect of machinery on environment                Proper waste disposal measures            to   be
                                                                                                    undertaken [provision of waste bins].
                                                  Cutting of trees, littering, dust.
                                                                                                    Re-planting of trees, water sprinkling.
Tanks water reticulation and standpipes.          Cutting of trees, land degradation                Selective cutting of trees.
Development/Extension of sewerage scheme.         Cutting of trees, land degradation, migrant       Selective cutting of trees.
                                                  workforce.
Purchase of pick up vehicle, water bowsers and    Nil                                               Nil
truck with crane.
Interconnect to neighbour water supply.           Cutting of trees                                  Selective cutting of trees.
Expand water offices and furnish them.            Littering.                                        Provision of waste bins.
                                                  Cutting of trees, harvesting of aggregates
                                                  (burrow pits).                                    Reclamation of burrow pits.

                                                                                                    Landscaping.
Purchase of workshop equipment.                   Nil                                               Nil




12.7         RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP 6
12.7.1       Issues and Strengths
There is uncontrolled collection of sand and quarrying activities in the District, which needs
serious attention as the building operations continue to increase. Therefore planning sites for such
activities in the District is an urgent need.

There is also a serious depletion of vegetation due to thatch collection and cutting of trees for
building operations, firewood and trading purposes. This scenario is further compounded by



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problems of overgrazing and overstocking. The District should consider preserving indigenous
species of vegetation especially trees. Tree planting programmes will also be encouraged and
promoted through individual effort, Community, NGO‟s, Private Sector, etc. Another issue worth
mentioning is shortage of water in some villages in the District. As a result some villages are
bowsed from other alternative sources. The construction of Ntimbale, Dikgathong and Madabe
dams will alleviate the problem.

12.7.2        Development Budget


     Table 12.6: Development Budget
Project Name & Title                   Project Component                                        Amount Allocated           Implementation Year
LG 1110- District Water Supply         Water Supply Rehabilitation Including tank)              2 300 000                  2004/05 – 2008/09
and Waste Water                        Tanks and water reticulation                             1 462 000                  2004/05
                                       Tanks, water reticulation & standpipes                   3 875 000                  2004/05
                                       Water reticulation & standpipes                          6 851 000                  2004/5 – 2008/09
                                       Development/extension of sewerage scheme                 41 312 000                 2004/05 – 2008/09
                                       Purchase Pick up vehicles                                700 000                    2004/05 – 2008/09
                                       Purchase of water bowsers                                1 200 000                  2004/05 - 2006/07
                                       Purchase of truck with crane                             1 000 000                  2005/06
                                       Interconnect to neighbour water supply                   15 520 000                 2004/05 - 2005/06
                                       Expansion of water offices                               2 000 000                  2004/05
                                       Purchase of workshop equipment                           380 000                    2004/05 - 2008/09
MR 106 – Renewable, Energy and         Electrification of 13 villages and network expansion     530 296 000                2004/05 - 2008/09
Power Development                      of 7 villages                                            (National)
MR 301 - Water Planning and            Construction of Dikgathong dam                           813 341 000                2004/05
Development                            Construction of Ntimbale dam                             173 122 000                2004/05
                                       Madabe dam (Study, feasibility study & detailed          2 735 000                  2004/05
                                       design)



12.7.3        Performance Targets and Plan Monitoring Program


    Table 12.7: Performance Indicators and Plan monitoring
Objectives                                 Indicators                                         Monitoring
To develop Maitengwe well field and        Maitengwe well field and Ntimbale dam              Through reports to Drought relief committee, District
Ntimbale dam water transmission            constructed by 2005/06.                            Development Committee & Council Management.
pipeline to 33 villages in the North
East District by the year 2004/05.

To rehabilitate water sources in 15
villages of the North East by the year     Water sources in 15 villages by 2005/06.
2006.

To improve water reticulation in 17        Water reticulation in 17 villages improved by
villages in the North East by the year     2008/09.
2009.

To rehabilitate and expand Masunga         Masunga and Tati Siding sewerage schemes
sewerage scheme, upgrade Tatisiding        rehabilitated and expanded and new ones
sewerage scheme and construct new          constructed in 3 villages effective 2003/04 -
ones in Matshelagabedi, Tshesebe and       2008/09.
Tsamaya by the year 2003/ 2004.
To electrify two qualifying villages per   Two villages electrified effective 2004/05.        Reports to Drought Relief Committee, District
financial year effective 2004/05.                                                             Development Committee and Council Management.
                                           Power network expanded for six villages by
To expand power lines network for 6        2008/09
villages effective 2003/04.
-To provide streetlights by 2005/06.




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CHAPTER 13
13       WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS

13.1     INTRODUCTION
The District infrastructure development continues to be an important government framework in
poverty alleviation. Programmes such as labour intensive earth roads construction have provided
temporary employment to unskilled labour but despite these positive aspects limited funding and
resources have hindered infrastructure development of the district. Provision of a web of road
network, street-lighting, storm water drainage, culverts and drifts play a vital role for the people
since it renders easier access to essential services such as health, education etc. Provision of better
means of conveyance through proper road network benefit communities through time saved and
less travel costs leaving a considerable amount of income at the disposal of communities.
Communication through postal services and telecommunication is essential if the district is to be
capacitated to compete for investors. This will go a long way in poverty alleviation as investment
brings employment opportunities for rural dwellers.

In an endeavor to address prosperous, productive and innovative pillar, the District will construct
roads and culverts and existing ones will be rehabilitated in order to integrate the rural areas with
the rest of the country. Bridges will also be constructed in strategic areas such as Shashe and
Gatshwane rivers to assist the District during wet season and enable vehicles to cross without
experiencing some difficulties. This will go a long way to improve road safety and communication
links in District.

The District has adequate telephone communication links with other major centers in the country.
The strategy during DDP 6 would be to expand the existing networks in five villages.
Communities will also be encouraged to establish postal agencies in order to enhance
communication links.

Village Road Safety Committees will be established and workshops will also be conducted for
school children and the entire community to augment road safety measures that exist in the
District.

Safe and Secure Nation tenet will further improve road safety and driving standards, the District
will continue with public education and information dissemination in order to decrease loss of life
due to road accidents, etc. The District will intensify road safety measures such as roadblocks,
road safety awareness campaigns at strategic points throughout the plan period.

13.1.1   Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Works Transport and Communication is divided into 3 major sectors; works,
transport and communications. It provides infrastructure and services through its various
Departments and Parastatals. The Departments are: Architecture and Buildings Services, Civil
Aviation, Electrical and Mechanical Services, Central Transport Organization, Roads Transport



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and Safety, Meteorological Services and Roads Department. There are also the departments of
Architecture and Buildings, Works and Roads within the District council under the Ministry of
Local Government. These are responsible for the construction and maintenance of buildings at
district level and construction of both tertiary and access roads respectively. The Parastatals are:
Botswana Railways, Botswana Telecommunications Corporation, Botswana Telecommunications
Authority, Air Botswana and Botswana Postal Services.

13.1.2   Strategic Plan for Ministry of Local Government
The Ministry exists to improve community‟s quality of life through provision of both basic social
and physical infrastructure. The Ministry through the district council is able to meet its mandate.
In the North East District the district council continues to undertake development of schools,
clinics, road and provision of social support system to care for the local people.

13.1.3   Strategic Plan for Ministry of Transport, Works and Communications
The Ministry seeks to provide efficient, cost effective, safe, reliable, sustainable and
environmentally sound infrastructure services commensurate to international standards, which will
support government strategies for social and economic development of Botswana. This has been
exhibited by the ability of the ministry in the provision of roads linking the district villages.

13.1.3.1 Works
Architecture and Buildings

The Department of Architecture and Building Services (DABS) is responsible for constructing and
maintaining government buildings while the Department of Electrical and Mechanical Services
(DEMS) provide the necessary electrical and mechanical services. The district is served from the
Francistown based office but has a sub –depot based in Masunga to assist more specifically with
maintenance queries, and assist with supervision of small and medium contractors.

13.1.3.2 Transport
The department of roads deals with road construction and maintenance. There is the roads unit
under the district council which deals with rural roads construction as well as maintenance. The
district does not have the central government based department of roads but is served from
Francistown, which is the northern region regional office.

The department of Civil Aviation is charged with the responsibility of monitoring, regulating air
travel and ensuring its safety and efficiency. The department is based in Francistown.

The Botswana Railways office is also based in Francistown. The railway line passes through some
parts of the district.

13.1.3.3 Communication
The Botswana Post is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the public is served with
postal services. There are 5 post offices and 6 postal agencies in the district.



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The Telecommunication services are provided by Botswana Telecommunication Corporation.
Government is committed to servicing rural areas with telecommunication services and through
the Botswana Telecommunication Corporation government funds the development programme for
rural areas. There is a depot based in Masunga dealing with operational maintenance as well as
queries.

13.1.4   Role of the Private Sector
The DABS, DEMS and Council do not have the capacity (equipment and personnel) to carry out
all the planned activities and therefore resort to subletting to contractors to carry out some of the
works. For council during DDP 5 a minimal amount of work was given to the private sector. It
has been shown that the private sector though it is not coping as exhibited by poor workmanship
and delay in the completion of projects, will in future play an important role in the implementation
of projects. Monitoring and tight supervision of programmes will be initiated to get efficiency in
the sector. Clerk of works will be engaged to intensify supervision of projects.

The role of the private sector is more pronounced in the provision of public telephone lines. There
are a considerable number of private phone booths in the district.
In the transport sector there is minimal participation from the sector as demonstrated by inadequate
transport in terms of timeliness, availability and coverage within and outside the district. Efforts
will be made to encourage more participation in the sector.

13.1.5   Consultation Priorities
During the consultations communities cited improvement to the road network as their priority. In
particular, they cited construction of bridges, culvert and bituminisation of roads as their priorities
in the next plan period. Of particular relevance communities raised concern on issues of road
safety as it relates to drunken driving.

Communities also indicated the need for additional public phones and expansion of the existing
network to facilitate better means of communication.

13.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
13.2.1   Roads Act
The revised 1997 Roads Act gives the Roads Department Authority to construct and maintain
primary and secondary roads. Settlements within 10 km of a new paved road will have an access
road also paved to the Kgotla. Any extension beyond the Kgotla is negotiated with the Ministry of
Local Government. The MWTC will during DDP 6 draft a policy guideline as a considerable
amount of money has been spent on provision of access roads even in areas with low traffic
volume.

The main issue of concern is lack of construction and maintenance equipment for both Central
Government and District Council. This is due to shortage of funds and this result in poor
workmanship. It is recommended that the government should provide this sector with adequate
funding in order to purchase enough equipment.




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13.2.2    Local Government Act
The Act empowers district councils to make, alter and maintain public roads other than those
undertaken by Central Government Roads Department. The details are in the District Council
Schedules.

Although the district Council is charged with the responsibility to construct and maintain rural
roads it does not have enough capacity and construction equipment to maintain and grade all the
district‟s roads. The other problem facing the District Council is shortage of technical staff.

13.2.3    Transport and Safety Policy
The Act is meant to ensure that roads are safe, sound and can be used by all citizens. A
considerable amount of roads accidents have occurred during DDP5. As conglomerated efforts to
circumvent the problem of roads accidents, the District Road Safety Committee was formed. The
committee continues to play a pivotal role in roads safety through public awareness campaigns and
workshops. The Roads Department, as a legislative member will ensure full participation at
community level so that safety becomes the number one priority. The following will form part of
the objectives during the plan period:

        Formation of Committees at Village level.
        Running awareness seminars for school children.
        Making sure issues discussed in these committees form part of implementation plan for the
         department.

13.2.4    Civil Aviation Policy
The policy is emphatic on provision of safe aviation in view of the number of overhead flights that
use Botswana air space. It further recognizes the need for an improved communication system and
the radar surveillance system to enhance safety in the use of air space.

Air transport in the District is very limited. This is due to the fact that there is an international
airport at Francistown. There are two airstrips at Zwenshambe and Matsiloje and quite a number
of airstrips are found in private farms. Generally, almost all the airstrips in the district are
neglected and overgrown with grass due to lack of maintenance. These airstrips lack the required
facilities such as shelters.

13.2.5    Telecommunications Act
The Act mandates the telecommunication authority to supervise and promote the provision of
efficient telecommunication services entailing the emergency services, public call box service and
directory information service. It further expects the services offered to the public to be within the
limits of resource pricing, be of quality and satisfy the reasonable demands of consumers.

BTC finances objective is to ensure that telecommunications facilities are provided to rural areas.
The programme caters for areas that are not economically viable to be undertaken by BTC.
Through this programme the Botswana Telecommunication Corporation has serviced all villages
except for Toteng, Botalaote, Matopi, Patayamatebele and Mowana. But the villages of Botalaote,



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Toteng and Mowana are likely to be covered under the same programme since they are within
15km radius.

13.2.6   Meteorological Services Policy
In the area of Meteorological Services, Government‟s role is to provide weather data and
information for aviation purposes, agriculture and public weather services in general. Weather
forecast is important for a large number of activities, including planning and air safety.

In the District the weather information is used mainly for agriculture. Weather information
indicates to farmers when to commence ploughing or whether to increase stock off-take to
minimize losses in the event of a looming drought.

13.2.7   Postal Services Act
The Act seeks to provide, develop, operate and manage postal services in an efficient and cost
effective manner. The Act further expects the post to co-operate with local and other public
authorities and consult such authorities on matters that have their interest. It is on this note that the
Botswana Post undertakes market research prior to establishing a post office.

The Botswana Post support and encourages community participation by assisting them to establish
postal agencies. The District has five post offices and four postal agencies. The post offices are
situated in Masunga, Ramokgwebana, Makaleng, Matsiloje and Tshesebe while the postal
agencies are found in Zwenshambe, Nlapkhwane, Tati Siding, Mapoka and Moroka. There is a
serious shortage of postal services in the District as a result people travel long distances to such
facilities. The strategy during DDP 6 would be to encourage the VDC‟s to build postal agencies
through drought programme. The introduction of counter computerization project will enhance
efficiency in the counter operations, reduce transaction time and provide up to date product
information.

13.3     WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
13.3.1   Roads
The responsibility of the construction and maintenance of roads is shared between Central
government and district Council. The District has three types of roads being the primary,
secondary (these are gazetted roads) and rural roads. The central government maintains gazetted
roads while the District Council maintains rural roads. The District has a total of 637km length of
roads i.e. 372km are under the District Council while 265 km are under Central Government.
These comprise 196 km tarred roads, 167km gravel roads and 274km earth/sand roads. The
Central government 265km length of roads comprises 193 km sealed roads, 52 gravel roads and 20
km earth roads.

The North East District Council 372 km of link roads network consists 3kms of tarred roads,
115km gravel, and 254km of labour intensive maintained earth/sand roads. The District is also
entrusted with maintenance of internal roads in all the villages in the District. This encompasses
17km tarred roads and about 260km earth roads. Some additional 40km tar marked roads will be
introduced when the ongoing Tati Siding infrastructure development project is competed.



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The conditions of the District roads is generally poor due to lack of maintenance and to some
extent that some roads are not passable during rainy season e.g. Tshesebe – Masunga road.

13.3.2   Transport and Road Safety
The District has developed a major road link with quite a number of villages through the tarred
loop road from Ramokgwebana through Moroka, Mapoka, Zwenshambe, Mulambakwena,
Masunga, Kalakamati, Makaleng and Sebina. Another link was created through Francistown –
Matshelagabedi- Matsiloje road. The Matshelagabedi road links the eastern part of the District
with the City of Francistown- Bulawayo national roads i.e. Tati siding, Tsamaya, Tshesebe,
Jackalas I and Ramokgwebana.

There are a few transport support facilities in the District, for instance there are only four private
filling stations. Both private and public modes of transport operate in the district. The most
prevalent used mode of transport is buses and mini buses. There is public transport for villages
within the periphery of the district headquarters though not adequate in terms of spatial
distribution, coverage and frequency of the service. Communities are not pleased with the
situation; in some areas there is absolutely no public transport such that travels within and outside
the district can be cumbersome. Private initiative in this sector will be encouraged during DDP6 in
effort to integrate the district and make travel not a difficult venture.

13.3.3   Railways
The organization has been operating at losses and will during DDP6 strategize on loss reduction
and promote the use of rail transport within an integrated transport system.

The north-south rail line passes through some areas in the district such as Tatisiding, Tsamaya,
Tshesebe and Ramokgwebana serving as a link of the district to neighbouring Zimbabwe and the
city of Francistown. Safety in the rail sub-sector will be given close attention during DDP6
particularly taking cognizance of the fact that increase in efficiency is linked and encapsulates
increase in speed.

The Tshesebe station is the major station in district. It was widely used as a loading centre for both
goods and passengers. There are also sidings at Tati Siding, Tsamaya and Ramokgwebana that are
used for embarking and disembarking by passengers. The loading facilities that exist in the district
are of a very poor standard and are not frequently maintained.

The passenger trains, which used to transport people between Botswana and Zimbabwe have since
been discontinued and this has led to the railway to operate far below its capacity. There is also a
possibility that most facilities such as waiting and tickets rooms may be vandalised or turn into
ghost houses. One other area of concern is the low standard of the loading facilities at Tshesebe
station due to lack of regular maintanence. The other worth mentioning point is lack of support
facilities such as shelters, platforms and tickets offices.

13.3.4   Civil Aviation
The Department of Civil Aviation is based in Francistown due to the fact that most of the airstrips
that exist in the District are privately owned. The runway in both government and private airstrips



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is mostly gravel. There are no proper records indicating the number of aircraft in these airstrips.
These airstrips are used occasional except on emergency cases.

To further enhance efficiency in the civil aviation sub-sector, during this plan period the
Department of Civil Aviation will be transformed into an autonomous parastatal named Civil
Aviation Authority. It will continue to further look into the use of modern accurate technology in
an effort to produce accurate information and ensure that air travel is safe to use.

13.3.5   Central Transport Organisation
The organization during DDP5 went through a facelift where the restructuring exercise included
an overhaul of the management and the operation of the organization. The changes made were
emphatic on cost-consciousness in effort to minimize cost. The strategy was disseminated to the
districts to implement.

The Central Transport Organization (CTO) provides central government departments with
transport and is also responsible for maintenance of government fleet. There is a district based
CTO which provides fuel and maintenance for the central government fleet. It should be noted
that the CTO does not have the capacity to service all the vehicles on time. Therefore it is
recommended that CTO should outsource their workshop to the private sector to assist in this
regard.

13.3.6   Telecommunications
Botswana Telecommunications Corporation has undergone a three-year transformation during
DDP5 entailing fundamental management, financial and operational restructuring. This
precipitated a total overhaul of the organization in terms of staffing and operational set-up.

The corporation provides telecommunication through the cable and the wireless local loop, which
does not only provide telephonic communication but also, facilitates the use of internet and e-mail
in major villages and urban areas. Of course most peri-urban areas are covered by this facility
since it operates within a given radius. It extends its services to the rural areas by providing a wire
network. Though the corporation is keen to bring phones to the remote areas, cost effectiveness is
one of the prime scenarios in determining the location of the telephone services. Therefore the
government funds rural telecommunication development projects and for our district 38 villages
are covered under this programme. These are planned for the first year of the plan. The
programme is run at a cost of P125 million for the Kweneng, Southern and North East districts.
Since the introduction of cellular networks in the country through two companies, Orange and
Mascom, BTC has also supplied the backbone network to facilitate cellular communication.

There are currently 55 pay phones in the district, 42 coin and 13 card system. It is however
planned to increase these pay phones during the implementation of the rural telecommunication
development projects in the 38 villages is to two (2) pay phones per village.

It is however worthy of note to indicate that the private sector through cellular phones and private
payphones has further strengthened accessibility to telecommunication lines. The District has
telecommunications links with the City of Francistown and other major centres in the district.




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13.3.7      Postal Services
The Botswana Postal Services (BPS) is charged with the responsibility to construct post offices
and mini-post offices. The postal agencies are initiated by the communities and approved by the
postal service upon review of their viability. The Botswana post will support this initiative by
payment of employees and also meeting other operational costs. In view of highly subsidized
costs of postal agencies by big posts, BPS would rather employ its funds on expansion of and
improvement of existing postal services than to construct new structures.


    Table 13.1: Postal Services in North East District
Post Offices                                                     Postal Agencies
Masunga                                                          Kalakamati
Matsiloje                                                        Tatisiding
Tshesebe                                                         Moroka
Ramokgwebana                                                     Mapoka
Makaleng                                                         Nlapkhwane
                                                                 Zwenshambe
Source: Botswana Post, Northern Region 2003


13.3.8      Department of Architecture and Buildings
The primary aim of DABS is to provide finalization of projects with clients by providing cost
estimates, preparing detailed designs, tender documentation, commissioning of successful
contractors and additionally maintenance of all council buildings. The department has been out-
sourcing some of its works in an effort to cope with the ever-increasing workload. Of recent there
has been a boom in the construction industry and a sharp increase in the government building
stock, which is overwhelming the capacity of available manpower. Efforts by government to
reduce work force will also affect the capacity of the department. The problem of capacity
constraint is further compounded by inability to retain qualified personnel by the department,
exhibited by high staff turnover.

13.4        WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 13.2: Works, Transport and Communications Goals and Objectives
Sector                   Goals                                                      Objectives
Works                    Ensure efficiency in the provision of services and         Outsourcing some of the services e.g. clerk of
                         implementation of projects by executing works timely and   works, construction, etc throughout the plan period.
                         within the budgeted costs.
                                                                                    Provision of back up facilities such as generators,
                                                                                    etc by 2008/09.

                                                                                    Construction of DEMS depot during the first half of
                                                                                    the plan period.
Transport                Improve the quality of life of the district populace and   Formation of two village road safety committees per
                         ensure that travel is safe by encouraging community        financial year.
                         participation in road safety measures
                                                                                    Conduct two workshops per financial year.

                                                                                    Construction of Tshesebe –Masunga road by
                                                                                    2008/09.

                                                                                    Construction of 3 bridges by 2008/09.

                                                                                    Enforcement of drunken         driving   legislation
                                                                                    throughout the plan period.



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Sector                            Goals                                                        Objectives

                                                                                               Connection of silkerk to main railway line by
                                                                                               2008/09.

                                                                                               Weigh bridge constructed at Ramokgwebana border
                                                                                               post by 2003/04.

                                                                                               Improvement of Sebina-Ramokgwebana road by
                                                                                               2008/09.

                                                                                               Bituminisation of 8km of Letsholathebe Masunga
                                                                                               road by 2004/05

                                                                                               Gravelling of 339km of access roads, 148km of
                                                                                               internal roads, construction of 21 culverts, 2 bridges
                                                                                               and 2 drifts effective 2004/05.

                                                                                               Purchasing of bulldozer, grader, 3 tipper trucks
                                                                                               during 2004/05.
Communication                     Improving efficiency in service offered to customers         Provision of counter computerization project in post
                                  through consultation with all stakeholders.                  offices by 2003/04.

                                                                                               Encourage communities to initiate postal agencies
                                                                                               effective 2003/04.

                                                                                               Provision of two way radio systems where there is
                                                                                               no telephone services by 2005/06.




13.5          FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
General impact of the environment by the construction industry encompasses land degradation,
global factors such as ozone depletion affecting the quality of the environment. The level of
impact is a function of the decision made at each level right form the inception to the completion
of the project. Factors of site selection and design material impacts are considered in the design of
roads and buildings.
In the formulation of overall goals and objectives consideration was made to ensure that they are
not in conflict with the sector policies and programme and the sector policies and programmes are
evaluated to ensure that their implementation will not impact on the environment.

    Table 13.3: Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                        Objectives                          Environmental Issues           Strategy
Ensure efficiency in provision of services   Outsourcing some of the             Cutting of trees               Landscaping.
and implementation of project.s              services e.g. construction, clerk
                                             of works, etc.                      Land degradation               Provision of sanitary facilities.

                                             Construction of DEMS depot.         Burrow pits                    Rehabilitation of burrow pits.

                                                                                 Improper waste disposal
Improve the quality of life of district      Construction  of      Tshesebe-     Indiscriminate littering.      Tree planting.
populace through provision of better road    Masunga road.
networks and maintenance.                                                        Cutting of live trees          Rehabilitation of burrow pits.
                                             Construction of 3 bridges.
                                                                                 Burrow pits                    Provision of dustbins.
                                             Weighbridge constructed at
                                             Ramokgwebana border post by         Land degradation
                                             2003/04.

                                             Connection of silkirk to main
                                             railway line by 2008/09.

                                             Bituminisation of 8km of
                                             Letsholathebe Masunga road by




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Goals                                        Objectives                          Environmental Issues            Strategy
                                             2004/05

                                             Gravelling of 339km of access
                                             roads, 148km of internal roads,
                                             construction of 21 culverts, 2
                                             bridges and 2 drifts effective
                                             2004/05.


    Table 13.4: Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies/programs                            Objectives                                              Environmental issues
Roads Act                                    To construct and maintain primary, secondary and        Cutting of trees.
                                             rural roads.
                                                                                                     Land degradation.

                                                                                                     Soil erosion.

                                                                                                     Burrow pits.
Local Government Act                         Empowers the district council to make, alter and        Cutting of trees.
                                             maintain rural public roads.
                                                                                                     Land degradation.

                                                                                                     Soil erosion.

                                                                                                     Burrow pits.
Transport and safety policy                  Ensure that roads are safe, sound and useable.          Indiscriminate littering.

                                                                                                     Provide sanitary facilities.
Civil aviation policy                        Provide safe aviation.                                  Noise pollution.

Telecommunications Act                       Mandates the telecommunication authority to             Cutting of trees.
                                             supervise and promote the provision of efficient
                                             telecommunication services.                             Soil erosion.

                                                                                                     Indiscriminate littering.




13.6          STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE WORKS, TRANSPORT                                           AND      COMMUNICATIONS SECTOR
              GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 13.5: Works, Transport and Communications Strategies
Proposed Project         Potential Environmental Impacts                                  Mitigations Measures
                         Loss of Vegetation and tree species due to bush clearing.        Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A) to be carried
                                                                                          out on each major project.
                         Dust and noise pollution.
                                                                                          Replanting trees/shrubs and consideration of inclusion of
                         Indiscriminate littering.                                        landscaping as part of each projects especially buildings.

                                                                                          Provision of skips/dustbins.
                         Indiscriminate digging of burrow pits.                           Rehabilitation of burrow pits.

                                                                                          Identification of sand collection points with high
                                                                                          community participation.
                         Indiscriminate and haphazard disposal of building rubble.        Proper disposal of rubble/waste at identified sites.

                                                                                          Community policing to be incorporated.
Infrastructure           Loss of rare vegetation/shrubs indigenous species due to         Conduct E.I.A.
development              clearing of bushes.
Construction Projects                                                                     Replant trees/shrubs along the road.
                         Over extraction/harvesting of aggregates.                        Systematic and controlled extraction of material.
                         Loss of water in view of limited water resources.                Consider possibility of using untreated water.




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13.7        RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
13.7.1      Issues and Strengths
13.7.1.1 Issues
For road construction there is a problem of land since some of the roads traverse freehold farms.
During DDP 5 acquisition of servitude for roads construction was difficult due to insufficient
funding.

All the proposed projects will not be undertaken due to inadequacy of resources. The capital
allocations in terms of financial ceilings have been stringent. In the past plan there were a lot of
cost overruns due to the front-loading of the plan. Efforts will be made to match the available
manpower with the planned projects. In an effort to curb issues of manpower needs projects will
be phased accordingly, and clerk of works and temporary staff efforts where possible will be
engaged.

Due to shortage of plant, equipment and machinery efficiency in the construction sector is
hampered. Efforts to increase these will be pursued during DDP6. Inadequate water is another
factor that causes the construction costs to go up, as water has to be fetched from far. Additionally
aggregates and suitable material are also at a distance resulting in increases in the cost of
construction.

13.7.2      Development Budget


    Table 13.6: Development Budget
Project Title & Name                      Project Component                          Amount Allocated   Implementation Year
BR 106 – Botswana Railways Finances       Silkirk Rail Spur                          30 000 000         TBA
WT 104 – MWT Facilities                   New Regional Depot                         5 300 000          2004/05
                                          ( DEMS & DABS)
WT 401 – Transport Control & Road         Weigh Bridge - Ramokgwebana Border         9 645 000          2003/04
Safety                                    Post
WT 508 – Bitumen & Trunk Roads            Francistown – Ramokgwebana                 30 000 000         TBA
Improvements
                                          Sebina- Ramokgwebana                       38 000 000         TBA
                                          (Rehabilitation)
WT 509 – Secondary Roads Construction     Tshesebe - Masunga                         36 000 000         TBA
WT 521- Bridge Consruction                Shashe river( Kalakamati- Nswazi road)     TBA                TBA
                                          Gatshwane river( Butale – Tshesebe road)
                                                                                     TBA                TBA
                                          Gatshwane river(Senyawe- Butale road)
                                                                                     TBA                TBA
LG 1111 & 1115 – Village Infrastructure   Bituminisation     of     Letsholathebe-   1 2000 000         2004/05
& District Roads                          Masunga-8km

                                          Purchase bull dozer, grader and 3 tipper   4 800 000          2004/05
                                          trucks

                                          Gravelling of 339 km of access roads,      48 000 000         2004/05- 2008/09
                                          148km of internal roads, construction of
                                          21 culverts, 2 bridges and 2 drifts




13.7.3      Perforamnce Targets




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    Table 13.7: Performance Targets for DDP 6
Sector              Objectives                                                      Indicators
Works               Outsourcing some of the services e.g. clerk of works,           Services outsourced to private sector throughout the
                    onstruction throughout the plan period.                         plan period.
                    Provision of back up facilities such as generators, etc by      Backup facilities provided by 2008/09.
                    2008/09.
                    Construction of DEMS depot during the first half of the plan    DEMS depot constructed by 2005/06.
                    period.
Transport           Formation of two Village Road Safety Committees per             Two Village Road Safety Committees formed per
                    financial year.                                                 financial year
                    Conduct two workshops per financial year.                       Two workshops conducted per financial year.
                    Construction of Tshesebe –Masunga road by 2008/09.              Tshesebe – Masunga road constructed by 2008/09.
                    Construction of 3 bridges by 2008/09.                           Three bridges constructed by 2008/09.
                    Enforcement of drunken driving legislation throughout the       Drunken driving legislation enforced.
                    plan period.
                    Connection of silkerk to main railway line by 2008/09.          Silkerk connected to main railway line by 2008/09.
                    Construction of the weigh bridge at Matshelagabedi road by      Weigh bridge constructed at Ramokgwebana border
                    2008/09.                                                        post by 2003/04.
                    Improvement of Sebina-Ramokgwebana road by 2008/09.             Sebina- Ramokgwebana road improved by 2008/09.
                    Bituminisation of 8km of Letsholathebe –Masunga road by         8km of Letsholathebe –Masunga road by 2004/05.
                    2004/05.
                    Gravelling of 339km of access roads, 148km of internal roads,   339km of access roads, 148km of internal roads,
                    construction of 21 culverts, 2 bridges and 2 drifts effective   construction of 21 culverts, 2 bridges and 2 drifts
                    2004/05.                                                        effective 2004/05.
                    Purchasing of bulldozer, grader, 3 tipper trucks during         Bull dozer, grader, 3 tipper trucks purchased by
                    2004/05.                                                        2004/05.
Communication       Provision of counter computerization project in post offices    Counter computerization provided by 2003/04.
                    by 2003/04.
                    Encourage communities to initiate postal agencies effective     Communities constructed postal agencies by 2008/09.
                    2003/04.
                    Provision of two way radio systems where there is no            Two way radio systems provided by 2005/06.
                    telephone services by 2005/06.



13.7.4      Plan Monitoring Programme
Projects in the plan will be implemented on yearly basis through the Annual Development Plan.
These plans will be reviewed on annual basis prior to formulation of the next annual plan. Plans
and plan reviews will be submitted to the District Development Committee which is the overall
committee overseeing the implementation of the plan. Implementation schedules will also be
formulated with tied time framework to ensure that monitoring will be a possible undertaking.




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CHAPTER 14
14       LAW, JUSTICE AND SECURITY

14.1     INTRODUCTION
This chapter covers all institutions concerned with law-making and its enforcement to ensure a
stable and peaceful environment conducive for the nation‟s development. These institutions are
Parliament, Administration of Justice, Attorney General‟s Chambers, Auditor General, Botswana
Police Service, Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime, Ombudsman, Department of
Immigration and Citizenship, Prisons and Rehabilitation, Independent Electoral Commission, and
Botswana Defense Force. At the district level these institutions comprise Botswana Police
Service, Tribal Police, Administration of Justice, Immigration, and Independent Electoral
Commission.

The district has three police stations in Masunga, Tshesebe and Matsiloje. The Independent
Electoral Commission began decentralizing to districts during DDP 5. The district was allocated
an election officer. With regard to the judiciary, a magistrate on visiting basis services the district.
The Immigration Department operates with a two border posts at Ramokgwebana and Matsiloje.

These institutions aim at uphold the ideals of the vision 2016, which accentuates on a safety and
security and further propels openness, democracy and accountability. The Independent Elections
will ensure that there is voter education to encourage the accountability and promote democracy
and voter rights, accountability of voters themselves and the incumbent leaders. It further propels
ideals of democracy be ensuring that the elections are held in a peaceful and democratic way
where the rights of the voters are upheld.

Both the local police and the Botswana police will ensure that offenders are prosecuted; public
property is protected ensuring safety of the members of the public, visitors and investors. The
department of immigration will ensure that emigrants, of which potential investors may be
included, have proper passage at the border posts with less hassle. The department will also work
against illegal emigration and residence. These efforts are expected to boost economic
development in the local economy and promote social justice.

These institutions aim at uphold the ideals of the vision 2016, of making Botswana a safe and
secure nation and further stresses openness, democracy and accountability. The Independent
Electioral Commission will ensure that there is voter education to encourage the accountability
and promote democracy and voter rights, accountability of voters themselves and the incumbent
leaders. It further propels ideals of democracy be ensuring that the elections are held in a peaceful
and democratic way where the rights of the voters are upheld.

Both the local police and the Botswana police will ensure that offenders are prosecuted; public
property is protected ensuring safety of the members of the public, visitors and investors. The
department of immigration will ensure that emigrants, of which potential investors may be
included, have proper passage at the border posts with less hassle. The department will also work




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against illegal emigration and residence. These efforts are expected to boost economic
development in the local economy and promote social justice.

14.1.1   Institutional Framework
The district council has the unit of byelaw enforcement and the post of the district attorney. Its
responsibility is to ensure that council byelaws are enforced.

The strategic plan of the Law, Justice and Security exists as such development plan has been
aligned with strategic objectives set in the document. To this end, the institution is committed to
customer satisfaction, quality service and productivity. The key result areas, set out in the
strategic plans of these institutions, are reduction of crime, customer satisfaction, prudent resource
utilization, information availability, employee‟s growth and development.

14.1.2   Role of the Private Sector
The role of the private sector in these sectors is minimal. However the role of these sectors in
ensuring full and safe participation of the private sector is of paramount importance. These
institutions continue to work hard in ensuring a conducive and secure environment for investment.
Immigration assists investors to settle and invest in Botswana and facilitate movement of tourists
and other travellers. Concerted efforts will continue to be made to retain this environment. There
is little or no participation of the private sector in this law and legal sector. Private legal advisors
are mostly based in Francistown. The district has private security companies mainly dealing with
the guarding of public institutions such as administration centres, schools and clinics. The need for
the service has been increasing due to the increase in the level of crime.

14.1.3   Consultation Priorities
Communities sighted concerns in increase in road accidents especially along the A1 road between
Francistown and Ramokgwebana Road. There is need for increased highway patrols and the
maintenance of the road i.e. debushing and resurfacing of the bad parts of the road.

Shortage of accommodation for police officers was also sighted. Local Police are not given
adequate resources to execute their function, i.e both housing and office accommodation as well as
transport. Communities further raised concerns on the influx of Zimbabwean emigrants in the
district which consequently leads to increase in the level of theft, robbery, assaults and rape cases.
Communities called for stiffer penalties for emigrants and residents who hide, trade or employ
illegal emigrants

Congestion at the Ramokgwebana border post was also sighted and communities felt that there is
probably need to increase staff at the border to cope with the influx of travellers.

14.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
14.2.1   Immigration Act
The Department of Immigration and Citizenship act under the guidance or strength of the
Immigration Act CAP 25:02 which among others things clearly regulates the conduct of foreigners
entering and leaving Botswana. The Act empowers the department to take punitive steps on illegal


                                                                                                    152
emigrants of which more are from Zimbabwe. The clean-up campaigns and raids to locate
emigrants have been ongoing.

There is also a guide to Immigration Officers, for purposes of issuing passports. Acquisition of
Botswana Citizenship there is a Citizenship Act No. 8 of 1998.

14.2.2   Botswana Police Act
Internally, the Botswana Police Service performs its duties under the strength and the guidance of
the Police Act, Cap. 21:01 and the regulations thereto. The Act is constituted under Botswana
Laws passed by the Parliament. The Act was amended in 2001. It empowers the police to take
legal and punitive action against offenders. The police service against the backdrop of the influx of
illegal emigrants and rising crime level is doing its best to ensue that the district is a safe place to
settle in.

14.2.3   Immigration and Citizenship
The department regulates travellers‟ movement in and out of the country. It also offers
Immigration related services for citizens, residence permits for persons coming to Botswana for
the purpose of work/residence being dependants and immigrants residing with their spouses or
relatives, acquisition of Botswana citizenship by married spouses and acquisition of permanent
residence for persons who have been resident for a continuous period of ten years or beyond (i.e.
investors, employees, immigrants and dependants).

The Department of Immigration and Citizenship is responsible for protecting the National
Sovereignty of Botswana and protect the rights of its citizens. There is a critical need for the
Department to develop positive relationship with international visitors, investors and tourists. In
order for the department to achieve its goals it must have close relationship with the Ministry of
Trade Industry Wildlife and Tourism. It should also have relationship with the Police, Customs,
BDF, Local Police, Labour and Bye-Law Enforcement Officers.

The district-based office in Ramokwebana is currently experiencing a rising problem of illegal
emigrants. This emanate from the political problems the neighbouring Zimbabwe is experiencing.
There is a considerable amount of movement at the Ramokgwebana border, such that the
immigration, customs and excise staff at the border is overwhelmed by a lot of travellers.
Travellers also congregate at the border overnight awaiting for the opening of the border. This has
resultantly caused generation of waste and unsanitary conditions, as there are no toilets outside the
border. The district management has met to come up with alternatives to resolve the issue. One of
the issues discussed would be consultation with the department of transport to revise the schedule
of departure times for buses ensuring that they will arrive and cross the border while it is still
opened.

There is a well-developed border post in Ramokgwebana. The Matsiloje one is still operating in
porta-camps while the Zimbabwean side has fully-fledged offices. Matsiloje border does not have
an all season‟s bridges to allow passage of all types of vehicle but only small ones can pass.
During DDP 6 the Matsiloje Bridge and Border Post will be constructed.




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14.2.4    Botswana Police Service
The Botswana Police Service is an institution wholly charged with the responsibility of enforcing
all written laws of Botswana also performing some of the duties of the Attorney General
Chambers, in particular, prosecution of criminal cases both at Customary and Subordinate Courts.
The Department falls directly under the Ministry of Presidential Affairs and Public administration
and its duties, and functions in administration of service are:

        To protect life and property.
        To prevent and detect crime.
        To repress internal disturbances.
        To maintain security and public tranquility.
        Apprehend offenders and bring them to justice.
        Enforce all written laws of Botswana.
        And generally maintain peace.

The district has 3 police stations in Masunga, Thesebe and Matsiloje. The Tshesebe Police Station
is undergoing upgrading and will have a double storey office block and additional 30 houses. Over
the time the incidence of crime has increased in the district, which necessitates the increase of
police services. The rising crime level has been attributed to the influx of both legal and illegal
Zimbabwean emigrants. The situation emanates form the unending economic crises in the
neighbouring Zimbabwe. Efforts to address the problem are ongoing, through clean-up campaigns
and spot checks. Kgotla meetings have also been held to encourage and lobby for support of the
community in the fight against crime exacerbated by emigrants. Residents have been encouraged
to avoid purchasing goods sold by emigrants as this encourages them to keep on coming back to
sell. Additionally there have been reports of rape and assaults caused by emigrants.

For the past three years there has been an escalating trend of crime statistics. This calls for the
need to keep on increasing the number of police officers in the district and engage strategies that
will reduce crime

There is a notable closer working relationship between the police and the community as exhibited
by community involvement in crime prevention activities. These include neighbourhood watch
committees, councilors, business community, local farms and schools. Communities have gained
confidence in the police through a system which was developed to engage communities in policing
entailing both consultation and partnership. The district has crime prevention committees in which
there is a meaningful dialogue between the police and committees regarding expectations and
problem solving. These crimes combat efforts and dialogues will be continued during the plan and
dialogues will be continued during the period.

14.2.5    Customs and Exercise
The department falls under the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning and directly under
the division of financial affairs. It is one of the major revenue earners seconding mineral revenue.
The department accrues its revenue resources from customs that is duty being imposed on
imported goods and excise being a levy on locally produced goods. These duties are exercised on
airports, railways and border posts.




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The district has a department of customs and excise based at Ramokgwebana border posts, which
connects to Zimbabwe. There is noticeable high level of trade exchange as the dominance/strength
of the Pula currency gives the Botswana residents advantages of cheaper purchases across border.
It is nevertheless disappointing that a considerable number of customers do not want to be levied
on the external purchases and a such do not declare some of the goods. The department will during
DDP6 intensify on reduction of smugglers in view of reducing revenue losses.

14.2.6   Local Police and Customary Court
The section though under the ministry of local government also undertakes some prosecution and
judicial services at the local level. They mainly deal with matters of indigenous custom and try
criminal cases of certain jurisdiction. The District Commissioner reviews judgments of customary
court cases. Due to its easy accessibility and being locally based its services are highly utilized as
depicted by 2200 cases tried annually on average. Additionally, the language use, indigenousness
and prevalence of use cultural principles and precepts make it even more accessible to local
people.

The district has 10 sub-chiefs, 21 headmen of record, 16 headman of arbitration and 36 headman
of arbitration on allowance. The chiefs have capacity to arbitrate and try both civil and criminal
cases, while the headman of arbitration only arbitrate cases, which are of civil nature only. These
have capacity also, many a times they are able to handle cases and conclude them without reaching
the sub-chiefs. On the local police side, the district is headed by the Senior Superintendent Police
Officer based in Masunga. The district is divided into section/areas and the Assistant
Superintendent heads these. The department is faced with lack of transport making it almost
impossible to undertake follow-ups of court fines and compensation. Plans have been made to
increase the fleet of tribal police in efforts to increase efficiency in the department.

14.2.7   Administration of Justice
The department has decentralized to the district as cases are tried within the district. However,
during DDP6, the department aims to constructing temporary offices so that the services become
more accessible to the society. This will go along way in realization of the main aim of promoting
greater access to justice through provision of appropriate infrastructure in rural and urban/peri-
urban areas, further subscribing to the vision 2016 pillars of creating a safe and secure nation.

14.2.8   Independent Electoral Commission
The Independent Electoral Commission has the responsibility of ensuring that elections are
conducted efficiently, properly, freely and fairly within the requirements of the constitution of the
Republic of Botswana and electoral laws generally, in that way upholding one of the national
principles of Botswana, which is democracy and openess.

During DDP 5 election office was established and decentralized to the district. The office
continued to provide public education on voter rights. More promotional campaigns need to be
undertaken. In the last elections only 14 115 people out of the eligible district population
registered. Of the 14 115 people who registered, 10 549 voted denoting 78.2% representation.
Although this is a common issue in the country the district will make efforts during DDP6 to
increase voter registration and instil accountability as enunciated in the Vision 2016.



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14.3          LAW JUSTICE AND SECURITY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 14.1: Law, Justice and Security Goals and Objectives
Department                    Goals                                   Objective
Immigration            and    To reduce all forms of unlawful         Conduction of clean up campaigns bi-monthly
Citizenship                   entry/residence
                                                                      Embarking on patrols along the border quarterly

                                                                      Public education on illegal emigration in view acquiring community
                                                                      participation and involvement in the eradication illegal emigrants.
                              To keep customers/community             To conduct public awareness campaigns twice a year
                              informed on the functions of
                              department                              Printing of legible and easy pamphlets on the functions of departments and
                                                                      how communities can benefit from the services of the department send them
                                                                      out quarterly

                                                                      Annual open-air services and open days/shows where the functions of
                                                                      departments will be sold to the public.
                              To promote the growth            and    To sensitize all staff on Performance Management Systems (PMS) and in
                              development of employees                particular strategic planning by 2003/2004.

                                                                      Provision of quality training for employees
Customs and Excise            Reach optimum revenue level             Broaden the tax payer base

                                                                      Increase the number of tax payers by 50%

                                                                      Reduce revenue losses by reducing smugglers by 50% mid plan period
                              To eliminate external trade in elicit   To liaise with stakeholders regarding elicit goods on annual basis
                              goods     in   partnership      with
                              stakeholders.
Botswana Police               Make the district a safe place to       Crime reduction and improvement on crime detection strategies by 2005
                              settle in
                                                                      Review of the existing patrol procedures to be commensurate with the
                                                                      complexity and frequency of crime by 2005

                                                                      To enhance the effectiveness of community participation and initiatives by
                                                                      2005
Independent       Electoral   Promotion of well-structured voting     To establish a timely effective voting mechanism by 2004
Commission                    culture among the communities
                                                                      To ensure that voters are motivated to vote, informed at all times about how
                                                                      to vote and are officially registered to vote by 2003.

                                                                      To facilitate the creation of a political climate in which parties are free, able
                                                                      to communicate, campaign to the electorate so that they can make informed
                                                                      choices by 2003
Administration of Justice     To promote greater access to            Undertake public awareness on the services offered by the department
                              judicial services                       annually

                                                                      Construction of magistrate court by mid plan period

                                                                      Reduce number of pending cases by 50% annually until the backlog is cleared




14.4          FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
The main environmental concerns with respect to developments envisaged are overexploitation of
natural resources such as river sand, water, and pit sand which will impact negatively on the eco-
system, indiscriminate digging of burrow pits, destruction of natural resources. As a result,
remedial measures have been proposed where a particular activity is deemed to have potential
impacts on the environment.




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The evaluation of sector goals and objectives is to ensure that these do not conflict with efforts to
attempt to address environmental concerns and also to ensure that sector goals and objectives are
in consonance with policies and existing pieces of legislatures.

14.4.1        Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives


    Table 14.1: Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals and Objectives                                    Environmental Key Issue                   Strategies
Reduce all forms of illegal emigrant/resident           Nil                                       Intensive search
                                                                                                  Patrols and clean up campaigns
                                                                                                  Public education in lobbying for public support
                                                                                                  and participation
Public awareness campaigns on functions of              littering                                 Mounting of refuse skips, refuse bags and bins
different departments
Reduce revenue losses – reduce illicit goods,           Nil                                       Intensive search athe border
reduce smuggling                                                                                  Increase manpower at the boarder
                                                                                                  Spot checks
Promote a voting culture                                Littering                                 Campaigns, public education, flyers and posters
Promote greater access to judicial services             Nil                                       Public education, open air seminars




14.4.2        Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programs


    Table 14.3: Evaluation Of Sector Policies and Programs
Policies and Programmes                   Goals and Objectives                                                Environmental Issues
Immigration Act                           Prevent all forms of illegal immigration and residence              Littering
Botswana Police Act                       To protect life and property of citizens, prosecute and maintains
                                          security
Customs Act                               Prevention of illicit goods and smuggling




14.5          STRATEGIES            TO        ACHIEVE LAW, JUSTICE                      AND    SECURITY SECTOR GOALS AND
              OBJECTIVES

The table below summarizes the potential impacts of the proposed activities and the mitigation
measures to be put in place.

    Table 14.4: Proposed Projects, Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Proposed project/Activities                 Potential Impact                                       Mitigation measures
Seminars                                    Littering                                              Waste receptacles

Kgotla meetings                                                                                    Further address communities on environmental
                                                                                                   conservation
Campaigns for voter education, illegal
immigration and availability of
judicial services.
Construction Projects viz; Magistrate       Lost of natural vegetation                             Conducting of an          Environmental     Impact
court, staff houses, police offices and                                                            Assessment studies.
staff houses                                Indiscriminate dumping of building rubble
                                                                                                   Regulate utilization of natural resources
                                            Excessive extraction of river sand, pit sand, water
                                            and gravel                                             Replanting of tree, extraction on agreed areas.

                                            Pollution



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14.6       RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
14.6.1     Issues & Strengths for Law Justice and Security
        Inadequate manpower levels especially the police. This then seemingly undermines efforts
         to fight crime as the crime level is rapidly increasing in terms of the number of cases and
         complexity.
        Lack logistics such as transport and equipment to adequately deal with crime issues and
         patrols.

14.6.2     Performance Targets
        Border patrols conducted atleast once a month.
        Clean up campaigns operations on quarterly basis.
        Yearly meetings/open air meetings held annually.
        Increased number of tax-payers by 10% midway the plan period.
        Reduction of smuggling by 50% by the end of the plan period.
        Reduce crime level by 50%.
        Formation of crime prevention committees in each village starting with those with higher
         crime statistics by 2005.
        Embark on intensified voter education prior to election and thereafter annually in each
         village.

14.6.3     Development Budget for DDP6
The table below gives details of projects that will be implemented during the DDP6.

   Table 14.5: Development Budget
Project Name                                Location      Amount Allocated   Year of implementation
Customs and Execise
Improvement of Customs Offices              Matsiloje     4 100 000
Improvement of Customs Offices              Ramokwebana   4 100 000          2004/5
Administration of Justice
Temporary structure                         Masunga       -                  -
Botswana Police
Construction of additional offices          Masunga       14 000 000         2005/6
Construction of staff houses                Masunga       11 000 000         2003/4
Construction of additional offices          Matsiloje     9 285 000          2006/7
Construction of staff houses                Matsiloje     8 798 000          2004/5
Independent Electoral Commission
Construction of Regional Offices            Masunga       1 460 000          2005/6
Government Revenue
Construction of Revenue Offices and staff   Masunga       5 800 000          2005/6
houses




14.6.4     Plan Monitoring Programme
Projects will be implemented yearly by breaking them down into annual plans. These plans will be
reviewed on annual basis prior to preparation of the next annual plan. Performance targets will be
the main guiding factors to determine whether there is progress or backsliding. Plans and plan



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reviews will be submitted to the District Development Committee which is the overall committee
overseeing the implementation of the plan ad ultimately to the Full Council.

Implementation schedules of relevant department will also be formulated with tied time
framework to ensure that monitoring will be a possible undertaking. These will also be presented
to both the Plan Management Committees and District Development Committees.




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CHAPTER 15
15       LOCAL GOVERNMENT

15.1     INTRODUCTION
The Ministry of Local Government has the primary responsibility of providing a wide range of
social services through local authorities. The local government ensures participatory planning in
the development process through promotion of wider community and other district based
institutions participation. The overall responsibility of ensuring efficient operation of local
government lies with the Ministry of Local Government. It comprises of Local Authorities, which
are based in both urban and rural areas and directly responsible for administering and delivering
different government policies and programmes to the communities in their areas of jurisdiction.

The local government contributes towards realization of Vision 2016 pillar of open and democratic
and transparent governance, though participatory bottom-up planning approach in the development
planning process whereby communities‟ ideas are taken into account through the consultation
process. The ideal of openness and accountability is encouraged as the communities are given the
projects to undertake themselves, given the latitude to elect the VDC membership they deem fit.
Through the tribal police and the Kgotla, safety and security is promoted in the district. Members
of the public are able to seek adjudication in matters that concern them. Cases are tried in the
Kgotla and the local police have also been give powers to arrest. The participation of the
community in volunteer work and caring for the needy promotes a culture of self-reliance,
morality, tolerance and compassion, which are Vision 2016 ideals.

15.1.1   Institutional Framework
The role of local government is important in rural areas as they give meaning to government
programmes and promote bottom up planning. There are four types of local authorities in
Botswana viz; District and Urban Councils, Tribal Administration, District Administration, and
Land Board. In the North East District all the four local authorities are represented

15.1.2   Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
15.1.2.1 Ministry of Local Government
The mandate of the Ministry of Local Government (in relation to Local Authorities) is to provide
basic physical and social infrastructure (e.g. water provision, primary school and clinics
construction) to the community. The other core business as stipulated in the ministry strategic
plan is that of ensuring efficient operation of local authorities through policy direction, capacity
building, and supervision. To achieve its mandate, the ministry has set itself key results areas viz;
Customer satisfaction, Policy implementation effectiveness, Improved quality of life of
communities, Productivity and organisational effectiveness.

All the above have a direct bearing on the operations and responsibilities of local authorities as it
is part of their core business hence their achievement is dependent on the full commitment of local



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authorities. Local authorities will therefore ensure that the overall results areas of local
government are achievable through the following;

Customer satisfaction

        To ensure customer satisfaction through timely delivery of quality service.
        To ensure continuous improvement in service delivery through two way communication.

Policy Implementation

        Improve local authorities project implementation through timely submission of project
         memorandums
        To ensure education, dissemination of information, and effective consultation of
         communities

Improved quality of life of communities

        To undertake social mobilisation and consultation with communities and provide an
         enabling environment for enhanced participatory development
        To promote sustainable self-reliance amongst communities through programmes such as
         LG 1109, Community Based Natural resource Management
        To improve community quality of life of Batswana by coordinating and providing basic
         infrastructure and services.
        To reduce the level of crime by adopting community policing.

Productivity and Organisation effectiveness

        The above local authorities recognise the need to develop departmental human resource
         development strategies to improve the level of productivity
        Tribal Administration will promote, effective understanding of Botswana of Botswana‟s
         culture facilitating documentation of customary laws. It will also ensure coordination of
         departmental activities through the development and implementation of sound policies,
         guidelines and effective leader team.

15.1.3    Role of Private Sector
The private sector will continue to play a pivotal role in development. The government strategy is
that of the private sector playing a leading role in development while government‟s role being of a
facilitator or that of providing an enabling environment for the sector to thrive. This is in view of
the fact that government alone cannot shoulder the burden of development. However, it must be
noted that, in the North East District, the sector has not fully asserted itself as expected at the
beginning of this plan period. More concerted efforts will continue to be made to ensure that the
sector takes its rightful place. The important role the sector is playing need not be emphasised
especially in view of the ongoing privatisation drive of government.

The sector is expected to play an important role in taking up activities that are currently being
done by government. This is so because responsibilities are increasing and due to limited resources
it may not always be possible to increase resources and manpower to match the increasing


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responsibilities. Privatisation becomes an answer to sharing of responsibilities. The hiving-off of
government duties is expected to improve efficiency in local government and other government
sectors. In the North East District privatisation initiatives have been and will be undertaken in the
areas of refuse collection, transport, education, day care centres etc. Presently, the sector is playing
an important role in construction, as council does not have the capacity to undertake all
construction and maintenance works.

15.1.4   Consultation Priorities
The Communities proposed infrastructural projects and posting of the requisite staff to villages as
their major priorities in the coming plan period. This is expected in view of the level of
development in rural areas where public infrastructure such as roads, school and health facilities,
and other public facilities are still lacking. The following is a detailed account of the North East
District Priorities;

Communication network; The projects proposed were bituminisation of all roads in the district
and construction of culverts and bridges
Public Facilities; provision of school and clinic facilities, proper offices for extension staff in
villages, customary court offices, community services, and water supply development.
Manpower; The communities also noted lack of manpower (extension staff) as a serious constraint
to development. In particular, the communities wanted to be provided with, enough agricultural
demonstrators, local police officers, social workers, and Family Welfare Officers as some villages
do not have these important extension staff.
Environment; The need to incorporate environmental issues at the stage of project conception was
also echoed by the communities. For example, major construction works should take account of
rehabilitation of burrow pits.
Provision of essential services/utilities such as electricity and telephones was high in the priority
list of communities.
Due to the important role VDCs play in development, it was proposed that they be given a vote
under council to further empower them rather than wait for LG 1109 and drought projects.

15.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
15.2.1   Tribal Land Act
The Act establishes land boards (chapter 32:02 of 1970) and mandates them to allocate land under
the customary and common law. The land board remains the custodian of the land and administers
the use of land in the whole district. Its boundaries are the same as those for the district. The land
board faces problems of insufficient land for demarcation and consequent allocation. The other
problem facing the land board is the high land demand especially in the areas of the district, which
are proximal to the City of Francistown.

15.2.2   Local Police Act
There are conflicts within the act, which needs to be addressed for smooth running of the
department especially with respect to its application to employment of personnel. The department
is composed of two cadres namely, local police and administrative cadre. Local police act is used
to employ both these cadres although it does not cover the administrative cadre, which implies that
the employment of these officers is illegal. For the North East District a considerable amount of


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work is done by the local police prosecution and follow-ups the only setback is lack of transport
for adequate follow-up of cases etc.

15.2.3    Waste Management Act
The Act was passed in 1988 and seeks to follow principles of waste management pursuant to
environmental conservation. It also empowers council to facilitate and implement policies and
programmes that pursues proper management of waste. The district faces problem of
indiscriminate refuse disposal and loitering. Efforts have been concerted through stakeholders,
different fora and fronts to combat illegal dumping of waste and littering. The council byelaws will
be formulated and strengthened to address the issue during the plan period. Through the National
Rural Sanitation programme communities have been assisted with construction of toilets thereby
improving the sanitation level of the district.

15.2.4    Local Government
The local government at district level is constituted by the local authorities that is the district
council the tribal administration and the district administration. The land board though it is a local
authority, it has since been transferred to the ministry of land and housing.

15.2.5    District Councils
The Districts Councils have delegated been established by the Act of Parliament from which they
derive their powers and mandate. The Council has the power and discretion to allocate resources
within its areas of jurisdiction. Consultation is made with local communities regarding distribution
of resources for development. The power base therefore is local and the decisions reflect the
aspirations of the local communities. The council is accountable to the Ministry of Local
Government through which the development grants are channelled. Council receives 95% of its
recurrent requirement and 100% of its capital budget from the Ministry of Local Government. The
statutory responsibilities of councils are as follows;

        The provision of primary education facilities.
        The provision of basic primary health facilities.
        The development and maintenance of rural roads.
        The provision, operation and maintenance of village water supply.
        Social and community development.
        The making and enforcement of district bye-laws.

There are also other responsibilities, which cover sanitation services, administering Self Help
Housing Agency (SHHA), municipal abattoirs, and market stalls. Some of these functions are
complemented by central government ministries and parastatals (e.g water, health, and education).
Although in the district there is not much participation of the private sector and the parastatals.

The major challenge facing the council is to come up with own revenue sources than to solely
depend on central government for budget financing. The North East district council will during
DDP6 improve in its revenue collection through improvement of its billing system for services
such water and waste collection. Bills will be monthly sent to Kgotlas in different villages for
payments. Additionally efforts shall be made to collect sanitation fees at source where possible.


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Councils will make attempts to punctually bill the institutions existing in the villages for all the
services rendered. Guidelines will also be formulated to bill the private commercial enterprises for
waste collection. Currently servicing of industrial plots will in this plan period be undertaken in
Tatisiding through the infrastructural development project currently ongoing; council shall upon
completion ensure that the partial cost recovery principle is administered on such land.

15.2.6   District Administration
District Administration, which is headed by the District Commissioner, has the primary
responsibility of ensuring effective representation of central government in the district. It plays
the overall role of development coordinator in the district through coordination, compilation and
implementation of the district development plans, and annual plans. Apart from the planning
responsibilities, the department also performs various legal responsibilities as stipulated in the
Botswana Laws. The District Commissioner is also the chairperson of the Tribal Staff Committee
performs judiciary services in certain instances, acts as a marriage, ceremonial and protocol officer
and should ensure dissemination of information on different government legislations, policies and
programmes to all stakeholders.

The department is constrained by lack of information on development programmes. Information
on the development programmes, projects and implementation schedules for projects planned for
implementation in the district for ministries based in the district is not availed to the department.
This cripples efforts of coordinated development in the district. For the District Commissioner to
adequately perform duties of development coordination the district commissioner‟s offices should
be empowered to be able to control and coordinate district based staff, the ministries should also
be obliged to report to the district as a standing order.

15.2.7   Tribal Administration
Tribal administration, which has the Kgotla as its central organ, is one of the oldest institutions in
Botswana society. It was in existence long before the introduction of the public service, which
came into being during the colonial era. The main responsibility of tribal administration is the
administration of justice under the system of customary law; it conducts the network of customary
courts, which handles the majority of criminal and civil cases in Botswana. Apart from the
administration of justice, the department has developmental duties through supporting
development initiatives, particularly at the community level. This is so as the Chief is the ex-
officio member of the Village Development Committee, which coordinates community initiatives
in the development process. The Chief is also the ex-officio member of the district council and sits
in the full council meeting of the council, expected to make significant contribution in the
developmental and legislative decision passed by the council. His role is the there to bridge the
cultural expectation of the community as relates to the policies and the law. The chief remains the
custodian of the traditional culture and belief.

The district has chiefs, sub-chiefs and headmen of arbitration. These are responsible as traditional
leaders in their respective villages and are expected to keep law and order through performance of
arbitration in settling disputes and judiciary functions in trying both civil and criminal cases.




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15.2.8        Land Board
Tati Land Board tribal area of jurisdiction covers 3391 km2 (out of 5993km2 of the total area of
the district). The tribal land is mainly for residential, commercial and agricultural uses. Other
categories of land tenure are: State land covering about 33km2 (o.5%) and freehold covering an
area of 2509 km2 (42.9%). The tribal land of about 3391 km2 caters for the population of about
49000 as per the population census of 2001, hence the need for the Land Board to make a Land
Use plan to address a balanced development and use relating to arable agriculture, livestock
keeping, mining activities, settlement location and further population growth.

15.2.9        Law and Order
The local police service enhances cooperation with law enforcement agencies through appropriate
consultative measures to develop effective criminal investigation strategy to improve quality of
policing service through applied research. It prosecutes offenders and handles criminal cases tried
at the local kgotla.

The district council through the commercial affairs and byelaw enforcement unit also keeps order
in the district. The byelaws enforcement unit enforces laws of payment of sanitation fees,
sewerage fees, noise and nuisance, street vending and hawking and also the trade and liquor act,
which is currently under revision.

15.3          LOCAL GOVERNMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
15.3.1        District Council


    Table 15.1: District Council Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                               Objectives
To create a conducive learning environment for a cross-section of   Ttimely provision of adequate and accessible facilities
learners.
                                                                    To construct all the planned development projects before the end of District
                                                                    Development Plan 6.

                                                                    To modify certain identified existing facilities to make them accessible to
                                                                    children with special educational needs before the end of 2003/2004.
To improve the health status of the community.                      Immunisation of all under fives

                                                                    Reduction of maternal morbidity by 75%

                                                                    Enforcement and public education on all programmes such as PMTCT
To increasing access to health services.                            Upgrading of Tati Siding Clinic to 24 hours and purchase of specialised
                                                                    equipment for the clinic in 2004/2005

                                                                    Extension of Tsamaya Rehabilitation Centre by 2005

                                                                    Construction of 1 health post in Patayamatebele by 2008, upgrading of
                                                                    health posts to clinics in Gulubane, Senyawe, and Moroka during
                                                                    2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 respectively.

                                                                    Upgrading of Themashanga clinic to maternity during 2006/2007
To improve communication and access in the North East.              Development and regular maintenance of district roads

                                                                    Upgrading o existing roads

                                                                    Bituminisation of some 8km Letsholathebe- Masunga road by 2005.

                                                                    Gravelling of 339km of access roads, 148km of internal roads, construction
                                                                    of 21 culverts, 2 bridges, and 2 drifts during the DDP6




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Goals                                                                Objectives

                                                                     To improve maintenance of roads during DDP6 through purchase of
                                                                     bulldozer, grader, and tipper trucks in 2003/2004.
To improve access to water and waste water disposal.                 Provision of water and sewerage facilities in Masunga and Tatising half way
                                                                     through the plan period

                                                                     Regular operation and maintenance of sewerage networks and water supply
                                                                     schemes

                                                                     Upgrading of all planed water supply schemes by the end of the plan period.
To empower the rural populace and cater or the economically weak.    Improvement of social welfare services to address all the needy, improving
                                                                     the coverage and further decentralising services to villages

                                                                     Formulate programmes for rehabilitation of the needy

                                                                     Improve access to habitable shelter through programmes such as SHHA
Create a conducive investment climate.                               Enforcement of bye-laws for trading and security purposes

                                                                     Development of the physical status of the district through infrastructural
                                                                     development

                                                                     Efficiency in the processing of licenses
To provide a customer focused service through provision of quality   To train staff and increase their job knowledge and sharpen their
and timely service.                                                  professional skills

                                                                     To develop good public relations within staff through training

                                                                     To continue to create channels through which the council exchanges views
                                                                     on the quality of service for continuous improvement through organising
                                                                     open days and individual submissions from concerned customers

                                                                     Create a forum for feedback from the communities
To continue to create a healthy, conducive, and secure environment   Through the making and enforcement of district bye-laws.

                                                                     District community

                                                                     Neighbourhood watch
To improve the sanitary status                                       Construct refuse transfer station

                                                                     Privatisation of refuse collection by 2004

                                                                     Provision of sanitary disposal of human waste through construction of 200
                                                                     sub-structure pit latrines annually throughout

                                                                     Ensure safety of food through monthly inspection of shops and food outlets

                                                                     Construction of slaughter by 2005




15.3.2       District Administration


    Table 15.2: District Administration Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                                Objectives
Coordination of district development.                                Provide co-leadership in district development planning and policy
                                                                     coordination throughout the plan period.

                                                                     Presentation of annual development plans and annual development plan
                                                                     reviews to full council.

                                                                     Presentation of quarterly district evelopemtn committee reports to full
                                                                     council.

                                                                     Ensures that all sub-DDC committees sit and execute their functions as
                                                                     mandated.
Provide central government representation at the district or local   Conduct quarterly district leadership consultative forum.
level.



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Goals                                                              Objectives
Provides management of the district administration department in   To ensure that district administration authorities are provided with adequate
the district.                                                      resources and administrative support services.

                                                                   To efficiently and effectively manage and resources allocated to the
                                                                   department.

                                                                   To respond effectively to food relief and deficiency needs as dictated by
                                                                   natural disasters and other deserving circumstances.

                                                                   To undertake all relevant ceremonial and statutory responsibilities.



15.3.3       Tribal Administration


    Table 15.3: Tribal Administartion Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                              Objectives
To enhance efficiency and effectiveness of service through         To construct three customary courts every financial year.
provision of appropriate manpower and adequate infrastructure
                                                                   Make manpower budget for all the necessary posts in the department
                                                                   annually and further ensure adequate resources for the department to carry
                                                                   out its functions.
To enhance overall efficiency                                      To enforce performance management principles in the work force.

                                                                   To old motivational talks and seminars for staff.

                                                                   Engage other sub-chiefs/headmen of arbitration to assist where there is
                                                                   backlog of cases.




15.3.4       Land Board


    Table 15.1: Land Board Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                              Objective
To implement the Tribal Land Act (1968) and the Amendment Act      To hold Full Board meetings six times in a year, each lasting seven days.
(1993) in conformity with other government policies.
                                                                   To hold Title Transfer Committee meetings eveths.

                                                                   To allocate land to applicants for 120 days in a year.

                                                                   To take services closer to the public by delivering certificates and leases to
                                                                   the people at least four times a year.

                                                                   To dispose tribal land to applicants timely.
To provide timely technical services to the customers              To produce 240 sketch plans in a year (40 sketch plans for every allocation
                                                                   trip).

                                                                   To reduce the allocation backlog for Tatisiding and Matshelagabedi by
                                                                   demarcating 600 and 300 plots respectively yearly.

                                                                   To prepare base maps for Masunga, Matshelagabedi and Tatisiding before
                                                                   the end of 2003/2004.

                                                                   To repossess and assess property that might be affected by village expansion
                                                                   in the whole district before the end of 2005/2006.

                                                                   To undertake individual title surveys as per request and ensure that there is
                                                                   no backlog.
To develop a human development strategy for the organisation       To develop an environment conducive to a healthy industrial relations, high
                                                                   staff morale and good quality performance starting 2003/2004.
Improvement of revenue resource base of the board                  To collect revenue due to the Board and make follow up on arrears twice per
                                                                   annum.




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Goals                                                                   Objective
                                                                        Educate members of the public on lease payments by 2004
To enhance overall efficiency and effective communication through       Kgotla meetings annually.
information dissemination.
                                                                        Publishing of pamphlets on the operation of the board, its mandate and
                                                                        performance targets by 2004.

                                                                        Open air seminars annually.

                                                                        Development of communication strategy by 2005.




15.4          FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
Local authorities, in particular council, are tasked with the responsibility of providing communities
in the rural areas with services. Their mandate, as elaborated above involve provision of basic
infrastructure such as roads, primary school infrastructure, and provision of health facilities.
Therefore, their undertakings have negative consequences on the environment. For example,
sector goals relating to provision of infrastructure such as roads, health facilities, primary school
infrastructure, and other public facilities support the national objectives of rapid economic
development. However, these sector goals and objectives have potential to impact negatively on
the environment. In the first place, they may put pressure on natural resources water, sand, gravel
leading to excessive extraction. These cause under ground water pollution and major changes in
ecosystem. Therefore, although the sector goals may be in line with the objective of rapid
economic development, they are not sustainable.

These problems have been identified and remedial measures will be put in place to address them
and as well support the sustainable development objective. Some of these are identification of
river sand, pit sand, and gravel extraction, conducting Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
studies for each project to be undertaken, and replanting of vegetation/trees after project
completion. The objectives will also cause land use conflicts, as the developments will require
land. There is therefore need to demarcate land for different uses and conduct EIA studies to
harmonise land uses.

Regarding evaluation of goals and objectives against policies and programmes, this is mainly to
ensure that the set objectives are not in conflict with the policies and programmes and also attempt
to identify environmental key issue

15.4.1        Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives against Key Environmental Issues


    Table 15.5: Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives with Key Environmental Issues
Goals and Objectives                            Key Environmental Issue                          Strategies
Conducive learning and improve health           Land degradation, extraction aggregates and      Landscaping and promotion of school garderns.
status environment through provision of         materials. Loss of vegetation and tree species
facilities.                                     through bush clearing.
Improve communication access through                                                             Replanting of trees.
road development and maintenance.
Create a conducive investor climate                                                              Landscaping, planting of trees along internal
through         physical      infrastructural                                                    roads. Development of parks.
development        (sewerage,      drainage,
streetlights, roads etc).
Improve sanitary status of the district                                                          Public  education    on    proper   sanitation,
Through provision of facilities and public                                                       development and adherence to waste management
education.                                                                                       plans.




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Goals and Objectives                         Key Environmental Issue                            Strategies
Promote a secure environment through         Littering.                                         Formation of crime prevention committees and
enforcement of byelaws and mobilisation                                                         promotion of neighbourhood watch culture
of communities regarding complacency to                                                         Conducting consultative meetings.
the law.
Promote industrial and commercial            Land degradation, air pollution, waste disposal,   Industries to submit waste management plans,
development.                                 Ground water pollution.                            monitoring to ensure complacency.
Provision of co-leadership in district       Nil                                                Ensuring that there are no conflicts in policies.
development planning and policy
implementation coordination.                                                                    Regular contact with implementing departments.
                                                                                                Workshops and consultative meetings.
To provide central govt representation,      Nil                                                Nil
undertake ceremonial and judicial
activities,
To dispose tribal land in an equitable way   Land degradation.                                  Land demarcation and prompt allocations.
to the satisfaction of the community.
To develop a well structured industrial      nil                                                Recognising and reward for good work.
relation strategy and human development
plan.                                                                                           Transparency within the organisation on issues of
                                                                                                training, performance appraisal and reward for
                                                                                                work.
Increase revenue resource base for land      Insufficient financial resources to meet council   Polluter-pays principle, cost recovery on serviced
board and council.                           and the board demands.                             land and services rendered.

                                                                                                Efficient collection of revenues and royalties.

                                                                                                Prompt billing of services.
Optimal use of Land.                         Pressure on land and land scarcity.                Development of land use plans, Follow up district
                                                                                                settlement strategy and village plans.

                                                                                                Preparation of development plans.

                                                                                                Acquisition of undeveloped plots, construction of
                                                                                                high rises, purchase of freehold farms.
Minimise land Use conflicts.                 Land use conflicts, double allocations.            Land Use plans, use of land overseers in
                                                                                                allocations.
Provision of adequate portable water to      Water shortage.                                    Look for alternative water resources, develop a
the district populace.                                                                          strategy for ground water protection – use sealed
                                             Ground water recharge problems.                    latrines (VIPs), public education on water
                                                                                                conservation.
                                             Ground water pollution.
                                                                                                Water harvesting techniques, construction of rain
                                             Water loss through lack of conservation            water tanks in every development. Formulation
                                             principles and livestock watering.                 and enforcement of byelaws on livestock
                                                                                                watering. Alternative water sources.



15.4.2       Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives Against Key Environmental Issues

Policies and Programme                       Goals and Objectives                               Environmental Issue
Partial cost recovery principle              Improvement of revenue resource                    Land degradation.
                                             base.
Industrial development policy,               Conducive environment for industrial               Poor waste management.
CEDA, Local preference policy                development.
(reservation policy).                                                                           Air pollution from industrial emissions.
                                             Promotion of commercial and
                                             industrial development.                            Increase in waste generated.
Tribal   land    Act – Plot                  Optimal use and disposal of land.                  Pressure on land and land scarcity.
demarcation.
National Water Master Plan,                  Provision of portable water to the                 Groundwater pollution.
Botswana strategy for waste                  district at large.
management, EIA, National                                                                       Misuse of scarce              water      resource
Settlement Policy.                           Water conservation strategy.                       (livestock watering).




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15.5      STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Proposed Projects             Potential Impacts                           Mitigation Measures
Infrastructure Construction   Loss of Vegetation and tree species due     Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A).
Projects                      to bush clearing.
                                                                          Replanting trees/shrubs.
                              Dust and noise pollution.
                              Indiscriminate digging of burrow pits.      Rehabilitation of burrow pits.

                                                                          Identification of sand collection points.
                              Unsightly and unhealthy environment         Proper disposal of rubble/waste.
                              as a result of careless disposal of
                              building rubble.
                              Ground water pollution arising from pit     Proper disposal of all waste.
                              latrines, abattoir waste and barrow pits.
                                                                          Introduction of water system toilets.
Road Construction Projects    Loss of rare vegetation/shrubs species      Conduct E.I.A.
and major infrastructure      due to clearing of bushes.
development projects                                                      Replant trees/shrubs.
                              Indiscriminate digging of burrow pits       Identify areas for      extraction      building
                              and collection of river sand.               materials.

                                                                          Rehabilitation of burrow pits and sand
                                                                          extraction areas.
                              Pollution of environment as a result of     Put waste receptacles in strategic areas.
                              littering due to increased movement of
                              people.
Seminars & Workshops          Littering.                                  Provision of waste receptacles.




15.6      RESOURCE REQUIREMENT FOR DDP 6
The North East district was given P213 483 000 for implementation of all local government
projects. It must be noted that the amount is far below the P1.7 billion worth of projects proposed
by the district. Therefore the district had to scale down a lot of the proposed projects in order to
fall within the given financial ceiling. Lack of funding will therefore be one of the major factors,
which will hinder achievement of local government goals and objectives

15.6.1    Issues and Strengths
The main strength of Local authorities is that they are locally based hence they are nearer the
communities they serve. It is in the light of this that they are able to reach out to the communities
in terms of service provision. This is possible through the consultation process, which ensures
constant communication with the consumers. It is against this background that local authorities
can be said to have the following strengths:

        Resource constraints in terms of finance and manpower.
        Lack of access to information technology. Local authorities are not connected to Central
         Government data bank and other organisations. This makes access to information difficult
         and time consuming.



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        Inadequate information technology skills.
        Shortage of land and conflicting land uses which makes planning difficult.
        The increase in construction prices will seriously limit the number of projects to be
         implemented during the DDP6.
        Lack of harmonisation of policies and acts.

15.6.2    Performance Targets
Performance targets for DDP6 will be measured in terms of the projects to be implemented each
financial year of the plan. These will be divided according to programmes as detailed in the
following section. The summarised implementation matrix for the projects is attached at the end
of the plan.

15.6.3    Development Budget
(A) District Council Projects
See Appendix 1 attached to this document.

15.6.4    Plan Monitoring Program
In the North East District, the Plan Management Committee is made up of the District
Commissioner and Council Secretary as co-managers, District Officer (Development), Senior
Council Planning Officer, and other members: Tribal Secretary, Land Board Secretary, District
Officer (Lands) and the Senior Physical Planner.

The co-managers perform the same duties for the District Development Committee. The Senior
Council Planning Officer and the District Officer (Development) have prepared and will
coordinate the implementation of this District Development Plan under the direction of the co-
managers. The District Development Committee and Plan Management Committee are advised by
the District Land Use Planning Unit, which is composed of professional district officers
conversant with land issues, chaired by the Land Board Secretary with the District Officer (Lands)
as secretary. DLUPU prepares and coordinates the district land use activities and plans.

The District Development Committee, which is composed of all government and district council
heads of departments, coordinates the District Development Plan. Each member is responsible to
the Committee and is obliged to report on the progress of his/her department. Quarterly Progress
reports are sent to the Ministries of Local Government, Lands Housing and Environment, and
Finance & Development Planning (Rural Development Coordination Division) with copies to all
districts and Permanent Secretaries to keep all concerned up-to-date with developments in the
district. The following sub-committees report to the DDC:

District Extension Team, District Land Use Planning Unit, Production Development Committee
and Multi-Sectoral Aids Coordinating Committee. The Senyawe and Zwenshambe Brigade
Development Trusts and other district based parastatals also report to the committee.

The District Extension Team serves as an important tool in the evaluation of the plan. The team
organizes an annual Village Development Committee conference for planning, monitoring and
evaluation of the district plan. The North East District Extension Team is co-chaired by the


                                                                                              171
District Officer (Development) and the Senior Council Planning Officer with the Chief
Community Development Officer and District Adult Education Officers as secretaries.

The functions of the District Extension Team are to prepare, monitor and ensure the
implementation of the Annual District Plan. Other functions include compiling progress reports,
organizing VET‟s seminars, annual DDC conferences and acts as a source and reference point in
all extension related matters.

The strengthening of the District Extension Team is vital, since it is responsible for the smooth
running of the district extension activities, which are contributory to the development of the
villages. It is also necessary to develop the structure and functioning of the Village Extension
Teams.




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CHAPTER 16
16       CONTINGENCY PLANNING

16.1     INTRODUCTION
Botswana is prone to various disasters, which makes disaster management an important
component of planning. One of the vision 2016 pillars calls for making Botswana a “safe and
secure nation”, the establishment of a well-planned system to counteract the effects on natural
disasters will meet this vision objective. The most regular type of disaster in this country is
drought, which has become a cyclical phenomenon. Other types of disasters such as veld fires,
floods and animal diseases, although not regular need to be planned for.

In the context of North East, like in the rest of the country, drought is a common phenomenon
leaving a lot of rural populace dependent on agriculture and land-based resources impoverished.
Veld fires often occur in some parts of the district but are not frequent. Floods also affect the
district, the 2000 floods, affected the district and left a lot physical infrastructure and left a
substantial amount of property affected. The district was also affected by foot and mouth disease
towards the end o DDDP 5, which led to killing of a considerable amount of livestock. Disasters of
this nature seriously affect the process of development hence the need for a coordinated
management of drought and disaster relief.

16.1.1   Institutional Framework
The Interministerial Drought Committee (IMDC) is a sub-committee of the Rural Development
Council (RDC) under the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning it comprises of
representaion from its minisry, MOA, MLG, MOH, MWT and MMEWA. It monitors food
security situation through the early warning technical committee and advises RDC on issues of
reource allocation during drought. The comiittees consults the district drought relief committees to
review the agricultural situation (crops and livestock), grazing situation, food situation assessing
area ploughed and planted and Nutritional level of the district. It then makes an assessment on the
drought situation and makes recommendation to the RDC which advises Cabinet. The committee
is also responsible for organisation of funds for drought intervention programmes and support in
terms of labour intensive projects, social safety nets, nutrition, school feeding and remote area
dwellers.

The District Drought Relief Committee which has the chairmanship of the Council Secretary and
the District Commissioner is responsible for making a preliminary assessment of the drought
situation prior to submission of the report to IMDC, it also monitors the drought programme and
scrutinises project proposals sent by communities for inclusion in the labour-based relief
programme.

The National Disaster Management Office (NDMO), which is under the office of the President, is
responsible for management of disaster at national level. It is responsible for leading and
coordinating disaster planning, preparedness and management, mitigation and recovery in the
country. At the district level the disasters lies with the District Disaster Management Committee,



                                                                                                173
with the District Commissioner and the Council Secretary being the co-chairpersons of the
committee.

16.1.2   Disaster Relief Sector Priorities
Other types of Disasters, unlike the onsite of drought, which can be predicted with accuracy,
usually occur as emergencies and their impact can be devastating. They therefore disrupt the
normal way of life for people as they often result in destruction of property, and even loss of life.
The 2000 floods typify this scenario as some people lost their lives and property. Veldfires also
erupt in certain parts of the district especially in freehold farms. Communities have raised
concerns on the issues of environmental conservation and called for strengthening of conservation
committees in effort to promote sustainable development. Vision 2016 calls for efficient use of
natural resources and an integrated approach towards conservation and development. The vision
further calls for community involvement in the use and preservation of their resources.

Communities requested for expediency when assisted during disaster. They further raised concern
on the lack of fire station and fire fighting facilities. To improve the district‟s disaster
preparedness, management and mitigation, the committees in place will continue to be
strengthened to improve efficiency. The district has hosted a workshop to strengthen the response
mechanism to deal with disasters. The reporting system in the event of disaster will further be
communicated to the communities in the yearly consultative meetings.

16.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION
16.2.1   National Disaster Master Plan
The National Policy on Disaster Management provides the framework for the National Disaster
Management Plan. Disaster management is the responsibility of every citizen and institution in
the country. Integrated and coordinated management is based on the partnerships and corporation
amongst all government sectors. Efficient and cost effective disaster management will be based
on the mobilisation of existing government structures and resources in collaboration with
communities, the private sector and non-governmental organisations.

16.2.2   National Food Security Strategy
The National Food Strategy lays down the framework within which the national and household
and economic security processes and activities are to be carried out. The scope of the strategy is
as follows:
     Providing economic access to food for household by attainment of broad-based income
        security
     Assurance of household food security availability of national food imports and production

Within the scope of this strategy, there will be joint responsibility reflecting the partnership of
government, private sector, and household in the availability and access to nutritionally safe and
adequate food.




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16.3      CONTINGENCY PLANS
16.3.1    Drought
The management of drought is the responsibility of District Drought Relief Committee. The
committee comprises all stakeholder departments such as Animal Health and Production, Crop
Production and Forestry, District Council, District Administration, Tribal Administration, and
Tribal Land Board. Although drought relief programme is multi-sectoral, the council does its day-
to-day implementation, which then reports progress to the District Drought Relief Committee.
The programme is monitored and coordinated by the District Drought Relief committee under the
chairmanship of the District Commissioner. The components of the drought relief programme are;

        The Labour Intensive Public Works Programme
        Supplementary feeding programme for all children under five years attending child welfare
         clinics
        Agricultural relief programme which assist livestock farmers through subsidised stock
         feed.

The institutional arrangement and organisational structure for implementation of drought have
proven their efficiency during DDP5 hence the need to maintain the existing arrangement and
probably further strengthen it for efficient implementation in the DDP6.

16.3.2    Veld Fires
The objective of veld fire contingency plan is to help streamline fire management and control
activities in the district by each stakeholder, to effect timely management control of fire in the
event of an outbreak and to develop a clear fire outbreak reporting and handling mechanism of
veld fires. Consultation will be done with farm owner where the occurrence of fire outbreak is
frequent.

The District Commissioner and/or the Council Secretary serve as overall coordinators of veld fires
control at the district level. Their role is to communicate expeditiously with
departments/institutions to take up their respective roles as prescribed in the contingency plan. All
stakeholders are to facilitate acquisition of fire fighting tools and resources whenever a fire
outbreak has been reported. Villagers, passerbys or the causes themselves normally report veld
fires to Dikgosi at village who in turn inform the police and members of the public to act
accordingly. Though the district council is mandated by the Act to provide fire service
emergencies, it has not been able to do so owing to requisite personnel, equipment and a station. A
fully fledged fire station with requisite staff equipment has been planned in DDP6.

16.3.3    Disaster Management
Disaster management in the district is the responsibility of the District Disaster Preparedness
committee co-chaired by the District Commissioner and the Council Secretary. It comprises all
departments responsible for implementation of disaster management and mitigation measures such
the police, district administration, conservation committee, immigration, BDF and the district
council. In the event of any fom of disaster the public is expected to report to either the Kgosi or
the police who will accordingly take action or call for additional help if need be.




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16.3.4       Foot and Mouth Disease
Report on FMD was first stated in February 2002 in Matshelagabedi and Matsiloje areas. This led
to the killing of 12 000 cattle. Another FMD disaster was reported towards the end of 2002 in the
Matopi/Tseteng areas which also to the killing of 4 000 cattle. Farmers were compensated with
cash and livestock and a disaster relif labour based programme was introduced to relief farmers.

16.4         FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
16.4.1       Disaster Management Objectives
          To establish and maintain optimum systems for dealing with disasters other than drought in
           and to integrate these systems into normal ongoing development activities within district
           resource capacity.
          To create a framework which facilitates the preparation of plans and legislation for
           effective implementation of disaster management and its legitimacy.
          To outline the responsibilities of different personnel at different levels in the
           implementation of the disaster management programme.
          To establish a set of working definitions for the disaster management programme.
          To ensure that the disaster management policy is consistent with policies from other
           sectors and the objectives of the DDP6.
          To formulate a well comprehensive sytem/plan for disaster management and communicate
           it to communities.
          To hold yearly consultative district forum on disaster management veldfires drought etc.

16.4.2       Drought Management Objectives
          To ensure that drought occurrence is mainstreamed into district development plan and
           annual plans and contingency measures are instilled.
          To create an environment for a responsive drought-monitoring tool which will enable the
           district to early detect drought and prepare for it.
          To continually assess drought situation and make recommendations to the drought
           assessment committee.
          To ensure that all affected district populace is assisted.
          To ensure that project implemented through the programme are viable and sustainable and
           also in pursuit of the district development plan.

16.4.3       Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives


    Table 16.1: Evaluation of Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals/objectives                                 Issues                                   Strategies
To establish and maintain optimum systems        Uncoordinated approach in dealing with   Formulation of a guideline for integration into dev
for dealing with disasters other than drought    disaster    management   in   everyday   activities by 2005
and to integrate these systems into normal       activities.
ongoing development activities within district                                            To outline the responsibilities of different
resource capacity.                                                                        personnel at different levels in the implementation
                                                                                          of the disaster management programme

                                                                                          To establish a set of working definitions for the
                                                                                          disaster management programme




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Goals/objectives                                   Issues                                        Strategies
To create a framework which facilitates the        Insufficient support from the political       Introduction of disaster management to councillors
preparation of plans and legislation for           leadership and the community.                 and lobby for their involvement
effective    implementation       of  disaster
management and its legitimacy.
To ensure that the disaster management             Inadequate    correlation of   disaster       Scrutinising departments annual plans prior to
policy is consistent with policies from other      management with existing policies and         implementation
sectors and the objectives of the DDP6.            departmental plans.
                                                                                                 Quarterly reporting
To formulate a well comprehensive                  Uncoordinated disaster management and         Open air meetings, kgotla meetings
system/plan for disaster management and            reporting system.
communicate it to communities.                     Uncoordinated use of resources during         Consultative meetings
                                                   disasters
To ensure that drought occurrence is               Drought recurrence throughout the plan        Subject plans to disaster management audit
mainstreamed into district development plan        period.
and annual plans and contingency measures                                                        Quarterly reports from individual departments.
are instilled.
To create an environment for a responsive          Late response to drought disaster.            Quarterly reports in livestock situation, wildlife and
drought-monitoring tool which will enable the                                                    grazing situation.
district to early detect drought and prepare for   Loss of resources by ploughing in drought
it.                                                years.                                        Monthly water situation reports.

                                                   Lack early response to curb against loss to   Rainfall situation reports.
                                                   livestock in drought years.
                                                                                                 Drought situation reports.
To ensure that all affected district populace is   Low coverage of the district drought          Quarterly social welfare reports.
assisted.                                          responses.
                                                                                                 Consultative meetings with VDCs.
                                                   Low coverage of supplementary feeding of
                                                   children.
To ensure that project implemented through         Implentation     of    substandard  and       Screening of projects prior to implementation.
the programme are viable and sustainable and       unsustainable projects
also in pursuit of the district development
plan.
Control of spread of animal disease.               Uncoordinated control of animal disease.      Formulate a well coordinated strategy for disease
                                                                                                 control.
                                                   Straying of animals to diseased areas.
                                                                                                 Maintenance of the erected cross border electric
                                                   Lack of proper care of livestock by           fence.
                                                   farmers.
                                                                                                 Spot checks to prevent vandalism of fence.

                                                                                                 Proper disposal of animals killed during disease
                                                                                                 disaster.

                                                                                                 Encourage communities (farmers) to look after
                                                                                                 cattle, institute and enforce penalties for straying
                                                                                                 animals.

                                                                                                 Mobilise farmers for vaccine to vaccinate animals.




16.4.4        Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
16.4.4.1 Drought and Disaster Relief Programme
The implementation of the Drought Relief Programme in the District in the past years had its own
pros and cons. However remedial measures have been put in place where possible.

Poor coordination between the supervisors and skilled personnel: The majority of supervisors in
the labour-based relief projects lack appropriate skills for the various projects they supervise. The
skill is vested purely on the skilled personnel employed by the VDC. The supervisor has direct
control over the labourers whilst the builder does not. These result in the works being done at snail
pace.



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Productivity: In the drought programme the issue of productivity does not exist. Most of the
works are done at snail pace as a deliberate act to increase the number of workdays, because the
more the number of workdays the more the earnings. Projects are often completed beyond the
scheduled time and result in over expenditures.

Maintenance of the completed projects (Construction Projects): The VDCs lack the capacity to
maintain the structures after handover.

16.4.5       Proposed Projects/Activities


    Table 16.3: Proposed Projects, Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Proposed Project/Activity                                  Potential Environmental Impact   Mitigation Measure
Training of disaster preparedness committee.               Littering                        Provision of waste receptacle in meeting areas.
Drafting of the district based disaster management         No correlation.                  Nil
plan/procedure.
Formulation of disaster campaign schedule and              Littering during meetings.       Provision of waste receptacle in meeting areas.
implementation including consultation with freehold
farmers.
Disaster management to be disseminated to schools and      Littering during meetings.       Provision of waste receptacles.
communities.
Disaster management to be included as part of the duties   Littering during meetings.       Provision of waste receptacles.
of VDC and be included in their training schedule.
Construction and maintenance of fire breaks.               Land degradation.                Replacement of species.

                                                           Loss of species.
Purchasing of fire fighting tools and vehicles and also    Land degradation.                Landscaping.
construction of a fire station.
                                                           Soil exaction.                   Rehabitation of burrow pits.

                                                           Loss of biodiversity.            Harvesting of sand in designated areas.
Control of animal disease.                                 Environmental pollution.         Propoer disposal of animal vaccines and
                                                                                            medicines.



16.5         RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
16.5.1       Issues and Strengths
          As mandated by the Act to offer fire emergency services, council should be given the
           requisite personnel, equipment and stations to efficiently render the service.
          Employment or appointment of a disaster management district based personnel, solely
           responsible for disasters.
          Funds to undertake disaster relief activities/projects to be availed promptly.

16.5.2       Performance Targets
          The assistance/relief package to reach all affected members of the community.
          Approximately 90% coverage in disaster and drought relief intervention.
          Development of a well structured and coordinated approach for disaster management.
          Disaster management integrated in all district plans.
          Educated community on environmental conservation and disaster reporting system.
          Veld fires reduced by 90% midway plan period.
          Participation and Support from all stakeholders in the event of disaster.




                                                                                                                                     178
16.5.3      Proposed Projects


   Table 16.4: Proposed Projects
Project                                     Project Cost   Year of Implementation
Fire station vehicles and Equipment         P8 000 0000    2004/5
Training of Disaster Management Committee   P240 000       Throughout the plan period
Training of political leaders               P60 000        2004/5 and 2005/6
Training of VDCs                            P100 000       2004/5 and 2006/7




                                                                                        179
CHAPTER 17
17        PLAN MONITORING AND EVALUATION

17.1      INTRODUCTION
Monitoring and Review of the DDP6 will be carried out as stipulated below:

        To establish physical and financial progress during plan implementation.
        To detect implementation hassles so that corrective measures are taken while there is time.
        To reprioritise projects in light of changing circumstances and prevailing needs
        To adjudge as to what extent project implementation will lead to goal achievement.

The first two aspects will be taken care of mainly through monitoring and the latter issues will be
dealt with through regular review and evaluation.

17.1.1    Institutional Framework
The main actors in the monitoring and review of the DPP6 will be the Council Committees,
District Development Committee and Plan Management Committee. It is further expected that the
pararstatals and non-government organisation will accordingly monitor implementation of their
plans. Changes in the plan will be communicated to the communities through the Councillors. That
is first the proposed plan amendments will be presented to the DDC, which will accordingly
present to the Full Council. It is expected that Councillors as ex-officio members of the VDC will
accordingly brief the VDC but where necessary the consultation process may be undertaken by the
district plan management committee.

17.1.2    Review of Plan Monitoring Activities During DDP 5
Activities were carried out as follows:

        Annual Project Reviews were carried out in conjunction with the Ministry of Local
         Government, and Ministry of Lands Housing and Environment so as to determine
         mechanisms of improving project performance.
        Annual plans were prepared to guide the local authorities on the yearly implementation of
         projects.
        Council Sub-Committees and the District Development Committee were kept abreast of
         plan monitoring and evaluation activities through regular briefings.
        Quarterly financial and physical progress reports were submitted to the Ministries and the
         District Development Committee.
        A mid term review was carried out in 2000 so as to assess plan performance
        Planners Meetings and National District Development Conferences (N.D.D.C‟s) were
         organized by the Ministry of Local Government so as to discuss planning and
         implementation constraints and the way forward.




                                                                                                 180
17.2     ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING ACTIVITIES
The district has not carried out an environmental audit exercise in during the DDP5. This is a very
important exercise will help the district take stock of environmental issues. The audit will help the
district to identify the potential impacts of development projects, policies and programmes on the
environment. Specifically, it is aimed at examining the purview of the district development goals,
objectives and projects in relation to the existing environmental policies and constraints. The audit
will be undertaken at the beginning of the DDP6.

It is planned that an annual environmental review will be undertaken simultaneously with the
review of the development plans. These will accordingly be presented to the DDC and the Full
Council. Such environment audit will enable the district to see how it is fairing as regards
environmental conservation strategies.

17.3     FINANCIAL AND PERSONNEL CONSTRAINTS
Funding for some of the DDP5 projects components was hardly sufficient. This emanated as an
issue during the mid-term review of DDP5 and the review of the DDP5 at the end of the plan
period This includes the Local Authorities Development Grants, Primary Health facilities,
Primary school facilities (such as Administration Blocks, Teachers‟ quarters, and school kitchens),
Village infrastructure, Roads Projects, and Community Projects. In some instances, the Total
Estimated Cost (TEC) was exhausted well before the second year of the plan period mainly due to
cost escalations.

Personnel constraints during DDP5 related to the lack of technical and professional manpower
especially in the fields of roads, architecture and buildings. This impacted negatively on the
implementation of projects. Thus targets were hardly met in certain instances due to lack of
technical manpower. Additionally, DABS was also unable to meet the development and
maintenance requirements of the district. The handing over of some of its activities to council will
in the long run improve the efficiency of the department. It is expected that the department will be
able to carry out all the planned activities.

These constraints are likely to persist during DDP5 since the Macroeconomic Outline and Policy
Framework has painted a gloomy picture about the global economic trends during the next six
years. However, with the reforms in the higher education and technical training sector (including
the proposed establishment of a second university) and the improvement in the terms and
conditions of local government employees there is hope that the shortage of technical personnel
will be overcome soon.

17.4     PROPOSED PLAN MONITORING ACTIVITIES DURING DDP6
17.4.1   Project Reviews
Annual Projects Reviews will be undertaken in liaison with the relevant Government Ministries in
order to assess progress and to address shortcomings. These project reviews will constitute the
basis of the subsequent years annual plan. Thus proposed projects will be re-evaluated and
implementation snags will be discussed at the project review meetings.




                                                                                                 181
17.4.2   Annual Plans
Based on the DDP6, annual plans will be drawn clearly specifying what has to be done. These
plans will be specific i.e. planned project and activities will be specified for each vote (using the
project matrices as a guide).

Project Managers will then monitor physical and financial progress by submitting progress reports
to DDC for forwarding to Council and the Ministry of Local Government (Quarterly by Physical
and Financial Progress Reports). The Council Planning Office will be responsible for compiling
the progress report for Council projects while the District Development Office will be responsible
for central government projects. Implementation hassles will be highlighted in the report and
major problems will be discussed by Council Committees with the objectives of taking corrective
measurers.

17.4.3   Mid Term Review
Halfway through DDP6 (after three years), a midterm review will be undertaken. Besides
analysing implementation progress and constraints and reprioritisation of projects if need be, the
midterm review will assess the extent to which the specific goals and objectives had been achieved
and recommend fundamental adjustments where necessary.

As a consequence of the midterm review, implementation strategies and planned projects for the
remainder of the plan will be determined.




                                                                                                 182
APPENDIX A: DISTRICT COUNCIL PROJECTS

LG 104 – Local Authority Infrastructure Maintenance

Council Roads Projects

                                      Qty/No/
Project Name                          Km           Unit Cost        Totals        2002/3       2003/4        2005/6
Culverts
Gravelling
Masukwane-Nlapkhwane                   9                            P76,440.00    P687,960
Siviya-Jackalas II                     10.4                         P76,440.00    P794,976                   x
Bisoli-Jackalas II                     8                            P76,440.00    P611,520     x
Tshesebe-Butale                        9.3                          P76,440.00    P710,892     x
Tonota-Ditladi                         8.4                          P76,440.00    P642,096     X
Kgari-Moroka                           6                            P76,440.00    P458,640
Masukwane-Kgari-Ramokgwebana          11.4         P76,440.00       P871,416.00   X
Themashanga-Mowana                     6.2                          P76,440.00    P473,928     X
Makaleng-Gulubane                      13                           P76,440.00    P993,720                   x
Senyawe –Siviya                        6                            P76,440.00    P458,640                   x
Moroka-Jackalas 1                      4                            P76,440.00    P305,760                   x
Mambo-Sechele                          5                            P76,440.00    P382,200
Mambo-Makaleng                         6                            P76,440.00    P458,640



Project Component               Location               2003/204                   2004/05               2005/06
Electrical Installation
1x2 C.R.B.&Staff houses         Ditladi                45 600.00
2no. 1x2 C.R.B.& Staff houses   Matopi                 96 480.00
2no. 1x2 C.R.B & Staff houses   Botalaote/Toteng       46 000.00
Staff houses                    Gungwe                 38 400.00
Staff houses                    Vukwi                  20 000.00
Staff houses                    Letsholathebe          30 400.00
Staff houses                    Gambule                20 000.00
Rural Admin Centre              Masunga                P15 000.00
Buildings and Architecture
58 x Teachers Quarters(LA2)     District               406,000.00                 406,000.00            406,000.00
35 x T/Quarters(LA1)            District               175,000.00                 175,000.00            175,000.00
135 x Classrooms                District               810,000.00                 810,000.00            810,000.00
18 x Storerooms                 District               27,000.00                  27,000.00             27,000.00
60 x W.C toilets                District               90,000.00                  90,000.00             90,000.00
Pitlatrines                     District               34,000.00                  34,000.00             34,000.00
Nurses houses                   District               287,000.00                 287,000.00            287,000.00
Staff houses                    District               385,000.00                 385,000.00            385,000.00




LG 103 – MLG Computerisation

The project is intended to facilitate the implementation capacity of local government through
computerisation. During DDP5/NDP8, an information technology strategy was to be established.
The programme is implemented from the ministry hence no budgetary information is available. It
must, however, be noted that there is need for this information to be availed to the district.

LG 104 – MLG/LA Fleet Development



                                                                                                                      183
Project              2003/04        2004/05           2005/06         2006/07           2007/08         2008/09          Total
Component
Small Vehicles       -              -                 2               2                 1               0                5
Double Cabs          7                                4               2                 7               0                20
Trucks               1                                1                                 1               0                3




LG 301 – Storage and Distribution Facilities

Project Component                  Location                         2003/04                             2004/05
Food storage facilities            Masunga                          3,990,000.00



LG 1102 – Primary School Facilities

The main objectives of the project is to implement the Revised National Policy of Education
specifically Recommendation 14. The main aim of council during DDP5 was to provide adequate
toilets to pupils, classroom accommodation to all classes and all teachers with accommodation.
The district has only been able to provide close to adequate classrooms. The backlog of teachers‟
accommodation is still a serious problem. The major problem that caused a backlog is the issue of
cost escalations, which reduced the number of projects implemented. The other issue that
contributed to the backlog is the increase in the number of classes and teachers.


Planned Primary Schools Construction, 2003/2004

School/village                 New            c/r/b       t/q   w/c             admin block   kitchen             sp/f        sc. lab
                               school
Botalaote/Toteng               -              -           1     -               -             -                   1           -

Butale                         -              -           -     1               1             -                   -           -

Ditladi                        -              -           1     -               -             -                   1           -

Gungwe                         -              1           1     -               -             -                   1           -

Masukwane                      -              -           1     -               -             -                   -           -

Masunga                        -              -           2     -               -             -                   -           -

Matshelagabedi                 -              -           1     -               -             1                   -           -

Matsiloje                      -              -           1     -               -             -                   -           -

Mbalambi                       -              2           1     2               -             -                   -           -

Moroka                         -              -           1     -               -             -                   -           -

Mosojane                       -              -           1     -               -             -                   1           -

Mulambakwena                   -              -           1     2               -             -                   -           -

Nlapkhwane                     -              -           1     -               -             -                   -           -

Ramokgwebana                   -              -           1     -               -             -                   1           -

Sekakangwe                     -              -           1     -               -             -                   1           -




                                                                                                                                  184
School/village                New      c/r/b   t/q        w/c        admin block   kitchen       sp/f           sc. lab
                              school
Senyawe                       -        -       1          1          -             -             -              -

Siviya                        -        -       1          -          -             -             -              -

Letsholathebe                 -        -       -          -          1             -             1              -

Tatisiding                    1        6       12         12         1             1             1              1

New Tatisiding P/School

TOTAL                         1        9       29         18         3             2             8              1




Planned Primary Schools Construction, 2004/2005

School Village            New          C/R/B        T/Q        W/C       Admin         Kitchen       Sp/F   Sc. Lab
                          School                                         Block
Ditladi                   -            -            1          -         -             -             -      -

Jackalas II               -            1            1          -         1             -             -      -

Masunga                   -            -            1          -         -             -             -      -

Matopi                    -            1            -          -         -             -             1      -

Matshelagabedi            -            -            1          -         -             -             -      -

Matsiloje                 -            -            1          -         -             -             1      -

Mbalambi                  -            -            1          -         -             -             -      -

Moroka                    -            -            1          -         -             1             1      -

Mosojane                  -            -            1          -         -             -             -      -

Mulambakwena              -            -            1          1         1             -             1      -

Nlaphkhwane               -            -            1          1         -             -             1      -

Ramokgwebana              -            -            1          -         -             -             -      -

Senyawe                   -            -            1          1         -             -             1      -

Siviya                    -            -            1          1         -             -             1      -

Themashanga               -            -            1          -         -             -             -      -

Tsamaya                   -            -            1          -         -             -             -      -

Zwenshambe                -            -            1          1         -             -             -      -

Gulubane                  -            1            1          -         -             -             -      -

Masingwaneng              -            -            -          1         -             -             -      -

Botalaote/Toteng          -            -            -          1         -             -             -      -

Masunga                   1            5            10         10        1             1             1      1




                                                                                                                    185
School Village             New          C/R/B         T/Q         W/C        Admin        Kitchen   Sp/F   Sc. Lab
                           School                                            Block
TOTAL                      1            8             27          17         3            2         8      1




Planned Primary Schools Construction, 2005/2006

Schl/Village           New          Crb         T/Q         W/C         Admin Block   Kitchen       Sp/F       Sc. Lab
                       School
Butale                 -            -           1           -           -             -             1          -

Jackalas II            -            1           2           -           -             -             1          -

Kalakamati             -            -           1           -           -             -             1          -

Kgari                  -            -           1           -           -             1             1          -

Letsholathebe          -            -           1           -           -             -             -          -

Mabudzane              -            -           1           -           -             -             1          -

Mambo                  -            -           1           2           -             -             1          -

Mapoka                 -            -           1           2           -             -             -          -

Masingwaneng           -            -           1           -           -             -             -          -

Matopi                 -            1           1           -           -             -             -          -

Moroka                 -            -           2           -           -             -             -          -

Mowana                 -            1           2           -           -             -             -          -

Pole                   -            1           -           -           -             -             -          -

Siviya                 -            1           -           -           -             -             -          -

Themashanga            -            -           2           -           -             -             -          -

Mulambakwena           -            -           1           3           -             -             -          -

Nlapkhwane             -            -           -           1           -             -             -          -

Zwenshambe             -            -           -           1           -             -             -          -

Tatisiding             -            -           -           -           1             -             -          -

Sechele                -            -           -           -           1             -             -          -

Tsamaya                -            -           -           -           -             1             -          -

Mbalambi               -            -           -           -           -             -             1          -

New Masunga P/School

TOTAL                  -            3           17          7           2             2             7          -




Planned Primary Schools Construction, 2006/2007


                                                                                                                   186
School/Village      New School   Crb   T/Q       W/C       Admin Block       Kitchen   Sp/F   Sc. Lab

Ditladi             -            -     2         -         -                 -         -      -

Makaleng            -            -     1         -         -                 -         -      -

Masunga             -            -     1         -         -                 -         -      -

Matshelagabedi      -            -     2         -         -                 -         1      -

Mbalambi            -            -     2         -         -                 -         -      -

Molambakwena        -            1     2         -         -                 -         -      -

Pole                -            -     1         -         -                 -         1      -

Vukwi               -            -     2         -         -                 -         1      -

Zwenshambe          -            -     2         -         -                 -         1      -

Gulubane            -            -     1         -         -                 -         1      -

Jackalas II         -            -     -         2         -                 -         -      -

Pelotelele          -            -     1         -         1                 1         1      -

Senyawe             -            -     -         2         -                 -         -      -

Mapoka              -            -     -         2         -                 -         1      -

Butale              -            -     -         1         -                 -         -      -

Matenge             -            1     -         -         -                 1         -      -

Matsiloje           -            1     -         -         -                 -         -      -

Patayamatebele      1            2     5         5         1                 -         1      -

TOTAL               1            5     22        12        2                 2         8      -




Planned Primary Schools Construction, 2007/2008

School/Village          New      Crb       T/Q       W/C       Admin Block   Kitchen   Sp/F       Sc.
                        School                                                                    Lab
Jackakas I              -        -         1         -         -             -         1          -

Jackalas II             -        -         1         -         -             -         -          -

Masunga                 -        -         2         -         -             -         1          -

Matenge                 -        -         1         -         -             -         1          -

Matsiloje               -        -         2         -         -             -         -          -

Nlaphkhwane             -        1         1         -         -             -         -          -

Sekakangwe              -        -         1         -         1             -         -          -




                                                                                                      187
School/Village          New      Crb   T/Q        W/C       Admin Block        Kitchen       Sp/F           Sc.
                        School                                                                              Lab
Themashanga             -        1     2          -         -                  -             1              -

Tsamaya                 -        -     1          2         -                  -             1              -

Vukwi                   -        1     -          -         -                  -             -              -

Zwenshambe              -        -     1          -         -                  -             -              -

Gulubane                -        -     1          -         -                  -             1              -

Tshesebe                -        -     -          2         -                  -             -              -

Ramokgwebana            -        -     -          3         -                  -             -              -

Mosojane                -        -     2          -         -                  -             -              -

Mabudzane               -        -     -          -         -                  1             -              -

Gambule                 -        -     -          -         -                  -             1              -

TOTAL                   -        3     16         7         1                  1             7              -




Planned Primary Schools Construction, 2008/2009

School/Village      New School   Crb   T/Q            W/C       Admin. Block       Kitchen       Sp/F   Sc. Lab

Ditladi             -            2     -              -         -                  -             -      -

Masukwane           -            -     2              -         -                  -             1      -

Matshelagabedi      -            -     1              -         -                  -             -      -

Nlapkhwane          -            -     1              1         -                  -             -      -

Ramokgwebana        -            -     2              -         -                  -             -      -

Senyawe             -            -     2              -         -                  -             -      -

Siviya              -            -     2              -         -                  -             -      -

Tatisiding          -            -     2              -         -                  -             -      -

Tsamaya             -            -     2              -         -                  -             -      -

Tshesebse           -            -     1              -         -                  -             -      -

Zwenshambe          -            1     -              -         -                  -             -      -

Gulubane            -            -     1              -         -                  -             -      -

Mbalambi            -            -     -              1         -                  -             -      -

Vukwi               -            -     -              4         -                  -             -      -

Makaleng            -            -     -              -         -                  -             1      -

Masingwaneng        -            -     -              -         -                  -             1      -




                                                                                                                188
School/Village                  New School   Crb            T/Q       W/C       Admin. Block     Kitchen            Sp/F           Sc. Lab

Mowana                          -            -              -         -         -                -                  1              -

Sechele                         -            -              -         -         -                -                  1              -

TOTAL                           0            3              16        6         -                                   6              -




LG 1103 – Recreation Facilities

Project                    Location                2003/4         2004/5        2005/6       2006/7        2007/8          2008/9
Development      of open   Masunga                 1                                                       1
spaces
Development      of open   Tati siding                            1
spaces
Development      of open   Nlapkwane                                            1
spaces
Development      of open   Mapoka                  -                            1
spaces
Development      of open   Makaleng                -              1
spaces
Development      of open   Zwenshambe              -              -             1
spaces
Development      of open   Matshelagabedi                                                    1
spaces
Development      of open   District                                                                                        1
spaces




LG 1104 – Primary Health Facilities

The project provides funding for construction, equipping and furnishing health facilities for district
Council. During the DDP5, the district council constructed 5 health posts, 4 clinics and 3 clinics
with maternity. The district council was able to achieve 100% of all the planned projects and even
implemented some of the projects, which were not funded in the plan. The project will provide
health facilities in areas without, upgrade those unable to cope with the pressure for health care,
nurses houses, procure equipment, and ambulances. The DDP6 targets are, 3 upgrading to clinics,
1 upgrading to maternity, 1 health post, 1 upgrading to 24-hour clinic, and 21 nurses houses.

Project                                                2003/4     2004/5    2005/6       2006/7            2007/8              2008/9
Upgrading of clinic to 24hrs                           -          1         -            -                 -                   -
Tati-siding
Special Equipment                                      -          1         -            -                 -                   -
Tati-Siding
Extension of Tsamaya rehabilitation centre             1          -         -            -                 -                   -
Hostel blocks                                          2
Tsamaya
Upgrading to Maternity                                                                   1
Themashanga
Uggrading of H/Post to Clinic
Senyawe                                                1
Tshesebe                                                          1
Gulubane                                                                    1
Moroka                                                                                   1
Zwenshambe                                                                                                 1
New H/Post - Patayamatebele                                       1
Solar/ electrification                                                                   1
Patayamatebele                                                    1
Sechele                                                           1
Gulubane                                               1




                                                                                                                                        189
Project                                2003/4    2004/5    2005/6    2006/7     2007/8     2008/9
Kalakamati                             1
Matshelagabedi                                             1
Radio Communication
Ditladi                                2
Tati-Siding                            2
Masunga                                          2
Patayamatebele                                   1
Standby Generator                                1
Tati-Siding
15 Seater Combi
Tsamaya Rehab                          1
DHT Masunga                            1
Ambulance
Tshesebe                                         1
Senyawe                                1
Moroka                                           1
Tati-Siding                                      1
Zwenshambe                             1
Patayamatebele                                   1
Mbalambi                                                             1
Sechele                                                                         1
Jackalas 2                                                 1
Clinical Waste Vehicle
Tati-Siding                                      1
Makaleng                                                             1
Nurses Houses
Senyawe                                3
Moroka                                                               3
Tati-Siding                                      6
Masukwane                                                  1
Mambo                                                      1
Matenge                                                    1
Themashanga                                                          2
Gulubane                                                   3
Patayamatebele                                   1
Tshesebe                                         3
Sechele                                                                         2
Store Room
DHT                                    1         1         1         1          1
Water Closets
  a. Nlaphwane                                             1
  b. Mbalambi                                                        1
  c. Masingwneng                                                                1


LG 1105 – Rural Administration Centres

The project provides integrated office blocks for both Central Government and Local government
departments. The continuing increase of manpower has overstretched the available office space.
During DDP5, an extension of the existing RAC was planned. However, the project was not
undertaken as a result of lack of funding. The project will be undertaken during DDP6. In
addition, other extension areas in the district, such as Tati Siding are growing at a rapid rate and
therefore exert pressure location of some offices to provide services such as collection of revenue
and various social welfare services.

Project                             2003/4      2004/5    2005/6     2006/7     2007/8    2008/9
Extension of RAC                    1           -         -          -          -         -
Extension of Supplies Ware House    1           -         -          -          -         -
Block of offices – Tati Siding      -           1         -          -          -         -




                                                                                                    190
LG 1107 – Labour Intensive Public Works

The main aim of the project is to generate employment by using labour intensive methods and
simple methods to construct and maintain public facilities. The programme was implemented at a
very slow pace during DDP5. The main problems were shortage of manpower in council to
supervise and monitor projects, and shortage of skilled labourers. During DDP6, the project will
continue to be used to construct public facilities such as staff houses, literacy classrooms, and
extension and construction of new offices in extension areas.

Project                                      2003/4   2004/5   2005/6   2006/7   2007/8   2008/9
Storeroom
Mapoka Tribal Admin                          1
Letsholathebe                                1
Water System Toilets
Letsholathebe                                1
Kalakamati                                   1                 1
Mabudzani                                             1
Mowana                                                1
Debushing Roads
Masunga                                      4
Mapoka                                                4
Moroka                                                         4
Nlaphkwane                                                              4
Zwenshambe                                                                       4
Office Block for Extension Officers
Mosojane                                              1
Sechele                                               1
Nlaphkwane                                                     1
Kgari                                                          1
Tsamaya                                                                 1
Themashanga                                                             1
Tshesebe                                                                         1
Siviya                                                                           1
Gulubane                                                                                  1
Shashe Bridge                                                                             1
Electrification & Extension of S&CD Office
Mapoka                                       1
Mobile Stop
Nlaphkwane(Malobela ward)                             1
Guard House
Ramokgwebana                                 1
Butale                                                         1
Fencing
Butale                                                         1
Reading Room
Mulambakwena                                 -        -        1
Sekakangwe                                   -        -        -        -        1
Tsamaya                                      -        -        -        -        -        1
Literacy Assistant house
Makaleng                                     -        1
Ditladi                                               1
Literacy Classroom
Masingwaneng                                 -        1        -        -        -        -
Makaleng                                     -        -        1        -        -        -
Gulubane                                     -        -        -        1                 -
Ditladi                                      -        -        -        -        1        -
                                             -        -        -        -        -        -




                                                                                                   191
LG 1108 – Rural Sanitation Programme

The objectives of the project are to reduce the incidence of sanitary-related diseases by building
ventilated improved pit latrines (VIPs) through a subsidised self-help scheme and to provide
modern sanitary facilities such as landfills for collection and disposal of solid waste in rural areas.

The problems encountered continue to be that of failure by the people to complete the
substructures and to raise the P30.00 contribution. During the DDP5 366 VIP latrines, 100 dry
compost latrines, and a sanitary landfill in Masunga were constructed. The target for DDP6 is
1000 pit latrines, 1 waste transfer station, 2 improved slaughter houses, and 1 sanitation depot.
Vehicles and equipment will also be purchased to facilitate service delivery.

Project                               2003-04   2004-05   2005-06   2006-07    2007-08    2008-09
Waste Transfer Station Tsamaya        -         -         1         -          -          -
Improve Slaughter House
Tsamaya
Masunga                                         1
                                                          1
On site sanitation (VIP)              -         200       200       200        200        200
Water borne public toilets
Ramokgwebana
Tati-Siding                                     1         -
                                                -         1
Refuse Trucks                         1
Closed Skips                          -         -         15        -          -          -
Communication system                  -         1
Computer & Accessories                1         -
Public Toilets
Tati Siding                           -         1         -
Ramokgwebana                          -         -         1
Recycling Project;
a. Masunga
Static Skips                                                        3
Recycling Project;
b. Tsamaya
Static Skips                          -                   -         2
Installation of radio communication
Masunga
Tatisiding                                      1
                                                1
Sanitation depot
Tati Siding                                                                    1
Bailer Machines
Masunga                                                   1
Waste oil collection receptacle
Masunga
                                      1
Universal Load Carrier                1
Rehabilitation of dumping site
Kalakamati
                                      1




LG 1109 – Community Projects

The programme‟s objective is to improve the economic and social welfare of the rural people by
strengthening institutions, such as VDCs and other voluntary organisations to plan and implement
development activities, improving communities‟ access to public services, and promoting
productive and employment generating activities through the micro project. However, the major
problem during DDP5 was lack of implementation or slow implementation. This was mainly a



                                                                                                    192
cause of slowness by communities to raise their contribution. In addition, there were problems
due to contribution in kind especially where communities offered free labour. This has often led
to community projects suffering when other government programmes such as drought relief, and
labour intensive road works, which offer wages, were ongoing. Despite this, people have
indicated a willingness to continue with the programme as indicated by the proposed projects for
DDP6. The target for DDP6 is 8 day care Centres, 2 community halls,5 VDC storerooms, 8 VDC
Offices, and 4 pilot projects. In addition to these, courses will be conducted to empower the
communities with skills.


Project Location      2003/2004    2004/2005   2005/2006   2006/2007   2007/2008    2008/2009
1. Day Care Centres
Moroka                1
Tshesebe              1
Ditladi                            1
Matshelagabedi                     1
Mbalambi                                       1
Masingwaneng                                   1
Nlaphkwane                                                 1
Mosojane                                                               1

Botalaote/Toteng      1
2. Community Hall
Mulambakwena          1
3. Electrification
Mlambakwena                        3
Shahse Bridge                                  2
Sekakangwe                         1
Matsiloje                                      1
Jackalas 1            4
Ramokgwebana                                   1
Senyawe                                        1
4. VDC storerooms
Gambule                            1
Matenge                                        1
Masukwane                                                  1
Vukwi                                                                  1

Letsholathebe                                                                       1
5. VDC Offices
Matopi                1
Mowana                1
Toteng                             1
Botalaote                          1
Gungwe                                                     1
Pule                                                       1
Mabudzane                                                              1

Themashanga                                                                         1
6. LA II house




                                                                                                193
Project Location            2003/2004   2004/2005   2005/2006   2006/2007   2007/2008   2008/2009
Masunga                     1
7. Water Closets
Mapoka                                  1           1
8. Block Grants
NED villages                8           8           8           8           8

9. Pilot Component
a. Poultry
Jakalas 2                               1
Kgari                                   1
b. Face Brick Project
Themashanga                             1
c. Brick Moulding
Masukwane                               1
d. Sorghum Milling
Matsiloje                                           1
10. Graveyard Fencing
Tsamaya                                 1
Siviya                                              1
11. Vehicles – Masunga
Truck                       1
Twincab                     1
Single Cab                  1
12. Carpentry & Business Management
Makaleng                                1
13. Sewing Course
Sourthern & Eastern Zone                1           1
14. Welding
Central & Western Zone                              1
15. Workshops & Seminars
District                    4           4           3           3           3           3




LG 1110 –Village Water Supply and Sewerage

The project provides funding for rehabilitation, augmentation and expansion of rural village water
supply schemes, which are constructed by the department of water affairs. In addition it provides
for capacity building of councils to operate and maintain efficiently the rural water supply
schemes, as well as to gradually take part in some of the augmentation activities currently done by
the Department of Water Affairs. The project also aims at the operation and maintenance,
rehabilitation and upgrading of existing sewerage systems in primary and secondary villages. The
target for DDP6 is water rehabilitation projects and upgrading of sewerage schemes. However,
note must be made that the water rehabilitation schemes rely entirely on the Department of Water
Affairs initiatives to identify water sources. These initiatives include mainly, Maitengwe well
fields and the Ntimbale Dam.




                                                                                                    194
Project Location                 2003/4          2004/5     2005/6    2006/7    2007/8    2008/9
Water Reticulation Improvement, Reservoir & Source
Botalaote                                                             120,000
Gambule                                                               250,000
Gulubane                                                              250,000
Jackalas 2                                                            250,000
Kalakamati                                                            130,000
Makaleng                                                    250,000
Mulambakwena                                     250,000
Mambo                                                       350,000
Masukwane                                                             250,000
Matshelagabedi                                                                  250,000
Matenge                                                               250,000
Masunga                                          500,000
Mbalambi/Gungwe                                                       250,000
Nlapkhwane                                                  350,000
Mapoka                                                      350,000
Ramakgwebana                                                          350,000
Sekakangwe                                                  130,000
Shashe Bridge                                                         120,000
Siviya                                                      350,000
Themashanga                                                           240,000
Masingwaneng                                                130,000
Zwenshambe                                                  370,000

Water Supply Rehabilitation & Source
Moroka                                                                800,000
Pole                                                        700,000
Tsamaya/Mabudzane                                           700,000
Tshesebe                                                    700,000

Stand Pipes
Mowana                                                      60,000
Mabudzane                                                   60,000
Truck with Crane
Masunga

Extension of Sewarage Scheme
Masunga                                         4,620,000

10m3 Water Bowser                               500,000
4x4wd Pick Up Vehicles
Masunga                                                     800,000




LG 1111 – Village Infrastructure

The project provides funding for the servicing of land for residential, commercial and industrial
purposes in villages designated primary and secondary centres. This is so as villages have lagged
behind in terms of infrastructure and are less viable locations for investment than urban areas.
This has led to lack of employment opportunities in rural areas giving rise to rural-urban
migration. During DDP5, village infrastructure was done in Tati Siding. Infrastructure
development is planned for Masunga and other villages during DDP6.




                                                                                                   195
Project Component             Location           2003/204     2004/2005        2005/2006            Total
Infrastructure Development    Masunga            30,000,000   49,000,000       0                    79,000,000




Project Location                      2003/4         2004/5   2005/6       2006/7          2007/8        2008/9
                                      No./Km         No./Km   No./Km       No./Km          No./Km        No./Km
Culverts Internal
Mosojane                                                      2
Mulambakwena                          1
Sekakangwe                                           1
Nlapkhwane                                                                                               1
Pole                                                                                                     2
Masukwane                                                                                                1
Siviya                                                                                     1
Moroka                                                        1
Mapoka                                                        1
Shashe-Bridge                                                 1

Internal Roads Cross Over Slabs [Plots Access]
Masunga                                              10       10                                         10

Drifts Internal
Vukwi                                                1
Themashanga                                                   2                            2
Letsholathebe                                        1

Gravelling
Mulambakwena                                                               2
Mosojane                              5
Mapoka                                                                     8
Pole                                                                                       5
Gungwe                                                                                     3
Siviya                                                        6
Vukwi                                                         8
Letsholathebe                                        6
Matsiloje                                            5
Kalakamati                            4
Sekakangwe                                           5
Mbalambi                                             5
Matenge                                              3
Masukwane                                                     3
Senyawe                                                       3
Mabudzane                                                     3
Ditladi                                                       3
Gulubane                                                      3
Makaleng                                                      3
Butale                                                                                     3
Jackalas 1                                                                                 3
Jackalas 2                                                                                 3
Kgari                                                                                      3
Masingwaneng                                                                               3
Matsiloje                                                                                                3
Mambo                                                                                                    3
Sechele                                                                                                  3
Shashe-Bridge                                                                                            3
Matselagabedi                         3
Ramokgwebana                          3




                                                                                                                  196
LG 1112 – Municipal Services

Project               Location       2003/04       2004/05       2005/06       2006/07       2007/08       2008/09
Component
Mechanical            Masunga        1
Workshop
Mini Fire Station     Masunga                      1




LG 1115 – District Roads

The main aim of the project is to construct and maintain low traffic feeder and access roads in
rural areas and as well construct remote area roads through labour intensive methods to ensure a
reasonable degree of access to the dwellers of these areas at the lowest possible costs. The target
for DDP6 is to gravel 339Km of access roads, 148km of internal roads, and bituminisation of 8km
of gravel road, Construction of 2 culverts, 2 bridges, and 2 drifts.


                                         No/Km 2003/4 No/Km 2004/5 No/km 2005/6 No/km 2006/7 No/km 2007/8 No/km 2008/9

Labour Intensive Construction
Ditladi-Patayamatebele – Matsiloje       10    X       17    x    23       x   20        x
Ramokgwebana-Jakalas1                                             10       x
Themashanga-Mobile Stop                  10    X       3     x
Matshelagabedi-Sekokwe                                                         8         x
Gambule-Vukwi                                          8     x

Culverts
Mulambakwena-Gambule(Ntoba)
Gambule-Sekakangwe                                     1     x
Tshesebe-Senyawe                                       1     x
Mulambakwena-Nlaphkwane                                           1        x
Matsiloje-Matopi
Mapoka-Kgari (Gugulamoseki)                            1     x
Nlaphkwane-Masukwane                                   1     x
Siviya-Mabudzani                                                  1        x

Gavelling
Monarch-Letsholathebe                    29    x
Mabudzani-Siviya                                                                             5     x
Letsholathebe-Tshesebe                                                                       5     x
Mabudzane-Tsamaya                                                                            10    x
Mulambakwena-Nlaphkwane                                                        10        x
Tshesebe-Senyawe                                                                             10    x
Gambule-Sekakangwe                                                                           9     x
Gambule-Mulambakwena                                                                         11    x
Tonota- Ditladi                                                                              9     x
Mowana-Senyawe                                                                               8     x
Masunga-Gumbule-Gungwe                                            12       x   5         x
Matsiloje-Matopi                         19    x




                                                                                                                     197
                                           No/Km 2003/4 No/Km 2004/5 No/km 2005/6 No/km 2006/7 No/km 2007/8 No/km 2008/9
Makaleng-Mambo                                                                                             7      x
Masingwaneng-Mambo-Sechele-Letsholathebe                20    x
Gulubane-Makaleng                                                                             13     x
Matenge-Sebina Junction                                              6     x
Makaleng-Sechele                                                                                           11     x
Masingwaneng-Matenge                                                                          10     x
Mosojane-Masukwane                                                                                         7      x
Masukwane-Kgari-Ramokgwebana                                                                               10
Nlapkwane-Masukwane                                                              4      x     5      x
Kalakamati-Nzwazwi                                                                                         5      x
Kgari-Mapoka                                                                                               5      x
Mbalambi-Goshwe                                                                               6      x
Mabudzani-F/Town Road                                                                                      5      x
Bisoli-Jack 2-Siviya-Senyawe-Butale                                 25     x                   20    x
Siviya-Tsamaya                                                                                5      x
Tshesebe-Butale                                                                                             9     x
Internal Gravelling
Tsamaya
                                                        7     x
Tshesebe
                                                        7     x
Moroka
                                                                     7
Zwenshambe                                     7   x
Nlapkwane
                                                                                  4     x
Themashanga                                                                       3     x


Bituminisation

Letsholathebe-Masunga                                                            8      x
Bridges

Ntshe At Moroka                            1       x
Ntshe At Kgari                             1       x
Machinery & Vehicles

Pickup Vehicles                            1       x   1      x     1      x
Tipper Trucks                              1       x   1      x     1      x
Front-End Loader                           1       x
Grader
                                                       1      x
Road Marker                                                         1      x
Water Bowser 15000 L                                                1      x
Cube Crusher (Concrete Strength Testing)                            1      x
Smooth Roller                                          1      x
Lowbed Truck                                                        1      x




                                                                                                                      198
Tribal Administration Projects

LG 901 – Customary Courts

The project provides funding for construction of offices, purchase of requisite furniture,
equipment, and transport for customary courts. Customary courts handle more than 80% of cases.
However, there is still a shortage of customary offices in the District. Out of the planned 12
customary courts to be constructed, only 8 were constructed during DDP5. The target for DDP 6
is 11 customary courts in the following villages; sekakangwe, Ditladi, Shashe Bridge, Senywawe,
Gulubane, Masingwaneng, Sechele, Butale, Letsholathebe, Kgari, and Masukwane.


Project Location                 2003/4    2004/5     2005/6    2006/7     2007/8    2008/9
Type I Offices
Sekakangwe                       1
Ditladi                          1
Shashe Bridge                              1
Senyawe                                    1
Gulubane                                              1
Masingwaneng                                          1
Sechele                                                         1
Butale                                                          1
Letsholathebe                                                              1
Kgari                                                                      1
Masukwane                                                                            1
Mambo
Electrification
Matsiloje                        1
Makaleng                         1
Tsamaya                          1
Mosojane                         1
Mapoka                           1
Matshelagabedi                   1
Jackalas 1                       1
Themashanga                      1
Kalakamati                                 1
Jackalas II                                1
Mbalambi                                   1




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