THE RIGHT CHOICE by chenboying


									                              THE RIGHT CHOICE

                              COL M BHATNAGAR, SM

                               DS GUIDE: COL KJ SINGH

A Case Study submitted to College of Defence Management in partial fulfilment of curriculum of the

                         Higher Defence Management Course 4 and MMS
                                 DS COMMENTS

Name of Participant:        Col M Bhatnagar, SM

DS:          Col KJ Singh                         Fac/Dept   DS

Subject:    The Right Choice

Ex/Event:    Case Study                           Date : 15 Dec 2008




1.      College of Defence Management, Handbook on Case Method of

Instruction, College of Defence Management, Secunderabad, 2005.

2.   College of Defence Management Operations Research Volume II

(Whites) College of Defence Management, Secunderabad.2008.

3.   College of Defence Management, Handbook on Effective Decision

Making, College of Defence Management, Secunderabad, 2008.

4. College of Defence Management, Handbook on Military Applications

of   Operations    Research,   College   of   Defence   Management,

Secunderabad, 2007.

5.      College of Defence Management, Handbook on Quantitative Aids

to Decision Making, College of Defence Management, Secunderabad,


                                 GENERAL NOTES


1.     Enhancement of operational preparedness is an ongoing process and
construction of defence works which includes field fortifications called permanent
defences (PDs) along the borders in defensive positions. These come under
‘Operational Works’ and funds are allocated for them each financial year. These
are then further allotted to different sectors under formations and units as per
requirement and priorities.

Terms Used

2.    Operational Works.         These are engineering works that are executed in
forward areas and are related to construction of infrastructure for habitat, defence
works and related ancillaries.

3.    Permanent Defences (PDs). These are fortified concrete/stone/masonary
constructions for taking up positions in defensive positions. These are dug into
the ground with upper portion enabling observation and use of weapons
through loopholes. These are strong enough to provide protection from small
arms, artillery fire and airstrikes. These also serve as habitat and provide
protection from vagaries of weather.

4.    Formations.       These are composite combat organisations of the Army
comprising of combat units, combat support units and logistic support units.
There are at three levels and are Corps, Divisions and Brigades.

5.     Battalion.   An infantry combat unit comprising of four rifle     companies
which are further divided into three platoons and they in turn into three sections
each. The infantry battalion is the smallest composite unit which has a separate
identity having combat and logistic support elements within and is commanded
by a colonel.

                                  CASE NOTES


1. The Case deals with Decision Dilemma which occurs very often in the Defence
Services while dealing with operational tasks. The Case is set in a high altitude
area in Arunachal Pradesh with extreme inhospitable weather and terrain
conditions and where no surface communications. The aim is to amplify and
bring out many variables, most of them intangibles that influence decision
making in such areas and situations.

Relevance of the Case

2.    There are many situations and instances similar to the case being discussed
wherein decisions for allocation of operational resources are made on basis
of individual based knowledge and judgement without subjective considerations.
Though the individuals have large experience and knowledge, the decisions may
not be absolutely correct or holistic. It is here that instruments of Operations
Research provide instruments for aiding in decisions having multi criteria

Author’s Access to the Case

3. The author commanded an Infantry Battalion in the Sector wherein the task of
making PDs was taken up.


4.    To bring out the utility of Operation Research Tools and Techniques in
facilitating in decision making in multi criteria requirements in operational


5. Suitability For Instructions. The case is suitable for imparting instructions in

training curriculum in following courses of instruction and institutions:-

       (a) DSSC                             DSSC, Wellington

       (b) Senior Command Course              Army War College

       (c) Higher Command Course              Army War College

       (d) HDMC                              CDM, Secunderabad


6. The Case Narrative to be issued to the participants one week prior to date slated

for discussion. Time recommended for discussion is as under:-

       (a) Introduction and Milestones                             15 Mins

       (b) Discussion and analysis within syndicates               30 Mins

       (c) Discussion by entire Class                             35 Mins

       (d) Syndicate Leaders’ presentation on Operations               25 Mins

       Research model

       (e) Summing up by Instructor                                    15 Mins

                            Total Time                                120 Mins

                                      CASE ANALYSIS

Decision Making In The Complex Military Environment

1. The military environment more often than not has demanding and complex
situations both in peace time and war/combat situations where in commanders
are required to make decisions. These decisions are usually required to be taken
in stressful conditions coupled with paucity of time.

2. During such situations decisions are generally judgmental and intuitive.
However, availability of intelligence/information and factors like knowledge base
and experience of the decision maker have direct influence on the quality of the

3. It is during war/combat situations that requirement of decision making is very
demanding due to the rapidly changing fluid situations, paucity of time and
high stress levels.

4.   Also most military solutions are not amenable to mathematical models and
have many intangibles. Therefore, when time and circumstances permit, operation
research methods can assist military leaders/decision makers in converting
apparent subjectivities to mathematically manipulative entities and assist in
making analytical and holistic decisions.

The Situation and Requirements in the Case under Consideration

5.   The area where the case is set is a remote underdeveloped area with extreme
inhospitable weather and terrain conditions. The area has been neglected and
no infrastructure development has taken place due to misplaced policies of the
governments over the years. However, now as China has developed infrastructure at
a large scale opposite the area and with the adamant stance on the boundary issue,
road construction and infrastructure developed has commenced. However, due to
the weather and terrain conditions, the construction of the road will take time.

6.   In addition to above, the area of consideration has another major drawback
that there are limited clear weather days available and due to turbulence
in the narrow valleys, there are limited flying hours available for induction of
stores by air.

7. In this backdrop, the battalion has been allotted PDs to enhance operational
preparedness till the time the road and other infrastructure comes up. Since the PDs
are required to be made at a number of locations which have varying requirement of
the PDs, a decision, how many to allot to each is to be made from the number
allotted as this number does not meet the total requirement.

8. The decision of allotment of resources for construction of PDs at various
locations will depend on many factors and some are listed below.

       (a)   Priority as per Enemy Approaches.

       (b)   Importance of Ground.

       (c)   Deficiency/ Minimum Requirement.

       (d)   Urgency depending on Operational Factors.

       (e)   Factors particularly related to the Area.

9.   Considerations/criteria for the Model for allotment of PDs that needs to be
considered in aiding decision making in such a situation are given in succeeding

10. Priority of Approach (POA). Deliberate tactical appreciation is carried out to

arrive at the likely approaches of enemy. After due appreciation and war gaming,

prioritisation of the likely enemy approaches is carried out. This includes likely hood

of enemy adopting an appreciated approach in terms of direction and sequence

when attacking a defended locality/defended area. This is carried out at each level

and deployment of troops is ultimately based on this criterion.

11.     Appreciated priorities of likely enemy approaches need to be expressed in

probability terms for purpose of quantitative decision making. The defended

localities/ positions that fall along a given approach will be allotted probability

weightage in terms of priority of the approach. In the Case under consideration,

the following probabilities have been arrived at by the Infantry Battalion CO.

        (a) Priority 1 Approach (P1)     - 0.5

        (b) Priority 2 Approach (P2)     - 0.3

        (c) Priority 3 Approach (P3)     - 0.15

        (d) Priority 4 Approach (P4)     - 0.05

12. POA is the principle criterion and all subsequent criteria weightage are the

product of criteria values and their corresponding POA.

13. Ground Criteria Index (GCI). Importance of each piece of critical ground is

determined by tactical appreciation and its importance is gauged by the extent by

which the defences will unhinge if that piece of ground fell to the enemy. Though it is

an important factor in appreciating and prioritising enemy approaches, often it is

independent and does not conform to the approaches and their priority or any other


14. The rating of the above criteria will also be spelt out by the decision maker on a

scale of 01 to 100. The most important piece of ground or location will be rated as

100 and other will be rated in comparison to it. The ground ratings have been

calculated as under (eg a location is rated as 75, the ground criteria would be as


       (a) Initial Ground Criteria (IGC)                    - 75/100 = 0.75.

       (b) Ground Criteria Index (GCI) would be - 75/sum of IGCs of all areas/

       locations; All GCIs will add to 1.

15. The ground ratings of the area in the Case in discussion are at Table 1.

                                               North                           West
No        Considerations            Pt 4808                Top     Shoulder            Plateau
                                               Spur                            Spur
     Priority of Approach (POA)       P1         P3         P3          P4      P2       P3
          POA Probabilities           0.5       0.15       0.15      0.05       0.3     0.15
          Ground Ratings
2                                     62         37        100          45      75       25
            (out of 100)
     Initial Ground Criteria(IGC)    0.62       0.37        1        0.45      0.75     0.25
     Ground Criteria Index(GCI)     0.180       0.108      0.291    0.131      0.218    0.073

                              Table 1: Ground Criteria Indices (GCIs)

16. Deficiency Criteria Index (DCI). This reflects the deficiency of PDs (as per

number of PDs authorised to the location minus the number of serviceable bunkers

existing in the location). First the Initial Deficiency Criterion (IDC) is determined by

dividing the deficiency in the locality or position to its authorisation. The Deficiency

Criteria Index is then worked out by dividing IDC by sum of IDC of the sector.

17. The authorisation of PDs as per the Formation Policy to a position or post

is as under:-

       (a) Section Post                        - 04

       (b) Platoon Post/Position               - 15

        (c) Company Location                         - 54

18.     For calculation of DCI, the authorisation of the location will be taken and

calculated as under:-

        (a) Authorisation of PDs eg a company post                     - 54

        (b) Existing at location                                   - 14

        (c) IDC                                                    - (54 – 14)/54 = 0.740

        (d) Therefore DCI = IDC/sum of IDCs of all locations; All DCIs will add to 1.

19. DCIs calculated for the six locations under consideration are as under:-

No       Considerations            Pt 4808     North Spur        Top          Shoulder   West Spur    Plateau

      Priority of Approach
                                     P1            P3            P3             P4          P2          P3
1     (POA)

      POA Probabilities              0.5           0.15          0.15           0.05        0.3        0.15

                                 Company       Company                        Company    Company     Company
2     Deployment                 plus          plus            Company        minus      plus        plus two
                                 Platoon       Platoon                        Platoon    Section     Platoon
      PDs Authorised                 69            69            54             39          58          84

      Bunkers Existing               60            44            35             45          39          37

3     Deficiency                      9            25            19              -6         19          47

      Initial Deficiency            0.130         0.362         0.352          -0.154      0.328      0.560
      Criteria (IDC)

4     Deficiency Criteria            0.83         0.230         0.223          -0.098      0.208      0.355

                           Table 2: Calculation of Deficiency Criteria Indices (DCIs)

20.     Urgency Criteria Index (UCI). The defensive positions can be given grades

of urgency for allotment and construction of PDs. The factors that may contribute

urgency are as under:-

       (a) Operational Factors.

               (i) The probability of their coming under attack before others.

               (ii) Probability of non conventional threats from raids/small teaactions.

               (iii) The degree of enemy dominance affecting survivability of troops

               from enemy firing during No war No peace situations.

       (b)   Non Operational Factors. These could be for administrative, factors
       peculiar to the area or any other reasons.

21. The degree of urgency emerges from tactical appreciation in terms of enemy
threat and therefore, rating for urgency will have to be spelt out by the decision
maker and are as shown at Table 3.

No           Considerations              Pt 4808      North                            West
                                                                  Top      Shoulder            Plateau
                                                      Spur                             Spur
     Priority of Approach (POA)            P1          P3          P3         P4        P2       P3
     POA Probabilities                     0.5        0.15        0.15       0.05       0.3     0.15

     Urgency Criteria atings(UGC)
2                                          100         50          45         25        60       80
     (out of 100)

     Initial Urgency Criterion (UGC)        1          0.5        0.45       0.25       0.6      0.8
     Urgency Criteria Index(UCI)          0.278       0.139      0.125       0.069     0.167   0.222

                    Criteria Table 3: Calculation of Urgency Criteria Indices (UCIs)

22. Habitat Criteria Index (HCI).                  Habitation Criteria Index is the criteria for

need of habitat for troops occupying a post or defended position. This is also an

important criterion, especially in areas with harsh weather/climatic conditions as

exist. This is also in relation to availability of other types of habitat available at

the locations. The ratings will depend on wisdom of the decision maker, requirement

peculiar to the area and methodology as per preceding criteria. The same have been

given at Table 4.

No           Considerations               Pt 4808   North                           West
                                                                Top     Shoulder            Plateau
                                                    Spur                            Spur
     Priority of Approach (POA)             P1         P3       P3        P4         P2         P3
     POA Probabilities                      0.5     0.15       0.15       0.05       0.3       0.15

     Habitation Criteria Ratings
 2                                          85      100         20        35         65         45
     (out of 100)

     Initial Habitation Criteria(IHC)      0.85        1        0.2       0.35      0.65       0.45
     Habitation Criteria Index(HCI)       0.283     0.286      0.057     0.100      0.186      0.129

                 Criteria Table 4: Calculation of Habitation Criteria Indices (HCIs)

Calculation of Total Weightage Coefficient (TWC).

23. Criteria Values.

Criteria    values       =   Individual     Criteria       multiplied   by     corresponding    POA


24. Criteria Weightages.

Criteria Weightages = Individual Criteria Values divided by sum of Individual
Criteria Values of all locations under consideration.

25. Calculated Criteria Values and Criteria Weightages for all the locations
calculated as per paragraph 24 above in the Case Study are given at Table 5.

No         Considerations         Pt 4808    North                           West     Plateau
                                                         Top     Shoulder
                                             Spur                            Spur

     Priority of Approach (POA)     P1        P3         P3         P4        P2        P3
     POA Probabilities              0.5      0.15        0.15      0.05       0.3      0.15

2    DCI                           0.083     0.260      0.223     -0.098     0.208    0.355

     Deficiency Value (DV)        0.0413     0.344      0.0334   -0.0049     0.0623   0.0532

     Deficiency Weightage (DW)    0.1880    0.1567      0.1522   -0.0222     0.2833   0.2420

     GCI                          0.1802    0.1076      0.2907    0.1308     0.2180   0.0727

     Ground Value (GV)            0.0901    0.0161      0.0436    0.0065     0.0654   0.0109

     Ground Weightage (GW)        0.3873    0.0693      0.1874    0.0281     0.2811   0.0468

     UCI                          0.2778    0.1389      0.1250    0.0694     0.1667   0.2222

     Urgency Value (UV)           0.1389    0.0208      0.0188    0.0035     0.0500   0.0333

     Urgency Weightage (UW)       0.5236    0.0785       0.07     0.0031     0.1855   0.1257

     HCI                          0.2429    0.2857      0.0571    0.1000     0.1857   0.1286

     Habitation Value (HV)        0.1214    0.0429      0.0086    0.0050     0.0557   0.0193

     Habitation Weightage         0.4802    0.1695      0.0339    0.0198     0.2203   0.0763

                    Table 5: Calculation of Criteria Values and Weightages

26. Total Weightage Coefficient (TWC). This is calculated as follows:-
TWC of each Location = Sum of Individual Criteria Weightages of the Location
divided by Sum of total Criteria Weightages for all locations. These have been
calculated as above and are as at Table 6.

No          Considerations            Pt 4808    North                        West     Plateau
                                                            Top    Shoulder
                                                 Spur                         Spur
     POA                                P1        P3        P3       P4        P2        P3
     POA Probabilities                  0.5      0.15      0.15      0.05      0.3      0.15

2    DW                               0.1880    0.1667    0.1522   -0.0222    0.2833   0.2420

     GW                               0.3873    0.0693    0.1874   0.0281     0.2811   0.0468

4    UW                               0.5236    0.0785    0.0707   0.0131     0.1885   0.1257

5    HW                               0.4802    0.1895    0.0339   0.0198     0.2203   0.0763

6    Total of Criteria Weightages     0.5791    0.4749    0.4441   0.0388     0.9732   0.4907
     for the Location
7    Total Weightages
     Coefficient(TWC) of the          0.3948    0.1185    0.1110   0.0097     0.2433   0.1227
8    TWC Percentage of the             39.48     11.85     11.10     0.97     24.33    12.27
9    Rank                                I        IV         V        VI        II       III

                                    Table 6: Calculation of TWC

Decision Making

27. The calculation of Total Weightage Coefficient (TWC) is the last and final
step for obtaining holistic and proportional weightages for each location. Hence it is
an ‘Operations Research Tool’ to aid in Decision Making for a rational and logical
allotment of PDs in the Case under discussion.

28. The prerogative of allotment of PDs to the various locations would still remain
with the highest decision maker, though TWC has been obtained from POA
Probability Criteria Ratings by the Decision Maker and DW computed from actual
information on existing PDs. In this Case the following options are available for
making suitable allotment to the various locations in the Battalion Defended Area:-

       (a) Judgemental Allotment. Based on knowledge, experience and available
       information, the Decision Maker may decide on the following:-

               (i) Make allotment of PDs entirely based on his wisdom, without using

                  any quantitative decision aid available to him.

                  (ii)   Make allotment of PDs as per the Total Weightage Coefficient
                  (TWC) and the ranking obtained of the various locations as per them.

       (b) Proportional Allotment.           The total deficiency/requirement is give       in
       Table 1 and the total deficiency in the six locations is 113 (total authorised
       373 and held 260). 70 PDs have been allotted to the Unit. Working
       parameters available for proportional allotment are given at Table 7.

No                               Pt 4808    North Spur     Top      Shoulder   West Spur   Plateau

1    Deficiency                     9          25          19          -6         19         47

2    Total Weightages
     Coefficient(TWC) of the      0.3948     0.1185       0.1110    0.0097      0.2433     0.1227
3    TWC Percentage of the        39.48       11.85       11.10       0.97       24.33     12.27
4    Rank                           I           IV          V          VI         II         III

                                  Table 7: Working Parameters

29. The available options based on the above are:-

       (a) Option 1.        Allotment of PDs is made to the locations with higher rank
       downwards, keeping into account proportional distribution as well as
       deficiencies. If proportional distribution exceeds the deficiency in a particular
       location as in Pt 4808 in this Case, the surpluses are passed on to the
       location next in rank order and so on. This way it is possible to give
       satisfaction in varying degrees to maximum number of locations in this Case.
       The same can be seen at Table 8.

       (b) Option 2. Allotment in Option 2 is made rank order wise with the aim of
       providing 100 percent satisfaction to highest rank order locations till all the
       available PDs have been allotted. The same can be seen at Table 8.

No                            Pt 4808        North         Top     Shoulder   West     Plateau
                                             Spur                             Spur
1    Deficiency                 9             25           19         -6       19        47

2    Total Weightages
     Coefficient(TWC) of      0.3948        0.1185        0.1110   0.0097     0.2433   0.1227
     the Location
3    TWC Percentage of        39.48         11.85         11.10      0.97     24.33    12.27
     the Location
4    Rank                        I            IV            V         VI        II       III

5    Proportional
     Distribution of 70 PDs     28            8             8         1        17        9
     (Based on TWC
6    Allotment Option 1         9             8             8         -        19        26

7    Allotment Option 2         9              -            -         -        19        42

                                     Table 8: Allotment Options


30.   The Model for aiding decision making described in the Case Study is based on
Decision Theory of Operations Research.            Standard Decision Theory Models
primarily assist in selection of the most suitable alternative amongst several
alternatives available. The model suggested in the case above has been suitably
modified to suit the particular requirement as given in the situation. In this Case there
was a requirement of rank ordering defensive locations in a battalion defended area
based on proportional weightages for rational and holistic allocation of PDs to each
one of them.

31.   Another Operations Research tool that could have been used is Analytical
Hierarchical Process (AHP). However AHP requires services of an expert panel that
are brought together or Delphi Technique adopted. In this particular case it must be
appreciated that no expert can match the knowledge and wisdom of a military
commander responsible for a military operations situation. This is especially so when
factors like knowledge of a particular area of ground, own as well as enemy’s tactics,
psychology of own and enemy troops etc are important considerations for decision

32.   Similar Decision Models can be developed for different problems/decision
situations with sets of criteria as applicable to them. It is recommended that
whenever time and circumstances permit, endeavours by military commanders
should be made to make and use such operational decision aiding tools.

       Total Words 3124

Ser                                Page No
No                               From    To

1.    Abbreviations               (ii)   (ii)

2.    Case                        1       3

3.    General Notes               4       4

4.    Case Notes                  5       6

5.    Case Analysis               7      18

6.    Bibliography                19     19


Brig   Brigadier

Col    Colonel

CO     Commanding Officer

GOC    General Officer – in – Command

LAC    Line of Actual Control

PDs    Permanent Defences
                                 THE RIGHT CHOICE

1.   31 GARHWAL RIFLES was inducted in the month of April 2006 in the 51
Mountain Brigade Sector.    It was one of the most difficult areas on the LAC in high
altitude in Arunachal Pradesh with no infrastructure development. This area was
particularly underdeveloped basically due to the misplaced policies of the
governments over the years. It was during this period that intelligence reports of
large scale infrastructure development across the LAC by the adversary came in.
During higher Formation Commanders’ visits and in the War Game held at 51
Mountain Brigade, the same was discussed in great detail and serious concern was
shown by all.

2.    Col Kumar, CO, 31 GARHWAL RIFLES since induction made a number of
visits to all the defended localities and assessed that     the state of operational
preparedness was quite poor. The reason was basically that no infrastructure
development had taken place in the area due to non existence of surface
communication. The limited air effort available that too restricted by limited clear
weather days and limited flying hours in the narrow turbulent valleys was not
enough to even take care of daily maintenance of troops deployed in the area.

3.   Ever since then Col Kumar had set himself to make all possible endeavours
to enhance the operational preparedness of the Battalion Defended Area. However,
no concrete progress was made in the initial four months other than maintenance
of few bunkers which existed at the various defended localities. Not only that
induction of stores was a problem but the area lacked local resources as well.

4.   It was one of the rare clear days in the month of August and Brig Singh,
Commander, 51 Mountain Brigade was very fortunate to get a helicopter sortie to
Singo, the Battalion Headquarters of 31 GARWAL RIFLES. Singo is located on the
LAC at a height of 3750 meters with no surface communication. Singo and all the
posts beyond were totally dependent on air maintenance. The construction of the
road had commenced but it was a long way off before Singo got connected because
of the treacherous terrain and climatic conditions. It took four days to walk to the

road head, 94 kms away over the most treacherous terrain where with a large
number of obstacles including crossing the formidable Singo River five times with
help of rope bridges. Even a proper foot track did not exist doe to the terrain and
its alignment along the river coupled with the extreme inhospitable weather

5.   The Commanding Officer, Col Kumar received Brig Singh at the helipad. A
helicopter sortie had materialised after 24 days as the weather had remained
packed for the period. The MI 17 helicopter also brought fresh rations and mail so it
brought lot of cheer and the Post was buzzing with activity. Brig Singh appeared to
be beaming with enthusiasm. “ We have got what we wanted, the Brigade has been
allotted 100 PDs and I allot 70 to your location ” said Brig Singh. “It took a long time
to convince the GOC to allot us the PDs that also such a large number and in the
same financial year. It is now your responsibility to get things going. I am aware of all
the difficulties and problems for induction of stores. What I want you is to draw out
the priorities for allotment of the PDs to the various locations as per operational
priorities and administrative considerations as you are the most suitable judge for the
purpose. Also with the developments across the LAC, it is imperative that we
improve our operational readiness by November before the snowfall begins.”

6. Col Kumar felt a deep sense of satisfaction that all the persuasion for enhancing
operational readiness had finally borne fruit. Now it would only be the challenging
task of induction of stores for the PDs which would require a major effort.

7.   Brig Singh reiterated that that there will be all support from him and he would
not leave any stone unturned as far as provision of air effort was concerned. After
moving around the Post and having a cup of tea with the all ranks Brig Singh said,
“Col Kumar please do give me a plan in a weeks’ time and most important of all,
the details of allocation to the various defended localities since the GOC is keen
to know the same before he finally confirmed the allotment. Though there can be
no one better than you to decide the allocation of PDs to the various locations,
do keep in mind the operational aspects especially since the enemy is overlooking
your defences and there being on surface communication which implies you will
have to fight an isolated battle as reinforcements will take time to come. Other than

seeing the availability and their serviceability of the existing bunkers you will have to
consider administrative aspects as well.

8.   Brig Singh appreciated the way the Battalion was carrying out its tasks and
bearing with the extreme climatic as well as terrain conditions and wished good luck
to all before departure. Col Kumar felt satisfied with the development and started
making a mental appreciation of how to get going.       In the evening after the routine
evening report, Brig Singh told Col Kumar again that the GOC had reminded him
that the allotment of PDs will be confirmed only once he was given the allocation
and was satisfied with the same.

9. Col Kumar thought to himself that was there any method to quantify all factors
which will come into play as it would be difficult to justify the allocation of PDs
mathematically and similarly just by applying his wisdom and knowledge. Suddenly
he   remembered      that Col Sher Singh, his predecessor was        doing   the HDMC
Course and he would surely find out a method for him. The only difficult job was to
speak to him from the remote area.

10. The very next day Col Kumar was able to speak to Col Sher Singh Who briefed
him on how to go about it.

       Total Words 1,014

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