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               PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTORS
                                         V. Ryan © 2005




Solar power is energy from the sun. Although the sun is 150 million kilometres away it is still
extremely powerful. The amount of energy it provides for the earth in one minute is large
enough to meet the earth’s energy needs for one year. The problem is in the development of
technology that can harness this ‘free’ energy source.


                                                 Solar collectors are one way of focussing the
                                                suns rays to heat up fluids. A typical array of
                                                solar collectors is seen opposite. They are
                                                basically unusually shaped mirrors (parabolic
                                                in shape) that focus the heat of the sun on a
                                                pipe carrying a special fluid. The temperature
                                                of the fluid in the pipe increases as it flows
                                                down the pipe, along the solar collectors. The
                                                pipe extends the entire length of the mirrors.


This type of set up works at its best in desert areas where there is no shortage of sunlight and
very little cloud. The hot fluid in the pipe can be used, through a system of heat exchangers,
to produce electricity or hot water.
                                                          The special fluid
                                                          inside the pipes can be
                                                          replaced with water.
                                                          The concentrated heat
                                                          from the parabolic
                                                          collectors turns the
                                                          water into steam. The
                                                          jet of steam is used to
                                                          turn turbines
                                                          producing electricity.
                                                          This system works
                                                          well in desert regions
                                                          due to the hot climate.

                         The photographs show an
                         arrangement of parabolic solar
                         collectors. Notice the suns
                         energy is focused on the water
                         pipe at its centre.




            Parabolic Trough Collectors
                   www.ParabolicTroughCollectors.com

We provide Parabolic Trough Collectors and turnkey Concentrating Solar Power
systems in addition to project design and engineering, to financing permitting
and installation. This includes Solar Water Heating Systems, Solar Electric
Power Systems, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration and Solar Trigeneration power
and energy systems. We also offer energy-saving technologies that may include;
Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response,
Cogeneration, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy
Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Trigeneration and Energy
Conservation Measures.

We provide the following power and energy project development services:
      Project Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies
      Engineering, Procurement and Construction
      Environmental Engineering & Permitting
      Power Purchase Agreements
      Solar Power Agreements
      Project Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt
       Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease
      Shared/Guaranteed Savings Program with No Capital Investment from
       Qualified Clients
      Project Commissioning
      3rd Party Ownership and Project Development
      Long-term Service Agreements
      Operations & Maintenance
      Green Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission
       Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting

We provide Net Energy Metering project development services as well as
"turnkey" products and services in the areas of "Renewable Energy Technologies"
and in developing clean power/energy projects that will generate a "Renewable
Energy Credit," Carbon Dioxide Credits and Emission Reduction
Credits. Through our strategic partners, we offer "turnkey" power/energy project
development products and services that may include; Absorption Chillers,
Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Biodiesel Refineries, Biofuel
Refineries, Biomass Gasification, BioMethane, Canola Biodiesel, Coconut
Biodiesel, Cogeneration, Concentrating Solar Power, Demand Response
Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Conservation Measures, Energy
Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration,
Rapeseed Biodiesel, Solar Electric Heat Pumps, Solar Electric Power Systems,
Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Trigeneration, Soy Biodiesel, and
Trigeneration.

Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means
we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This
approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating
expenses and increased return on investment.

For more information: call us at: 832-758-0027

What are Parabolic Trough Collectors?
The parabolic trough is the most advanced of the concentrator systems. This
technology is used in the largest grid connected solar-thermal power plants in the
world. One such complex in the U.S. uses parabolic troughs. The Kramer
Junction companies operate and maintain five 30-megawatt Solar Electric
Generating Systems (SEGS). These SEGS comprise 150 to 354 megawatts of
installed parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating capacity located in
California's Mojave desert. The combined California facilities produce more than
99% of the commercially available solar generated electric power in the U.S.




A parabolic trough collector has a linear parabolic-shaped reflector that focuses
the sun's radiation on a linear receiver located at the focus of the parabola. The
collector tracks the sun along one axis from east to west during the day to ensure
that the sun is continuously focused on the receiver. Because of its parabolic
shape, a trough can focus the sun at 30 to 100 times its normal intensity
(concentration ratio) on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough,
achieving operating temperatures over 400 degrees Celcius.

A collector field consists of a large field of single-axis tracking parabolic trough
collectors. The solar field is modular in nature and is composed of many parallel
rows of solar collectors aligned on a north-south horizontal axis. A working (heat
transfer) fluid is heated as it circulates through the receivers and returns to a
series of heat exchangers at a central location where the fluid is used to generate
high-pressure superheated steam. The steam is then fed to a conventional steam
turbine/generator to produce electricity. After the working fluid passes through
the heat exchangers, the cooled fluid is recirculated through the solar field. The
plant is usually designed to operate at full rated power using solar energy alone,
given sufficient solar energy. However, all plants are hybrid solar/fossil plants
that have a fossil-fired capability that can be used to supplement the solar output
during periods of low solar energy. The Luz plant is a natural gas hybrid.

				
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