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					            K-4 Science
          Power Standards
                and
      Related Learning Targets

                               June, 2008




Based on the revised 12.07 Science Grade Level Content Expectations (Jan. 2009)
                                    What are Power Standards?
 Power standards are the most important learning targets for a grade, often culminating a
  learning progression that started at earlier grades.
 Power standards prepare students for what they will learn in later grades.
 Power standards help focus and simplify teachers’ understanding of the scope of the subject
  at their grade.
 Power standards may be big ideas, skills or dispositions.
 Power standards may be rewritten in teacher or student friendly language.
 Power standards may combine more than one GLCE.
 Power standards do not replace the GLCEs.


                                      Related Learning Targets
The related learning targets include the foundational knowledge and skills behind the power
standard. In most cases they are GLCEs, although some foundational knowledge and skills
needed to master a power standard are included here that may not have been included in the
GLCEs.
Some foundational learning targets for a power standard are found in an earlier grade, so be sure
to check the matrix on page 4 to find corresponding power standard and related learning targets
in previous grades.
Formative assessments are most often developed from the related learning targets rather than the
power standards, to help students know where they are in their progress toward confident and
reliable performance of the power standard. This knowledge helps students take responsibility
for their learning and helps teachers plan the next steps needed to move students forward.




K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09     p. 2
          Introduction to K-4 science power standards and related learning targets
Each power standard and its cluster of related learning targets looks like a unit of instruction,
however, this document is not intended as a curriculum document. Districts may find various
ways of creating units of instruction from the GLCEs. The intention with this document was
simply to highlight the most important ideas within each grade.
Connections across the grades must be made explicit to students in order to construct a full
understanding of biology, Earth science and physical science concepts. The chart on the next
page will be helpful in recognizing and planning instruction around those connections.
The grade level placement of the content expectations is not a state mandate. Schools can decide
to teach certain content expectations at other grades if they have an important reason to do so.
The only requirement is that all students learn the K-4 GLCEs before the science MEAP test in
the fall of 5th grade.
GLCE codes that are followed by “r” are those that have been revised in the Companion
document released in January, 2009.



                                      “Super” Power Standards
The Inquiry Process and Inquiry Analysis and Communication GLCEs should be woven
into every learning progression in appropriate ways. Science content is learned most deeply
by using an inquiry cycle – asking questions, designing investigations, collecting data,
analyzing and drawing conclusions, reflecting on the process, posing new questions – then
starting the cycle over again.

 Not all Inquiry GLCEs will be used in every lesson or unit, but the inquiry approach should
  underlie all science teaching.


The Reflection and Social Implications GLCEs should be woven into every unit of study as
appropriate. Scientific claims are based on evidence and reason, and students should be
held to standard of justifying their conclusions and scientific arguments at all times.
Science has made major contributions to social advancement, and students need to learn
how to evaluate the potential effects of new scientific advancements on both human society
and the natural world.

 The GLCEs in this section about the nature of science will apply to every unit of study in one
  way or another.




K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09           p. 3
                     Kindergarten                        1st Grade                         2nd Grade                        3rd Grade                         4th Grade
Life         SK.1 – Identify what plants       S1.1 – Observe various            S2.1 – Observe various plants,   S3.1 – Explain how                S4.1 – Identify and explain the
science      and animals need to stay alive.   animals, identify their needs     identify their needs and         observable characteristics of     basic needs of plants and
                                               and characteristics, and          characteristics, and describe    plants and animals allow them     animals, their roles in food
                                               describe their life cycles.       their life cycles.               to survive in their               webs, and the impact of
                                                                                                                  environments.                     environmental changes on
                                               S1.2 – Explain the importance
                                                                                                                                                    plants and animals.
                                               of sunlight and earth materials
                                               in plant growth.                                                                                     S4.2 – Identify characteristics
                                                                                                                                                    of organisms and variations
                                                                                                                                                    among individuals that
                                                                                                                                                    influence their survival in
                                                                                                                                                    their environments.
Earth                                          S1.3 – Compare daily and          S2.2 – Describe and identify     S3.2 – Explain the various        S4.3 – Describe the sun, Earth
science                                        seasonal weather conditions.      major landforms and bodies of    ways we use natural resources     and moon and their motions.
                                                                                 water on the Earth’s surface.    (renewable and non-
                                                                                                                  renewable) and describe
                                                                                 S2.3 – Identify water sources,
                                                                                                                  harmful and helpful effects on
                                                                                 uses and properties.
                                                                                                                  the environment.
                                                                                                                  S3.3 – Identify and describe
                                                                                                                  natural causes of change in the
                                                                                                                  earth’s surface (erosion,
                                                                                                                  glaciers, volcanoes, landslides
                                                                                                                  and earthquakes).
Physical     SK.2 – Describe simple            S1.4 – Describe various           S2.4 – Describe, measure and     S3.4 – Relate changes in the      S4.4 – Measure objects (size,
science      motions and observe the           properties of objects and         compare physical properties      motion of an object to forces     weight, volume, temperature),
             effects of pushes and pulls on    substances.                       of objects and substances        acting on the object.             compare and contrast
             moving objects.                                                                                                                        characteristics of liquids and
                                                                                                                  S3.5 – Explain how light
                                                                                                                                                    solids, and describe changes
                                                                                                                  interacts with objects and how
                                                                                                                                                    in state.
                                                                                                                  sounds are produced.
                                                                                                                                                    S4.5 – Create and describe
                                                                                                                                                    simple electric circuits and
                                                                                                                                                    electromagnets; demonstrate
                                                                                                                                                    and describe interactions with
                                                                                                                                                    magnets.




K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09                                                                                   p. 4
                            Kindergarten Power Standards
SK.1 - Identify what plants and animals need to stay alive
Related Learning Targets:
       Know the basic needs of living things (L.OL.00.11)
       Identify living and non-living things (L.OL.00.12)
       Compare living and non-living things (L.OL.00.12)
       Identify Earth materials that occur in nature (sand, rocks, soil, water). (E.SE.00.11 r)
        Describe how Earth materials contribute to the growth of plant and animal life.
        (E.SE.00.12 r)


SK.2 - Describe simple motions and observe the effects of pushes and pulls on moving
objects.
Related Learning Targets:
       Describe the position of an object (above, below, in front of, behind, on) in relation to
        other objects. (P.FM.00.11 r)
       Describe the direction of a moving object (for example: away from or closer to) from
        different observers’ view. (P.FM.00.12 r)
       Demonstrate pushes and pulls on objects that can move. (P.FM.00.31 r)
       Observe that objects initially at rest will move in the direction of the push or pull.
        (P.FM.00.32)
       Observe how pushes and pulls can change the speed or direction of moving objects.
        (P.FM.00.33)
       Observe that objects fall toward the Earth (P.FM.00.21)


Also in Kindergarten:
Observe how shape and mass of an object can affect motion. (P.FM.00.34 r)




K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09           p. 5
                                1st Grade Power Standards
S1.1 - Observe various animals, identify their needs and characteristics, and describe their
life cycles.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify the needs of animals. (L.OL.01.13;
       Describe how Earth materials contribute to the growth of plant and animal life.
        (E.SE.01.12 r)
       Identify and classify animals based on their characteristics. (L.HE.01.11)
       Classify young animals based on characteristics that are passed on from their parents.
        (L.HE.01.12)
       Describe animal life cycles, including stages. (L.OL.01.21)


S1.2 – Explain the importance of sunlight and warmth in plant growth. (E.ES.01.12)
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify the sun as the most important source of heat which warms the land, air, and
        water on Earth. (E.ES.01.11)


S1.3 - Compare daily and seasonal weather conditions.
Related Learning Targets:
       Observe and collect data of weather conditions over a period of time. (E.ES.01.32)
       Identify the tools that are used to measure weather. (E.ES.01.31)
       Identify the sun as the most important source of heat that warms land, air, and water on
        Earth. (E.ES.01.11)
       Compare daily changes in the weather related to temperature; cloud cover; precipitation;
        wind (E.ES.01.21)
       Describe and compare weather in the four seasons. (E.ES.01.22)
       Describe severe weather characteristics. Describe precautions that should be taken for
        human safety during severe weather conditions (thunder and lightning, tornadoes, strong
        winds, heavy precipitation) (E.ES.01.23 r; E.ES.01.24 r)


S1.4 - Describe various properties of objects and substances.
Related Learning Targets:
       Sort objects by their observable attributes such as size, color, shape. (P.PM.01.11)
       Determine if objects sink or float. (P.PM.01.11)
       Identify objects that are attracted to magnets, and observe and record how magnets
        interact with each other. (P.PM.01.31; P.PM.01.32)
       Describe the properties of solid and liquid water. (P.PM.01.21; P.PM.01.22)


K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09        p. 6
                               2nd Grade Power Standards
S2.1 - Observe various plants, identify their needs and characteristics, and describe their
life cycles.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify needs of plants (water, sunlight, air). (L.OL.02.14)
       Describe the life cycle of flowering plants, including stages (seed, seedling, plant, flower,
        fruit, seed). (L.OL.02.22)
       Identify characteristics that are passed on from parents to young. (L.HE.02.13)


S2.2 - Describe and identify major landforms and bodies of water on the Earth’s surface.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify major landforms and bodies of water from photos and on maps (e.g. mountains,
        valleys, plains, Great Lakes, rivers, Atlantic and Pacific Ocean). (E.SE.02.21;
        E.FE.02.22)
       Describe how rain water collects on the surface, is absorbed into the ground or flows into
        bodies of water. (E.FE.02.21)


S2.3 - Identify water sources, uses and properties.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify household uses of water. (E.FE.02.12)
       Identify different sources of water and recognize water as an important natural resource.
        (E.FE.02.11)
       Describe the properties of water as a liquid (visible, flowing, shape of container) and
        recognize rain, dew, and fog as water in its liquid state. Describe the properties of water
        as a solid (hard, visible, frozen, cold) and recognize ice, snow, and hail as water in its
        solid state. (E.FE.02.13 r; E.FE.02.14 r)


S2.4 - Describe, measure and compare physical properties of objects and substances
Related Learning Targets:
       Understand that objects and substances have properties that describe them such as color,
        size, shape, texture, hardness, liquid or solid, sinking or floating. (P.PM.02.12)
       Identify objects and substances by their properties. (P.PM.02.12)
       Recognize that some objects are composed of a single substance (water, sugar, salt) and
        others are composed of more than one substance (salt and pepper, mixed dry beans)
        (P.PM.02.41 r)
       Measure the length of objects using rulers (centimeters) and meter sticks (meters).
        (P.PM.02.13)



K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09         p. 7
       Measure the volume of objects using common measuring tools (graduated measuring
        cups, measuring spoons, graduated cylinders and beakers). (P.PM.02.14 r)
       Compare objects using balances. (P.PM.02.15)




K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09   p. 8
                                3rd Grade Power Standards
S3.1 - Explain how observable characteristics of plants and animals allow them to survive
in their environments.
Related Learning Targets:
       Describe the functions of various plant parts (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) and
        classify plants based on their observable characteristics. (L.OL.03.41; L.OL.03.31)
       Relate characteristics and functions of observable parts in a variety of plants that allow
        them to live in their environment (leaf shape, thorns, odor, color). (L.EV.03.11 r)
       Classify animals on the basis of observable physical characteristics (backbone, body
        coverings, limbs). (L.OL.03.42 r)
       Identify and compare structures in animals used for support, movement, getting food,
        controlling body temperature, and protection (fur, wings, teeth, scales). (L.OL.03.32 r)
       Relate characteristics and functions of observable body parts to the ability of animals to
        live in their environment (sharp teeth, claws, color, body coverings). (L.EV.03.12 r)


S3.2 - Explain the various ways we use natural resources (renewable and non-renewable)
and describe harmful and helpful effects of humans on the environment.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify natural resources (metals, fuels, fresh water, fertile soil, and forests). (E.ES.03.41
        r; E.ES.03.42 r)
       Classify renewable (fresh water, fertile soil, forests) and non-renewable (fuels, metals)
        resources. (E.ES.03.42 r)
       Describe ways humans are protecting, extending, and restoring resources (recycle, reuse,
        reduce, renewal). (E.ES.03.43 r)
       Describe ways humans are dependent on the natural environment (forests, water, clean
        air, earth materials) and constructed environments (homes, neighborhoods, shopping
        malls, factories, and industry). (E.ES.03.51)
       Identify earth materials used to construct some common objects (bricks, buildings, roads,
        glass). (E.SE.03.31 r)
       Describe helpful or harmful effects of humans on the environment (garbage, habitat
        destruction, land management, renewable and non-renewable resources.) (E.ES.03.52)
       Explain ways that we can conserve natural resources. (E.SE.03.32)
       List some common products that can be recycled, and explain why it is important to
        recycle. (E.ES.03.44)




K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09          p. 9
S3.3 - Identify and describe natural causes of change in the earth’s surface (erosion,
glaciers, volcanoes, landslides and earthquakes).
Related Learning Targets:
       Recognize and describe different types of earth materials (mineral, rock, clay, boulder,
        gravel, sand, soil, water, and air). Recognize that rocks are made up of minerals
        (E.SE.03.13 r, E.SE.03.14)
       Understand that changes in the earth’s surface are caused by rapid and slow processes.
        (E.SE.03.22)


S3.4 - Relate changes in the motion of an object to forces acting on the object.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify gravity and pushes/pulls as forces. (P.FM.03.22; P.FM.03.35)
       Understand that an object changes motion when a force acts upon it. (P.FM.03.36)
       Demonstrate how the strength of the force and the weight of the object affect the motion
        of an object. (P.FM.03.37)
       Understand that when an object does not move there are equal forces acting upon the
        object. (P.FM.03.38)
       Describe the motion of objects in terms of the path and direction. Identify changes in
        motion (change direction, speeding up, slowing down) (P.FM.03.41 r; P.FM.03.42)
       Relate the speed of an object to the distance it travels in a standard amount of time.
        (P.FM.03.43 r)


S3.5 - Explain how light interacts with objects and how sounds are produced.
Related Learning Targets:
       Explain how light is needed to see objects: light from a source reflects off objects and
        enters our eyes. (P.PM.03.52)
       Demonstrate that light travels in a straight path and that shadows are made by placing an
        object in a path of light. (P.EN.03.21 r)
       Observe what happens to light when it travels from air to water (a straw half in the water
        and half in the air looks bent). (P.EN.03.22)
       Demonstrate how dark colored materials are heated more than light colored materials by
        light that shines on them. (P.PM.03.51)
       Understand that vibrating objects produce sound. (P.EN.03.31)
       Understand that the rate of vibration determines the pitch of the sound. (P.EN.03.32)




K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09      p. 10
                                4th Grade Power Standards
S4.1 - Identify and explain the basic needs of plants and animals, their roles in food webs,
and the impact of environmental changes on plants and animals.
Related Learning Targets:
       Determine needs of plants and animals. (L.OL.04.15; L.OL.04.16)
       Construct food chains or food webs using various plants and animals. (L.EC.04.11)
       Explain how environmental changes can effect a food web. (L.EC.04.21)


S4.2 - Identify characteristics of organisms and variations among individuals that influence
their survival in their environments.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify individual differences (color, leg length, wing size, leaf shape) in organisms of
        the same kind. (L.EV.04.21 r)
       Identify variations in physical characteristics of individual organisms that give them an
        advantage for survival and reproduction. (L.EV.04.22)
       Explain how fossils provide evidence of Earth’s past by comparing and contrasting life
        forms found in fossils and organisms that exist today. (E.ST.04.31)


S4.3 - Describe the sun, Earth and moon and their motions.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify the sun and moon as common objects in the sky. Compare and contrast the
        characteristics of the sun, moon, and Earth, including relative distances and abilities to
        support life. (E.ST.04.11 r; E.ST.04.12)
       Explain the apparent movement of the sun and moon across the sky. (E.ST.04.25)
       Describe the pattern of the changing appearance of the moon over time. (E.ST.04.23;
        E.ST.04.24)
       Relate the motions of the moon and Earth to calendar divisions (day/night, month, year)
        (E.ST.04.21; E.ST.04.22; E.ST.04.23; E.ST.04.24)


S4.4 - Measure objects (size, weight, volume, temperature), compare and contrast
characteristics of liquids and solids, and describe changes in state.
Related Learning Targets:
       Show some ways that heat can be produced (through electricity, rubbing/friction and
        burning), demonstrate how temperature can be increased in a substance by heating it, and
        identify heat as a form of energy. (P.EN.04.12, P.EN.04.41-43)
       Identify objects that are good or poor conductors of heat.
       Explain that heating or cooling are needed to change matter from one state to another.
       Measure the weight or mass of objects using appropriate units.


K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09       p. 11
       Measure the temperature of solids and liquids.
       Measure the volumes of liquids in milliliters and liters. (P.PM.04.17 r)


S4.5 - Create and describe simple electric circuits and electromagnets; demonstrate and
describe interactions with magnets.
Related Learning Targets:
       Identify objects that are good conductors or poor conductors of electricity. (P.PM.04.53)
       Demonstrate how electrical energy is transferred and changed through the use of a simple
        circuit. (P.EN.04.51 r)
       Demonstrate magnetic effects in a simple electric circuit. (P.EN.04.52 r)
       Demonstrate magnetic fields by observing the patterns formed with iron filings using a
        variety of magnets. (P.PM.04.33)
       Demonstrate that magnetic objects are affected by the strength of the magnet and the
        distance away from the magnet. (P.PM.04.34)




K-4 Science Power Standards and Related Learning Targets, Mid-Michigan Consortium 2/11/09    p. 12

				
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