Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

International comparisons_ case


									                       INTERNATIONAL STATISTIC INSTITUTE

                       CONTRIBUTED PAPER :
                       International comparisons,
         case of West African Economic and Monetary

Author : Mister VIGAN Fortune Evariste

Organisation : Réseau d’Information et de Formation
               sur le Developpement –Bénin/ ONG

Address : 03 BP 4249
Town    : Cotonou
Country/state : Republic of BENIN
Postal Zip : 229
Telephone : (229) 40 34 20/ (229) 30 93 04
Fax number : (229) 31 38 77
E-mail : ,

                                    Cotonou, april 2002

Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... 3

introduction .................................................................................................................................... 4

1. International comparisons concepts ...................................................................................... 4

1.1. International comparisons roles ......................................................................................... 5

1.2. International comparisons and regional integration in west africa............................... 6

2. International comparisons tools used by waemu ................................................................. 6

2.1. Use’s difficulties ..................................................................................................................... 8

2.2. Solutions .................................................................................................................................. 8

3.conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 9

        Humanity’s history has proved that the norms like international comparisons of the
sizes have always existed in order to appreciate:
        - the vitality of an entity to an other on the microeconomic plan, and
        - the performances of an economy to another on the macroeconomic plan.
         Like illustrates if well the theory of advantage comparatives in the International
Commerce; that's why some countries are specialized in the exclusive production of some
goods while these same countries prefer to import goods for which the costs of manufacture
are highest.
        In the context of the globalisation of economy, it is important to show that developing
countries are concerned by the control of international comparisons tools. So, the process of
their development depend on these tools. It’s why, our contributed paper tries to show the
necessary conditions that these countries must to have in order to participate to the new
economy. In this logic, we will take a case of West African Economic And Monetary Union
in order to describe the policies applied. Equally, it will be the place to relate some difficulties
that covers the United Nations System in economic indicators often used to realize

The requirements of the new economy are further coercive contrarily to a recent times, all
remaining equal things by elsewhere. The industrialised countries to the example of those in
sees of development to conform to some political of convergence rigorously without protocol
for the stragglers. The emergence of the economical blocks is an of it demonstration vivid
political who is of remainder, based on a [panel] of harmonized indicators facilitating the
exercise of comparison of the concerned savings. So, the system of the United Nations, with
his range of tools of international comparison, succeeded in establishing a ladder of size
between the countries of the planet. This translates the cohabitation of country poor stories to
the sides of the rich countries. In these two together, one distinguishes:

· The countries in sees of development;
· The least advanced countries;
· The countries to intermediate incomes;
· The countries newly industrialized; and
· The industrialized countries.
In spite of the diversity of the appellations knew mentioned, these concepts are based on some
indicators no less applicable who used to measure the economical competitiveness some
nations. So to speak, these indicators are constructed following a panoply of socio-economic
criteria who allows to compare the signals of an economy to an other. He doesn't stay of it
less than indicators it is partly biased because resulting of the consideration of doubtful
criteria (otherwise regularly put in causes).
Despite this state of thing, he is comfortable of noting that throughout elsewhere these
instruments made their proof, and sees today used by number of nations in order to purify the
public finances and of addition confer the considered savings a certain fruitfulness. It is in this
context that the Economical and Monetary Union of the Africa of the West (WAEMU) is
translated in the reality like the first economical whole of the west African region of which
the noble ambition is of creating an economical embedded space covering a surface of 3.5
millions of kilometres square with more than 67millions of consumers. This whole drains
33% of Interior Raw Product of the Africa of the West.
The presents communication will attempt to coming out again the foundations of the politics
of economical convergence who are only the stake opens and the efficient use of the
aforementioned indicators. It will be the opportunity of coming back also on the reserves
given out by the scientific and economical surroundings on the conception those indicatory.

1. International comparisons concepts

One would not know how to surround the contours of the indicators of international
comparison fully if he one refers an any to their genesis. This brings us to make a brief
historic recall on the birth of the socio-economic tools of comparison.
The deep incentive who under offers the development then the adoption of the tools of
analysis making the object of the present communication resides in the permanent worry of
scientist of could compare some sizes of all nature. So, he one could notice that the rules of
conversion governing the metric system in truth the arithmetic is an eloquent illustration of
the importance of the tools of measurement that is the indicators of international comparison.
Without no doubt, if this tool didn't exist it fails it invent. This simple report shows to what
dawns our society has need of an arsenal [efficient] of comparison so much. In the case of the
nations, the reality resides in the multitude and the diversity of the savings in presence. These
savings are actually condemned to cohabiting on the same planet, all the more reason to
surround of adequate instruments could facilitate the exchanges and well of something else.
In so doing, the commercial transactions who make between different monetary zones achieve
on the basis of the precise exchange rate. The exchange rate of the currencies in question
serves of stallion for the purchase of the possessions and services of a country to an other.
However, these transactions respect the real fluctuations some currencies to the rise like to the
decrease, intervening in the time.

Outside of the historic aspect who has been just makes, he is acceptable to come back on the
criteria of conception of the tools of international comparison. It is necessary to say that the
united nations worked out a range of serving credential of basis of comparison and of analysis
between the nations of the planet. It is to this title that the national accounting put places an of
it certain number of economical concepts in order to value the wealth of the nations. In order
to one don't go farther could mention the worked out system and put in 1968 in force that a lot
of country of Africa (south Sahara) continues using in the confection of the national amounts.
This system of national accounting made the object of applicable critiques who led to his
overhaul in 1993. Of stroke, one imagines that the mistakes contained in the first are an any
corrected and reduced correctly. If the United Nations himself try to endow the savings of the
countries of this tool it is in order to facilitate the comparison of the economical indicators
unanimously admitted and normalized. Imagining a world without this compass, I don't dare
to conclude.

1.1. International comparisons roles

She carried some tools of international comparison are unanimously acknowledged.
Nowadays, where the globalisation] of the economy progresses to big and the constitution of
regroupings economical one affirms further would be to attempt to put these processes on
account of the only interests or of profit. But the tools making the object of present paper
constitutes the part hidden of the iceberg. So to speak, no investment achieves without the
analysis of risk or of the survey of feasibility of project of investment. This conducts us to
speak of role of the tools of international comparison in the concert of the nations.
The role of the tools of international comparison is not anymore to demonstrate in this sense
that many situations of taking of decision was the fruit those tools. For proof, he was
sufficient of seeing the room that takes care the national accounting in the macro economy.
Especially the contribution of the tools mentioned in the explanation of some economical
phenomenon. When we take the case of the financial economy, the norms to respect is so
much of indicators of international comparison who permit the well attended and the
assessment of the political stakes in opens in the sector. Master it some budgetary disciplines,
to know

· Doorstep of indebtedness;
· Engagements
· public Expense
· monetary Mass in circulation
· Cashes fiduciaries
· electronic Currency
· Rate of discounts
· Rate of interest

1.2. International comparisons and regional integration in West Africa

Before enter in the quick of topic of the present section, he matters of making a summary
presentation of the WAEMU space.
This organization under regional, localised in the big known under the nominative of
CEDEAO, regroups seven French-speaking country and one. It was about:
1. Benin;
2. Burkina Faso;
3. Côte-d'Ivoire ;
4. Guinea Bissau, (only Portuguese country),
5. Mali;
6. Niger;
7. Togo;
8. Senegal.
With a view to the realization of the economical integration of the ECOWAS space, the
authorities of the West African zone judged good of going methodically and progressively.
To this end, they have divided the big west African zone in two under zones. The first
regroups the English countries to know: Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Gambia;
while the second fact reference to the countries previously cities, those of the WAEMU. The
objective being of arriving to the economical partial and separate integration some two
entities leave to finally launch of amount the big market of the Africa of the West with the
fusion of the two aforementioned entities. This last realization will materialize the economical
market of the CEDEAO to the example of the European Union. This strategy of development
will lead to long term to the unique African market where the microphone savings will make
room to an economical strength of size. In order to close this bracket, signals that our
communication is oriented on the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU).
One would not know how to pursue without relating the historic fundamental signals of the
organization. Indeed, the WAEMU was created on the ruins of the old WAMU in January
1994 at Dakar, Senegalese capital. She took body to the following day of the all first
devaluation of Straightforward CFA (11 January 1994).

2. International comparisons tools used by WAEMU

The presents section allows to speak of panel of tools put in practice by the countries of the
Union in order to arrive to the realization of the economical integration so much wished.
Being given that the concerned countries have some economical disparities, and of addition of
level of different development. In order to achieve this objective, it was necessary to put
places an of it [harmonisation] and normalization of the concepts in order to facilitate the
comparability of the economical aggregations between the countries of the Union.
To this effect, the thickest stain was the one of sitting down the elements of the national
accounting of these country on the same bases. It is the place of recalling that most of the
country continues using the system of the national amounts worked out by the united nations
in 1968. This demonstrates the ampleness of the progresses to accomplish in order to endow
these savings in presence of a reliable barometer to same of leading to the economical
integration. It is necessary to mention how alone the Mali uses the new system of the national
amounts, the one of 1993. This observation shows how many time the scientific surroundings
must try in order to lead to the communal utilization of new system. So, a common basis will
be adopted in order to permit to realise the comparability of the indicators of economic
performance per one good well attended assessment of the progresses recorded to the thread
of the budgetary exercises.

In spite of these disparities of national amounts, a certain of number of advancing could be
makes since little. To the title of these progress, it is necessary to stipulate that economic
operators of some States members of the Union succeeded in putting in places some
economical reforms based on the [harmonisation] and the normalization of the concepts in
several sectors of the economical activity. One could mention:
· The harmonisation of fiscal and border policy;
· The organization for the harmonisation of right some business;
· The system accountant of the WAEMU (SYSCOA);
· The harmonisation of the nomenclatures of the activities and some products achieved by
· The stake in force of Outside Common Tariff since January 1999;
· The backing of the structures of collection and of treatment of the statistical information;

· The bets in opens next of Program Statistical Common Minimum piloted by AFRISTAT;

· The rationalization of the public finances some countries of the Union
· The harmonisation of the political and projects in matter of transport.

The list is not exhaustive but representative. The instruments in order to facilitate the healthy
competition between the countries consisted in to adopt a common rating to the borders. This
tackles permit to the countries of exercising an identical taxation to the entrance especially,
because the WAEMU knows a strong dependence of the imports lives to screw of remainder
of world. The reality of this disposition is the Outside Common Tariff. The British tradesman
who exports some products towards of the region hire the same whichever impositions the
country of destination. This is true per one identical quantity of product. Besides, with this
TEC, the inflation is solved an any.

On the plan of the public fiscality, the [harmonisation] of the political fiscal permits besides to
the national enterprises of spreading their activities in the communal space consecrating thus,
the integration to the basis. Undoubtedly the reach of these political economical of
convergence is of preparing these disparate savings to become competitive. The
competitiveness will result of the restraint of the possibilities of specialization of way to
reinforce the exchanges communal [intra] to the detriment of remainder of world.

The bets in opens of the whole of these political is supervised by the Central Bank some
States of the Africa of the West who bends on the monetary politics of the Union. This
structure comes in balance to the competent cells of the Union. So, the Blackboard of the
Financial Operations is published every year for the well attended some exercise’s realities,
by the different country. The budgetary discipline is in passes of being consummate by the n
ministrations loads some finances of the Union.

It is actually a crucial point of the economy of the WAEMU. Outside of the Côte-d'Ivoire
Coast and of Senegal, the economical growth observed in the other country stays fiscal. Of
where the necessity of reinforcing the productive cloth. On this plan the countries like the
Burkina Faso test of reversing the tendency. Since his indicator of human development
improved to the course of the last decennia.

2.1. Use’s Difficulties

All is not yet pink for the Union. The countries know some difficulties in the stake in opens
some political of economical convergence aiming the integration of the concerned savings.
Of point of seeing of the fiscality, the reforms linger to be stakes in opens for some
nationalistic considerations. Indeed, to the picture of the construction of the European Union
the one of the WAEMU meet some problems and the phobia of some of being absorbed by
the powerful. Simply because the integration is going to cause the disappearance of the
monopolies on one hand and a rough and healthy competition of the enterprises of the under
region. Nothing that to see the bets SYSCOA accountant in application of system, with soon
four (4) years of execution a lot of enterprises are again to the former. Before this report, he
comes back to the signatory States of treating of Union of reinforcing the measurements of
repression so that the adoption is efficient.
For this who of the stake in opens Statistical Common Minimum piloted by AFRISTAT of
Program, many remain to make for the vulgarisation of the nomenclatures newly adopted.
Besides, seen the inability of the States to dispose of statistical reliable expertise in a context
of diminution of the facilities, some major obstacles point to the horizon in the happy
concretisation of this program.
In order to finish, he matters to raise that the countries members of the Union to weak
productive cloth know of fail in to earn no less negligible in the common fiscality. That's why,
they require some mechanisms of compensation.

2.2. Solutions

To him seen of these difficulties, some beginnings of solutions were found. For him fails in to
earn fiscal, the Union put places an of it Funds of Aide to the Regional Integration destined to
making up for them of a certain manner having right.
For the program of AFRISTAT, this structure hears to fold back on the institutions of
statistical national and the public administrations for the execution of program. In the same
way, an overhaul of the approach of vulgarisation is admitted.
To the look of these solutions, he comes that the success is to reach of hand if on top of it the
States members put it of serious and of the ambition.
The economical integration of the under region is in right line with of the next creation of the
Economical Community some States of the Africa of the West.
Add in order to finish that the countries of the WAEMU understand some poor countries and
some countries to intermediate incomes (Côte-d'Ivoire Coast). The adherence to these
categories is based on some concepts established by the United Nations and who is decried
besides in addition nowadays. That's why, he one makes reference to the Development
Human Indicator of who takes many more henceforth in counts some considerations socio-
cultural like the rate of literacy, the rate of children going to school and the welfare.

In order to conclude the present paper, it is necessary now and already say that the
international comparison is a strategic domain of measurement or of control of the socio-
economic performances some nations. This paper allowed to coming out again the advantages
strengths who result of the application or of the stake in opens of politics of economical
convergences between some countries who have a become common. Becoming common
allowing to operate some applicable comparisons between some sizes of many sectors of the
savings in presence. This is translated by the experience of the young WAEMU who is data
for ambition of achieving the economical integration some countries members.
He comes out again of this experience of the certain acquirements like the bets in opens of
outside Common Tariff and well some other. To short term, the specialization of the countries
members are going to accelerate in the context of the globalisation of the economy. With the
political of economical convergence of the region, the [comparability] becomes efficient
between these savings to the disparate departure. Of addition the tools of international
comparison are progressively manipulated and compete thus to some holds of specific and
efficient decisions.
To him staying, whichever the given content to the IDH of the considerable progresses
observes in the WAEMU space. Being given that the science always knows some meaningful
progresses, one will arrive to middle term to give a content less biased to some indicators.

To top