Testbank Chapter 12
1. Which of the following is not a part of the biosphere?
a. land water and air
b. all life forms
c. the upper atmosphere
d. Earth’s core
2. An “ecological nationalist” would likely
a. support international treaties.
b. be concerned about the impact of pollution on Earth as a whole.
c. reject outside efforts to regulate the management of a countries environment.
d. reject the scientific research on ecological issues.
3. An “ecological internationalist” would likely
a. be skeptical of international environmental treaties.
b. argue that the environmental interests of countries are linked.
c. argue that their country should not have to endure more regulations than other
d. reject the scientific research on ecological issues.
4. Individuals who believe that humans are doing serious, irreversible damage to the
environment are espousing environmental
5. Environmental pessimists believe that each of the following will damage the
environment and increase human suffering except
a. population control.
b. ozone depletion.
c. global warming.
d. warfare over scarce natural resources
5. The idea that humankind will be able to meet environmental needs and hence be able
to continue to prosper is a guiding principle of environmental
6. One primary reason that environmental optimists are not concerned with natural
resource depletion is they believe that
a. natural resource depletion is a positive indicator that there is a higher standard of living
throughout the world.
b. natural resource depletion is necessary for LDCs to develop economically.
c. technological innovation will allow the development of synthetic materials to replace
d. natural resource depletion will decrease once alternative forms of energy become
7. The largest number of humans that Earth can sustain indefinitely at current rates of per
capita consumption of natural resources is known as Earth’s
a. environmental capacity.
b. population limit.
c. sustainability index.
d. carrying capacity.
8. One negative side effect of industrialization is
a. greatly expanded global wealth.
b. increased amounts of pollution in the world.
c. decreased infant mortality rates.
d. extended life expectancy of individuals living in LDCs.
9. Reasons for the rapidly expanding global population include
a. increased birthrates and death rates.
b. increased access to abortion and declining religious fundamentalism.
c. massive increases in food supplies and agricultural technology.
d. lower mortality and increased longevity.
10. Sustainable development involves
a. protecting the biosphere and promoting development.
b. achieving long term growth that lifts LDCs out of poverty.
c. dramatically cutting standards of living to protect the biosphere.
d. shifting wealth and technology from EDCs to LDCs.
11. If LDCs were to develop their economies to the level of EDC, then the global
emissions of CO2 would
a. remain about the same because of cleaner technology.
b. increase moderately.
c. increase dramatically.
d. decrease moderately
12. Options for sustainable development include all of the following except
a. setting strict regulations on natural resource consumption.
b. restricting economic development in LDCs.
c. EDCs making a financial commitment to LDCs to help them develop responsibly.
d. encouraging Northern industries to relocate their operations to LDCs.
Text pg: 337–340 Diff: 5 Obj: 2
13. Surveys have found that most Americans
a. would be willing to pay a “gas tax” to reduce pollution.
b. were willing to pay a “gas tax” when gas was cheap.
c. have mixed feelings about a “gas tax” to reduce pollution.
d. oppose a “gas tax.”
14. The Three Gorges project to generate nonpolluting energy through the construction of
dams has been proposed by which country?
c. the United States
15. In order for the South to develop economically yet responsibly the North must
a. set strict regulations on natural resource consumption in the South.
b. provide a significant amount of financial aid to the South.
c. continue to promote growth in the South through natural resource consumption.
d. allow the South to develop economically before addressing environmental concerns.
16. Surveys show that a majority of citizens
a. favor tax hikes to promote environmental programs.
b. do not favor tax hikes to promote environmental programs.
c. are giving a substantial amount of money to NGOs to promote environmental
d. are highly concerned with environmental development of the South.
17. In October 1999, the population of the world reached
a. 1 billion.
b. 3 billion.
c. 6 billion.
d. 10 billion.
18. The population base multiplier effect is a problem because
a. the rate of growth is increasing because with a larger population base there are more
b. the rate of growth is impossible to predict.
c. there may not be enough new children to fill the ranks of an aging workforce.
d. the rate of growth from new births is not fast enough to overcome the effect of longer
19. Researchers project that population growth over the next 50 years will be greatest in
a. North America.
b. South America.
20. Which area is expected to experience a significant decline in population over the next
a. North America
b. South America
21. The replacement rate refers to the
a. rate of economic growth that will provide jobs for a growing population.
b. fertility rate at which a population is replaced without growth.
c. rate of new forest growth needed to offset the growth in carbon emissions.
d. rate of CFCs that the earth can process without damage to the ozone layer.
22. The attempts to control the population problem is primarily headed up by what UN
23. Globally the issue of abortion as a method of population control is
a. highly contested.
b. widely supported.
c. widely opposed.
d. rarely discussed.
24. One of the main voices of opposition to restraining population growth as outlined at
the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development (especially concerning
abortion) was from
c. the United States.
d. the Roman Catholic Church.
25. Which type of approach to the population problem advocates the use of
26. The contraceptive prevalence rate in LDCs is
a. increasing on average due to increased education and access to birth control.
b. decreasing on average due to governmental bans on birth control.
c. decreasing on average due to religious and cultural norms limiting the use of
d. approximately the same as it was in 1960 due to continued limited access to
27. Economic approaches to reducing the birthrate place great emphasis on
a. offering financial incentives to couples to not have children.
b. making birth control devices more affordable.
c. improving the economic status of women.
d. slowing trends toward urbanization.
28. What is the primary mission of the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)?
a. to educate women about birth control methods
b. to advocate the use of safe and legal abortions as a means to curb population growth
c. to increase financial aid to women who agree not to have children
d. to provide women opportunities to enter historically male-dominated fields such as
science and business
29. The reduction of global population growth can be attributed to all of the following
a. improved economic conditions in many LDCs.
b. improved pollution control in LDCs.
c. improved economic status of women.
d. improved educational status of women.
30. The majority of the world’s energy is supplied by
a. fossil fuels.
b. nuclear power.
c. geothermal power.
d. hydroelectric power.
31. About what percentage of energy is produced by environmentally friendly sources
(hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, and wind power)?
32. Which of the following countries relies heavily on nuclear power as its primary
source of energy?
b. United States
d. Great Britain
33. Alternative sources of power such as solar or geothermal are limited by all of the
following factors except
a. limited availability of resources.
c. production capacity.
d. consumer reliance on traditional energy sources.
34. Which of the following statements is true regarding the relationship between energy
and geographic location?
a. While energy consumption is greater in the North, the demand for energy is greater in
b. While energy consumption is greater in the South, the demand for energy is greater in
c. Energy consumption in the North approximates consumption in the South.
d. Energy consumption in both the North and South has decreased as the result of
increased conservation efforts.
35. The largest percentage of deforestation is in the
a. northern European woodlands.
b. North American forests.
c. tropical forests.
36. One of the primary causes of the leveling of Brazilian rain forests is
a. acid rain.
b. climate changes, partly due to pollution from the burning of fossil fuels.
c. Amazon Basin flooding.
d. native reliance on deforestation to meet economic needs.
37. The notion that international organizations are attempting to control LDCs’
environmental resources is called
38. In what part of the world are green parties a viable political force?
d. North America
39. Komodo dragons sell on the black market in Indonesia for
40. Approximately what percentage of Earth’s surface is covered by water?
a. less than 20 percent
b. 40 percent
c. 60 percent
d. more than 70 percent
41. Approximately what percentage of the world’s water is readily available for human
a. 1 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 50 percent
d. more than 95 percent
42. The majority of freshwater is used for
b. human consumption.
c. hydroelectric power.
43. Which of the following does not contribute to freshwater contamination?
a. fertilizer leaching
b. industrial pollution
c. diversity of marine life
d. human and animal waste
44. It is predicted that if current water consumption patterns continue, by 2050
a. nearly 100 percent of people will lack freshwater.
b. nearly all people will have gained access to fresh water.
c. 7 billion people in 60 countries will be facing a water shortage.
d. most countries will have to depend on water sources that originate outside their
45. Over the past 20 years the average marine catch in the oceans
a. has increased to meet the needs of the growing human population.
b. decreased as humans have turned to other food sources such as buffalo and duck to
meet their protein needs.
c. remained the same.
d. declined because of strict regulations set forth by IGOs to limit catches.
46. Which of the following regions’ food supply would be most severely affected by a
decline in the marine catch?
a. North America and northern Europe
b. Asia and Africa
c. Asia and South America
d. Africa and southern Europe
47. What is the primary goal of the Law of the Sea Treaty signed in 1994?
a. It gives fishers the freedom to fish in international waters without regulation.
b. It encourages conservation by giving countries full sovereignty to control fishing in the
seas near their shores.
c. It encourages conservation by giving IGOs complete authority over oceans to regulate
d. It regulates the whaling industry to limit whale killing.
48. Which country continues to kill whales under the guise of scientific research despite
the International Whaling Commission’s ban on commercial whaling?
c. United States
49. Since 1990, U.S. tuna importation laws have been changed to protect
b. the seabed.
d. the delicate ecological balance of the coral reefs.
50. Which of the following statements regarding ground pollution is true?
a. Ground pollution is only a domestic concern since it is concentrated within geographic
b. EDCs are responsible for ground pollution in LDCs because they annually ship
millions of tons of hazardous waste to LDCs.
c. LDCs are responsible for ground pollution around the globe because they lack the
appropriate treatment facilities to handle the waste.
d. Ground pollution has been greatly reduced globally as the result of strict international
regulations that prohibit the transportation of hazardous waste.
51. MNCs often set up waste dumping operations in LDCs because
a. LDCs can dispose of waste more efficiently than EDCs.
b. EDCs do not dispose of the waste properly.
c. LDCs have fewer environmental regulations.
d. LDCs have tougher environmental regulations.
52. The primary focus of the 1989 Basel Convention was to address
a. global warming.
b. ozone depletion.
c. pollution caused by burning coal.
d. the dumping of hazardous wastes.
53. Each of the following is a significant factor in marine pollution except
a. offshore mining.
b. industrial waste.
c. ocean waste dumping.
d. nuclear waste seepage.
54. Defoliation of trees in parts of Europe and North America is the result of
a. ozone depletion.
b. ground pollution.
c. acid rain.
d. global warming.
55. The recent decline in air pollution in EDCs is offset by
a. increased levels of air pollution in LDCs.
b. the advent of highly polluting vehicles such as sports utility vehicles in EDCs.
c. decreased international aid to fight air pollution.
d. IGO deregulation of industrial standards on air pollution.
56. The thinning of the ozone layer causes
c. acid rain.
57. By the year 2050, scientists expect that
a. the ozone layer will be damaged beyond repair, regardless of reduced CFC use.
b. ozone will return to 1979 levels if efforts to reduce or eliminate CFC use are taken.
c. ozone will return to 1979 levels regardless of CFC use, since ozone replenishes itself in
d. ozone depletion will contribute significantly to global warming.
58. Many scientists believe that carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels creates
a. acid rain.
b. the greenhouse effect.
c. a buildup of ozone.
d. the lowering of the levels of the oceans and the major seas.
59. Deforestation contributes to increasing carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere because
a. trees convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.
b. trees contribute to higher ozone levels.
c. trees increase the level of farming.
d. deforestation converts carbon dioxide into oxygen.
60. The Alliance of Small Island States was formed to
a. address the effects of the rise in sea level.
b. challenge restrictive bans on animal products for trade.
c. challenge international policies on CO2 emissions.
d. address the effects of water pollution.