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					ENERGY RESOURCES: 4 Lessons
(On J:\subjects and departments\Physics\New GCSE\Schemes of work\Heat and energy
ES TC\Energy Sources)
Introduction:
The pupils will have considerable background knowledge and individual teachers may have
their own preferred route through this material. It could be developed into a more project based
approach, but I feel the syllabus requires time for discussion of the ‘science & society issues’.
Placing the lessons in the context of the UK’s energy requirements, and its targets for reducing
carbon emissions and increasing renewable use, fits with the syllabus emphasis on how
science works.
NB: It is important to be familiar with the resources on e-Science;I haven’t referenced them all.
There are useful pictures and animations, particularly of the renewable resources, but it is your
choice whether to access and use them. (The Video Clips from Channel 4 are listed several
times, but are duplicates(I think)).


OVERVIEW:
Lesson 1:       Electricity Generation from Fuels or Renewables


      The UK uses Electrical Energy. This is generated either from fuels in Power stations, or
       via renewables and generators.
      Reminder of electricity generation, using videos of Coal & Biomass as starting fuels
      Start discussion of other Renewables


Lesson 2:       Renewable Energy Sources
      Renewables seem an attractive way forward, currently a small % of UK total sources
       used
      Poster presentations of 6 renewables
      Discussion of effects on environment; advantages/disadvantages



Lesson 3:       Generation of Nuclear Power
      What is Nuclear energy about?
      ‘Nuclear Know-how’ – an introduction to how Nuclear power stations work
      Discussion of Energy generation advantages/disadvantages
      Can the UK meet its energy needs without using more nuclear power?



Lesson 4:       Energy issues: The Future
      Reminder of power generation: Video ‘Coal & Nuclear generation’
      How is the UK going to meet its energy requirements in the future?
      Nuclear viewpoints
SYLLABUS:



13.4   How should we generate the     Various energy sources can be used to generate the electricity we need. We must
       electricity we need?           carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of using each energy source
                                      before deciding which energy source(s) it would be best to use in any particular
                                      situation.

1      Candidates should use              to compare and contrast the particular advantages and
       their skills, knowledge and         disadvantages of using different energy sources to generate
       understanding of how science        electricity.
       works:

2      Their skills, knowledge and        In most power stations an energy source is used to heat water.
       understanding of how science        The steam produced drives a turbine which is coupled to an
       works should be set in these        electrical generator.
       substantive contexts:
                                          Common energy sources include coal, oil and gas, which are
                                           burned to produce heat and uranium/plutonium, in which nuclear
                                           fission produces heat.
3                                         Energy from renewable energy sources can be used to drive
                                           turbines directly.
4                                         Renewable energy sources used in this way include wind, the rise
                                           and fall of water due to waves and tides, and the falling of water in
                                           hydroelectric schemes.
5                                         Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun’s radiation using
                                           solar cells.
6                                         In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface.
                                           The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is
                                           known as geothermal energy.
7                                         Using different energy resources has different effects on the
                                           environment. These effects include the release of substances into
                                           the atmosphere, noise and visual pollution, and the destruction of
                                           wildlife habitats.
8                                         The advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear
                                           fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity. These
                                           include the cost of building power stations, the start-up time of
                                           power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative
                                           cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is
                                           needed.
Lesson 1
Lesson title.              Electricity Generation from Fuels or Renewables
Specification ref: 13.4.1, 13.4.2, 13.4.3


Lesson outline:
      The UK uses Electrical Energy. This is generated either from fuels in Power stations, or via
       renewables and generators.
      Reminder of electricity generation, using videos of Coal & Biomass as starting fuels
      Start discussion of other Renewables


Learning objectives:
       Students should learn:
       • How a fossil fuel based power station operates.
       • The differences between using fossil fuels and nuclear fuels in electricity generation.(more nuclear in lesson 3)
       • About the different renewable sources (more in lesson 2)

Learning outcomes:
       Students should be able to:
       • Draw a flow chart showing the stages of electricity generation in a power station.
       • Describe the similarities and differences between different power stations. (more on this Lesson3, 4)
       • Describe how different renewable sources generate electricity (more in lesson 2)



Starter activity: Use ‘Show me boards’
                 Pupils list what they remember under headings ‘Renewable’ & Non-renewable’
(A common error is that pupils place Nuclear as ‘renewable’)


Main Activity
      Set the scene for the topic:
We would all like to use more renewables, but the country needs sufficient electricity generated
for our current demand. By the end of the topic, pupils should be able to suggest reasoned
changes to the UK use of energy resources (ie, do we use less fossil fuels, more nuclear, etc.)
      Show: ‘Generating Electricity the non-renewable way’ 5 mins. e-Science link to Channel
       4 video
      Show: ‘Generating Electricity the ecological way’ 5mins e-Science link, Channel 4 video
       (Pupils need explanation that using Biomass as a fuel is CO2 neutral for global warming.)


      Pupils complete worksheet: Inside a fossil-fuel power station                                 Lesson 1 Sheet 1


Divide class into 6 groups & give each group one of the 6 Laminated posters (Wind, Wave,
HEP, Tidal, Solar, Geothermal). Allow 10 minutes preparation time before presentations to rest
of class (to be continued next lesson).
Supplement the presentations with questions & discussion, & use e-Science resources
Plenary:
      Name the main parts of a power station. Which ones are not needed if renewable
       sources are used?
Gifted & Talented:
The 4 lessons of this topic offer a lot of scope for individual research that can then be used as
input to the following lessons. Direct the homework task for the G&T to use the DTI website to
find the excel tables of types of power stations and outputs. Use the data to generate
summaries for referral next lesson.
Homework:
      Guided Internet Research: Lesson 1 Sheet 2 (no need to set any written account of what
       they find – it should allow them to contribute to discussions.)
   The web sites are available as a direct link for the pupils from the School website – via
   Departments – Science – Useful Websites. There is also a Word document ‘Websites’
   within the Lesson 1 folder which you could use to access the sites.
Technician
Show me boards
6 laminated A1 posters (Do we have any models for renewables/power generation?)
6 laminated A4 information sheets (2 sets)
Risk assessment: none
Lesson 2:
Lesson title.                 Renewable Energy Sources
Specification ref: 13.4.3, 13.4.4, 13.4.5, 13.4.6, 13.4.7



Lesson outline:
        Renewables seem an attractive way forward, currently a small % of UK total sources used
        Poster presentations of 6 renewables
        Discussion of effects on environment; advantages/disadvantages



Learning objectives:
Students should learn:
         • How wind turbines can be used to generate electricity.
         • How water can be used to generate electricity in a variety of ways.
         • How solar cells can be used to generate electricity at high cost and in relatively small amounts.
         • How geothermal energy can be used to generate electricity in a variety of ways.
         • The advantages and disadvantages of the above methods of electricity generation.


Learning outcomes:
Students should be able to:
         • Describe how wind turbines generate electricity.
         • Describe the different ways in which the flow of water can generate electricity.
         • Describe how a solar cell can be used to produce electricity.
         • Describe the different ways in which geothermal energy can generate electricity.
         • List and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the methods of electricity generation.



Starter activity:
            Quiz/crossword                       Use LESSON 2 Sheet 1


Main Activity


        Continue with poster presentations on renewables.
Supplement the presentations with questions & discussion, & use e-Science resources
        Enable discussion of environmental issues, bringing out advantages/disadvantages


Plenary
        Locate suitable sites using ‘Renewable Energy map’ LESSON 2 Sheet 2
Gifted & Talented:
Ensure opportunity to allow feedback from research.
Extension homework: Use the DTI website to
         1. find data on use pumped storage across UK.
         2. compare the relative use of renewables and non-renewables from a specific
            provider, eg npower
Homework
      Pumped Storage: LESSON 2 Sheet 3


Technician: Laminated posters
Risk assessment: none
Lesson 3
Lesson title.                    Generation of Nuclear Power


Specification ref: 13.4.2 (ie, all that is required is that fission of Uranium/plutonium releases
heat: It seems a missed opportunity not to give a brief picture of the workings of a nuclear
reactor –they have many questions, and it helps the pupils then to understand the issues linked
to nuclear power.) 13.4.8


Lesson outline:
         What is Nuclear energy about?
         ‘Nuclear Know-how’ – an introduction to how Nuclear power stations work
         Discussion of Energy generation advantages/disadvantages
         Can the UK meet its energy needs without using more nuclear power?
     Learning objectives:
     Students should learn:
          • The differences between using fossil fuels and nuclear fuels in electricity generation.
          • That there are severe potential hazards associated with the use of nuclear power and disposal of nuclear waste.



     Learning outcomes:
     Students should be able to:
          • Explain the issues relating to nuclear fission.
          • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power in comparison to fossil fuels.



Starter activity: Use ‘Show me boards’
What’s the problem? – Hold up cards with environmental problems and ask the students to write down an energy resource that causes this
problem.
Or            Pupils Draw Atoms, Carbon-12, Carbon –14, Uranium 238 (Z=92) , etc as intro to Nuclear energy linked to unstable nucleus

Main Activity
                The basic parts of a nuclear reactor
Use ‘Nuclear Know How’. This is available as a PPt (J:\subjects and departments\Physics\New
GCSE\Schemes of work\Heat and energy ES TC\Energy Sources\Nuclear Know how Ppt) or OHPs(ask
TC).
                Enable discussion of advantages/disadvantages
• When discussing the amount of energy produced by a kilogram of fuel use a kilogram mass to give a visual clue. There is enough energy in
a kilogram of coal to keep a bright (100 W) light bulb running for 1 thousand hours; that’s over 41 days. There is enough energy released by
1 kg of uranium to keep the same bulb running for 10 million hours. That’s over a thousand years.

                Set the scene for the homework task, which asks pupils to use data to suggest how
                 they would provide for the county’s energy needs if less fossil fuels were used.
The website www.dti.gov.uk/energy/statistics/source/electricity/page18527.html has useful
spreadsheets on power generation across UK. (This is one of the websites on the list on the Lesson
1 document)
Plenary: (to help introduce the homework task)
The UK needs on average about 60,000MW.
A fossil fuel powered generator can supply 600MW.
How many generators is this? Is this the number of UK power stations? (No – most have
several units)


Gifted & Talented:
Allow the discussion of workings of nuclear power stations to engage the G & T with the difficult
issues presented. Whet their appetite with the amazing ability of small quantities of uranium to
produce large quantities of energy. E = mc2
Extension homework: find exactly how many/location/output of nuclear plants in UK.
(Stress, actual homework provides opportunity to really consider UK use of energy in future.)


Homework:            ‘Energy in the future’   LESSON 3 Sheet 1



Technician: 1 kg Coal/ Uranium – laminated cards



Risk assessment: none
Lesson 4
Lesson title.                 Energy issues: The Future
Specification ref:             13.4.1, 13.4.2, 13.4.7, 13.4.8
Lesson outline:
        Reminder of power generation: Video ‘Coal & Nuclear generation’
        How is the UK going to meet its energy requirements in the future?
        Nuclear viewpoints
Learning objectives:
Students should learn:
   • The differences between using fossil fuels and nuclear fuels in electricity generation.
   • There are a range of viewpoints on use of nuclear power
   • The UK has to make decisions about future use of energy resources

Learning outcomes:
Students should be able to:
   • Recall the advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources
   • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power in comparison to fossil fuels.
   • Express an informed view concerning energy in the future.



Starter activity:
        Advantages/Disadvantages of different energy resources: Lesson 4 Sheet 1(back)
        (only allow a couple of minutes then use/display the mark scheme to move lesson on.)
Main Activity:
        Show Video ‘Coal & Nuclear power’ (On CD) 20mins
This is to remind pupils of the generation of power and goes over nuclear generation.
        Go over the ‘Energy in the future’ homework
Enable discussion of our energy choices for the future. Remind of need for energy saving.
        More nuclear?
Use the e-Science ‘Nuclear Power –Why are people concerned about nuclear power’: PPt to
encourage debate.
        Help pupils complete the ‘Summary Sheet’ : Lesson 4 Sheet 2


Plenary:
        Pupils decide the changes they would make in the UK’s use of energy resources in the
         future. Use Lesson 4 Sheet 1(front)
Gifted & Talented:
Expect/encourage significant contributions to the debate, using data from research.
Homework Revision for Unit Test(Thermal Energy Transfer, Efficiency, Energy Resources)
                   Issue: ‘Exam –style questions’ Lesson 4 Sheet 3
Technician: CD Coal & Nuclear Power                                              Risk assessment: none

				
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posted:4/24/2010
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