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					ТАРНОВСКАЯ М.Л.




     МГИМО
      2005
  UNIT ONE               THE WAY WE LIVE NOW                      pp. 7


Lead-in            A View of the City
Theme One          The Odd Couple
Theme Two          Little Has Changed on the Streets
                        of London
Theme Three        Work, Work, Work!
Language Focus giving and reacting to surprising news
Talking Points     making assumptions, evaluating,
                  discussing pros & cons, speculating
Vocabulary of the Unit

 UNIT TWO               LIVING DANGEROUSLY                       pp. 38

Lead-in            Taking Risks
Theme One          Death Race
Theme Two          Hazard at Work
Theme Three        Are We Gamblers?
Language Focus     asking and promising discretion
Talking Points     speculating, illustrating, debating, giving
                  advice, making recommendations
Vocabulary of the Unit

 UNIT THREE             GETTING AND SPENDING                     pp. 68

Lead-in             Personal Finances
Theme One          Paying Your Way
Theme Two          Money is the Root of all Evil?
Theme Three        Debt and Despair on the Dark Side
                        of Consumer Credit
Language Focus discussing ideas, suggesting alternatives
Talking Points     sharing information, expressing opinions,
                  introducing news
Vocabulary of the Unit




                                                                      3
 UNIT FOUR       GETTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS                pp. 98

Lead-in            Different Wavelengths
Theme One          Text a     The English Character
                  Text b     Welcome To New Britain
Theme Two          The English Language
Theme Three        Girl Talk – Where You Can Success
                         in the Coffee Break
Language Focus     discussions and debates
Talking Points     expressing opinions, making assumptions,
                   evaluating, making decisions
Vocabulary of the Unit

UNIT FIVE       THE MEDIA AND ADVERTISING                 pp. 133

Lead-in            The Press in Britain
Theme One          You Awright, My Sun
Theme Two          Part 1 Extra! Extra!
                  Part 2     Some Things Will Simply
                            not Change
Theme Three        Girl Talk – Where You Can Success
                  in the Coffee Break
Language Focus     discussing what you are going to watch,
                   discussing TV programmes, the language of
                  newspapers
Talking Points     expressing opinions, insisting on a point,
                  speculating, discussing pros & cons
Vocabulary of the Unit


UNIT SIX        REVENGE AND RETRIBUTION                   pp. 170

Lead-in          Criminal Trials in Britain
Theme One        The Hangman's Rope
Theme Two       Text a Revenge Killing, Arabia
                Text b Crimes and Punishments



                                                                4
Theme Three     Text a Justice Done and Viewed To Be Done
                Text b Woodward Speaks Out Against TV Trials
Language Focus discussing both sides of an issue
Talking Points     making assumptions, expressing opinions
Vocabulary of the Unit



     LISTENING                                         pp. 202

UNIT      ONE
    1.    Britain today
    2.    Civil Cases
    3.    Living in Oxford

UNIT TWO
    4. Peeping Tom
    5. Why Do People Take Risks?

UNIT THREE
    6. Pocket money
    7. Repayment of a Debt
    8. An account Executive Talks about his Job
    9. For Richer, for Poorer

UNIT FOUR
    10. Living in Portugal
    11. Clothes

UNIT FIVE
    12. Publicising the Circus
    13. The Press at Work
    14. Review Panel

UNIT SIX
    15. A Judge Speaks
    16. A Story with a Moral


                                                               5
   17. The Rolls Royce
   18. The Landlord
   19. The Department Store

ADDITIONAL TEXTS FOR RENDERING                     pp. 216

 1. Вежливая, но не сгибаемая
 2. Мы с вами!
 3. Жениться или не жениться?
 4. Риск – это банальность.
 5. Берегите зубы и …жизнь!
 6. Почему мы рискуем
 7. Вы можете договориться
 8. Кому давать в кредит?
 9. Жизнь в кредит
 10.    Имидж как инструмент карьерного роста
 11.    Загадка американской души
 12.    Будьте знакомы
 13.    Ох, уж эта реклама!
 14.    Чем больше каналов, тем лучше.
 15.    Психическая атака на телезрителя
 16.    Информационная война
 17.    «Первые и последние» (по рассказу Д. Голсуорси)
 18.    Суды присяжных




                                                          6
UNIT        ONE              THE WAY WE LIVE NOW

LEAD-IN

1     Discuss the following questions.

1      How many jobs can you think of where the professional
    enjoys good social status and earns quite a lot of money, but has
    to work very irregular hours? How would you feel about doing
    such a job? Think about
               family relations
               tiredness
               inability to plan ahead

2      Which would you prefer – a job which is virtually stress-free
    but monotonous, or one which is extremely interesting but quite
    stressful?

3      Sometimes companies have to let employees go although
    they value their work. What can the reasons be?

4     What does the proverb "A woman's work is never done"
    imply? Do you tend to agree with the proverb? Why (not)?

2     The lists show work-related benefits and problems.
    Which of these benefits are the most important? Which
    problem do you think are the most damaging for a working
    person?

   Benefits                       Problems
 Social status                      Deadline pressure
 Career advancement                 Lack of recognition
 Room for creativity                Workaholism
 Little or no stress                Overwork/physical strain
 Satisfaction/sense            of  Stress          caused   by
 achievement                          responsibility


                                                                    7
      To me, room for creativity is most important benefit a job
    can offer because it allows for self-expression …

3      Complete each sentence with one of the words or phrases
    given. Explain them.

    • commute • high-flyers • fringe • status • tough
    • to benefit • subsistence • squats • violence • battering
    • shanty towns • slum • suburbs • ghetto • bonus
    • enhance • unemployment

      1. In Britain today many young graduates want to get a job
with high ………………………… .
      2. The image of high earners is ……………. by the
purchase of a luxury car such as a Porsche.
      3. The financial centre of London, the City, is full of highly-
motivated young ………………… who are eager to make a lot of
money as quickly as they can.
      4. All        successful    business      people  know     how
………………… life at the top is.
      5. When the economy is booming, everyone seems
………………….. .
      6. For those living at ……………….. level, even buying
essentials is a struggle.
      7. Penniless students in large cities try to save money by
living in ………….. , that is, houses which they find to be empty.
      8. Financial problems can lead to stress within the family
and …………….. between family members.
      9. Wife- ……………………. is a particularly unpleasant
form of violence.
      10. A poor, densely populated area of a town or city lived in
mainly by one racial group is called a(n) ………….. .
      11. In Third World countries ………………… have grown
up on the outskirts of major cities to house poor workers who have
migrated from the countryside.
      12. In the developed world run-down and derelict housing in
the inner city where people still live is called a(n) ………………. .


                                                                    8
      13. Managers enjoy many …………… benefits including a
company car and an expense account.
      14. People working in large cities often like to live away
from the centre in pleasant ………………………. .
      15. People who work in the city centre but live outside have
to ……………….. to work everyday.
      16. Mark was given a $ 1,000 …………… when he beat his
deadline by a month.
      17. In some countries, you don't qualify for
…………………… benefit if you own your house.

Discuss the following questions:
  a. What difficulties may ethnic minorities face both at home and
     at work?
  b. Why is the life of successful businessmen at the top rough?
     What does it involve?
  c. What essentials can you buy if you live at subsistence level?
  d. In what way can the situation in economy affect families?
     What can it lead to?

4     a. Complete the text using the words and phrases given.

    • emulate • allure • doorstep • metropolis • pace
    • veneer    • social life • self-image    • stuck • provinces
    • made • the break • rush hour • metropolis
    • landmarks • keep your wits       • accommodation

                        A View of the City
   If you grow up in the …………… (1) then capital cities have a
very special ……….. (2). They represent sophistication, choice
and freedom. When you've settled in the city, you can think of the
people back home as 'country cousins' who 'live in the sticks'.
They haven't experienced life as it should be, in the city.
   And what have you gained by moving to the ………………3)?
First, a major change in …………………(4). You're one of the
special ones, you've ……………… (5). All those famous places
that were previously just names read in the paper or seen on TV


                                                                    9
become familiar personal ……………. (6) glimpsed as you go to
work or explore the capital developing your ………………. (7).
You're never ………………. (8) for something to do - everything's
there, on your new …………………. (9): discos, night-clubs,
pubs. If you're culturally minded, there are museums, cinemas,
theatres, concerts. And then the people! You never know who you
will meet and where. Their status and lifestyle are something you
want to …………………… (10).
   Of course, there are shocks. The cost, for one thing, of things
like ………….. (11), transport and entertainment. The crowds,
especially during the ……………. (12). The fast ………….. (13)
at which everyone lives. But you soon learn to …………… (14)
about you and develop the special …………………. (15) that city
living requires.

    b. Explain the meaning of the following                 word
  combinations, find Russian equivalents to them:

  • to make the break • to explore the capital • to be stuck for
  smth to do • to be culturally minded • to live at the fast pace

     c. Answer the following questions:

      1. What makes city so alluring to people coming from the
provinces?
      2. What changes does a person undergo after moving to
town?
      3. What advantages and disadvantages may be found in city
life?
      4. In what way does the pace of the metropolis life differ
from that in the country?
      5. Do you think citizens have a special veneer? Why (not)?




                                                                10
THEME ONE                         Family Life

5     Before reading the text discuss the following questions.
     What constitutes a successful life?
     In the lives of successful people, what is the relationship
      between work and family life?

                            The Odd Couple
   The story of Charlotte and John Fedders rocked Washington. It
had all the ingredients: success, money, ambition, image-obsession
and violence. It has become a modern fable, a cautionary tale that
flashes a warning beacon throughout a whole upper echelon of tough
young men pushing their way to the top, at the expense of their
families.
   Charlotte and John were the archetypal successful Washington
couple. He was a young lawyer zooming up the status ladder in the
fast lane. They were a crisp, clean-living Catholic couple with five
young sons, living in a gleaming colonial-style mansion. From the
outside they seemed to have it all: the best country clubs, the best
Catholic private schools for their children, the best privately catered
parties. He was selected for a top job which brought him into the
public eye.
   Then John Fedders' life fell apart. Or, at least, his image of it,
which for him was the same thing. His private life had always been a
catastrophe but one well hidden. The last straw for his wife came the
day he started to turn his violent rage against his eldest son.
Charlotte Fedders filed for divorce. She hoped for a quiet divorce
without dispute. But her husband wanted to battle it out. Perhaps he
thought no one would notice an obscure hearing in a small courtroom
in Maryland. But the Wall Street Journal sent a reporter to write the
story, and what a story it was. Fedders had beaten his wife often and
savagely. He thumped her repeatedly when she was pregnant. He ran
the household with a set of iron rules: no one was permitted to enter
the house in shoes; his sons had to do thirty press-ups whenever
they came into the room. He was obsessively mean about money.
Charlotte got virtually none for herself and the children. And yet


                                                                    11
she worried frantically about their rising debts. They lived way
beyond their means.
   The day after the Wall Street Journal ran the story, John Fedders
was forced to resign. The story ran extensively on nationwide
television. It rang new alarm bells. It showed that battered wives
were not necessarily poor or confined to ghettos. Charlotte learned
for the first time the FBI statistics: four women are beaten to death
every day in America by husbands or lovers.
   Charlotte got her divorce. John Fedders took a lower paid job
and paid $ 12,000 a year to Charlotte and the children. The older
children all worked and contributed their money to the household.
Charlotte earned a little in a flower shop, but they were hard pressed.
Then a publisher asked her to write the awful story of her life. But
just before the book was to appear John so Fedders took her back to
the divorce court to try to get his puny payments to the family
reduced. On top of that, he wanted 25% of the proceeds of the book
on the grounds that he was the star of it. Everyone expected
him to be laughed out of court. Imagine the shock when the court
accepted his plea and did award that 25%.
   Charlotte Fedders now seems like a self-confident and articulate
woman. She makes speeches on battered wives up and down the
country. Her book is a fascinating but dispiriting read. She was a
poor, clinging pathetic creature who invested everything in her
husband and her children. She thought as a young nurse that she
would never find a husband with the sort of earning power that
her family expected. When tall, handsome, athletic, clever Fedders
looked on her with favour she thought she didn't deserve to land
such a big fish. But he spied in her what he wanted: obedience,
adoration, inferiority yet a sufficiently cultivated veneer for
social acceptability. No danger of equality here.
   It is a terrible pattern: this story has caused such a stir in
America as it forces attention on the family life of the high
achievers. When gilded young husbands work all the hours under
the sun, who takes the strain? Who bears the brunt of all that
bottled frenetic activity? What do wives and children have to
tolerate in order to keep a man on the upward path?
                               Polly Toynbee, The Guardian


                                                                     12
   Notes on the text:
   Colonial-style mansion: the house is built in the typical
traditional style of the first (rich) colonists of the country, painted
white.
   Maryland: one of the states forming the United States, and
geographically close to Washington, DC.

6   Find English        equivalents     to   the   following    word-
combinations:

• поучительная история • предостережение             • за счет их
семей     • типичная преуспевающая пара • быстро
продвигаться по служебной лестнице             • последняя капля
• подать на развод • управлять семьей • жить (далеко) не по
средствам       • напечатать историю       • история широко
освещалась по телевидению •            перейти      на      менее
оплачиваемую работу        • отдавать деньги в семью (на ведение
хозяйства)      • быть в трудном положении • на основании
того, что       • удовлетворить иск • разглядеть в ком-либо
что-либо • наделать шум         • заставить обратить внимание
• принимать на себя главный удар • терпеть

7    Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is
similar in meaning to:

Paragraph 1: • shocked • moral story • serving as a warning
• level • to the detriment of
Paragraph 2: • perfect example • racing • spotlessly
clean/shining • large expensive house
Paragraph 3: • the final blow
Paragraph 4: • hit • practically      • much more expensively
than could be afforded
Paragraph 6: • under pressure • insignificant • for the reason
Paragraph 7: • depressing • perceived, surface
Paragraph 8: • takes the strain




                                                                     13
8    Answer the following questions.

        1. Name the features which made the story of Charlotte and
John so much attractive for the public interest.
        2. What reaction did the story of the Fedders cause in
Washington? Why?
        3. Outline John Fedders‘ career.
        4. Describe the life style of the Fedders. How did they look
from the outside?
        5. What do phrases ―colonial-style mansion, catholic
coupe, privately catered parties‖ mean? Why does the writer
provide readers with such important details?
        6. Why did Charlotte have to file for divorce? What was the
last straw?
        7. What fact caused the divorce to receive publicity?
        8. What does the writer mean by saying that John ―wanted
to battle it out‖?
        9. What has been revealed in a courtroom?
        10. What was John‘s relationship with his sons like?
        11. Why did the story ring alarm bells?
        12. What were the results of the trial?
        13. How did Charlotte‘s and John‘s lives change after the
divorce?
        14. Why did John Fedders go back to the divorce court? (two
reasons)
        15. What was the judgement of the court on the final issue?
        16. Why did John choose Charlotte to be his wife? What did
he spy in her?
        17. What picture of Charlotte Fedders emerges before and
during her marriage?
        18. Did Charlotte recover from effects of her family life?
What helped Charlotte to survive?
        19. Why was her book dispiriting?
        20. Who takes the strain/bears the brunt in the family?
        21. Why did the story cause such a stir? Comment on the
title. (Make a summarizing point)



                                                                  14
     22. How far does the life of the couple described match
your ideas?
9 Discuss with a partner the following questions:
   How the writer of the article views the role of a wife in
     the families of high-flyers?
   Is it possible to have two high-fliers in one family?

10 Write a summary of Text One in 180-200 words.


THEME TWO             A Place to Live and Work

11 Discuss the following questions before reading the text.
    Are there many immigrants in your country?
    Do many people emigrate from your country?
    What factors cause people to go and live in another country?
     What do they expect to find?
    What attitudes do they encounter and what treatment do they
     receive?
    How do they view their homeland?


             Little Has Changed on the Streets of London

      The number of people emigrating from Ireland is currently
estimated at 30,000 annually. There is no doubt that the bulk of
young Irish emigrants end up in London. And while some of their
problems are unique to this generation, many of them work in the
same jobs and live in the same conditions as endless previous
generations of emigrants to Britain.
      While some Irish take their degrees to London and use them to
get jobs in the burgeoning service industry, for many others who
left school in their teens and experienced months, if not years, of
unemployment their second act on reaching London is to sign on for
social welfare. Their first, and most difficult, is finding somewhere
to live.


                                                                   15
       Social welfare benefits, when they include a rent allowance,
are better in England. For a young unemployed man or woman,
living at home with little or no unemployment assistance in Ireland,
this can seem an attractive proposition, offering independence, a
subsistence income and at least the hope of a job in a city where
unemployment, while real, is a lot lower than in Ireland. Many
young Irish emigrants go straight on the dole when they arrive in
England. Some find jobs fairly quickly, others remain on the dole
for months.
       Andrew Fox is living on the dole, and is also in receipt of
housing benefit. And he is living in relative comfort, as he's staying
in Conway House, the hostel for young Irish men run by the
Catholic Church in Kilburn. This costs £50 a week for bed and
breakfast, and all the young men there spoke glowingly of the
facilities it offers and the welcome they receive from staff. There
was a 300 per cent increase in demand for places in this hostel in the
first six months of last year.
       But those who get into Conway House are the lucky ones
and there is a six month time limit on residence there. It has a
capacity for just 300, a drop in the ocean, and thousands of young Irish
emigrants live in squats across north London. The squats are empty
houses, many of them owned by the local council. They may be
being prepared for sale into the private sector. Sometimes the
council boards up the windows or removes the stairs, and the
electricity is usually cut off. The conditions vary widely in the
squats, from those in houses which are in good condition and where
the illegal tenants are painters and decorators and do the place up, to
those in bad repair where the squatters live on mattresses on the
floors in rooms lit only by candles. If they reconnect the
electricity they face arrest and charges for stealing it.
       Jobs are easier to come by than homes. But many of the
jobs involve hard work, long hours and no security or protection.
This is particularly true in the building trade. London is
experiencing a building boom and many of the subcontractors
are Irish. Like in the 1950's, there are queues of young men outside
the Irish pubs and cafes at 5.30 on Monday mornings, waiting to be
driven to a site maybe miles away. Often there are hundreds of


                                                                     16
young Irish men and even if they do get work they rarely get back
before 7 p.m. Wages are paid cash in hand. The men are not taxed
and while they don't tell the contractor they are signing on, he
doesn't ask either. And if they no are injured, they are not insured.
      Sister Joan Kane of the Haringey Irish Community Centre
deals with the homeless many of them single men who have
worked on the buildings all their lives. 'Some of the men in their
forties coming in here worked very, very hard on the casual
labouring scene. Then they got injured one day doing very heavy
work. Now they're on the rootless scene. The casual scene is still
going strong. The thing is, it's Irish employers exploiting Irish
people. It's very degrading too, if you're passed over.'
      Loneliness as well as the need for practical help ensures that
many Irish people stick together. One of the subjects discussed at a
seminar on emigration in Kilburn was the trauma experienced by
Irish emigrants, revealed in statistics which showed a
disproportionately high number of Irish admissions to mental
hospitals. One of the reasons for the sense of alienation was the sense
of being foreigners in England and the hostility they experienced
from many sections of the media and the police. Those who leave
the country voluntarily are more likely to adapt well than those, in
the majority, forced to do so out of economic necessity. Most of
those who attended the seminar in Kilburn were in no doubt about
the category they belonged to. 'I love Ireland', says Andrew Fox. 'I
wouldn't have left it, only there was no work there.'
                                                        The Irish Times

12 Find English equivalents to the following word-
combination:

• большинство иммигрантов      • оседать в Лондоне
• не иметь работы в течение многих месяцев
• вмещает только триста человек • забивать окна досками
• подвергаться аресту    • обвиняться в чем-либо
• выполнять временную или сезонную работу
• обойти по работе       • держаться вместе
• приспосабливаться к условиям


                                                                     17
13 Explain the meaning of the following phrasal verbs and
provide your own sentences.

1. end up in London        to be in a particular place after doing
   something: Somehow they all ended up at my house. Keep on
   doing that and you'll end up in serious trouble.
2. sign on ………………
3. cut off ……………….
4. do up ………………...
5. come by ……………..
6. passed over …………..

14 Answer the following questions:

     1. How many people from Ireland emigrate to GB and
where do most of them settle down? Is it unusual for Great Britain?
     2. Why do the emigrants have to sign on for social welfare?
Why do they prefer living on the dole in GB to staying in Ireland?
What does it offer? How long do immigrants stay on the dole?
     3. Can we call Andrew Fox a lucky young man? Why yes
or no?
     4. Where do the majority of young Irish emigrants live?
What are the living conditions there? What dangers can they face?
     5. What kind of jobs can the Irish emigrants find?
     6. What dangers in their work do they face?
     7. What does their job involve? What doesn‘t it involve?
     8. How does the ordinary day of emigrants run?
     9. What is so degrading about the system?
     10. Why is the number of Irish admissions to mental
hospitals so high?
     11. What are reasons for the sense of alienation?
     12. What makes them stick together? Who is more likely to
adapt to the circumstances?

15 Summarize in 230 words significant facts about the life of
     Irish immigrants in London.



                                                                 18
THEME THREE                      All Work and No Play

16 Discuss the following questions before reading the text:
 Explain the meaning of the title.
 Do you agree with the proverb "All work and no play makes Jack
  a dull boy"? Why (not)?
 What physical and mental effects has overwork been known to
  have?
 Do you agree that it's not always easy to draw the line between a
  successful professional life and workaholism? Why (not)?

17 The following words and phrases appear in the passage. In
  what context do you think they appear?
  • suicide      • rewards and opportunities
  • financial independence
  • potentially damaging consequences

                        Work, Work, Work!

      Stress, sleeplessness, depression, heart disease, shortness of
temper, memory loss, anxiety, marital breakdown, child
delinquency, the decline of local neighbourhoods, rudeness, suicide,
- a mere shortlist of some of the symptoms of the postmodern
malaise. The cause of all our woes? The prime suspect - work.
Wicked, wicked work. An avalanche of surveys, polls and expert
commentaries show that we all work too long, too hard; that our
bosses are beastly; that we are insecure and afraid. You know all
this stuff. We seem to be workers on the verge of a nervous
breakdown. So far, so bad. But there's plenty of good news about
work, too even if it is not always shared with the same enthusiasm
as the 'Work is Terrible' stories. Four out of ten UK workers declare
themselves 'very satisfied' with their jobs, more than in France,
Germany, Italy or Spain.
      Work has become our national obsession. Whether we are
damning the impact of work on our health, our families, our time, or
celebrating its new-found flexibility, rewards and opportunities, we


                                                                   19
are talking, writing and thinking about work like never before. As
with so many obsessive relationships, the one with work is a love-
hate one. Confusion reigns. Mixed messages are everywhere - on
the one hand, the government bangs on and on about the importance
of paid work, and then cautions about the impact of too much paid
work on families. Women celebrate the economic independence
work brings, then are made to feel guilty about their children.
Salaries go up, but few of us feel richer. We find a job we love and
so work long hours at it, and then feel that we are failing to get our
'work/life' balance right.
       Why is work under the microscope? Why all the angst?
Perhaps because our work simply occupies a more important place
in our lives than it did. Maybe we care, and worry, more about work
for the same reason we care and worry so much about our children
or our health - because it is important to us. Men and (for the first
time in centuries) women are placing work closer to the centre of
their lives. And maybe that's no bad thing. The 'leisure society'
would probably have been a boring place in any case.
       Our work fixation springs from a series of profound changes
in the nature of employment, all of which push work more deeply
into our individual lives, our families and our communities. Work
has become a more important element of our personal identity; we
have greater control and choice over the shape of our working lives;
women have entered and transformed the workplace; the nine-to-
five has become more sociable; more of us want or need the
financial independence that a wage offers; and the economic
rewards of working have increased - work pays.
       Work has become a more important personal identity tag,
replacing the three traditional indicators of our uniqueness - place,
faith and blood. As geographical roots have weakened, religious
affiliations have diminished and the extended family has dispersed,
how we spend our labouring hours has become a more important
window into our souls. This trend reflects and reinforces a desire for
work which brings personal fulfilment, for work we are proud of. If
work means not just income but identity, then the choice of job
becomes critical. This is why tobacco companies find it so hard to
hire people - to work for them would be to taint your own identity.


                                                                    20
      But the new salience of work has come with a price; fewer
people are able to feel secure; the need to keep pace with change is
tiring and stressful; white-collar workers are putting in longer hours
to try and keep a toehold - with 70 potentially damaging
consequences for the children; and the deification of work threatens
to push those who are outside the paid workforce further towards
the margins of society. This would not matter so much if work did
not matter so much. Not just in terms of income, but in terms of
identity. When work becomes more than simply a passport to a pay
cheque, when it opens the door to friends, purpose, satisfaction and
a place in the world, its absence is more keenly felt. Once we admit
the centrality of work to our lives, it might be harder to kid
ourselves that we are doing older employees a favour by 'letting
them go'.
      But we dare not admit work's importance to us. We like to
moan about it, preferably with work colleagues just after work. One
publisher says: "I love my job, but I feel embarrassed even saying
that. My parents think it is sad that the only friends I've got are
through work - but I don't see the problem. Funnily enough, we've
got lots in common!" The love of your job is now the only one that
dare not speak its name. The idea of work as intrinsically bad has
poisoned us for too long. The poet and mystic Kahlil Gibran said
that work was "love made visible". Wouldn't it be great if we could
capture a bit of that spirit, even if just for a while?

18 Look at the following words and try to explain them.

• child delinquency • malaise, avalanche            • obsession
• bang on and on      • fixation, nine-to-five     • affiliations
• window into our souls     • salience        • keep a toehold
• deification    • margins • to kid oneself        • intrinsically

19         Find synonyms for the following words.

• woe    • wicked      •reign   • caution    • angst




                                                                     21
20         Answer the following questions:
  1. Why does the writer define work as ―the postmodern
     malaise‖? Explain that word combination.
  2. What are the inevitable consequences of it?
  3. What are our relationships with work?
  4. What does the writer mean by the phrase ―mixed messages‖?
  5. Explain in your own words what the writer means by ―under
     the microscope‖.
  6. What is the origin of our work obsession?
  7. In what way changes in the nature on employment contributed
     to the changes in our attitude to work?
  8. Explain in your own words what the writer means by an
     ―important personal identity tag‖?
  9. In the fifth paragraph, what does the writer imply about
     attitudes to work in the past?
  10.      In what way has the approach to work changed?
  11.      What new significance is attached to work?
  12.      In the final paragraph, why might the speaker‘s parents
     think it was ―sad‖ that the he only made friends through work?
  13.      What purpose do you think the writer hoped to achieve
     when writing this article? Has he/she succeeded?

21 Answer the questions in a summarised way (one sentence).

      1. What does the writer imply in the first paragraph?
      2. What point does the writer make in the second
paragraph?
      3. How does the writer answer the question ―why is work
under the microscope‖ in the third paragraph?
      4. What is the function of the fourth paragraph?
      5. What does the writer say in talking about jobs we
choose?
      6. What happen to people who lose their jobs? (According
to the article)
      7. What do we understand from the article as a whole?
(Start: We understand the writer believes …)



                                                                 22
22 Write seven sentences (according to the number of
paragraphs) summing up the contents of each paragraph.


                   LANGUAGE FOCUS
           Giving and Reacting to Surprising News

23 Below are boxes which contain useful language for giving
and reacting to surprising news.

Introducing a Piece of News
    You‘ll never believe this
    Did you hear about …?
    You‘ll never guess who
    Have you heard that/about?

Expressing surprise
   Good heavens! / Goodness!
   Indeed? Really?
   You can't expect me to believe that.
   Are you serious? / You‘re joking!
   Are you having me on?
   You‘ve got to be kidding!

Encouraging Somebody to Continue
   Can you explain in more detail, please?
   Go on … / I‘m all ears.
   And then what?

In pairs, use language from the boxes and follow the outline to
   act out dialogues about the situations described below.

 Your girl friend / boy friend has won $100,000 in a lottery.
 A mutual acquaintance of yours is getting married to a famous
  film star.


                                                                  23
 You are working in a big export-import company. Your boss had
  decided to give a big pay rise.
 A boy you haven‘t seen since leaving school has announced that
  he is going to run for Parliament.
 You ran into an old school friend who told you an astonishing
  piece of news.
 Share your own piece of news with your friend.

Speaker A – Greet Speaker B
                    Speaker B – Return greeting, introduce news
Speaker A – Encourage B to continue
                    Speaker B – Give more information
Speaker A – express surprise
                    Speaker B – Finish the news

     A: Hi, Jenny.
     B: Oh, hi, Bob. Listen, you’ll never guess what scandal the
  Fedders are involved in.
  A: I’m all ears …
  B: Well, Charlotte tells me that she is going to divorce John.
  A: Are you serious? …
  B: Absolutely! She has already filed for the divorce. …



                    TALKING POINTS

24 Do you think the workplace is becoming more
  competitive? Why?
     What would you value most in the workplace?
Rank the following in order of importance. Explain the choice.
 approachable employer
 comfortable working environment
 sense of being part of the business
 financial rewards for high productivity
 flexible working hours


                                                                 24
 good remuneration
 opportunity to progress
 opportunity for personal development

A good working environment is very important, as it is difficult to be
   productive in a dirty and noisy environment. A worker only can
   benefit from healthy environment.

25 Discuss the following proverbs and quotations. Paraphrase
    them, say if you agree or not, and explain why.
   The early bird catches the worm.
   He that will not work shall not eat.
   “Work is life, you know, and without it, there’s nothing but fear
    and insecurity.” John Lennon (British songwriter & singer)
   “Find job you like and you add five days to every week.”
    Jackson Brown


                    VOCABULARY of the UNIT

26 A       Study the meanings of the words. Provide Russian
    equivalents. Translate the examples.

Welfare n the money that is paid by the government to people
without jobs; to live/be on welfare means you depend on the
welfare system for money to live; to sign on for social welfare to
apply for state-financed social services, e.g. health, insurance,
pensions
Benefit n the money that people receive from the government if
they have no job, do not earn a lot, or are sick
      housing benefit regular payments towards your rent
      unemployment benefit regular payments to people who do
not have a job; sick(ness) benefit
      fringe benefits apart from the salary, employers may offer
extra things, such as a company car, bonus schemes, free health
insurance, holiday pay, free food


                                                                        25
      to be in receipt of benefit
Allowance n 1. an amount of money that someone receives
regularly, which they do not earn by working rent allowance
 2. Am a small amount of money that children receive from their
parents every week
Bonus n money added to smb‘s pay; Lis earned a $500 bonus for
being the best salesperson of the year.
Dole n money that is given by the government to people who are
unemployed; Unemployment benefit or jobless benefit is also
called, informally
the dole       to go/be on the dole- receive/begin to receive such
payments
Proceeds n money gained from the sale of smth; the proceeds of
the book

Metropolis (the) n a chief city of the capital city of a country; an
important centre of a particular activity: a business metropolis
Accommodation n a place to live or work in; house, flat, hotel,
etc. to accommodate
Shanty town n an area, esp. outside a large city, where many poor
people have built temporary huts and shanties
Slum n an area or street of dirty, crowded houses; a slum
clearance campaign
Squat vt        settle on land without permission; occupy empty
(derelict) buildings without authority. Squatter person who takes
unauthorized possession of unoccupied premises
Ghetto n a part of the city where people mostly of one race, class,
or group live
The sticks n a country area far from modern life
Outskirts n the outer areas: on the outskirts of Paris

Emigrate, immigrate v People who emigrate are emigrants from
the country that they leave, and their action is called emigration;
but from the point of view of the country they enter, the same
people are immigrants, and their action is called immigration.




                                                                  26
Alien n foreigner, smb who belongs to another country, race
alien adj (to smb, from smth) foreign; an alien environment,
differing in nature or character: This concept is totally alien to her.
These principles are alien from our religion.
alienation n estrangement; the sense of alienation

Subsistence n the ability to live with little money or food
      subsistence level; to live at ~ level a very poor standard of
living, which only provide those things which are absolutely
necessary and nothing more
      a bare subsistence wage; subsistence income; means of
subsistence

High-flyer n smb who is extremely successful in their job
      high-flying adj ambitious
Achiever/ High achiever n smb who is determined, successful,
who works hard
High-powered (jobs) adj showing great ability, force, power
Emulate v try to do as well as or better than; to emulate the best;
emulation; in a spirit of emulation; in emulation of each other
Allure v to attract or charm by the offer of something pleasant; to
tempt; allure n alluring adj The job offers alluring opportunities
Veneer n (fig) surface appearance which hides the unpleasant
reality; He was able to fool the world with his veneer of education.
      veneer of respectability; put a veneer on

Adapt v to make or become suitable for new needs or different
conditions
Batter v strike hard and often; The heavy waves battered the ship
to pieces.
Enhance v to increase in strength or amount; Good secretarial
skills should enhance your chances of getting a job.
Commute (between from, to) v to travel regularly a long distance
between one‘s home and work, by train or car; commuter
Keep one’s wits (about) to be ready to think quickly and act
sensibly according to what may happen



                                                                     27
  B      Find synonyms and synonymous expressions to the
  words in bold type. Provide Russian equivalents to the words
  and words combinations. Translate the sentences.

RUN
1. The hostel was run by the Catholic Church. 2. The road runs
along the river bank. 3. The licence runs for a year. 4. ―The Sunday
Times‖ ran a story about the discovery of Shakespeare‘s diaries. 5.
I don‘t remember how the rest of Hamlet‘s speech runs. 6.Our food
soon ran out. 7. I‘m running out of patience. 8. It‘ll be cheaper in
the long run to use real leather because it will last longer.

MODEL:
1. The hostel was run by the Catholic Church.
   to control (an organization or system); be in charge of and cause
   to work
    руководить, управлять, вести (дело, предприятие)
2. The road runs along the river bank.
   To travel as arranged; идти (о пьесе, автобусе)
3. The licence runs for a year.
   To have official force during a period of time; remain valid
   быть действительным на известный срок
4. ―The Sunday Times‖ ran a story about the discovery of
   Shakespeare‘s diaries.
   To print; печатать, публиковать
5. I don‘t remember how the rest of Hamlet‘s speech runs.
    to continue
6. Our food soon ran out.
   to come to an end; to use all one’s supply; have no more;
   Истощаться, истекать; закончиться
7. I‘m running out of patience.
   To lose patience
8. It‘ll be cheaper in the long run to use real leather because it will
   last longer
    In the end; after a long period; в конце концов, в общем




                                                                     28
CONTRIBUTE, CONTRIBUTION
1. The older children contributed their money to the household. 2.
She didn‘t contribute anything to the discussion. 3. She regularly
contributes to the college magazine. 4. Speed is a contributing
cause in many road accidents. 5. He has made an important
contribution to the company‘s success.

Words frequently used with contribution: great, huge, important,
major, outstanding, significant, valuable

GAIN
1. What have you gained by moving to a metropolis? 2. I think he
is gaining weight. 3. The people‘s Party is gaining ground in the
country. 4. One‘s gains and losses are not always to be measured in
terms of money. 5. No pains, no gains.

Words frequently used with gain: confidence, experience, ideas,
information, knowledge, popularity, recognition, understanding

INVOLVE, INVOLVEMENT
1. Don‘t involve other people in your mad schemes. 2. Many of the
jobs involve hard work, long hours and no security. 3. The accident
involved a bus and a truck.        4. Sixty-two immigrants were
involved in squatting. 5. Our involvement with (in) this project
started way back in 1989. 6. The boy caught red-handed gave a long
and involved explanation.

Words frequently used with involvement: require, support, welcome

EXPERIENCE
1. London is experiencing a building boom. 2. Some Irish
experienced months of unemployment. 3. Emigrants experienced
the hostility from some sections of the media. 4. No one has gained
experience by being idle.




                                                                 29
CAUSE
1. This story caused such a stir in America. 2. This car caused me
a lot of trouble. 3. They believe inflation is caused by big wage
increases. 4. He is the cause of all my unhappiness. 5. His
departure was cause for celebration in the village. 6. Joe's father
had good cause to be proud of him. 7. Please give as much as you
can: it's for a very worthy cause. 8. An injury to the goalkeeper
caused him to limp off after ten minutes.

Words frequently used with cause: alarm, concern, confusion,
damage, distress, embarrassment, harm, problem, trouble

SHARE
1. I share this flat with five other people. 2. He shared my opinion
that the matter needs a re-think. 3. He has no right to a share in
profits. 4. Jane accepted her share of blame. 5. The scheme allows
employees to buy shares in the company.

SPOT
1. We found him sitting in a sunny spot in the garden. 2. The flower
is yellow with red spots. 3. I did a spot of reading last night. 4. She
was caught jaywalking and fined on the spot. 5. We had a spot of
trouble with the police. 6. A cool glass of beer would really hit the
spot. 7. He put me on the spot, when he refused to give a lecture.
8. I spotted the difficulty at once. 9. The boys were spotted buying
alcohol. 10. He has a spotless reputation. 11. Can a leopard lose his
spots?

PACE
1. The pace of life in the village is slow and easy. 2. The course
allows the students to progress at their own pace. 3. We proceeded
at a brisk pace down the corridor. 4. The government is not
allowing salaries to keep pace with inflation. 5. He paced up and
down between the kitchen and the living-room.

27 Translate into Russian.
     1.    The bus company runs a regular airport shuttle service.


                                                                     30
        2.   I ran the dishwasher even though it wasn't full.
        3.   Davis didn't contribute much to the game in the second
half.
       4. We asked parents for a contribution towards the cost of
the trip.
       5. Her theories have only recently gained acceptance.
       6. He is not the sort of guy you want to get involved with.
       7. Sales were so good that even with 24 hour shifts we
could hardly keep pace with demand.
       8. A spot of bother was as good as certain.
       9. Money has always been a sore spot in our relationship.
       10. This must be a nice spot to live.
       11. When the interviewer put Dan on the spot he panicked
and couldn't think of anything to say.
       12. Do you mind sharing a table?

28 For each of the sentences below, rewrite a new sentence as
similar as possible in the meaning to the original sentence. Use
Vocabulary of the Unit. There may be more than one variant.

       1. I don‘t mind paying something towards Samantha‘s
wedding present.
       2. Air-conditioning, individual desks and lots of space all
play a part in a healthy working atmosphere.
       3. He felt he didn't have much to say in the discussion.
       4. His company gave a considerable sum of money to the
campaign fund.
       5. Heart disease was responsible for most deaths. cause
       6. It‘s not a good idea to upset the boss.
       7. The officer in charge of the investigation has refused to
talk to the press.
       8. I‘m afraid we can‘t accept your credit card – it expired
last week.
       9. Before we publish this story I want you to double-check
all the facts.
       10. What do you expect to get out of your stay in Canada?
       11. We should act immediately. Waiting is a useless thing.


                                                                 31
      12. Groups such as Acid Banana get more and more
admiration similar to a cult.
      13. Some element of risk is an integral part of most research
and development projects.
      14. The accident took place yesterday. Sixty-two vehicles
were damaged.
      15. The goal is to encourage workers to participate in
decision-making process.
      16. There is no evidence that he took part in the bombing.
      17. It took him a long time to acquire the skills he needed to
become professional artist.
      18. Suddenly something has caught his eye.
      19. The reporters were on the scene within five minutes of
the plane crash.
      20. There is still some time left, we can do some shopping
and sightseeing.
      21. Bad weather made thing more difficult for us.
      22. Any workers found breaking the rules will be sacked
immediately.
      23. You and I are equally responsible for tolerating their
negligence.
      24. 30 different environmental organizations will receive
equal sums of money, provided by the fund.
      25. These problems are common to all modern societies.

29 Fill in gain, cause, contribution, contribute, involved,
experience, pace, spot, alluring then make sentences.
1.    …gain … in popularity       Small cars gain in popularity as
   petrol prices have risen.
2.    ……………….. for concern
3.    make a valuable .………………………
4.    ……………. widespread damage
5.    a long ………………. explanation
6.    …………………… articles
7.    ………………. ground
8.    …………………. hospitality
9.    keep ……………………..


                                                                  32
10. a ………………… of trouble
11. ………………… opportunities

30 Translate into English using Vocabulary (pay attention to
ways of expressing meanings of the active words in Russian):

Run
1. Кто управляет этой компанией?
2. Почему мама не разрешает мне самому распорядиться
   своим днем рождения?
3. У нас высококвалифицированные служащие; предприятие
   работает, практически, без нашего вмешательства.
4. Хоть ты и мой отец и все такое прочее, я не позволю тебе
   собой командовать.
5. Прошлой осенью число арестов нелегальных иммигрантов
   доходило до 80 в неделю.
6. Прежде чем мы опубликуем статью, я хочу, чтобы ты
   перепроверил все факты.
7. Аренда действительна пять лет.
Contribute
8. Будьте так добры, пожертвуйте в фонд помощи бездомным
   семьям.
9. Получить предложение писать статьи для вашего журнала
   большая честь.
10. Общественное мнение может положительно влиять на
   решения правительства.
11. Мы рассчитываем на то, что все наши сотрудники будут
   предлагать новые идеи для проектов компании.
12. Вклад Чехова в русскую литературу имеет огромную
   значимость.
13. Мы попросили родителей дать нам денег на поездку.
Gain
14. Мне потребовалось довольно много времени, чтобы
   приобрести уверенность в публичных выступлениях.
15. Он получил значительную поддержку у молодых
   избирателей на последних выборах.



                                                               33
16. Идея захвата нежилых помещений становится все более
  популярной среди бездомных.
Involve
17. Они сильно погрязли в долгах.
18. Нас запутали техническими деталями.
19. На конференции выдвигались те основные идеи, которые
  затрагивают судьбу человечества.
20. В связи с работой мне придется много ездить.
21. Война привела к резкому увеличению национального
  долга.
Experience
22. Мы никогда не попадали на такие праздники и не знали,
  чего нам ожидать.
23. У него было очень тяжелое детство.
24. У нас были некоторые проблемы, когда мы получали
  визы.
Cause
25. Я полагаю, что повышение заработной платы явилось
  причиной большинства наших экономических проблем.
26. Дети всегда доставляют родителям неприятности.
27. Попробуй отделить проблемы, которые вызывают
  наибольшие затруднения.
28. Врач полагает, что нет причины для беспокойства.
Share
29. Так как это и ваша вина, что машина попала в аварию, вам
  придется принять участие в расходах на ее ремонт.
30. Он рассказал нам о своих впечатления об участии в
  конференции.
31. Мы вели машину по очереди, чтобы не было так
  утомительно.
32. Мои папа и мама родились в один день.
Spot
33. Не позавтракать ли?
34. Я немного почитал вчера вечером.
35. Умелый управляющий быстро выявит любые проблемы
  среди своих сотрудников.



                                                          34
36. Подделка была обнаружена торговцем произведениями
  искусства из Нью-Йорка.

31 Explain the word-combinations according to the model or
 in the situation of your own:
Model: If you are culturally minded, you are keen on museums,
 cinemas, theatres, concerts.

absent-minded …………………………………………….
broad-minded ………………………………………………
narrow-minded ……………………………………………
open-minded ………………………………………………
single-minded ……………………………………………..
computer-minded ………………………………………….

32 Put the passages into English using Vocabulary of the Unit
(make use of different vocabulary and grammar patterns):

1. Ему удавалось дурачить всех видимостью образованного
   человека. Сложно было соревноваться с ним в этом. Он был
   честолюбив. И его моральные принципы были мне чужды.
   Он мог приспособиться к любым условиям и выжить в
   любой среде.

MODEL:
He was able to fool the world with the veneer of education.
There was no point in emulating him. /To emulate him was useless./
   It was not an easy task to emulate him.
The moral principles of this high-flier were alien to me. / His
   morality of high-achiever was alien from my moral principles.
It was easy for him to adapt to any circumstances and survive in
   any environment. / Survival in any environment and adaptation
   to any conditions were his strong points.

2. Жизнь людей, имеющих высокий статус в обществе,
   зачастую сложна и напряженна. В стремлении достичь
   вершин в карьере им приходится жертвовать личной


                                                                35
   жизнью, что может привести к разладу в семьях и даже
   физическому насилию по отношению к женам и детям (child
   abuse).
3. Жизнь на природе привлекательна для многих людей,
   несмотря на необходимость ежедневных поездок на работу в
   часы пик.
4. Исследование, проведенное в университете Виржинии,
   показало, что брак способствует тому, что мужчины делают
   успешную карьеру. Брак позволяет мужчинам развивать
   свои мужские качества, добиваться доверия и уважения, как
   коллег, так и начальства. Профессор социологии Стивен Нок
   утверждает, что брак повышает самооценку, побуждает их
   добиваться еще большего успеха. А отцовство приводит его
   к еще более впечатляющим успехам.

33 Put the following text into English in 250-300 words.

          Я ВЫРВАЛАСЬ ИЗ НАСТОЯЩЕГО АДА

     «Самая счастливая супружеская пара в шоу-бизнесе»…
«Незыблемый союз»… Так все определяли взаимоотношения
Анны и Александра. Да и как еще можно было
квалифицировать эту семейную пару, глядя на благополучного,
уверенного в себе продюсера, нежную, всегда улыбающуюся
певицу и их троих очаровательных детей? Но несколько
месяцев назад вдруг, как гром среди ясного неба, пронесся слух
о том, что они разводятся! Да не просто так, а со скандалом.
Новости вызвали однозначную реакцию: это разыгранный
спектакль на публику. Однако, когда газеты опубликовали
нелицеприятные отзывы мужа и жены друг о друге, эти статьи
навели на мысль о том, что ситуация на самом деле серьезная.
     Анна считает, что с ее стороны это был брак по любви.
Вот только не знает теперь, насколько любовь была обоюдной.
Но на том этапе ей казалось, что и с его стороны были чувства.
Правда, достаточно быстро она стала в этом сомневаться.
Думала: «Если ты меня любишь, то почему так ко мне



                                                            36
относишься?», имея в виду формулу «бьет — значит любит».
Она была для Анны непонятна.
     Муж действительно ее бил с первого же месяца их
совместной жизни. Анна прежде никогда с подобными вещами
не сталкивалась. Она была тепличной девочкой, росла в
обстановке любви, заботы, в интеллигентном окружении, в
тихой провинции. И вдруг попала в кошмар. Она сохраняла
семью столько, насколько хватало ее физических и душевных
сил, все надеялась как-то изменить этого человека. И не с
первым ударом кулака ее любовь испарилась. Она боролась
всеми способами, консультировалась с психотерапевтами. Но
со временем Анна стала осознавать – ради чего, спасая одного
человека, должны гибнуть все? Дети при отце вели себя, как
загипнотизированные. Ему не надо было их даже наказывать –
они видели, что происходит, когда папа в гневе. Сколько
отрицательных эмоций приходилось испытывать детям!
     Анна заметила, что люди хорошие и интеллигентные
вызывали у мужа устойчивую неприязнь. А подленькие и
хитрые, которые за деньги удушить готовы – это его люди.
     Когда чаша терпения лопнула, Анна официально подала
заявление на развод.
     Сейчас она говорит себе: «Все-таки хорошо, что это,
наконец, произошло». Он вышел из этой ситуации
ожесточенным, а в ней в принципе ничего не изменилось, она
какая была, такая и осталась. Почему? Есть у Анны какой-то
внутренний стержень, который не ломается, и это Александру,
наверное, не нравилось. Вот он ломал, ломал, пытался сломать,
а не вышло. Пружинка все сжималась, сжималась, а потом
лопнула.
     Сейчас Анна по-другому и мир видит, и себя ощущает.
     "Я столько лет не видела обычных людей, которые живут
хотя и сложной, но все-таки нормальной жизнью. Ау меня что
было? Сцена да дом, похожий на тюрьму. И больше ничего. К
тому же сейчас я, как никогда, нужна своим детям. Самое
главнее, что мы должны дать своим детям, - это любовь. А там,
где есть страх, любви быть не может".



                                                           37
UNIT      TWO               LIVING DANGEROUSLY

LEAD-IN

1     a Discuss the following questions.
          Which of the problems/benefits would you associate with
each of the following occupations? In what situations?
          Who will pay high premiums?
          What might rewards and advantages include?

• surgeon        • airline pilot          • construction worker
• school bus driver           • football manager          • newspaper
reporter         • solicitor        • war correspondent
• investment consultant       • army officer

      Surgeons have quite high social status; however, they are
under a lot of stress, which is caused by the responsibility they bear,
since the lives of their patients are in their hands.

     b What do the following proverbs imply? Do you agree
with them?
         One cannot be too careful.
         Look before you leap!
         Forewarned is forearmed.

2    Complete each sentence with one of the words or phrases
given.

• tossed • daredevil        • playing chicken      • lucky charm
• peril         • accept the consequences          • thrill
• life and limb       • drew straws • claims       • challenge
• endangered          • death toll     • risk      • hazardous
• jeopardy      • take a chance

    1. The priest asked us to pray for those in …………… on the
       sea.


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    2. The weather looks bad, but I think we'll …………… and go
       for the summit,' said Chris.
    3. Steeplejacks risk ...........every working day.
    4. On the day that he crashed, Michael had forgotten to take his
       ……………. a rabbit's foot - with him.
    5. The accident on the railway line happened when the children
       were ………………, daring each other to cross in front of the
       train.
    6. EARTHQUAKE ............. SIXTY LIVES.
    7. HUNGERFORD MASSACRE: ……………….. 16.
    8. Cars can be parked here at the owners' ……………… .
    9. Deep-sea fishing is an extremely …………… occupation.
    10........................... The bull the matador into the air before
       goring him.
    11.       The future of the race is in …………… if the safety
       record does not improve.
    12.       The men who rode the motor bikes on the 'Wall of Death'
       called themselves the …………… Riders'.
    13.       The negligence of the captain …………… the lives of
       the passengers and crew.
    14.       Speaking from his hospital bed, Nigel said that those,
       like himself, who engage in dangerous sports just had to
       ………………… when things went wrong.
    15.       Gerald found the ……………… of driving at high speed
       completely irresistible.
    16.       The expedition will set out tomorrow, to face the
       ……………… of climbing the last unconquered peak in the
       Himalayas.
    17.       The survivors ………………….. to decide who should
       go in search of help.

3    Explain the following words and phrases and answer the
questions:

• play chicken      • toss a coin               • sheer folly
• routine      • heedless       • lull          • notwithstanding



                                                                        39
    1.   What makes people expose themselves to danger?
    2.   Have you ever done anything at your peril?
    3.   What are the perils of the ocean? Sea? Storms?
    4.   Do you have your good-luck charm? What can be regarded as
         good-luck charm?
    5.   What hazardous occupations can you name?
    6.   In what situations do people usually draw straws or toss a
         coin?
    7.   In what situation could you use the statement ―He endangered
         his chances of success‖?
    8.   What kind of film, book or incident can thrill the audience/
         people?

4        Complete the text using the words and phrases given.

• warning        • chances • run        • heedless • foreseen
• safety-conscious     • odds     • security       • hazardous
• numbed         • precautions • sheer folly       • relatively
• mistaken belief      • charmed life        • peace of mind
• safety records

                                           Taking Risks
         Statistics prove that the ............................ (1) of having a
serious accident in your own home or car are .............................. (2)
high. However, people's perception of the risks they
........................... (3) while engaged in everyday activities is quite
low, and this often leads to inexplicable acts of
..............................(4). 'Familiarity breeds contempt', as the saying
goes. People have been known to search for a gas leak using a
candle for illumination, for example, or to hold their babies on their
laps in the front seat of cars, instead of securing them safely in the
rear seat, in the ........................... (5) that they can protect them in
the event of a collision. The familiarity of the surroundings lulls
people into a false sense of ….................. (6), often to such an
extent that they do not allow even obvious danger signals to disturb
their ........................... (7).'I never thought it would happen to me,' is
the refrain of those surprised by dangers that could have been


                                                                              40
........................... (8) and avoided. However, when it comes to travel
by air or train, people are often extremely anxious about the
potential dangers, despite the fact that airlines and railways have
excellent ........................... (9), notwithstanding the occasional
spectacular crash. The fixed routines necessary for the safe
operation of transport systems carry their own dangers, however. It
can happen that drivers and pilots, their brains ........................... (10)
by the monotony of repetitive tasks, fail to take notice of
.......................... (11) lights and signals.
         Occasionally, someone, so .............................. (12) of his own
safety, so desperate for thrills, or so convinced that he bears a(n)
............................ (13), will play such deadly games as Russian
Roulette, in which even if the .......................... (14) are six to one,
the consequences can be fatal. Such games, whether prompted by
bravado or a sort of death wish, cannot be compared with
unavoidably ......................... (15) activities such as mountain-
climbing and deep-sea diving where taking .............................. (16),
not risks, is uppermost in the minds of the participants. The main
danger to us all lies in the unexpected accidents of everyday life and
it is therefore essential to be alert and .......................... (17) while at
home or work.

      a. Answer the following questions:

   1. Where does people‘s low perception of the risk lead to?
   2. How could you explain the saying ―Familiarity breeds
      contempt‖? Provide examples. How could you express the
      idea of the saying in Russian.
   3. Why do people ignore obvious danger signals? What are they?
   4. What could actually disturb people‘s peace of mind, make
      them alert?
   5. What might people feel when it comes to travel by plane or
      train? What could drive away their anxiety?
   6. Why are fixed routines potentially dangerous?
   7. What make people play such deadly games as Russian
      Roulette?
   8. What are the rules of the game Russian Roulette?


                                                                               41
    9. What activities cannot avoid hazards?
    10.     Why cannot such games as Russian Roulette be
       compared with mountain-climbing or deep-sea diving?
    11.     What two points concerning risk in our everyday life
       should be kept in mind?

6 Discuss the following questions:

     Do you heed a warning or are you heedless of your safety,
      desperate for thrill? In what situation are people usually
      heedful of safety?
     In what way one can foresee danger? Is a man capable of
      avoiding it?


      THEME ONE                 Driving into Danger

      Motorcycle races (known as TT – Tourist Trophy – races) are
held annually on the ordinary roads of the Isle of Man, an island
situated between England and Ireland.

7     Before reading the text discuss the following questions.
          What international rallies or motor races do you know, or
have you heard of?
          Why do you think people want to race motor bikes? And
why do people want to watch such races?
          Can motor racing be considered as a challenge? A
challenge to what?
          What precautions should be taken to minimize the risk
and danger?
          Do you think that there are any sports more dangerous
than motor-cycle racing?
          Do these events really claim lives or can it be avoided?
In what way?




                                                                  42
                                 Death Race

      The 1977 TT was freaky. No one was killed. The organisers
and supporters were jubilant: you see, they said, it's not really
dangerous at all, and those who say otherwise are just spoilsports
who don't understand the freedom of the individual. In 1978 five
were killed, which came close to the record, and last year two more
died, which was about average.
      The Isle of Man TT is as blood-stained as any sporting event
this side of the Roman circus. No one, evidently, has bothered to
keep an account of the lives claimed by the two annual events held
on the course, but it is probably very little short of two hundred. The
cases of permanent brain damage, paralysis, and the loss of the use
of arms, eyes and legs will amount to several hundred more.
      Notwithstanding its self-induced obscurity, the public is
aware, by now, that the TT is dangerous and probably that it is more
dangerous than most other racing events. What it does not know is
that the TT is merely the extreme expression of an approach so to
safety that at times is little short of anarchic. Already this year,
perhaps two dozen people have died in motor-cycle sport around the
world. Not because it is inherently dangerous (which certainly it is)
but because the participants are exposed to insane levels of
unnecessary danger. Furthermore, the rules governing medical
provision are astoundingly inadequate.
      What has happened in motorcycle racing, for complex
historical and psychological reasons, is that power and
responsibility have been almost entirely polarised between riders
and organisers. The riders, in spite of repeated and strenuous and
indeed rebellious attempts to acquire power, have been firmly
repressed and find that if they ride at all, they ride on the organisers'
terms.
      On the other hand, they are assumed, since they take part of
their own free will in a dangerous sport, to bear all the
consequences of their actions. It is out of this that the anarchy
arises. When men and women die, there is no visible investigation,
no recrimination, no attempt to apportion blame, or to effect
compensation, even when there has been self-evident neglect on the


                                                                      43
part of the organisers (except in Italy, where the laws of criminal
negligence apply). This is so in spite of the fact that large sums of
money are made out of motor-cycle racing, and perhaps, indeed,
because of it.
      A recent incident illustrates the way this moral side-step
works. It concerns a quiet Geordie side-car racer, Mac Hobson, and
his young passenger, Kenny Birch. During TT practice week in
1978, the word spread quickly that a bump at the top of Bray Hill
was causing a lot of excitement. Solos were shaking as they hit it,
but side-cars, which have a natural tendency to turn around their
side-car wheels, were going sideways, skating and slithering down
the road at maybe 130 meters per hour. Everyone knows what
happens when a motor cycle changes direction at the bottom of
Bray Hill at 150 m.p.h.; but it was something new to have such
antics at the top.
      The bump was a new pipeline, complete with manhole cover,
which had been laid by the Manx authorities during the previous
winter. The inspection committee of the Auto-Cycle Union (the
governing body of British motor-cycle sport, as well as the
organiser of the TT) had seen the bump and asked for its removal.
Come practice week, it was still there; practice began.
      The ACU worried about the bump. They drew a yellow circle
round the manhole, and a long yellow line back towards the
oncoming racing traffic. They issued a circular, drawing attention to
the new hazard. Side-cars, by that time, were slowing down for no
the bump and avoiding the manhole cover. Then came the race.
      Hobson and Birch headed for the bump for the first time under
racing conditions. Under full acceleration, at a peak of adrenalin,
they had probably forgotten all about it. There was no slowing down
and no room to avoid it. When their outfit left the ground, it turned
in the air, bounced on the road, turned again and smashed into a
garden wall. Seconds later, Ernst Trachsel, a Swiss competitor, flew
through the wreckage. At the bottom of the hill, he too crashed and
died. The race was not stopped, even for the purpose of hosing
down the road. The press officer soon arrived to announce that there
had been an accident, that the ACU would not issue a statement
since they didn't know enough about it, but that it definitely had


                                                                   44
nothing to do with the bump in the road. Advised to produce a
statement forthwith, he came back with the ACU's comment that
they were sorry about Mac Hobson, Kenny Birch, and Ernst
Trachsel, but that what happened was "part and parcel of a speed
sport'. Not even the supporters of the event had expected such
callousness. Someone had built a bump into the most critical point
on the TT course and a disgusting fatal accident had ensued. But
there was no blame, no recrimination, certainly no compensation.
The responsibility was assumed to be entirely Hobson's. They have
an expression for this: ―The throttle goes both ways,‖ they say, and:
'Nobody made him race.'
       Perhaps the most striking thing about the TT is that we allow
it to take place at all. It does not seem entirely compatible with the
standards of a civilised community. An Italian journalist recently
put it harshly, but fairly, as follows:
       'The British are hard to understand. They care about animals
and the preservation of endangered species. They hate bullfights
because they are uncivilised, but they tolerate the TT. Let me say
that it seems to me that the only difference between the TT and a
bullfight is that nobody cuts off the ears of fallen riders and presents
them to the clerk of the course.'
                                        Barry Coleman, The Guardian

8   Find English         equivalents     to   the   following     word
combinations.

• взять на себя труд и подсчитать         • унести жизнь
• около двухсот жизней          • сознательное нежелание видеть
 и понимать реальность          • почти анархический подход
• правила, определяющие условия медицинской помощи
• с другой стороны        • по собственному желанию
• поделить вину      • выплатить компенсацию
• со стороны организаторов           • недавнее происшествие
• сделать заявление       • не иметь отношения к чему-либо
• неотъемлемая часть      •    не     соответствовать    нормам
общества



                                                                      45
9   Find a word or phrase in the text, in context, is similar in
meaning to:
Paragraph 1  • strange and unusual         • overjoyed
             • people who ruin others‘ enjoyment
Paragraph 2  • taken the trouble     • nearly
Paragraph 3  • despite • only        • without order
             • astonishingly
Paragraph 4  • energetic • kept down
Paragraph 5  • mutual accusations
Paragraph 6  • sliding out of control      • fun and games
Paragraph 9  • immediately • cruel insensitivity
Paragraph 10 • remarkable      • severely

10 Answer the following questions:

    1. Why were organizers and supporters of the TT races jubilant
       in 1977?
    2. What people are called ―spoilsports‖? Why? What enjoyment
       do they ruin?
    3. What moments of clarity do even dedicated participants have
       about the statistics?
    4. What is the total number of riders who have been killed in TT
       races?
    5. Why is the writer not sure of the exact number of lives
       claimed by races?
    6. What is the place called where races are held?
    7. What injuries do participants suffer?
    8. What, in the writer‘s view, is the main reason for the high
       death rate in motor-cycle sport?
    9. To what extent are the riders able to influence the organization
       of the race?
    10.      Have the participants made any attempts to change the
       situation? What was the outcome?
    11.      Why do participants have to bear all the consequences?
    12.      What measures do the authority take in case of smb‘s
       death?
    13.      Why did Hobson and Birch have an accident?


                                                                     46
  14.    Was the accident with Hobson and Birch fatal? What
    happened to them?
  15.    What was the ACU‘s explanation of the accident?
  16.    What measures were taken by the ACU?
  17.    What does the word ―callousness‖ refer to?
  18.    What is meant by ―throttle goes both ways‖?
  19.    Why does the writer challenge the idea of the races?
  20.    The TT races are compared, in different parts of the text,
    to two other forms of sport and entertainment. What are they?

11 Summarise in 100-120 words the writer’s general
criticisms of motor-cycle racing.


     THEME TWO                   All Part of the Job

12 Before reading the text discuss the following questions.

   What are the risks doctors encounter in carrying out their
    work?
   What precautions should doctors take to minimise the risks?
   What are the challenges in a doctor‘s profession?
   What distinguished doctors do you know? Did they expose
    themselves to any risks, danger?
   What statements or circulars do medical authorities issue? In
    what cases?

                             Hazard at Work

      I was nearly killed on Boxing Day. My job nearly got me
killed. To start with, it was not a serious incident: one car off the
road and 5 two very shocked but not terribly injured passengers. I
was giving assistance that is my job: rural GPs are often called out
to traffic accidents because they can sometimes get there first and
often help the ambulance crews prepare patients for a long journey
to hospital.


                                                                   47
      The next car down the road changed it all. I saw it coming and
had time to think: surely it will stop. I remember the noise as it hit
me. No pain at this stage. I was tossed across the road and
scrambled up on to the verge. Straightaway I knew that my leg was
broken. Well, that's my job too. Still no pain. I didn't want to die,
that was my foremost thought. I didn't want to die here on the
roadside, so I worried about bleeding to death, about internal
injuries or an unsuspected head injury. I waited for the signs of
shock and tried not to pass out.
      The scene was now full of shouting and crying. No one
seemed to notice me. The village bobby arrived on cue. Sure my leg
was broken, but I wasn't going to die. Now it hurt.
      'Burn out' sums up how anyone in a caring profession can end
up responding to chronic job-related stress by loss of concern and
complete withdrawal from their work. GPs are not immune. Well, I
suffered a ‗flash out‘. Nothing chronic about this stress. Suddenly,
lying there on the roadside with a smashed-up leg, it didn't seem
worth it any more.
      That was three months ago. I'm still only mobile with
crutches. The practice has carried on without me - which is how it
should be, for no one is indispensable in a good system. I don't need
to be a doctor for a while. My patients kindly showed their concern
and wished me well while they took their problems to the locum.
      Because I have spent nearly nine years working often in
excess of a hundred hours a week, everyone assumes my enforced
idleness to be a heavy burden. It isn't. I'm more concerned that I'm
not missing my work and that I'm certainly not bored. Does this
mean that I don't need to be the doctor permanently?
      I know why I like being a GP. I live in a good place and I
work for myself. I'm responsible only to my patients, myself and my
partner. It is probably useful. It involves practising a set of skills
that could never be perfected and so is always a challenge. My staff
and local colleagues are good company. It pays well. I get home for
lunch every day.
      The more nebulous rewards, so the sort of things many non-
doctors think we do it for - like being in a position to 'help people' -
tend to be counter-balanced by the reasons I don't like the job. I get


                                                                     48
used. I have to try to help with problems that should never have
come my way, to which the solutions are invariably political and not
medical. I cannot prescribe jobs or better houses or better
relationships. I can try to be supportive, but just a few patients can
create a mountain of hassles. I'm sometimes over-committed and
frequently over-tired. Stress is an everyday problem. My job nearly
got me killed.
      Three days after I was admitted to hospital my wife went into
a different hospital and had our second baby. It is impossible for me
to express how unhappy my unforeseen absence made me. I couldn't
decide whether to blame the accident (but accidents happen) or my
job (but no job is without risk) or just to assume no blame.
      Well, the balance remains tipped. Despite the apparent no
usefulness of being a GP and the satisfaction it gives me, I have
discovered that the only certain reason I do it is for my family.
Along with paying the mortgage, it allows us to live how and where
we like.
      Everyone in a caring profession knows that if they do not
ration their caring they can end up emotionally and intellectually
burnt out. They separate themselves from their families by giving
too much. I suppose I'm still bitter because there are few precautions
I could take to avoid the way I was almost permanently separated
from my family - and at such an important time. My resolve has
been questioned. Do I need to be a doctor? The jury is still out.
                                     Stephen Singleton, The Guardian

13 Find Russian equivalents to the following word-
combinations:

• вызывать на дорожные происшествия
• потерять сознание      • появиться как раз вовремя
• передвигаться на костылях
• быть незаменимым       • работать свыше ста часов в неделю
• стараться поддерживать людей
• я не принял еще окончательного решения




                                                                    49
14 Explain the meaning of these words and phrases from the
text.

• Boxing Day • rural GPs         • The village bobby arrived on cue
• ―burn out‖    • ―flash out‖    • the locum
• the more nebulous rewards      • I get used
• a mountain of hassles          • the balance remained tipped
• paying the mortgage            • the jury is still out

15 Answer the following questions:

   1. Why are rural GPs often called out to traffic accidents?
   2. What account of the accident which had involved him did the
      writer give?
   3. How does a doctor respond to chronic job-related stress?
   4. How do the writer‘s patients do without him?
   5. What does everyone assume about his enforced idleness?
      Why?
   6. What really positive reasons does the writer find for being a
      doctor?
   7. What reasons counter-balance good points?
   8. In what way do patients take advantage of him? What
      problems come his way?
   9. Is there anyone/anything to blame for his present situation?
   10.      What is the certain reason discovered by the writer to be
      a GP?
   11.      Why is it necessary for doctors and nurses to limit
      emotional involvement in their work?
   12.      Why might the writer decide to give up being a doctor in
      the future?

16 Summarise in 100-150 words the rewards and losses in a
caring profession.




                                                                   50
     THEME THREE                        High Risk

17 Before reading the text discuss the following questions.

   What forms of gambling are popular in our country?
   Are there any restrictions on gambling?
   ―To be on the wire is life – the rest is waiting‖ (Karl
    Wallenda, high wire artist)


                            Are We Gamblers?

      We all take risks every day of our lives. Driving to work,
catching an aeroplane, even crossing the road. These sorts of risk
are qualified by actuaries and covered by insurance policies. The
insurance company, working on the past record of many hundreds
of thousands of instances, calculates the probability of a particular
accident befalling the individual seeking cover and sets the
premium for the policy accordingly, plus a healthy margin to take
care of its operating costs and profits. Exactly as the casinos do. But
whereas most prudent people would take out an insurance policy, as
a basic part of their game-plan for living, gamblers choose to take a
wholly unnecessary and avoidable risk. Seeking risk for its own
sake, as a diversion.
      Part of the attraction, I feel sure, is the physical sensations
offered. Consider simply the case of someone like you or me,
planning to spend a night out at the casino. First comes the pleasure
of anticipation, thinking through the day about going out to gamble;
then perhaps comes the agreeable social pleasure of making
arrangements to meet friends, other gamblers; not forgetting the
important point of ensuring that you have the money to gamble.
That may well be a nervous-making element, especially if you can't
really afford it, or can't afford to lose; then comes the physical
sensation, the pitter-patter of excitement as you walk through the
doors of the casino, the sight and sound of action in the gambling-
rooms ... twitches of nervous tension ... finally the see-saw


                                                                     51
sensations of each coup, one after the other in rapid succession, as
the wheel spins or the dice roll or the cards fall; the exhilaration of
winning and the depression of losing.
      The same sequence of sensations applies to any other kind of
bet, or, for that matter, an investment in the stock market. Currency
speculation, which I have tried, is much the best for round-the-clock
action: as soon as the market in London closes, the dealing starts up
in New York, and then moves to the Far East, and so back to
London again. All bets are essentially the same, it is the time scale
that's different. However this amalgam of sensations, of
anticipation, excitement and resolution, may be described, the
impact is in the body, physical.
      Such feelings are not limited to gamblers. The same sort of
sensations, I suppose, are felt by glider pilots, racing drivers, deep-
sea divers, to name but three (operating as it were above, on and
below the level of everyday living). The difference is in the pay-off:
the thrill of trusting to the wind, speed around the track, piercing the
darkness of deep water. When you come to think about it, almost all
human activities carry an emotional charge, in varying degrees - the
actor going on stage, the politician at a public meeting, the salesman
trying to close a deal. In this sense gamblers are not so different.
The emotional charge is a common experience, known colloquially
as 'getting the adrenalin going'. There is one key difference, though,
which distinguishes the activity of gambling from gliding, racing,
diving and all the other things that people do when they are
enjoying themselves. In all these activities, the pilot, driver,
swimmer, or whoever, has trained or practised or worked out the
right and the wrong way of doing it, has been taught and tested at
some length how to perform and has, in sum, established that he or
she is in a position to carry through the action successfully. There
may be accidents - freak winds, oil on the track, oxygen failure - but
the chances are very strongly in their favour. In gambling it is
exactly the opposite! The odds are against the player and everyone
knows it. The risk is worse than fifty-fifty. Gamblers who manage
to get a fifty-fifty break count themselves lucky!
      After all, you cannot win at gambling in the long run, and that
is the basic truth and the basic point about it. The very point that


                                                                      52
makes the motive for gambling such a mystery. Put it this way:
suppose you're walking down the street and you meet some fellow
who offers to toss a coin with you, heads or tails: the only snag is,
when you lose you pay a dollar, when you win, you get paid only 99
cents. You wouldn't do it, would you? You'd be out of your mind to
do it. But that is what happens, exactly what happens, when you bet
in a casino. I do it, you do it, and everybody does it. That is how the
casinos make their huge profits.
       So why gamble? The reasons are as many and various as the
stars in the sky. I prefer to take the question the other way round.
Why do some people not gamble? It's such a widespread trait of
human conduct that it might be considered abnormal not to do it.
The thought is not new. Gaming in all its forms - casinos, horse-
racing, lotteries, card-games - is simply too large an industry to be
based on services catering for a deviant sub-group of the population.
As the great gambler and early student of probability, Geronimo
Cardano (c. 1530) observed, 'Even if gambling were altogether an
evil, still on account of the very large number of people who play, it
would seem to be a natural evil.'
                                     Easy Money by David Spanier

18 Explain the meanings of these words and phrases from the
text.

• sets the premium • a healthy margin         • game plan for living
• pitter-patter of excitement      • twitches of nervous tension
• sea-saw sensations          • coup          • exhilaration
• amalgam          • contention

19 Read the text and answer the following questions.

   1. How does the insurance company set the premium for the
      insurance policy?
   2. What is your idea of prudent people? What is the difference
      between prudent people and gamblers according to the author?
   3. What is a diversion for gamblers?



                                                                       53
  4. What kinds of physical sensations in gambling are so
     tempting, alluring? What different stages of them does a
     gambler experience?
  5. What may a nervous-making element be in gambling?
  6. What amalgam of sensations do all kinds of bets provide?
  7. What other forms of risk-taking activity (besides gambling
     and bets) are mentioned by the author?
  8. What is a common experience for almost all these activities?
  9. What is the key difference that distinguishes gambling from
     other risk-taking activities?
  10.     What are the odds in these groups?
  11.     What is the basic truth about gambling?
  12.     What explanations to reasons why people gamble and
     why not does the author try to give?

20 In the introduction to his book the writer says:
     “Gambling is a deeply-rooted human instinct, as strong as
hunger, thirst or sex. As such, it is my contention that Gambling is
Good for you.”
     Do you agree with him? Can you think of arguments
against his point of view? Put down your ideas in 150-200
words.


                         LANGUAGE FOCUS
                    Asking and Promising Discretion

21 Below are boxes which contain useful language for asking
and promising discretion.

      Asking for Discretion
     Can you keep a secret?
     Keep it under your hat.
     Let‘s keep this between ourselves.
     Mum‘s the word.



                                                                  54
      Promising Discretion
     We never had this conversation.
     I won‘t tell a soul.
     My lips are sealed.
     I won‘t breathe a word.

      With a partner, act out dialogues based on the following
situations. Use phrases from the boxes in Language Focus of
Unit One, as well as from the above boxes.

           Your friend has won the pools and now he is going to
receive a million pounds. He has asked you not to tell anyone, but
you just have to share it with your closest colleague.
           A person you both know is going to marry someone
without his/her parents knowing. Discuss it with your neighbour,
but make sure the news doesn‘t spread.
           You overheard a conversation about some sensational
news. Tell your best friend what the news is, but make sure he
keeps a secret.
           A neighbour has been arrested for tax evasion. Tell your
friend in strictest confidence.


                          TALKING POINTS

22 The following adjectives describe people who act without
thinking about any dangerous consequences, or the actions they
perform. Think of situations or context which these adjectives
can illustrate.

   • reckless         • foolhardy            • daredevil   • rash
   • chancy     • hot-headed      • troublesome • heedless
   • irresponsible          • haphazard

     In the USA reckless driving is the crime of driving a vehicle in
a way that is likely to hurt or kill people.


                                                                   55
23 What dangers, pleasure and excitement do the following
activities involve?

     scuba diving
     rock-climbing
     parachuting
     BASE jumping
     surfing

Work in pairs.
      Student A: dissuade your partner from taking up one of the
sports mentioned, pointing out the dangers.
      Student B: play down the dangers and emphasise the pleasure
and excitement.

24 What are the dangers associated with the following
activities and events?
      What precautions should you take?
      Work in pairs and advise your partner how to carry out
these activities safely:

          changing a light bulb
          opening champagne bottles
          letting off fireworks
          moving furniture
          going on football matches
          crossing the street
          speaking in public
          criticizing someone
          mowing the lawn

     While mowing the lawn one can be hit in the face by flying
stones or catch one's toes or fingers in the blades.
     One should wear a mask and gloves, or involve some
professionals in getting the lawn mowed.



                                                               56
                        VOCABULARY of the UNIT

     25 A Study the meanings of the words. Provide
Russian equivalents. Translate the examples.

Risk n a possibility that something bad or unpleasant may happen
to someone; risky adj
      take a (calculated) risk, run a risk of doing smth, be at risk,
at the risk of doing smth, at your own risk, high-risk strategy/
investments/ shares/group/patients, put smb/smth at risk, to risk
your life/neck, to risk money on an investment

Danger n a risk, though not a very strong one, that something bad
will happen, especially something that will have very serious results
      be a danger to, to expose smb/smth to danger, to be exposed
to danger, to have a dangerous attitude, to endanger (the lives)
      The whole building was in danger of collapsing.

Hazard n a risk that cannot be avoided because it is always there
in a particular activity; something that causes accidents: For
exporters, changes in the exchange rate is an unavoidable hazard.
     be a hazard to, hazardous, economic/occupational hazards,
to be a hazardous waste/ occupation/ undertaking /journey
/operation/ chemicals/ substances

Peril n a word used especially in literature meaning something that
can cause danger, especially during a journey
      the perils of motor racing/sea, at his peril, to be in great peril,
perilous

Jeopardy n be in danger, a serious risk that something will fail
    be in jeopardy, put smb in jeopardy, to jeopardize
     If you are rude to him it may jeopardize your chances of
promotion.




                                                                       57
Threat n a strong possibility that smth very bad will happen to
someone.
     the threat of, threat to, be under threat, pose a threat to
smb/smth, to threaten with smth

Death toll number of killed or injured
Be asking for trouble Anyone who buys second-hand cars tyres is
just asking for trouble.
Push your luck You have cheated to get what you wanted, but I’m
warning you, don’t push your luck.
Dice with death, to be dicey The antiques trade is a pretty dicey
business at the best of times.
Invite trouble/ attack/ criticism/ disaster The whole policy invites
criticism that they do not take human rights seriously.
Tempt fate Letting children take a boat out in this weather is just
tempting fate.
Be playing with fire
Put your job/career/reputation on the line to risk losing your job,
etc if you make the wrong decision: We may be putting our jobs on
the line if we start protesting about safety standards.
Life and limb         to escape with life and limb to avoid danger
without serious injury
Draw straws for smth

Accident n to be involved in an accident, to have an accident,
bad/nasty/serious accident, shooting/riding/skiing accident,
accidental death/damage/injury (happening in an accident)
Crash n, v a car/plane crash, to crash into/onto
Wreck n an American word meaning an accident involving cars
or other vehicles; wreckage the broken parts of a destroyed thing
Pile-up n a serious road accident in which many cars crash into
each other
Disaster n a very serious accident involving a train, plane, or ship,
in which many people are killed
Collision n an accident in which two or more vehicles, planes or
ships hit each other while travelling fast
      collision with, head-on collision, to collide


                                                                   58
Injure v to cause physical harm to smb
      to injure badly/seriously/critically, injure smb/smth, be
injured, an injury n, to escape injury
Hurt v to cause physical damage and pain to smb, usually not very
seriously, hurt oneself, get hurt
Take precautions against
Take a chance
Have a narrow escape
Carry out (an activity) safely

     B   Find synonyms and synonymous expressions to the
words in bold type. Provide Russian equivalents to the words
and words combinations. Translate the sentences.

CLAIM
1. Khlestakov claimed that he was the author of ―Jury
Miloslavsky‖. 2. The woman claimed to have seen the accident
with her own eyes. 3. There are several matters that claim my
attention. 4. The earthquake claimed sixty lives. 5. Despite claims
that she was once involved with drugs, she says she will still be
running for elections. 6. He has a rightful claim to the property. It
was his mother‘s.

CHALLENGE
1. I chose to study law because I thought it would be a challenge.
2. The expedition will face the challenge of climbing the last
unconquered peak in the Himalayas. 3. No one challenged the
assumptions that are made in the report. 4. They are not likely to
challenge us on any of the details. 5. The girls challenged the boys
to a tennis match. 6. The difficulty of putting our ideas into practice
challenged us to find a new method.

     Words frequently used with challenge:
     adjectives - biggest, greatest, major, new, serious
     verbs – accept, enjoy, face, meet, present, rise to
     nouns – a theory, smb’s authority, knowledge, a statement



                                                                     59
NEGLECT
1. You‘ve been neglecting your work. 2. Don‘t neglect to lock the
door/locking the door. 3. The garden has fallen into a state of
neglect. 4. He is the father who is neglectful of his children. 5. The
report said the doctor had been negligent in not giving the woman a
full examination. / It was negligence of the doctor that he failed to
give the woman a full examination. 6. The damage to my car is
negligible.

CONSEQUENCE
1. If you behave so foolishly you must be ready to take
consequences. 2. She fell ill and the consequence was that she lost
her job. 3. He may be a man of consequence there, but he‘s nobody
here. 4. Let him alone, Cesane; it isn’t of any consequence, and
after all it‘s as my fault as his.

     Words frequently used with consequence:
     adjectives – disastrous, fatal, inevitable, serious, tragic,
unforeseen
     verbs – accept, consider, face, suffer, take

APPROACH
1. Few writers can even approach Shakespeare in greatness. 2.
When is the best time to approach him about an increase in salary?
– I don‘t think, he’s easy to approach (on that matter). 3. The
enemy ran away at our approach. 4. At our school we take an
individual approach to every pupil. 5. Make approaches to your
boss, he may appreciate your work and you may get promoted.

     Words frequently used with approach:
     common-sense,     constructive,  down-to-earth,         flexible,
systematic

DISTINGUISH
1. The darkness was so complete he couldn‘t distinguish a thing.
2. What distinguishes a dog from a wolf? 3. The two paintings are
so similar that only an expert can distinguish between the original


                                                                    60
and the copy. 4. He was known to have distinguished himself in
diplomatic service. 5. The country‘s most distinguished scientists
arrived for the forum.

CONTRADICT
1. He didn't dare contradict his parents. 2. Her account of the
accident contradicts that of the other driver. 3. In his confusion, he
kept contradicting himself. 4. She's a most contradictory
person.5. Though the opinions expressed were somewhat confused
and contradictory, they helped a lot towards clearing up the
situation. 6. What you're saying now is in contradiction with what
you said but two days ago. 7. I think I can say, without fear of
contradiction, that tonight has been a real success.

ODDS
1. She may pass the exam but the odds are that she will fail. 2.
Against all the odds he recovered from his illness. 3. Those two
have been at odds for ages. 4. It makes no odds whether we go or
stay. 5. There are a few odds and ends that I want to pick up from
the office before I go home. 6. He does odd jobs for me from time
to time.

26 Translate the following sentences into Russian.
  1. I was bored with my job and felt I needed a new challenge.
  2. Have you thought of approaching Sally? She might be able to
     help.
  3. Are western nations ready to meet enormous environmental
     challenges that lie ahead?
  4. We were all keen walkers, and enjoyed the challenge of this
     remote place.
  5. She had neglected to inform me that the company was having
     financial problems.
  6. He has a relaxed approach to life.
  7. They concluded that even three-year-olds are able to
     distinguish between causes and effects.
  8. The building has been neglected for years.



                                                                    61
27 For sentence below rewrite a new sentence as similar as
possible in the meaning to the original sentence. Use Vocabulary
of the Unit. There may be more than one variant.

  1. Lev Landau ranked high among the most outstanding
     physicists of the time.
  2. The result of the race is of no importance to me as not my
     money is at stake.
  3. He asserted that he had done the work without any help.
  4. The human skull found in Kenya in 1973 called in question
     the existing views on human evolution.
  5. All ways and roads to the Palace were guarded by soldiers.
  6. If your nephew had been insulted, that was a direct result of
     the life he had chosen to lead.
  7. The runner made an excellent showing in the 100m flat race.
  8. It is not easy to get on friendly terms with him.
  9. He demanded recognition of his right to that property as the
     only live heir to it.
  10.       This new evidence is in disagreement with their earlier
     statement.
  11.       The celebrated tennis player was slightly amused when
     invited to a game by an obvious beginner.
  12.       You may do as you please, but you will be responsible
     for the results.
  13.       The ability to laugh is said to be the only one quality,
     which makes man biologically different from the animal.
  14.       There was little logic in what he was saying, one
     statement seemed to exclude the other.
  15.       Everybody denied the truth of the facts written in this
     letter.
  16.       Don't be in direct contrast to my words.
  17.       The reporters were contrary to each other.
  18.       Your statements today are in contrast with what you said
     yesterday.




                                                                  62
28 Fill in contradiction, challenge, odds, approach, claim,
neglect, consequence, hazard, death, distinguished, then make
sentences.

  1. occupational ……………….
     Hearing loss is an occupational hazard for deep-water diving.
  2. ……………………… toll
  3. ………… 100 lives
  4. to ……………… knowledge
  5. in a state of ………………..
  6. ………… and ends
  7. in ……………. with
  8. a ……………………. writer
  9. take a reasonable ………………
  10.      a man of ………………………

29 Translate the sentences into English using Vocabulary of
the Unit (pay attention to the ways of expressing meanings of
the active words in Russian).

Claim
1. Странно, что никто не заявил своих прав на потерянный
бумажник. Он набит деньгами.
2. Он утверждал, что его обманули.
3. Наводнение унесло сотни жизней.
4. Власти заявляли, что шансы найти тех, кто выжил после
кораблекрушения, незначительны.

Challenge
5. Я не оспариваю правильность вашей теории, но к ней нужен
особый подход.
6. В своей книге Джейн Хокинг представила своего мужа
тираном. Мистер Хокинг подвергает сомнению утверждения
жены, касающиеся из 30-летнего брака.
7. Само наше существование было поставлено на карту.
(Think about the word order).
8. Даже просто выжить было подвигом.


                                                                63
9. Они поставили нас перед         необходимостью    найти
оправдание нашего отсутствия.

Neglect
10. Он пропустил мое замечание мимо ушей.
11. Он не счел нужным рассказать нам об этом.
12. Ее муж умер во время операции, и ей потребовалось три
года, чтобы доказать, что это была халатность медицинского
персонала.
13. Придется смириться с тем, что они так громко говорят.
14. Мари заперла две двери и окна, но забыла отменить
доставку газет, пока ее не будет.
15. Руководство парка не потрудилось объяснить причины
столь бесчеловечного отношения к животным.

Consequence
16. Дома он хранил лишь те документы, которые не
представляли большой важности.
17. Он самостоятельно принял это решение и теперь именно
он несет ответственность за последствия.
18. Он должен рассказать мне правду или пусть пеняет на
себя.
19. Арктика стоит перед лицом природной катастрофы,
которая приведет к гибельным последствиям для человечества.
(Use ―with +‖ construction)

Approach
20. Она так красива и горда, что к ней не подойдешь.
21. Он обратился ко мне за сведениями, но мне было
запрещено говорить что-либо.
22. Несколько рабочих обратились к директору по поводу
условий труда.

Distinguish
23. Близнецы были так похожи, что было очень трудно
отличить одного от другого.
24. Речь отличает человека от животного.


                                                         64
25. Многие выдающиеся ученые, писатели, артисты стали
членами новой народной партии.
26. Едва ли можно было что-нибудь рассмотреть сквозь
утренний туман.
Odds
27. У них разногласие по поводу того, на что потратить
выигрыш.
28. Может быть, она и сдаст экзамен, но, вероятнее всего, что
она провалится.
29. Мне нужно забрать из кабинета кое-какую мелочь, прежде
чем я уйду домой.
Contradict
30. Он крайне раздражителен и часто выходит из себя, если
ему противоречат.
31. Он ничего не сказал, что могло бы опровергнуть ее слова.
32. Ваши слова расходятся с вашими поступками.
33. Их     выступление    по    обсуждаемой     теме    было
противоречивым.

30 Put the ideas of the following sentences into English using
Core Vocabulary:

     1. Пренебрежение техникой безопасности - весьма
опасное отношение к делу. Так можно навлечь беду. На вашем
месте я бы не подвергал людей риску. Нужно принять все меры
предосторожности.
     2. Похоже, что для политиков развод и алкоголизм
считаются профессиональным риском. История знает много
случаев, когда на карту ставилась репутация и карьера.
Некоторые, искушая судьбу, выходили сухими из воды, другие
вели себя неосторожно и поплатились за это не только
карьерой, но и поставили под угрозу жизнь своих близких.
     3. Риск – явление обычное и банальное. Мы идем на
осознанный риск, когда едем в машине, садимся на диету,
занимаемся спортом и пользуемся электроприборами. Риск –
это обыденность. А обыденность притупляет бдительность.



                                                            65
     4. Полиция подтвердила, что, по крайней мере, 26
человек погибли, и более 200 было ранено, когда произошло
почти лобовое столкновение двух пассажирских поездов. Если
подтвердятся самые худшие опасения официальных лиц,
количество убитых и раненых, вероятно, вырастет.
     5. Крупная авария, во время которой только чудом не
взорвался бензовоз, и не сгорели вместе с пассажирами два
трамвайных вагона, произошла во вторник в районе
Преображенской площади. По счастливой случайности никто
из прохожих не пострадал.

31 Put the text into English, using Vocabulary of the Unit.

                        Почему мы рискуем

     В понятии «риск» заключены два значения. Одно – это
опасность, другое – выигрыш.
     Любая экстремальная ситуация заставляет максимально
мобилизоваться, использовать все резервы: умственные,
физические, инвестиционные. Когда рискуешь, четко
понимаешь, что нужно реагировать на любые изменения в
ситуации. Малейшее упущение может привести к
отрицательному результату и останется лишь одно - отвечать
за последствия.
     Риску в той или иной степени подвержен каждый из нас.
Опасность может поджидать везде. Попасть в ее сети нам,
пожалуй, не очень хочется. Особенно если в рискованной
ситуации мы оказываемся бессильными, от нас ровным счетом
ничего не зависит. Вы можете лететь на самолете и попасть на
продолжительное время в зону турбулентности, испытывая при
этом очень неприятные ощущения. Вы ничего в этой ситуации
изменить не можешь. Все во власти стихии и экипажа.
Остается надеяться, что летчики не будут небрежны в
выполнении своих обязанностей.
     Экономический риск в бизнесе понятен и является
непременным атрибутом. Развитие производства без
экспериментов невозможно. Бизнесмен в состоянии все


                                                              66
контролировать, делать расчеты, прогнозировать результаты.
Но при этом его карьера и репутация также может подвергаться
опасности.
     Экстремальные виды спорта, бизнес, бесспорно,
подразумевают риск. Но от этого риска человек вправе
отказаться. Совершенно иное дело — профессиональный риск.
Здесь риск — неотъемлемая составляющая профессии. В
работе спасателя риска может быть меньше, чем у врача-
стоматолога, у которого гораздо больше шансов заразиться во
время работы СПИДом или какой-нибудь инфекцией. У
спасателей все-таки риск прогнозируемый. Никто не заставляет
спасателей подвергать себя опасности. Это их работа. При этом
такие понятия как "искушать судьбу", "играть с огнем" или
"шутить со смертью" здесь исключены, так как они готовы
рисковать       профессионально.       Высокий        уровень
профессионализма минимизирует риск.
     Откуда берутся склонные к риску люди? Как все мы — из
детства. Способность идти на риск — результат сложной
суммы множества факторов. Наследственность, особенности
воспитания, природная и социальная среда — вот главные из
них. Педагоги и психологи давно подметили, что если ребенок
воспитывался в спокойной и бесконфликтной обстановке, имел
достаточную степень самостоятельности, ощущал одобрение и
поддержку родителей, то он вырастал более уверенным в своих
силах, смелым и предприимчивым человеком.
     И наоборот, ребенок, который вырос в обстановке страхов
и тревог, чрезмерного контроля, будет вынужден ловчить и
приспосабливаться. Человек, постоянно подвергающийся
угрозе наказания, скорее всего, станет тревожным,
неуверенным, безынициативным человеком, не способным
ставить перед собой сложные задачи и добиваться их
выполнения.
     Ситуация риска всегда порождает стресс, и от того, как
человек справляется с ним, будет зависеть эффективность его
деятельности, а иногда и жизнь.




                                                           67
UNIT THREE                  MONEY MATTERS

LEAD-IN

1    Money is used for buying or selling goods, for measuring
value and for storing wealth. Almost every society now has a money
economy based on coins and paper notes of one kind or another.
However, this has not always been true.
    What system was used in primitive societies?
    What contributed to the development of various money
     systems?

  Here some English sayings and proverbs about money. What
do the sayings imply?

       "Neither a borrower nor a lender be." From 'Hamlet' by
William Shakespeare.
       "Look after the pennies, and the pounds will look after
themselves."
       "Money breeds money".
       "A fool and his money are soon parted."
       Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain.
       Money often unmakes the men who make it.
       Money is a good servant but a bad master.

2   Complete each gap in the sentence with one of the words or
phrases given.

• high earning potential     • wealth         • bonus • lotteries
• wages          • benefit • loan sharks      • shares • cash
• credit card    • the pools      • salary • earnings • in debt
• poverty • credit           • budget • broke             • cheque
• income tax           • revenue        • fee       • debt
• affluent




                                                                     68
1. In many countries, there is a contrast between the
   ............................ of a small number of citizens and the
   ........................... of the masses.
2. For people on the breadline, their one chance of becoming rich
   overnight is to win ................... .
3. In Australia, basic social services such as hospitals are funded
   by ............................., which provide the government with
   ............................ and citizens with the chance of large
   ......................... prizes.
4. People in work pay .......................... on their ............................
   . Those who are unemployed receive ............................. .
5. If you are paid by the hour you get ............................. . If you
   are paid on an annual basis, you get a(n) ...............-
   ................and if you are paid for a particular service you get
   a(n) .............. .
6. In department stores, there are three ways of paying for goods:
   in cash, by ................... and by ................... .
7. Housewives running the family finances have to work within
   a(n) .................... .
8. If your expenditure exceeds your income, you will find
   yourself ..................... .
9. Graduates in the 1990's are attracted to jobs with .................. .
10.         One way of investing money is to buy .............................
   in a public company, the prices of which are quoted on the
   Stock Exchange.
11.         People on low incomes sometimes take out loans from
   ................... which they are never able to repay.
12.         For some people, living on .................. is a normal way
   of life.
13.         Although he earns a lot of money, Tony always seems to
   be ................... .
14.         Charles's....................lifestyle came to an end when he
   was made ....................... .
15.         The ease with which British citizens can get credit has
   led to increasing …………. within society at large.




                                                                                   69
3      Complete the text using the words and phrases given.

• current account                    • debt      • cope          • security
• means • ready cash                 • income • freed            • overdraft
• credit card   • arrears            • rich     • expenses       • in reserve
• capital • mortgage                 • assurance      • foregoing

                                        Personal Finances
         Many people regard financial .............................. (1) as the
most important thing in family finances. This is not the same thing
as being ............................. (2). It means being able to
..............................     (3)    with     the      unexpected,               being
.............................. (4) from the need to think about money, living
within your .............................. (5). For day to day living you need
.............................. (6) but you also need a bit .............................. (7)
for a rainy day.
         The first thing to think about is your .............................. (8)
and how much is in it. You don't want to run the risk of having an
unauthorised .............................. (9), it's far too expensive
.............................. (10) can be a helpful way of handling
unexpected .............................. (11), but credit is always costly, and
of course it's just another form of ........................... (12). In Britain
many people have a very large debt called a(n)
..............................(13), a sum of money borrowed from a bank or a
building society, which many regard as a good way of buying a
house.
         But if the payments fall into .............................. (14), your
house could be sold to pay off the debt. Life .............................. (15)
and pensions are an important aspect of feeling secure, and if you
don't make provision early, retirement can be a financial shock. It's
worth ............................. (16) some jam today for a bit more bread
tomorrow.
         Finally, investments. You need to invest in an area where
there is some potential for your .............................. (17) to grow
while you still have a(n) .............................. (18). You could choose
shares, unit trusts, or government securities. If you do all these
things, you shouldn't have to worry on a day-to-day level.


                                                                                          70
THEME ONE                        Easy Money

4     Discuss the following questions before reading the text.

     Do you think parents should provide their children with pocket
      money? Why (not)?
     What do children spend pocket money on?
     Should teenagers work or do odd jobs to earn money?

                            Paying Your Way

      There were red faces at one of Britain's biggest banks recently.
They had accepted a telephone order to buy £100,000 worth of
shares from a fifteen-year-old schoolboy (they thought he was
twenty-one). The shares fell in value and the schoolboy was unable
to pay up. The bank lost £20,000 on the deal which it cannot get
back because, for one thing, this young speculator does not have the
money and for another, being under eighteen, he is not legally liable
for his debts. If the shares had risen in value by the same amount
that they fell, he would have pocketed £20,000 profit. Not bad for a
fifteen-year-old. It certainly beats a paper round.
      In another recent case, a boy of fourteen found, in the attic of
his grandmother's house, a suitcase full of foreign banknotes. The
clean, crisp, high-denomination notes looked very convincing but
they were not legal tender in their country of origin or anywhere
else. This young wheeler-dealer headed straight to the nearest bank
with his pockets crammed with notes. The cashiers did not realise
that the country in question had devalued its currency by 90%. They
exchanged the notes at their face value at the current exchange rate.
In three days, before he was rumbled, he took £200,000 from nine
different banks. Amazingly, he had already squandered more than
half of this on taxi-rides, restaurant meals, concert tickets and
presents for his many newly-acquired girlfriends (at least he was
generous!) before the police caught up with him. Because he is also
under eighteen the banks have kissed goodbye to a lot of money,
and several cashiers have had their careers blighted.


                                                                    71
      Should we admire these youngsters for being enterprising and
showing initiative or condemn them for their dishonesty? Maybe
they had managed for years with tiny amounts of pocket money
wrung from tight-fisted parents. Maybe they had done Saturday jobs
for peanuts. It is hardly surprising, given the expensive things that
young people want to buy, such as fashionable trainers and
computer games, if they sometimes think up more imaginative
money-making schemes than delivering newspapers and baby-
sitting. These lads saw the chance to make a killing and took it.
      Another recent story which should give us food for thought is
the case of the man who paid his six-year-old daughter £300 a week
pocket money. He then charged her for the food she ate and for her
share of the rent and household bills. After these deductions, she
was left with a few coins for her piggy bank. 'She will soon learn
the value of money,' he said. 'There's no such thing as a free lunch.
Everything has to be paid for and the sooner she learns that the
better.' At the other extreme there are doting parents who provide
free bed and board for their grown-up children. While even the most
hardhearted parents might hesitate to throw their children out on the
streets, we all know of people in their late twenties who shamelessly
sponge on their parents. Surely there comes a time when everyone
has to leave the parental nest, fend for themselves and pay their own
way in life? But when is it?

5    Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is
similar in meaning to.

Paragraph 1: • obliged by law • delivering newspapers someone
Paragraph 2: • who makes money quickly (but not always honestly)
         • completely full of • the value printed on the notes •
         found out         • wasted • damaged
Paragraph 3: • thinking for yourself and taking action
         • ungenerous • for very little money
         • make a lot of money quickly
Paragraph 4: • something to think about • very loving in a
          foolish way      • accommodation and food



                                                                   72
6     Find English equivalents of the following                 word
combinations.
• с одной стороны, с другой стороны
• нести ответственность по закону за что-либо
• это выгоднее, чем разносить газеты
• банкноты крупного достоинства
• законное платежное средство
• махинатор
• вымогать/выпрашивать у родителей
• сорвать куш
• брать деньги за еду
• жить на чужой счет
• заботиться о себе

7   Explain the following words and expressions. Provide your
own situations to illustrate them.
  - red faces
  - kissed something goodbye
  - do something for peanuts
  - food for thought

8        Answer the following questions:
    1.   Briefly summarise the three stories about children and money
         which are referred to in the article.
    2.   Is there anything admirable about what the two boys did?
    3.   What was the father‘s motive in giving his daughter 300
         pounds a week pocket money?
    4.   When should people cease to be financially dependent on their
         parents?

THEME TWO                          In cash or out of cash?

9     Discuss the following before reading the text.
     What do you think couples should do if they are financially
      incompatible?
     Money is the root of all evil. Do you agree with the proverb?


                                                                    73
                          Money is the root of …?

       Money can't buy love, but it does a very good job of
destroying relationships.
       Cash causes more arguments than sex and is at the root of
most problems for almost half of all modern couples, according to a
report published yesterday. Although the majority of couples at least
agree that the highest earner should have the say when it comes to
holding the purse strings, money causes more disagreements than
children, parents, housework or sexual problems.
       The survey, by Hamilton Direct Bank, found that couples with
separate accounts were far more likely to disagree over money than
those who have joint finances. Couples who pool their cash in one
account do so because they feel it is a far simpler way of managing
their money.
       Julia Cole, a marriage guidance counsellor, said money is
symbolic of deeper problems in a relationship. "If a couple have
taken a decision to get married but will not share a bank account, it
says something about their relationship," she said. "Maybe they do
not trust the other one or believe that their relationship will be long-
lasting."
       Surprisingly, arguments do not tend to be about if they have
money, or haven't - they are about what the money is spent on. "If a
couple comes into £500, the woman is more likely to want that
money to be put into the house, whereas a man is more likely to
want to spend it all on a holiday for the family. Money causes the
most problems when it is seen to be wasted on things like drink or
gambling. Personal hobbies can also cause problems - for example,
the man who wants to buy a new set of golf clubs, or a woman
wanting to join an expensive gym." Judy Cunnington, director of
London Marriage & Guidance, said: "If you feel you are being
short-changed by your other half financially, it tends to mean they
are being ungenerous in other ways."
       She said that summer is a prime time for cash rows. "It is
dreadful if you haven't got much money because you see other
families going on wonderful holidays and the children are at home
all the time demanding things that cost money," she said.


                                                                     74
       The survey found separate accounts were held by nearly a
quarter of couples, with almost half doing so because they had a
different attitude towards spending than their partner. They believed
a separate account enabled them to independently manage their
finances. Yet most of the couples admit that, despite separate
accounts, they still disagree over finances, with the main point of
contention being over who pays for what.
       According to the report, the best answer is to have both
separate accounts and a joint account into which each partner pays a
fixed amount every month. Patrick Long, head of corporate
communication at Hamilton Direct Bank, said: "Our research
illustrates that some couples are just not financially compatible."
       Jayne Nearey and her boyfriend Steve Greenwood set up
home six months ago and already they have found money the main
cause of squabbles. The couple decided it was an important sign of
commitment to open a joint bank account, pool their wages and trust
each other not to spend too much. Now, after a few large impulse
buys each, they have started to log every purchase in a special book
and keep all the receipts. Jayne, 21, a £27,000-a-year advertising
executive, said: "It's not that we don't trust each other. But when
you are pooling your wages with someone else's you want to make
sure that you are either spending your fair share or getting some
benefit out of what is bought. If Steve buys a jacket for £500 from
our pooled cash I don't immediately go mad, because half of the
cash is his. But when he buys a string of expensive items you start
to worry and get irritable thinking, 'That is my cash you're spending,
too'." The couple spends £1,000 a month on their mortgage and
bills, and £600 on clothes and entertainment. Steve, 25, a computer
operator, said: "The household bills are not a problem because we
split them. But we are forever arguing how to spend any cash we
have left over. "The only other thing we argue over is the household
chores, but nothing is as bad as our money discussions."
       The Government warns women not to be neglectful of the
possible consequences when it comes to opening joint bank
accounts with their husbands or partners, as they can find
themselves in joint account peril. Treasury officials say women
place far too much trust in their partners and risk financial ruin if


                                                                    75
they leave money matters to them. The move is aimed at stopping
women being hounded by creditors when errant husbands vanish
after running up huge overdrafts. Joint accounts were once seen as
the cornerstone of marital equality.
      Now a Treasury report will urge all women to handle joint
accounts with care - and also keep their own pensions and insurance
policies. The report also calls for measures to ensure that women are
taught the importance of financial independence from an early age.
It argues their ignorance in financial matters. It argues they are often
unprepared to deal with finances if their marriage breaks down.
Many have no bank account at all as they have never had an income
of their own or because their husbands have controlled that side of
the relationship. They can find themselves saddled with debts if
their partner walks out - for the law of "joint and several liability"
makes both partners equally liable for debts on a joint account and
creditors will usually pursue the one who is easier to find.
                                              Ben Taylor, Daily Mail

10 Find English equivalents to the following word-
combinations:

• лежать в основе • иметь право решающего голоса
• распоряжаться деньгами      • иметь разногласия в вопросе
расходования денег       • объединять деньги на одном счете
• обманывать       • главный предмет спора
• финансово несовместимы      •    подвергаться     опасности
финансового краха        • утверждает, что они невежественны

11 Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is
similar in meaning to:

Paragraph 7: • to make a record of things that have been bought
Paragraph 8: • to owe a bank a large sum of money
Paragraph 9: • be legally responsible for debts and have to pay




                                                                      76
12 Explain the contextual meaning of the following words and
phrases.

     • set up home          • the highest earner • the other half
     • squabbles      • an impulse buy       • a sign of commitment
     • spend your fair share      • the cornerstone

13 Answer the following questions.

  1. What problems may money cause?
  2. Do you agree that the highest earner should have the say when
     it comes to holding the purse strings?
  3. What alternatives in money matters do couples have?
  4. Why do couples pool their cash in one account? What are the
     benefits of that move?
  5. What conclusion may psychologists draw if couples have
     separate accounts?
  6. What are the main points of contention in family money
     matters?
  7. What is the best solution to the issue, according to the report?
  8. What expenses do Jayne Nearey and her boyfriend Steve
     Greenwood share?
  9. What points of contention in their family life do they have?
  10.      What does their example illustrate?
  11.      What is the government contribution to the burning issue
     of joint accounts?
  12.      What is the aim of the Government's move?
  13.      What does the writer imply by the phrase "the
     cornerstone of marital equality"?
  14.      What does a Treasury report call for?
  15.      Why does the report claim that women are mostly
     financially ignorant?
  16.      What consequences may women face if they have joint
     accounts?




                                                                   77
14 Discussion Point
     Study the prompt boxes below, containing more useful
language for expressing personal opinion and discussing
advantages and disadvantages of something.

     To list advantages and               To     express     personal
disadvantages                      opinion
     One        advantage      /   * In my opinion/view
disadvantage of                    * To my mind
     Another      advantage    /   * To my way of thinking
disadvantage of                    * I am convinced that
     One other advantage /         * It is my firm belief that
disadvantage of                    * I am inclined to believe that
     A     further    advantage/   * As far as I am concerned
disadvantage of
     The main advantage /
disadvantage of
     The greatest advantage /
disadvantage of

Divide the group into two teams.

Team 1 is to think of the arguments
      against – joint accounts and in favour of – separate accounts.
Team 2 is to think of the arguments
     against – separate accounts and in favour of – joints
accounts.
Share you arguments. Challenge the arguments of the other
team, or support them providing your own ideas.

15 Summarise in 200 words the causes of money
disagreements, main points of contention in money matters,
advantages and disadvantages of having joint accounts
according to the information in the text.




                                                                   78
     THEME THREE                 Out of debt, out of danger

16 Discuss the following questions before reading the text.

        What effects does the use of credit cards have in general?
        "Live now – pay later." Do you agree with the proverb?
        Comment on the title of the theme.

     Debt and despair on the dark side of consumer credit

       Edward Vulliamy examines how the present boom in
borrowing is costing some people their homes and their marriages.
       A breed of advice worker braced themselves for a surge in
business yesterday after news that the problem they deal with
appears to be reaching a point beyond control: figures for June
showed consumers owing £3 billion in credit, an increase of more
than 10 per cent on the previous month.
       Consumer credit - a smart is word for debt - has brought the
Citizens' Advice Bureaux a massive workload as their clients,
unable to cope with repayments and interest on loans and plastic-
card shopping, arrive for help.
       People have lost their houses, their marriages have broken up,
they suffer from stress. It is the new social disease of the
spendaholics.
       At the Merton Money Advice Service in south London, all
social groups come for help, although the unemployed, at 6 per cent
in the borough but 38 per cent of the clients, are heavily
represented.
       Ms Alison Skittrall, an advice worker, says: 'They cannot
afford to live off benefits, but they want to try and keep the
standards they had before being made redundant.' Nearly a third of
all clients had more than 10 creditors, and 18 per cent owed more
than £10,000, excluding their mortgages.
       Many who come in have 'robbed Peter to pay Paul', trying to
cover a multitude of smaller debts by taking out large loans which
they cannot afford to repay. Often there is a problem of ignorance.


                                                                   79
'People are only looking at the monthly repayment,' Ms Skittrall
says, 'never at the interest or at what they will have to pay in total.'
       Some of those in difficulties are young - under 24 - and easily
tempted into credit by the high street storecard. 'They want to be
fashionable, they want a compact disc player, or an auto focus
camera. And because the interest is so high on shop cards and on the
credit cards, they might take out a larger loan with a bank or a
financial company.
       'Then it starts to get further down the line, and that is when
they come to us. Often too far down the line: they arrive when they
are being evicted from their houses, or they have been to court.'
       Many run into problems when the fine-tuning of their life ‗on
tick‘ is disrupted by quite modest reductions in income. Ms Skittrall
had been seeing a woman with eight credit cards, all in debt, plus a
bank loan. The woman was 'just able to juggle and keep them going
with about £30 a week overtime. Then that went. It was a small but
crucial amount, and she fell completely behind on even the
minimum payments.'
       Mr Chris Bain, of the Birmingham Settlement Money Advice
Centre, says: 'I used to be astonished by the problems people came
in with and the advertising people are lured with. But I've lost my
incredulity now.‘ 'I have a client here with debts of about £13,000,
in arrears on all his credit cards, and yet still being offered free gifts
by the credit card companies if he felt like putting up his credit limit
by another £100.'
       Barclays has just started a pilot scheme called Profiles which
enables cardholders to acquire points with the money that they
spend with their cards. The points accumulate to entitle them to gifts
from a catalogue. Barclays is emphatic that the idea shows no signs
of exacerbating repayment problems.
       However, Mr Bain says the gift system does cause problems
with the storecards ‗which are shoved down people‘s throats every
time they walk into the big shops in Birmingham.'
       Another of his clients had no overdrafts with two banks,
payments he could not meet on Barclay and Access cards and a
sizeable loan from Barclays Bank, the monthly payment on which
alone was four times what was left of his income after essentials.


                                                                       80
Then this man is told that if he was to spend an additional £200 in
one of the stores on his storecard, then he‘ll get a bloody carriage
clock. His family is suffering, his marriage has become unstable.
Creditors telephone him and visit, so that every time you hear the
phone ring, or the door knock, you think it's them. Every time a
letter drops on the floor, you think it's them again.
       'Of course, there is a degree of self-inflicted harm about it at
first, but as it goes on, then so does the advertising, which is an
obscenity.'
       One of the problems is addiction to optimism, Mr Bain says.
'It just builds up over a period of time. I get people who think
they've got this far, so if they're saying "go on holiday on an Access
card" then they think why not - I may win the pools tomorrow. Then
comes the crunch.'
       Advertisements for consolidated loans to swallow up all the
little ones - at huge interest levels - nowadays cram the pages of
tabloid newspapers.
       Mr Bain said: 'I get people who go for what they think is the
short-term answer and end up losing their houses.‘ I've had four in
the last month who've lost their houses because they got behind, and
the building societies wouldn't consolidate the arrears.'
       In Liverpool, Mr John Pope dealt with the case of a woman in
debt whose monthly repayments had been set, with the finance
company's agreement, by the Citizens Advice Bureau for which he
worked. 'Then she had a baby, and that required us to have another
look at the payments. Instead, the company simply offered her a
further loan, the very last thing she needed. We managed to
persuade her out of it, but if we hadn't been dealing with it, I don't
know what might have happened.'
       A spokesman for Barclaycard said yesterday that the company
has tightened its vetting procedures, and this June had turned away
38 per cent of applicants for cards, against 24 per cent in June last
year.
       He added that 43 per cent of cardholders paid their monthly
bills without incurring interest. 'We do not want people who cannot
afford to use the card, and every credit limit is based on the
customer's ability to pay.'


                                                                     81
      A spokeswoman for Access said that the individual banks
offering the facility, rather than the credit card company itself, were
responsible for the customers using the card. Any offers or
incentives to use the card were not Access's business but that of the
subscribing banks.
                              Edward Vulliamy, The Guardian

17 Find English equivalents:

• поколение консультантов            • выйти из подчинения
• потребитель        • жить за счет пособий •         сохранять
уровень (жизни)      • ухудшаться         • столкнуться       с
проблемой      • (разг.) в кредит    • решающая (критическая)
сумма     • опаздывать с оплатой • соблазнять (завлекать)
• без уплаты начисленных процентов

18 Find the word or phrase which, in context, is similar in
meaning to:
Paragraph 1: • a period of economic growth        • causing someone
          to lose something
Paragraph 2: • stood firm        • a forward rush
Paragraph 3: • fashionable       • amount of work to be done
Paragraph 4: • relationships have ended
         • people addicted to spending
Paragraph 5: • local area
Paragraph 6: • to be financially dependent on • put out of work
         • people to whom money is owed
Paragraph 9: • thrown out of     • been subject to legal action
Paragraph 17: • a positive approach         • increases
         • the critical moment
Paragraph 22: • person who speaks on someone else‘s behalf
Paragraph 23: • causing to occur

19 Answer the questions to the text:
  1. What does Citizens‘ Advice Bureau deal with?
  2. What consequences may living on credit involve?



                                                                     82
  3. What social groups of people take loans? What is the purpose
     of it?
  4. How do people try to solve their problem (of covering debts)?
  5. What is the contributing cause of the fact that people find
     themselves in debt?
  6. What makes credit so alluring/ tempting for young people?
  7. When do many people run into problems?
  8. What contributes to greater debts?
  9. What pilot scheme was started by Barclays? What do they try
     to emphasize?
  10.       What is the gift system? What are its drawbacks?
  11.       Why is Mr Bain, advice worker, negative about people‘s
     optimism in difficult financial situations?
  12.       What are negative points in consolidated loans?
  13.       What examples/ stories do advice workers of Advice
     Centres provide?
  14.       In what way do credit companies try to defend
     themselves against criticism?
  15.       Comment on the title of the article.

20 a) In not more than 120 words, outline the factors that lead
people to get into debt.
     b) Advantages and disadvantages of living on credit.
Provide your own ideas in not more than 200 words.


                       LANGUAGE FOCUS
                         Discussing ideas

21 You have been placed in charge of the planning of a sports
centre which will be built in your area. You have extra funds of
$ 300,000 to spend in one year.

     a     In pairs, use the information to discuss the benefits of
each facility. Use the language in the boxes.



                                                                 83
       Introducing an idea                 Insisting on a point
- My personal feeling is that ...   - I don‘t think we should dismiss
- Have you ever thought of ...      this ...
- We should consider ...            - I think this deserves careful
- It would be a good idea if ...    consideration ...
- In my/your view, ...              - There‘s a lot to be said for ...
- I would argue that ...            - I still think ... would be more
- It‘s obvious to me/ us that ...   appropriate ...
                                    - I still think our first idea was
                                    the best
      Suggesting an alternative
- There is another option …
- What about ...... instead?
- Let‘s look at something else.
- Of course we could always …

1. Synthetic aerobics flooring (comfortable, reduce risks of injury)
     $ 20.000
2. Soft drinks dispensers (10) (generate revenue)
     $ 20.000
3. Digital telephone switchboard (all departments easily
accessible)     $ 30.000
4. Health food restaurant (attract diners, generate income)
     $ 60.000
5. Medical centre, including part-time medical personnel
     $ 170.000 (clients feel safe, first aid, treat injuries)
6. Swimming pool (attract families, offer swimming classes)
     $ 250.000

      A: In my view, a swimming pool would bring more people to
the centre.
      B: Yes, but it is terribly expensive. What about spreading the
money over more items?
      A: I don’t think we should dismiss the swimming pool idea – it
will attract families and generate a lot of revenue, which means that
...



                                                                    84
     b. Now get together with the rest of the class and try to
reach a decision.
     c. Discuss the following in groups. Use as much language
from the boxes as possible.

     Your student committee has $ 100,000 to spend this year. As
members of the staff-student committee, discuss how this money
would best be spent. The following suggestions are on the agenda:
         Buying 1,000 new titles for the library ($ 25,000)
         Building a student theatre ($ 65,000)
         Buying equipment for sports centre (10,000)
         Organising a trip to the London Stock Exchange
($45,000)
         Buying an extra 50 computers for use in the classrooms
($75,000)
         Building a student cafeteria ($20,000)


                        TALKING POINTS

22 Two newspaper items about people who won the pools
follow. Before you read the articles, discuss the following
questions:
          What sort of problems do you think they encountered
through suddenly becoming very rich.
          How do you think you would react in similar
circumstances?
          Would your attitude to your work or friends change?
          What about your lifestyle?
          Is there a moral difference between getting rich through
chance, through inheritance or through personal effort?

23 Work in pairs. Each of you should read one article, then
report the contents to the other and answer any questions from
your partner about the text. Then the texts can be discussed
with the whole class.


                                                                 85
     Article a
                      Win May Have Caused Death

      Pools winner Harry Johnson died suddenly yesterday - just
seven weeks after scooping a £751,735 jackpot.
      He suffered a massive heart attack as he drove to work with
his wife Mabel. And last night a leading expert on stress said: 'It is
highly likely that the pools win was to blame.' Dr Malcolm
Carruthers of the Maudsley Hospital, London, explained: 'It is a
recognised syndrome for someone of this age undergoing an abrupt
change of fortune to suffer a heart attack.'
      Mr Johnson, a 59-year-old woodwork teacher known
affectionately to his pupils as 'Bulldog' lived with his schoolmistress
wife in a small house in Hale, Cheshire. They decided to work until
Christmas. Then they planned to buy a new car each, renovate their
house and take a holiday. Mr Johnson's friend and deputy head, Ray
Drinkwater said: 'Sadly, I don't think Harry got around to doing
anything with the money.'
                                                           (Daily Star)
      Article b
      Husband Walks Out On Pools Wife Who Won £368,000

      Lovestruck Ian Stenson has walked out on his wife, Janice,
who won £368,000 on the pools. He left their luxurious four-
bedroom home and moved into a terrace house with his lover. He is
supporting himself with the help of a £40-a-week Government grant
to run a new business.
      Ian, 33, insisted: Our split was nothing to do with the win. I
just found someone with whom I had more in common.
      It was in October 1984 that secretary Janice became a Vernons
winner. The couple moved into a £100,000 home in Birmingham.
Ian bought a £25,000 Porsche sports car, and Janice gave up full-
time work and did a part-time job instead. Two years later Janice
discovered Ian was having an affair. He had kept on his job as a
storeman with British Telecom. His new love, 22-year-old Jaquie
Burgess, also worked for ВТ. Now Ian has set up his own company



                                                                     86
with a friend. The business specialises in fitting telephones and
business systems, and has been launched with a Government £40-a-
week enterprise grant.
      Ian said: 'After the win life should have been a dream, but
neither of us had the imagination to get off our behinds and do
something. We had a nice house, nice car and everything to look
forward to. I felt guilty about leaving, and I wish Janice all the best
in future.'
                                        (Daily Express)
24 Role-play
      Work in groups of three.
      One of you has just won a considerable amount of money by
chance. The news is given to you on the telephone at work. One of
you is a colleague who is told the news, and the third person is the
boss of the winner.
      Act out your reactions to the situation.


                      VOCABULARY of the UNIT

25 A      Study the meanings of the words. Provide Russian
equivalents. Translate the examples.

Pay n the money that is paid to someone either monthly or
weekly, for regular work
      sick pay, pay day, high/ low/ poor pay
      She is moving to a new job with better pay.
Salary n a fixed amount of money that is paid monthly; usually
directly into bank account and especially to professional people
Wages (wage) n the money that someone in a non-professional
job receives each week, and that is usually given to them in the form
of coins or notes in a pocket
Earnings pl the total amount of money you earn from any work
you do
The basic pay is poor, but the average earnings are nearly $ 180
per week.
      the annual earnings, high/low earning potential


                                                                     87
Income n the total amount of money that someone receives in a
particular period, including money from work, profits, savings,
rent, etc.
      disposable income n money that someone has earned and
that remains for them to spend after paying rent, taxes, etc.
      Reducing taxes is the best way to increase people’s disposable
income and boost the economy.
      the annual/high/low income (from), to be (live) on low
incomes, income tax, subsistence income
Fee n money paid to a professional person such as a doctor or
lawyer for a piece of work
Revenue n income, esp. that which the government receives as
tax: The government was short of money because of falling oil
revenues.

Expenditure (on) smth n the total amount of money that a
government, organization, or person spends during a particular
period of time
      Weekly expenditure on food and rent comes to $ 200.
Expenditure exceeds income.      Public expenditure
Spending (on) n the amount of money that a government or a
large organization spends on public services, education, health, etc.
      There is increasing pressure on the government to reduce
spending on research.
Expenses pl n the amount of money that you spend on your daily
food, travelling costs, etc.
      travel/living/medical expenses, cover expenses,
      handle expenses
Budget n the particular amount of money that you have planned
to spend or have been given to spend on smth (usu. singular)
      low/high budget, to work within a budget

Wealthy adj rich, especially through owing land, property, or
valuable possessions over a long period of time
Affluent adj having a lot of money, esp. as a result of your own
hard work
Well off = better off adj having more money than most people


                                                                   88
Overdraft n an amount of money that the bank has agreed to let
you use when there is no more money in your account
      to run up a huge overdraft
      Our friends used their savings, together with an overdraft
from the bank to finance their new kitchen.
Arrears pl n money that is owed because regular payments such
as rent have not been made at the right time
      When they applied for help with rent arrears, the welfare
people told them to sell some of the furniture.
Pool v to share money, ideas, etc with somebody
      to pool money with smb, to win the pools
the breadwinner n the person who earns the money to support a
family
To be on the bread-line be very poor
Nest egg n an amount of money saved over a long period to use in
the future
      to build up a nest-egg
to have /save money for a rainy day to save money for a time in
the future when you may need it
 Forgo v (forwent, forgone) to decide not to do or have something

     B        Find synonyms and synonymous expressions to
the words in bold type. Provide Russian equivalents to the
words and words combinations. Translate the sentences.

CREDIT
1.If you can‘t afford to pay cash buy the furniture on credit. 2. The
theory is gaining credit with economists. 3. The government is
trying to claim the full credit for the fall in prices. 4. Your
progress in studies does your parents credit. Your progress is a
credit to them. 5. I credit him with (having) a certain amount of
sense. 6. A creditable attempt to establish peace was made by our
delegation. 7. The Chernobyl accident has damaged the credibility
of the nuclear power industry. 8. Why are these doubts? His story is
quite credible. 9. She gave me a look of complete incredulity.




                                                                   89
IGNORE
1.The government would be unwise to ignore the growing
dissatisfaction with its economic policies. 2. A) He ignored the
speed limit. B) He was driving very fast because he was ignorant
of the fact that there was a speed limit. 3. Ignorance of the law is
no excuse.

     Words frequently used with ignore
     adverbs completely, deliberately, simply, totally
     nouns             advice, existence, fact, insult, possibility,
protest, question, reality, remark, request, threat, warning

VALUE
1.Their research into ancient languages seems to have little
practical value. 2. Because of continual price increases, the value
of the pound has fallen in recent years. 3. You always get value for
money at that shop. 4. The house has been valued at $42,000. 5.
I‘ve always valued your friendship. 6. The ancient gold coin isn‘t
just valuable, it‘s priceless. 7. The metal looked like gold, but in
fact it was valueless. 8. Your assistance has been invaluable. 9. I
was foolish enough to take his remarks at (their) face value; I
should have known he was exaggerating.

WORTH
      Worth (when an adjective) ususally follows the verb 'to be'
      and is always followed by either a noun, pronoun, or number,
      or by the '-ing' form of a verb.
1. This piece of land is worth $44,000. 2.The food is not worth
eating. 3. The corporation owns $6 million worth of real estate in
the city. 4. I know the true worth of his friendship. 5. She proved
herself worthy successor to the former chairman. 6. The bank
didn‘t consider him creditworthy because he was irresponsible
with money. 7. It might be worthwhile to recall a few important
facts. 8. It's not worth their while when most of their profits go in
taxes.




                                                                   90
PROVIDE
1. The course is free but you have to provide your own books. 2.
These letters should provide us with all the information we need.
3. The law provides that ancient buildings must be preserved by
the government. 4. He has five children to provide for. 5. I will
go, provided/ providing you go too. 6. They spend all their money
and make no provision for the future. 7. Under (according to) the
provisions of the agreement the interest on the loan must be paid
monthly.

EXPENSE
1. It‘s too much of an expense to own a car. 2. He was willing to go
to any expense provided the job was done properly. 3. I don‘t want
to put you to the expense of buying me dinner. 4. He finished the
job at the expense of his health. 5. He tried to be clever at my
expense. 6. People at the breadline struggle to meet their basic
living expenses.

REDUNDANT
1. Seventy men at the factory were made redundant because of
falling demand for our products. 2. In the sentence ―She lives alone
by herself‖, the word ―alone‖ is redundant. 3. The closure of the
export department led to a lot of redundancy/ led to over 200
redundancies.
      Verbs used with redundancy      accept, face, take

MEANS
1. Video is an excellent means of relaxing. 2. Have you got the
means to provide for the family? 3. My advice is that you should
give up the idea of hunting for him; he is not a man of means. 4.
My idea of a means test is special: before we get engaged, you are
to answer a question: would you rather live within or beyond my
means?

      Words frequently used with means
adjectives effective, efficient, legitimate, peaceful, reliable, useful
verbs      develop, find, offer, provide, use


                                                                          91
COMMIT
1. They will have to commit more money to the project if it's to
succeed. 2. He would have to commit to spending several thousand
pounds. 3. I have committed myself to the task for at least the
coming year. 4. The government has failed to demonstrate its
commitment to the railways. 5. We've made a commitment to
help, and we will. 6. He may have a large income, but he also has
huge financial commitments. 7. Her laziness and lack of
commitment are appalling.

26 Translate the following sentences into Russian.
  1. He always takes credit for my ideas.
  2. She is a much better actress than people give her credit for.
  3. I could scarcely credit what had happened.
  4. Would you credit it? – She's passed all her exams!
  5. There is a lot of public ignorance about how the disease is
     spread.
  6. This approach ignores the complexity of modern business.
  7. Some episodes are included purely for their shock value.
  8. Most customers are looking for value for their money rather
     than cutting-edge fashion.
  9. It's not really worth my while to do that for $200.
  10.      You can claim part of your telephone bill as a business
     expense.
  11.      We were supposed to provide safety equipment at our
     own expense.
  12.      Over 500 workers face redundancy if the factory closes.
  13.      You are invited to contribute according to your means.

27 For each of the sentences below, rewrite a new sentence as
similar as possible in the meaning to the original sentence. Use
Vocabulary of the Unit. There may be more than one variant.

  1. No book is likely to give an answer to your problem; there are
     things that can be learned only from experience.
  2. There is no denying that a car costs a lot of money.



                                                                 92
  3. The disaster occurred simply because airline officials
     deliberately had taken no notice of safety recommendations.
  4. That‘s the most unbelievable coincidence I‘ve ever heard of.
  5. You can find all necessary information in this reference book.
     (Change the grammar structure)
  6. She was prepared to travel anywhere as long as the tickets and
     hotel accommodation were paid for.
  7. Under the terms of the contract the tenant is fully responsible
     for all repairs to his apartment.
  8. The wedding was wonderful. Your parents obviously spent
     very large amounts of money on it.
  9. We can be proud of our armed forces. (Change the structure)
  10.      Many people had to leave their job. That was caused by
     computerization and new technology.
  11.      He became a brilliant scholar, but his health was ruined.
  12.      This book is full of useful information for your
     examination.
  13.      You needn‘t take sheets or towels with you as you’ll find
     them at your disposal at the hostel.
  14.      We lost our home when my husband lost his job.
  15.      The show was less than one hour long and it wasn’t well
     worth the price that we had to pay.
  16.      Paying no attention to disapproving stares of the other
     guests, Jeremy led his dog to a table in the hotel restaurant.
  17.      He lacked knowledge about the most basic facts about
     the situation.
  18.      I am delighted that you have shown so high level of
     enthusiasm.
  19.      We will pay you well, and in return we expect you to
     work hard and contribute all your loyalty to our organization.
  20.      The government promised to improve health education.
     Committed itself to improving

28 Fill in credit, worth, redundancy, ignore, value (2), pool,
income, expenses, then make sentences.




                                                                  93
  1. make ….provision… We've made provision for our children's
     education.
  2. disposable …………….
  3. to …………… money with
  4. to claim the full ………… for
  5. to …………… the possibility
  6. living …………………..
  7. to get …………….. for money
  8. to be ………….. sb's while
  9. at the face ………………..
  10.      to face …………………..

29 Translate into English using Vocabulary of the Unit (pay
attention to ways of expressing meanings of the active words in
Russian).
Value
   1. У каждого человека и общества есть свои собственные
      ценности.
   2. Сообщается, что стоимость йены падает последние
      несколько недель.
   3. Люди, которые дорожат своим здоровьем, правильно
      питаются и делают физические упражнения.
   4. Он сделал ценный вклад в местный музей.
   5. Эти золотые вещи стоят кучу денег - тебе надо отдать их
      оценить.
   6. Его услуги для нас бесценны.
Ignore
   7. Придется смириться с тем, что они так громко говорят.
   8. Не обращай внимания на то, что он говорит - это просто
      невежественная чепуха.
   9. Он не внял моему совету.
   10.     Незнание закона не является оправданием.
   11.     Рабочих держали в полном неведении относительно
      финансового положения компании.
Provide
   12.     Статья, напечатанная во вчерашней газете,
      послужила поводом для серьезных размышлений.


                                                             94
  13.    Не волнуйся, ты будешь хорошо обеспечена, чтобы
    ни произошло.
  14.    Экспедицию обеспечили всем необходимым для
    жизни в суровых условиях пустыни.
  15.    Мы должны победить на выборах при условии, если
    профсоюзы (trade unions) поддержат нас.
  16.    Конкурс предоставил юному пианисту возможность
    раскрыть свой талант.
Credit
  17.    Обвинения, подобные этим, пожалуй, заслуживают
    известного доверия.
  18.    Довольно трудно поверить их утверждению.
  19.    Сотрудники считают, что он спас Джону жизнь.
  20.    Она может гордиться своими детьми. Her children do
    her credit.
Expense
  21.    Он напечатал книгу за собственный счет.
  22.    Вряд ли ты заставишь его раскошелиться и
    закупить всю еду для твоей вечеринки.
Redundant
  23.    Когда были закрыты шесть угольных шахт, было
    уволено свыше 5000 рабочих.
  24.    “Излишняя информация - тяжелый груз для ума.‖
Worth
  25.    Это соглашение не стоит бумаги, на которой оно
    написано.
  26.    Эта актриса стоит, по крайней мере, 50 миллионов
    долларов.
  27.    Это такая мелочь, что не стоит, и говорить о ней.
  28.    Шторм нанес ущерба на тысячи долларов.
  29.    Огонь уничтожил оборудования на миллионы
    долларов.
Commitment
  30.    Он не смог прийти на занятия, так как у него было
    много работы.
  31.    Благодаря твоей энергии и полной самоотдачи,
    проект увенчался успехом.


                                                         95
  32.   Он был отличный работник, радел и о деле, и о
    семье.
  33.   Я должен идти, я обещал сегодня быть на этой
    важной встрече.

30 Put the following situations into English. Make use of
Vocabulary of the Unit.

  1. Они не совсем обычная пара. Она добилась очень
     высокого положения в юридической фирме. Зарабатывает
     большие деньги. Когда у них родился ребенок, он бросил
     работу и посвятил себя семье. Теперь она – добытчик и
     главный источник семейных доходов.
  2. В прошлом году я унаследовал деньги моей бабушки. Но я
     их не потратил, а откладываю, чтобы накопить
     определенную сумму и использовать ее с конкретной
     целью. Я думаю, стоит отказаться сейчас от каких-то
     удовольствий,    чтобы    потом    купить    что-нибудь
     действительно стоящее.
  3. Еженедельные расходы на квартплату и еду этой молодой
     семьи доходят до шести тысяч рублей. Деньги на проезд и
     медицинские нужды также составляют довольно
     приличную сумму. Нельзя не упомянуть расходы на
     одежду и развлечения. В результате выходит, что расходы
     превышают доходы. Чтобы не клянчить все время у
     родителей, просто необходимо планировать как доходы,
     так и расходы.

31 Put the following text into English.

     Не забудьте включить зубную щетку в свой бюджет.

     Вы начинаете учиться в университете и, возможно,
впервые вы распоряжаетесь своими денежными средствами.
Возможно, вы получали деньги от родителей на карманные
расходы, но вскоре именно вы будете ответственны за свой
денежный фонд. Наверное, вы уже подумали о своем новом


                                                          96
образе жизни. Университет - это не только получение
специальности, но и приобретение жизненного опыта. А это
всегда вызов вашему разуму и здравому смыслу. Первое с чем
вы столкнетесь можно назвать «синдромом зубной пасты». Все,
что дома предоставляется бесплатно, вам теперь придется
покупать самому. Освобождение от родительской опеки –
дорогое удовольствие.
     Вы теперь самостоятельно распоряжаетесь не только
своим временем, но и решаете денежные вопросы. Вам
придется оценить вероятные траты, от бытовых расходов до
оплаты жиль. Разумный подход к составлению бюджета –
позволит вам избежать опасности оказаться в долгах.
     Один пункт, о котором очень легко забыть это
страхование. Прежде, чем вы отмахнетесь от этого и решите,
что у вас нет ничего ценного, просто сделайте быстрый подсчет
стоимости замены вещей, которые вы возьмете с собой.
Несомненно, вы будете удивлены общей стоимостью.
Отказываться от страховки – ложная экономия. Стоит
проверить покрывает ли вас родительская страховка, чтобы не
горевать над последствиями.
     Несколько советов новичкам:
  o Планирование расходов и доходов – ключ к тому, чтобы
     избежать финансовых проблем.
  o Нет необходимости покупать каждую книгу из списка
     литературы. Некоторые, вероятно, окажутся лишними.
     Спросите у старшекурсников о самых необходимых
     покупках. Покупка подержанных книг сэкономит ваши
     деньги.
  o Дешевле питаться, готовя еду дома. Еще дешевле группе
     друзей сложить свои средства и есть вместе.
  o Студенческая жизнь – время общения приобретения
     знакомств. Но следите за своими расходами, если ваш
     бюджет ограничен.




                                                           97
UNIT        FOUR       GETTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS

LEAD-IN

1    What is 'good communication'? Rank the following
according to how important you think they are. Justify your
answer.
          1. getting the message across quickly and efficiently
          2. developing an interesting exchange of ideas
          3. using language correctly
          4. having time to think before you speak
          5. being able to express your feelings
          6. introducing entertaining elements (jokes, puns)

2   In what situations would you use the following means of
communications?

      • a fax • e-mail • a mobile phone • speaking face-to face • a
letter • the Internet
            I would write a letter if I wanted my message to be warm
and personal.

3   Match the following to one or more means                        of
communication, then make sentences, as in the example.

       intrusive/be disturbed when trying to relax ……….
       personal/take time to express yourself ………
       slow/take weeks to reach destination …………
       efficient/be reached wherever you are ……………
       send sound or pictures ………….
       impersonal/not communicate meaningfully ………..
       artistic /use customized paper /handwriting personal ……..
       limited/only send brief messages …………..

          I believe mobile phones can be intrusive because you can
    be disturbed when you're trying to relax.


                                                                    98
4 Discuss the following quotations and the axiom.
    Paraphrase each quotation.
    Say whether you agree or not, and why.

     "A man who is ignorant of foreign languages is ignorant of
      his own." Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)
     "The more elaborate our means of communication, the less
      we communicate." Joseph Priestley (British political theorist)
     "Good communication is as stimulating as black coffee and
      just as hard to sleep after." Ann Morrow Lindberg (US
      author)
     'Just be yourself' is an old axiom. But isn't it impossible once
      you are aware of how others are judging you by your
      appearance and speech? How much do you think you 'act a
      role' to achieve a certain reaction in others?
     In the day of old men made the manners. Manners now make
      the men. (Byron)

5    Complete each sentence with one of the words or phrases
given.
      • politically correct • national stereotype         • trait
      • reserved        • image • vanity • social         • breeds
      • commitments          • crystallized   • credibility
      • body language        • communicate         • arrogance
      • national security    • confidence    • impact
      • assertiveness training

    1. Whenever foreign visitors come into Mrs Jones‘s shop she
       can‘t help judging then according to …………………… .
    2. A successful businessman has learnt how to project a positive
       ........................ .
    3. …………………… can be a useful asset to people whose self-
       esteem is low or who are reluctant to speak up for themselves.
    4. The information received is highly confidential and relates to
       ……………… .



                                                                     99
    5. Maxim is very quiet, very ……………………. . You never
       know what's going on in his mind.
    6. There was a …………….. in his personality that encouraged
       people to trust him.
    7. Some very ……………............ parents won't let their children
       play with toy guns.
    8. "……………….. exclusion" seems to be the latest euphemism
       for poverty.
    9. He could ………………….. a feeling of intense excitement to
       his audience.
    10.      One of the most powerful forms of nonverbal
       communication is ……………………. .
    11.      Ignorance only …………….. fear and contempt of the
       unknown.
    12.      I can't get engaged with this job right now as I have other
       …………………. .
    13.      The new authority is losing ………………….. by its
       failure to act quickly.
    14.      His …………………. and unwillingness to learn from
       others prevent him from being an effective member of the
       team.
    15.      His life is driven by ……………………. . He has to
       drive around in the most expensive car and wear the best
       designer clothes.
    16.      The more he fails, the more he loses …………………..
       in his abilities.
    17.      Internet shopping has begun to have a serious ………. on
       the traditional bookshops.
    18.      It was her trips to South and Central America that
       ………………. her desire to work on environmental issues.

6     Complete the text using the words and phrases given.

      • innocuous      • common          • bonds          • subtler
      • wake up        • enhance          • tend    • metamessage
      • dissection      • scoring points            • vulnerability
      • assert    • doomed


                                                                      100
                         Different Wavelengths

      Men: they cringe at the prospect of discussing anything
personal, grumble they're being nagged when asked to take out the
rubbish and, if they lose their way while driving, rage at the
suggestion they ask for directions.
      Women: they read things into the most …………………. (1)
comment, get upset when their man says 'I' rather than 'we' and
demand impossibly detailed reports of every conversation they miss
- who said what and how they looked when they said it.
      It will all go on like this, each sex bristling at the other's
peculiar ways, until we ………………… (2) to the simple truth -
men and women don't speak the same language.
      Women use language to ………………….. (3) intimacy, men
to ………………. (4) independence. Women, concerned primarily
with making connections with people, regard conversation as a way
to share feelings, create bonds and explore possible solutions to
………………… (5) problems.
      Men are concerned primarily with status, and prefer
discussion of facts to …………………… (6) of feelings. Since
feelings suggest ……………….. (7) and thus inferiority, men see
conversation as another way of …………………. (8).
      Apparently the main difference in the way we
communicate is in the crucial matter of the …………………… (9) -
the unspoken attitudes, thoughts and intentions behind what is
actually said. And while fact-oriented men ……………… (10) to
listen to the message, feeling-oriented women tend to listen for the
………………… (11) metamessage.
      Without understanding the gender differences in ways of
speaking, we're …………………… (12) to blame other people, or
ourselves, or the relationship. The biggest mistake is believing there
is one right way to listen, talk and have a conversation.

   What statements would you choose to support?
   What assumptions would you rather challenge?




                                                                   101
    THEME ONE               What Do They Look Like?

7     Before reading the texts discuss the following questions.

     What do you think a national stereotype is?
     How is your own nation stereotyped by others? Or perhaps
      people from certain regions have a particular image. Think
      about appearance, habit, lifestyle, way of thinking, and so on.
     Do you think there is an element of truth in these stereotypes,
      or are they completely unjustified?
     Some people view national and regional stereotypes as
      harmless and funny, while others see them as insulting and
      disapprove of them. What do you think?

Text a
                          The English Character

            The national character of the English has been very
differently described, but most commentators agree over one
quality, which they describe as fatuous self-satisfaction, serene
sense of superiority, or insular pride. English patriotism is based on
a deep sense of security. Englishmen as individuals may have been
insecure, threatened with the loss of a job, unsure of themselves, or
unhappy in many ways but as the nation they have been for
centuries secure, serene in their national successes. This national
sense of security, hardly threatened by the First World War, has
been greatly weakened by the Second World War and by the
invention of the atomic bomb.
            Much has been said about the British character.
Traditionally, the British have been known as insular. This attitude
is summed up in the legendary story of a headline which is
supposed to have appeared one morning in The Times, as follows:
FOG STOPS CROSS-CHANNEL TRAFFIC: CONTINENT
ISOLATED. Even if the story is not true, it certainly ought to be.
Traditionally, the British have also been known as superior,
snobbish, aloof, hypocritical and unsociable.


                                                                   102
      Many books have been written on English traits, English ways
of life, and the English character. Their authors tend to point out
what seem to them puzzles, contrasts, in the way the English
behave.
      First, there is the contrast between the unity the English
display in a crisis, their strong sense for public order, indeed for
conformity, and their extraordinary toleration of individual
eccentricities.
      Second, there is the contrast between the English sense of
dignity and importance of the individual, and the very great social
and economic inequalities that have characterised English life.
There are indeed two nations, defined simply as the rich and the
poor.
      Third, there is the contrast between the reputation of the
English as hard-headed practical man – ―the nation of shopkeepers‖
– and as men of poetry – the countrymen of Shakespeare and
Shelley.
      The apparent coldness of the Englishmen and their reserve has
been almost universally noted by foreigners; but foreigners also
confess that they find English reserve not unpleasant, and that once
one gets to know an Englishman he turns to be a very
companionable fellow.
                                  From Mozaika, 1967

Text b
                         Welcome to New Britain

      "Our party - New Labour. Our mission - New Britain," Tony
Blair told the Labour conference in 1994. But it took the death of
Princess Diana to inject real life into the idea. As the crowds started
massing at the gates of London's palaces, as middle-aged men broke
down in tears over a woman they had never met, as the people
started demanding action from the royal superiors - then, for the
first time, a once abstract concept suddenly seemed real: New
Britain.
      But what is New Britain? Who lives there? What does it look
like? Is it for real or just the slogan, as empty as the New Improved


                                                                    103
promise on a soap powder? What does the phrase New Britain
actually mean?
      Perhaps, a sharp definition will take years to come. But
already an outline is forming. New Britain is less formal and that
respectful. It's more open and personal. It's more tolerant and
optimistic, less macho and miserable. It's probably less collective,
but perhaps more communal. It's fiscally conservative, but socially
liberal. It has national pride, even as it accepts a smaller place in the
world. Dress code has changed, too. At Diana's funeral the
mourners outside the abbey were in jeans and T-shirts - just as
office workers had been all summer.
      The funeral itself was proof of how short our patience for
formality has become: protocol, one of Old Britain's defining traits,
mitigated in the face of public demand. The rule book was all but
buried that day.
      New Britons speak more freely, and demand others do the
same. British Telecommunications spotted the mood and bottled it
in a slogan, "It's good to talk." The Orange mobile phone company
also wants us to be open with our emotions: "Talk, Listen, Laugh,
Cry" they urge, demanding a direct rebellion against the stoicism of
Old Britain. Diana herself led the charge, with her confessional
appearance on Panorama. We followed her lead when we mourned
her, engaging in public display of emotion few had ever witnessed
before. In the New, Dianised Britain, hugs have replaced the stiff
upper lip as the physical gesture of choice.
      Plenty have been alarmed by the change. Panicked
commentators – emissaries from the Old country – have urged us to
stop all this emotional bingeing. They fear New Britain is becoming
a land that puts heart above head. They might be right. Suddenly
human relationships, rather than ideas, matter most.
      This feminisation has touched more than just popular culture:
it is shaping the way we see our place in the world. The more
masculine aspects of Britannia ruling the waves, of Britain as the
imperial nation, have gone.
      Of course, one can get carried away. First, how New Britain is
a country where so many of the old probably remain? The gap
between rich and poor is still widening – no matter how cuddly we


                                                                     104
are to each other. Nor have we replaced the individualism of the
1980s with a full-blooded return to collective solidarity. Sure, there
is a hankering for community, for local connections, but New
Britain also seems more concerned with responsibilities than rights.
Tough love is the order of the day.
      The shift might even be a return to an Old Britain. Historians
record that we were a noisier, more expressive society in the 18th
century. Perhaps we are rediscovering our roots.
                                                 The Guardian, 2004

    NOTES
            1. English: adj the term should not be used too loosely,
     and it would be inaccurate to refer to the British as English. The
     Scots and the Welsh find it particularly annoying, for they do not
     regard themselves as English. The English the people of England
            2. Englishman, Englishwoman: a British citizen born in
     England or of English parents
            3. British: of Britain: a British citizen/ passport; the
     British, to be British
            4. Brit: informal a British person: the Brits / The Brits are
     always complaining about the food.
            5. Briton: usually formal a British person: the ancient
     Britons / The report said there were three Britons on the crashed
     plane.
            6. The nation of shopkeepers: the phrase used by
     Napoleon to describe the English. Though uttered in a sneering
     spirit, it embodied the profound truth that British prosperity was
     based upon trade.
            7. Rule Britannia: a song about Britain‘s command of the
     seas in former years, sung on patriotic occasions in the belief that
     Britain is still great.

8    Explain the meaning of the following word-combinations;
suggest how they can be translated into Russian:

       • national character • fatuous self-satisfaction
       • a serene sense of superiority • insular pride • patriotism


                                                                      105
     • hypocritical • a strong sense for public order
     • conformity      • individual eccentricities • reserve
     • hard-headed practical man              • macho • stoicism
     • to lead the charge • feminisation           • cuddly
     • collective solidarity

9      In the text find a word or phrase which, in context, is
similar in meaning to:
       • relating to money and financial matters   • reduce the
harmful effects of something • an attack by people running very
fast towards someone or something • someone who does a job for
a government or a leader • a period o drinking • wild behaviour
• a strong wish

10 Answer the following questions:

Text A
  1. What is the traditional opinion of the British as a nation?
  2. What does the writer mean by saying that ―English patriotism
     is based on a deep sense of security‖?
  3. What is to be understood by the ―national successes‖ of the
     English?
  4. Why doesn‘t Britain feel as secure at present as it did in the
     past?
  5. What are traditional British traits?
  6. Why are books describing the English and their ways of life
     often contradictory?
  7. What contrasts do the books spot?
  8. Why are the English often referred to as the ―nation of
     shopkeepers‖?

Text B
  1. What do the names of Tony Blair and Princess Diana tell you
     about?
  2. What event enabled the concept of New Britain to seem real?
  3. What changes has Britain undergone?



                                                                   106
  4. What does the writer mean by the phrase ―less collective, but
     perhaps more communal‖?
  5. What is the implication of the phrase ―fiscally conservative,
     but socially liberal‖?
  6. What do the word ―protocol‖ and the phrase ―the rule book‖
     refer to?
  7. What is the contribution of late Princess Diana to the process
     of changes?
  8. Why do some people sound the alarm about the changes? Who
     are they?
  9. Explain in your own words what the writer means by
     ―masculine aspects of Britannia ruling the waves‖?
  10.      What does the writer imply about the remains ―of the
     old‖?

11 Compare the two texts. Sum up the contents of the texts.
Outline the changes that the British character has undergone
recently.


     THEME TWO                    The Way We Speak

12     Discuss the following questions before reading the text.

       Are you conscious of distinguishing people socially by the
        way they speak? If so, does this distinction seem to you
        useful, or unjust and likely to lead to prejudice and
        resentment?
       What is the social effect of the existence of a standard or
        'correct' version of any language? What happens to people
        who cannot speak it?
       Anyone who has learned to speak another language will
        have had the sensation of discovering a new personality.
       'Language learning alters the brain.' Say whether you agree
        or not, and why.



                                                                  107
                          The English Language

      Today English is, without doubt, the world's most important
language. One in ten people speak it as their mother tongue and it
has a larger vocabulary than any other language. English belongs to
the Indo-European family of languages, which developed from a
parent language first spoken about five thousand years ago in
central-northern Europe. From there, it spread to the rest of Europe
and the Middle East, and over time: it developed into a series of new
tongues. One of these was Primitive Germanic, which later split into
old English, Dutch, German and the Scandinavian languages. Old
English was later heavily influenced by French following the
Norman invasion in the eleventh century. Then, in the sixteenth
century, due to the invention of printing, the increase in
opportunities for education and the growth of international trade
and communication, this form of English, which is known as
Middle English, changed into the language we now speak, Modern
English. Language change continues to the present day, although the
major area of change has been in vocabulary rather than
grammar. Events such as the Industrial Revolution and the two
world wars are among the reasons for the expansion of vocabulary.
The media has dramatically contributed to the growing factor and
influence of the English language.
      Political correctness has made and continues to make a
significant impact on the English language as we are all encouraged,
for the common good, to make increasing use of euphemistic
paraphrase. We should turn our backs on expressions like ―the
poor‖ and embrace ―the economically disadvantaged‖. ―The visually
challenged‖ is recommended in the place of ―the blind‖; ―the
chronically hard of hearing‖ is suggested as substitute for ―the
deaf‖. The euphemism, an inoffensive or positive word or phrase
designed to avoid a harsh, unpleasant, or distasteful reality. It can
also be a tactful word or phrase; for example, "pass away" functions
not just to protect the feelings of another person but also to express
our concern for another's grief. This is all well and not asking the
impossible of us. It is rather when the trend is taken to the extreme
and ―the bald‖ find themselves referred to as ―the follically


                                                                   108
challenged‖ that there is a risk of things getting out of hand; if a
euphemism is used to mislead or deceive, however, a euphemism
becomes doublespeak.
       Doublespeak is a blanket term for language which pretends
to communicate but doesn't, language which makes the bad seem
good, the negative appear positive, the unpleasant attractive, or at
least tolerable, it is language which avoids shifts or denies
responsibility, language which is at variance with its real meaning.
Attentive observers of the English language also learned recently
that the multibillion dollar stock market crash of 1987 was a simply
“a fourth quarter equity retreat”; that airplanes don't crash they just
have “uncontrolled contact with the ground”. In other words,
doublespeak continues to spread as the official language of public
communication. When a company “initiates a career alternative
enhancement program”, it is really laying off five thousand
workers; a ―negative patient care outcome‖ means that the patient
died. These last examples should make it clear that doublespeak is
not the product of careless language or sloppy thinking. Indeed
serious doublespeak is carefully designed and constructed to appear
to communicate but in fact to mislead. Such language is highly
strategic, and it breeds suspicion, cynicism, distrust and, ultimately,
hostility. If we really believe that we understand doublespeak and
think that it communicates, we are in deep trouble.
      Jargon, the specialized language of a trade or profession,
allows colleagues to communicate with each other clearly,
efficiently and quickly. Indeed, it is a mark of membership to be
able to use and understand the group's jargon. But it can also be
doublespeak – pretentious and obscure terminology used to make
the simple appear complex and not to express but impress. Lawyers
and tax accountants speak of an ―involuntary conversion” of
property when discussing the loss or destruction of property through
theft or accident.
      Neologisms, new words or new ways of using familiar words,
seem to be appearing in the language with ever-increasing speed, so
that one can expect to encounter an unknown element in the
newspapers or in broadcasts at least once a month. Neologisms are
said to be the most acute barometer of the course English culture is


                                                                    109
taking. The Nineties have given the language an armoury of
neologisms – be they genuine attempts to define new cultural
phenomena, or outlandish euphemisms dictated by political
correctness or marketing agendas. Marital status has its own
labelling, as you will know if you are a ‗sinbad‖ (single income, no
boyfriend, absolutely desperate) or even a ―sitcom‖ (single income,
two children and an oppressive mortgage). A descriptive term which
refers to both sexes is 'yuppy', from an acronym for "young,
upwardly-mobile, professional", and it implies their attitude to life,
their desire to succeed and prosper. Courage is now "bottle", and not
having the necessary courage in a situation is "to bottle out".
      ―England and America are two nations separated by the same
language‖, said George Bernard Show, the British playwright, when
in his usual witty mood. The difference between British and
American English can be exaggerated. In the spoken language there
is the question of pronunciation, which makes the two forms
instantly distinguishable from each other; but in the written
language there is astonishingly little that would indicate to the
reader whether he is dealing with a British or an American author –
provided that direct speech is omitted.
      Language does change. It's on the move all the time.

13 Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is
similar in meaning to the following:

     • родной язык • словарный состав (языка) • оказывать
серьезное влияние    • общественное благо     • доводить до
абсурда      • выйти из под контроля        • находиться в
противоречии • вызывает подозрение    • порождает цинизм •
натолкнуться на что-либо • семейное положение

14 Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is
similar in meaning to the following:
      Paragraph 2: • refuse to accept someone or something that
you have previously accepted • completely accept something such
as a new idea, belief



                                                                   110
      Paragraph 4: • behaving in a way that is intended to impress
other people but seems false • not clearly expressed
      Paragraph 5: • extremely strange and unusual           • an
abbreviation consisting of letters that form a word

15 Explain the following words and phrases:
     • blanket term       • sloppy thinking

16 Answer the following questions:

  1. What historical, economic and cultural factors contributed to
     the English language gaining ground?
  2. In what way did the Industrial Revolution and the two world
     wars bring about the vocabulary development?
  3. What is the role of the media in expansion of the English
     language?
  4. What contributed to the increasing use of euphemisms? Give
     the definition and examples of this phenomenon.
  5. What type of language is doublespeak? What is the difference
     between doublespeak and a euphemism?
  6. Why does doublespeak tend to be used as the official language
     of public communication?
  7. What is jargon? Think of your own examples of jargon.
  8. What causes the appearance of neologisms?
  9. What is the difference between British and American English?
     Provide your examples.

17 Here is an example of corporate speak – the jargon. Try
making sense and explaining the idea.
      The bottom line is we are thinking outside the box and all
singing from the same hymn sheet. At the end of the day we are
global players: Now let's get our ducks in a row.

18 Summarise in 150-200 words the factors that accounts for
the changes in the English language and what changes occur in
the language.



                                                               111
     THEME THREE                  First Impressions

19 Discuss the following questions before reading the text.

   When you meet someone for the first time, what are the
    characteristics of that person that create the first impression?
   Are these impressions based on aspects of the individual or on
    stereotypes?
   How far do you think the way that individuals are perceived
    by other people is influenced by:
       o sex stereotyping?
       o education, upbringing and cultural norms?
       o the role they are playing?
   Is assertiveness a skill or a trait of character? In what way
    should a person assert themselves to be promoted?
   Would you agree that 'clothes don't make the man'?
   Would you support or challenge the saying that 'first
    impressions last'?

   Girl Talk - Where You Can Buy Success in the Coffee Break

      The lights are relaxedly dimmed and lime juice cordial and
iced water sparkle invitingly on green baize. Lisa Ford makes her
entrance. She is expensively but discreetly dressed: the right suit
with the right hemline, low-heeled shoes, high-necked blouse, the
minimum of good jewellery. She hails from Atlanta, Georgia, and
she's as fresh as if she'd just stepped out of the shower.
      Close on two hundred women in business, government, and
the professions have come to learn how to project themselves. By
four o'clock today, I shall have crystallised my self-knowledge,
dramatised my commitment goals, and eliminated the credibility
robbers in my speech patterns. My body language will speak
volumes.
      'Excuse me, Joe,' I shall be able to say, when interrupted by a
male colleague. Men interrupt women 76 per cent more often than
they interrupt men. It is just another symptom of their sublime


                                                                  112
arrogance. 'Excuse me, Joe,' - clear and direct, not submissive, my
hand up, but close to the body without aggression, the gesture that
says subliminally: Stop. 'I would like to finish making this point.'
      Note that I did not say, tentatively, 'Er, Joe, I'm sorry, but
would you, - er - kind of mind if I - er - added something? I mean,
you probably won't think this is at all important, and of course, do
feel free to sort of, well, criticise it if you like, but I'd just like to say
...' And when Joe congratulates me on my profundity, I shall
swallow the good British instinct that might lead me to say, self-
effacingly, 'Gosh. It was nothing!' and say, as a man would, 'Thank
you. When so you are as talented as I am, it comes naturally.'
      The lights are gleaming now on a glossy video held aloft:
Success and Self-Programming. We can buy it during the coffee
break. We should share our knowledge because knowledge is
power. Okay, let's get down to counteracting our stereotypes.
      Women, as we all know, are seen as too emotional, lacking the
ability to handle criticism. Women are seen as having nothing
important to say. Women make it worse for themselves by voicing
their anxieties. I must avoid power-robbing appearance mistakes
and mannerisms that say I am a lightweight. ‗Powerless people
smile to please,' warns Lisa. Women are expected to smile, where
men aren't. I must develop a strategy for investing in my own
image: promote myself for positive visibility. Being decisive is a
power skill – I must breeze into the office on Monday morning full
of positive thoughts and ready to defuse unwarranted criticism.
      Like toothpaste, it's the inner ring of confidence that counts
because as Lisa says, 'The scary thing is, around 80 per cent of our
internal dialogue is negative.' That's okay as far as it goes. I'm not
knocking assertiveness training or the teaching of techniques to
combat sexism. But isn't it frightfully un-British? I've got this
uneasy feeling that if we all package ourselves as the
selfprojectionists advocate, we'll produce a race of all-American
clones.
      Please, may I hang on to my occasional bursts of temper or
bouts of moodiness? Do you mind my crooked teeth? On the way to
school, I used to take out my hated brace as soon as I was out of
sight of the house. When the dentist expressed mystification that the


                                                                          113
treatment wasn't working, and I had to defend myself by saying that
I found it difficult to splutter German through all the metalwork, he
told me sternly that I would later regret my vanity. My teeth are not
perfect. But I can speak German.
       Now an American miss would not have done this. American
misses know that confidence is engendered through a flashing
smile. It is engendered, us too, through a high school and college
education which positively encourages self-promotion and self-
analysis. American misses would have no reservations about writing
a 'Dear Boss' letter as advocated by this seminar in order to increase
value and visibility. It would not stick in their throat to say, ‗Thanks
for approving my attendance at the Image and Self-projection
Workshop. I learned a lot! Here are some of the highlights.'
       No, allow me a bit of un-predictability, please. Woman, after
all, is at best a contradiction still. Sorry, Joe. You wanted to say
something?
                         Pat Ashworth, The Guardian

20 Find the word or phrase which, in context, is similar in
meaning to:

Paragraph 1: • comes from
Paragraph 2: • nearly • removed negative ways of speaking
Paragraph 3: • willing to do what other people tell you to do
         without arguing         • at an unconscious level
Paragraph 4: • modestly
Paragraph 5: • giving time and attention to my appearance
         • walk confidently and happily into the office
Paragraph 6: • the frightening thing is • critisising
Paragraph 7: • periods of bad temper • not straight
Paragraph 8: • they would have no misgivings about saying

21 Find the English for:

• говорить красноречивее всяких слов • глубина ума
• делиться знаниями      • приступать к действию • отвечать
на критику/справляться с критикой • высказывать опасения


                                                                     114
• быть несерьезным человеком     • крепко держаться за что-
либо • поощрять чт-л • сделать что-либо без колебаний

22 Explain the meaning of these words and phrases.
     • to project oneself ………
     • sublime arrogance ……
     • defuse ………
     • counteract criticism ……

23 Answer the following questions.

  1. How is Lisa Ford dressed? What does the description of her
     clothes imply? Why does the writer use the word "right" in
     reference to the suit and the hemline? What does the phrase
     "expensively but discreetly dressed" refer to?
  2. What image of herself does Lisa Ford project?
  3. What is the writer's view of Lisa Ford?
  4. What is the purpose of the seminar?
  5. What skills, techniques and knowledge do participants seek to
     acquire?
  6. Explain what ideas the following phrases communicate:
     "crystallised    my      self-knowledge",      "dramatised  my
     commitment goals", "eliminated the credibility robbers in
     speech patterns".
  7. What one should do so that his body could speak volumes?
  8. What are stereotypes of women? In what way can they
     counteract their stereotypes?
  9. What is the best way to handle interruptions?
  10.      What is a power skill according to the author?
  11.      What does the author find frightening about the idea of
     self-projecting?
  12.      How does the tone and style of the article illustrate the
     attitude of the author to the subject of the article?

24 Summarise in 150 words the contents of the article.



                                                                 115
                             LANGUAGE FOCUS
                            Discussions and Debates

25 Your university is considering introducing the following
changes in regulations.
      Work in pairs. Student A - express your opinion about
each of the issues below using phrases from column A. Student
В - agree or disagree by using phrases from column B.

   1. For security reasons, it is proposed that a curfew be imposed
      on students living on campus. The doors in all halls of
      residence will close at 11 pm. Students returning after this
      time will not be able to sleep in their rooms.
   2. Due to the increased number of late returns, it is proposed that
      a £5 fine be imposed upon any student who is late returning
      his or her library books.
   3. To encourage class attendance, it is proposed that the number
      of classes a student can miss before failing a course be
      reduced from 3 to 1.

      А                               В
Let me say, first of all,       - Quite right. And I would also like
that …                            to add that...
                                - I'm afraid I have to differ. You see, ...
I don't feel I'm being          - I tend to agree with you. And another
unfair in saying                  thing that must be borne in mind is...
that …                          - To tell you the truth, I have very
                                  strong reservations about...
I would like to point out       - You have my support on this one.
that …                            And I think I'm speaking for a lot
                                  of us when I say...
                                - I just don't see the logic behind ...,
                                   especially if one takes into
                                   consideration that...




                                                                        116
26 Look at the following phrases, which are commonly used
in discussions and debates.

      Inviting somebody to give their opinion.
                What's your reaction/response to this?
                Can we have your input on this?
                How do you feel about this?
                What are your views?

      Giving an opinion                  Interrupting
     I have to say that I totally      Just a second...
      agree / disagree.                 If I may just cut in here...
     That's a really valid point.      Sorry, but could I just say
     I'm afraid I'm going to            something here
      have to differ.                   Excuse me, but...
     I can't say I have strong
      views either way.
     As far as I'm able to judge

      Work in groups. Below are some extracts from newspaper
articles. Using the phrases above, as well as phrases from Ex.
25, discuss the items.

   Why did so many people want to be on the Internet? One of
    the main reasons was simply freedom. The Internet is a rare
    example of a truly, modern, functional anarchy. There is no
    "Internet Inc.". There are no official censors, no bosses, no
    board of directors, no stockholders. This virtual freedom,
    many hold, was the major reason why this form of
    communication attracted so many users so quickly.

   Recently there has been concern over the negative effect that
    modern methods of communication are having on the English
    language. First of all, the increasing usage of e-mails and text
    messages is changing the way we use grammar: certain words
    are dropped out to keep message short. Secondly, it is


                                                                  117
      fashionable to shorten the spelling of the words, for example
      people write "CU later" instead of "See you later". Not
      everyone has a perfect command of the language but that
      shouldn't stop them from being able to communicate.

     Chair: The first item today is the Internet as the greatest
achievement of modern technology. Can we have your input on this,
George?
     A: I have to say, I totally disagree with the idea of…
     B: If I may just cut in here, I'd like to say that ...

27 Match euphemisms to the correct place in the article.
      a)    grain-consuming animal units
      b)    downsize
      c)    non-decision-making form
      d)    blamestorming
      e)    home plaque removal instrument
      f)    de-job
      g)    nutritional avoidance therapy
      h)    volume-related production schedule adjustment
      i)    energetic disassembly
      j)    automotive internists
      k)    members of the vertical transportation corps
      l)    decruite

       Farmers no longer have cows, pigs, chickens or other animals
on their farms: according to the US Department of Agriculture
farmers have .......................... (1) and that President Reagan wasn't
really unconscious while he underwent minor surgery, he was just
in a .................................. (2).
       We know that a toothbrush is still a toothbrush even if the
advertisements on television call it a ................................ (3), and
even that ................................. (4) means a diet. But who would
guess that a ............................. (5) means a closing an entire factory
in the doublespeak of General Motors or that ............................ (6)
means an explosion in a nuclear plant in the doublespeak of the
nuclear industry?


                                                                            118
         A final kind of doublespeak is simply inflated language. Car
mechanics may be called .............................. (7), elevator operators
.............................. (8).
         Companies don‘t sack staff anymore. They ........................ (9),
............................. (10), ―rightsize‖, ............................... (11) or ―de-
layer‖. These euphemistic redundancies might take place after a
morning‘s ................................ (12) – debating who is to blame for a
workplace fiasco.

    What effect do the euphemisms produce on the reader?
    Why would the author rather choose doublespeak than
     neutral expressions?


                                   TALKING POINTS

28 You are applying for the post of Executive Assistant in a
large organization. Which of the following would you choose to
wear? Why?

• scruffy jeans          • lounge suit         • tie-dye T-shirt
• pin-striped suit • trench coat • bomber jacket • baggy cords
• tuxedo jacket • fashionable tie • sandals • matching skirt and
jacket       • low-cut dress        • well-polished shoes

           Obviously, if I were applying for such an important
position I wouldn't wear a bomber jacket as I would give the
interviewer the impression that I was not taking the interview
seriously.

29 What impression do you get from someone during a
conversation if they are:
               leaning forward towards you?
               leaning away from you?
               staring at the ceiling?
               rubbing their nose?


                                                                                         119
30 Complete the phrases about yourself. Use the words below
if you wish.

     • gaze upward • be/get wide-eyed • point accusingly
     • frown • touch chin with hand • scratch head

     -    When I'm feeling anxious, I ……………
     -    On the rare occasions that I lose my temper, I ……..
     -    When I'm confused by something, I …………….
     -    Whenever I'm deep in thought, I tend to ………….

31 Below you can find words to describe people. Do any of the
words in the list describe or don't definitely describe you or
your acquaintances? Provide a short description of a person.

• affectionate • aggressive      • bad-tempered     • calm
• cheerful • cold • mean • easy-going • emotional • friendly
• arrogant • self-confident • moody • optimistic       • nervy
• practical   • pessimistic • reserved    • rude • sensitive
• sociable • tolerant      • superior

     This person shows an arrogant disregard for other people's
opinion, but to my mind it's just the veneer that conceals some
deeper emotions and feelings. He/she has always been a sensitive
person.

32 a) Read through the remarks below and the replies.
According to the information in the text Different Wavelengths
(Lead-in), decide which of the replies is from a man (M), and
which from a woman (W), and why.

  1. My boss gave me a week to write a report. The research alone
     would take a month if I did it right.
       a. Don't you hate it when they do that?
       b. You should tell him if you do it in a week, it'll be a
          terrible job and it won't be your fault.



                                                                120
  2. What frustrates you about your partner?
       a. X never gets to the point.
       b. X never tells me anything.
  3. What's a good way to impress someone you've just met?
       a. Ask a personal question and listen to the answer.
       b. Have interesting information and witty things to say.
  4. You had a rotten day? I'm sorry.
       a. It's not your fault.
       b. Thanks for your concern.

     b) Here is an extract from the letter of one of the
contributors of the Daily Express. What answer to the questions
would you give?

     It seems to us men that women want to claim all the many
benefits and advantages, but none of the worries and disadvantages
which we men have daily to contend with. At work? We mustn't
allow poor dears to lift anything heavy! Socially? Hold the doors
open, and give up one's seat on public transport! Is it any wonder
that men are grey-haired and bent-backed, when we have carried
women on our backs for centuries?

33 Read through short conversations below and comment on
the difference in the way a man and a woman communicate.

  a. She: Why didn't you ask me how my day was?
     He: If you've got something to tell me, tell me. Why do you
     have to be invited?

  b. She: We've been driving round in circles for half an hour
     searching for the address. Why not ask somebody for
     directions?
     He: I'm sure it is nearby. I'll cope with it myself. We'll hit the
     place in a sec.

34 Express your opinion on the following statements.


                                                                    121
            Men consider politeness to be subservient (less
     important than something else), women sensitive.
            Men boast as a matter of course, battling to gain or
     maintain that all-important status. Women, who tend to gain
     acceptance with each other by appearing the same as, not
     better than, everyone else, take care never to boast.
            Good looks instigate men's love, while women trust
     their ears.
            Men are fact-oriented when they listen to the
     message, while women are feeling-oriented during the
     communication.


                     VOCABULARY of the UNIT

35 A      Study the meanings of the words. Provide Russian
equivalents. Translate the examples.

Communicate v to express thoughts, feelings, or information to
someone else by speaking or writing: The rebels verbally
communicated the information to the officials. Can you
communicate to him that we are just not interested. She has an
amazing ability to communicate enthusiasm.
Quality n an important part of the character of something,
especially a part that is good.
Trait n one type of feeling or behaviour that is particularly
noticeable in a person or group of people: Pride seems to be one of
our family traits.
Stereotype n a fixed set of ideas about what particular type of
person or thing is like, which is (wrongly) believed to be true in all
cases: He certainly doesn't fit the stereotype of the emotional
Italian.
      Image n an opinion that people have about someone or
something which may not be a true one; the opinion of yourself,
your company, etc that you deliberately try to create in the minds of



                                                                   122
other people: They present an image of themselves as experts in this
area.
      to project/present/promote an image
Assert v 1. to state firmly that something is true: The governor
asserted that no more money would be available. 2. to behave or do
something in a confident way: She always manages to assert her
point of view. Assertive adj behaving in a confident way in which
you are quick to express your opinions and feelings: You need to be
more assertive to succeed in business.
Make a significant/dramatic impact on Internet shopping has
began to have a serious impact on the traditional bookshops.
Public      adj 1. available for people in general to use: public
transport, a public library; involving a lot of people or involving
people in general 2. owned by the government, not by a private
company: public money 3. relating to the part of your life that
people in general know about, for example your work, rather than
your life at home: She keeps her public and private lives very
separate.
      go public; in/out of the public eye
Social adj 1. relating to society and to people‘s lives in general:
social welfare 2. relating to the position that someone has in
society in relation to other people: social class 3. relating to
activities that involve being with other people, especially activities
you do for pleasure: social contact; a social call

     B   Find synonyms and synonymous expressions to the
words in bold type. Provide Russian equivalents to the words
and words combinations. Translate the following sentences.

SECURE
1. He secured widespread support among the party‘s senior
members. 2. We have done our best to secure the embassy against
terrorist attacks. 3. Before leaving the house he secured all the
windows. 4. The computer system is secure from intruders. 5. She
has always been insecure about the way she looks. 6. We were
lulled into a false sense of security and failed to see what was
coming.


                                                                   123
      Verbs frequently used with security: to be after, to look for, to
seek, to ensure

SUPERIOR
1. There is no real reason to say that French wines are superior to
Italian. 2. Dealing with superiors at work, especially when they're
younger than you, can be very tricky. 3. He made few friends
because he was so superior and aloof. 4. Their country relies
heavily on its air superiority.

TEND
1. It tends to rain here a lot in spring. 2. Janet tends to get very
angry if you disagree with her. 3. Interest rates are tending
upwards. 4. I have to tend to the children before I leave.

HANDLE
1. Customers are asked not to handle the goods in the shop. 2. She
really knows how to handle a fast car. 3. Ms Brown handles the
company‘s accounts.

COMMON
1. The most common criticism was that he was always late. 2. In
this brochure you'll find questions and issues that are common to all
our clients. 3. It was, by common consent, our finest performance.
4. It is common practice to offer guests some refreshments. 5. It's
common knowledge that smoking and cancer are linked. 6. Let's
use a little common sense here. 7. The college has communal
dining rooms and clinics. 8. I wanted to work somewhere where I
could serve the community.

    Some more phrases with common: the common                    good,
common ground, common language, common cold

REFER
1. The incident was never referred to again. 2. The matter was
referred to the appropriate committee. 3. It was a dull job listening
to a speaker who was constantly referring to his notes. 4. I marked


                                                                    124
down the page for future reference. 5. The library has a rich
collection of reference books. 6. The man seemed to have excellent
references.

TOLERATE
1. He won't tolerate anyone challenging his decisions. 2. She was
always tolerant of the views of the others as long as they didn't
clash with her own. 3. The car was in tolerable working condition.
4. It's easy to preach tolerance, how about practicing it? 5.
Toleration is mostly used with regard to freedom of religious
worship.

     Opposite meanings: intolerable, intolerant, intolerance

SHAPE
1. Marie tried to find the right words to give shape to her ideas. 2. I
really want to get in shape before summer. 3. The idea began to
take shape about two years ago. 4. His generation believed they
could shape the future.

36 Translate the following sentences into Russian:
  1. We were lulled into a false sense of security and failed to see
     what was coming.
  2. We are seeking their assistance in securing the release of the
     hostages.
  3. A police escort secured the route of the American President.
  4. No shop can be completely secure against theft.
  5. Everyone wants to be financially secure in retirement.
  6. I went yesterday afternoon to Blackwell's Island prison to
     secure material for my book.
  7. I think they will tend towards stricter control.
  8. We tend to take technology for granted nowadays.
  9. You have to assert yourself if you want to be promoted.
  10.      Towards the end of the game the player's superior
     strength began to show.
  11.      We felt that the dispute was badly handled.



                                                                    125
37 Practice the following patterns: Tend to do
     1. We tend to ignore obvious danger signal when we are
exhausted.

     Think of at least three different ways of answering these
questions about the way people react in certain circumstances. How
do people behave
      when they are tired? They tend to feel sleepy, when …
      when they are in a hurry?
      when they are nervous or embarrassed?
      when they want to impress someone?

    2. Fact-oriented men tend to listen to the message when
communicating.

      Paraphrase the following sentences using the above model.
            Men are mainly concerned with particular pieces of
information when they communicate. - Fact-oriented men tend to
listen to the message when communicating.

  1. These TV programmes are primarily directed towards
     families.
  2. This curriculum is now heavily orientated towards exam
     preparation.
  3. We should think of advertising which would appeal to young
     people.
  4. The activity of this company involves exporting goods.
  5. This English language course is designed for the needs of
     businessmen.

38 Fill in public or social, translate into Russian, then make
sentences:
1. ….. public ….. transport
Public transport is run by the government.
2. ………………. broadcasting               3. ………………. ladder



                                                               126
4. ………………. class        5. ………………. policy
6. ………………. official     7. ………………. background
8. ………………. peace        9. ………………. opinion
10. ……………… property     11. ……………… call
12. ……………… conditions 13. ……………… activity
14. ……………… man          15. ……………… conscience
16. ……………… display of emotions

39 For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence as
similar as possible in the meaning to the original sentence. Use the
Vocabulary. There may be more than one variant.

  1. Modern technology leads to easier exchange of information.
  2. You can make your baby experience the same mood without
     realizing it.
  3. If you install our burglar alarm system you can prevent your
     home from being broken into. (Change the whole structure)
  4. This company has succeeded in getting contracts worth $15 m.
  5. All hand baggage is carefully checked to prevent accidents on
     board.
  6. We can consider the information safely kept if few people
     know the access code.
  7. Most of the time people vote for the party that offers them
     financial advantages.
  8. What happens in most cases is that the poorest families end up
     in the slums.
  9. Car theft is an increasingly common crime, and in most cases
     the offender is under 18.
  10.      The candidates that the party selected were on the whole
     middle-aged, male, and white.
  11.      Your main duty will be to deal with the complaints from
     customers.
  12.      My father saw to all the wedding arrangements, which
     was a great help.
  13.      Both these computers have this useful feature.
  14.      When it comes to politics my mother and I have the same
     opinion.


                                                                 127
  15.     The government says it is acting for the benefit of
    everyone.
  16.     Every politician knows that an election will be called
    soon.
  17.     Apply your mind to the problem solving and make a
    sensible decision.
  18.     He belongs to the Greek group of people in London.
  19.     The dispute was handed over to the United Nations to be
    dealt with.
  20.     When I said that some people are stupid I wasn't
    speaking about you.
  21.     The clerk has excellent statements about his experience
    and abilities from former employers.
  22.     He won‘t allow anything to challenge his decisions.
  23.     The working conditions were too poor, they ignored that
    situation too long.
  24.     I hated my work, but had to put up with it as there
    weren‘t many jobs available.
  25.     Her loneliness was hard to bear, after her husband died.
  26.     I don‘t think I can stand sharing an office with Barbara.
  27.     She can‘t stand being contradicted.
  28.     In the past I allowed him to behave impolite towards me.

40 Translate into English, using Vocabulary of the Unit (pay
attention to ways of expressing meanings of the active words in
Russian).
Communicate
   1. Она пыталась объяснить свои страхи матери.
   2. Этот курс призван дать людям возможность свободно
      общаться, как в устной, так и в письменной речи.
Secure
   3. На чем основано благополучие семьи?
   4. Он сумел заполучить два билета в театр.
   5. Безопасность государства в значительной степени
      зависит от проводимой политики.
   6. Вам удалось подобрать квалифицированных работников
      для выполнения этой работы?


                                                                128
  7. Деньги и документы большой важности были надежно
     заперты в сейфе.
  8. Необходимо обеспечить большинство голосов, чтобы
     предложение было принято.
  9. Финансовые накопления дают человеку уверенность в
     завтрашнем дне.
  10.     Он застраховал себя от всех рисков.
Superior
  11.     Если бы он не был человеком, превосходящим
     остальных в знаниях, к нему бы не обращались за
     помощью.
  12.     Он всегда старался показать свое превосходство над
     другими, а нас возмущали его самоуверенный и
     высокомерный вид.
  Tend
  13.     Вероятно, к ночи похолодает.
  14.     Она склонна к преувеличению своих достижений.
  15.     Становясь старше, мы склонны обрастать вещами.
  16.     Злоупотребление курением может плохо отразится
     на голосе.
Handle
  17.     С ним трудно договориться.
  18.     Ситуация была сложная, но мы с ней справились.
  19.     Мы не продаем такие книги.
  20.     Френсис прирожденный лидер. Он умеет управлять
     людьми.
Public
  21.     Этот план получил поддержку общественности.
  22.     Ущерб был возмещен на общественные деньги.
  23.     Она не смешивает личную и общественную жизнь.
  24.     Пойдем куда-нибудь, где не так людно.
  25.     Она все время на виду благодаря своей работе.
Social
  26.     Единственный недостаток работы дома - это то, что
     ты не общаешься с другими людьми.
  27.     Представители этой религии не имеют права
     занимать государственные должности.


                                                         129
  28.     Произведения этого писателя отражают его глубокий
     интерес к социальным проблемам дня.
Common
  29.     Общеизвестно, что многие обычаи и нравы в
     прошлом были связаны с определенными религиозными
     праздниками.
  30.     Стороны никак не могли найти общего языка.
  31.     Хотя она не очень образованна, но ее всегда
     выручает здравый смысл.
  32.     Атомная энергия должна быть использована на
     общее благо всех народов.
  33.     Общеизвестно, что изучение истории и литературы
     страны способствуют лучшему знанию языка.
  34.     Этот стиль общения принят в деловых кругах.
  Refer
  35.     Во время беседы он часто ссылался на письмо,
     которое он написал руководству.
  36.     Очень скучно читать книгу на языке ради
     удовольствия, когда все время приходится обращаться к
     словарю.
  37.     Читальный зал нашего института располагает
     прекрасными словарями и справочниками.
Tolerate
  38.     С ним невозможно иметь дело – он просто
     невыносим, кроме того, он нетерпелив к людям и их
     мелким недостаткам.
  39.     Условия жизни в этом поселке оказались вполне
     сносными, и друзья решили остановиться в нем.
  40.     Надо научиться терпимо относиться к слабостям
     других людей.
Shape
  41.     Считается, что средства массовой информации
     формируют умы и чувства людей.
  42.     Ты должен строить планы в соответствии со своими
     возможностями.
  43.     Он сможет сделать доклад, когда приведет его в
     надлежащий вид.


                                                        130
  44.   Хорошие спектакли, классическая музыка и опера
    формируют тонкий художественный вкус человека.

41 Render the following text into English.

     (1) Сейчас уже ни для кого не секрет, что для того, чтобы
научиться общаться с другим народом, необходимо понять
особенности его характера. Английский характер является едва
ли не самым противоречивым и парадоксальным. Этому в
немалой степени способствовало географическое положение
Великобритании. Островное положение страны способствовало
развитию особого вида гордости, гордости островитян, чувства
обособленности от других наций. Весь остальной мир
воспринимается ими как чуждый и все остальные люди как
чужестранцы.
     Старые традиции и обычаи выполняют в английском
обществе вполне определенные социальные функции: они
призваны внушить людям, что все вокруг остается незыблемым
и неизменным.
     Многие черты английского характера заслужили всеобщее
признание: трудолюбие, чувство собственного достоинства,
самообладание, мужество. Они прививаются в этой стране с
детства. Если с англичанином стряслась беда, он не станет
хныкать, жаловаться. В быту англичане отнюдь не хвастливы,
например, они даже прививают себе некое свойство, которое
можно объяснить как умаление собственных заслуг. Какой-
нибудь выдающийся специалист по истории Греции скажет
студенту первого курса: «Боюсь, что я не особенно силен в
деталях распрей между Афинами и Спартой, но мне кажется,
вы ошибаетесь».
     "Путеводитель для чужаков по Британии" описывает
английский характер следующим образом. Англичане считают
себя воинами, с превосходным самообладанием и выдержкой;
патриотами,     терпимыми      к     чужакам,     любителями
общественного порядка, здравого смысла и эксцентричности.
Остальные считают это лицемерием – никто столь
совершенный не смог бы ужиться сам с собой.


                                                           131
      Пожалуй, наибольшим успехом пользуются у англичан
розыгрыши. Они варьируются от самых примитивных до самых
сложных и, порой, требуют немалой затраты энергии, времени,
а то и средств. В магазинах можно найти самый разнообразные
предложения, которые обеспечат вам сумасшедший успех.
Обжаться на розыгрыши не полагается ни в коем случае. Иначе
прослывешь человеком, лишенным чувства юмора, а этот
«грех» в Англии не прощают. Недаром слово юмор –
английского происхождения.
      (2) «Имидж». Этот термин взят из практики рекламных
агентств. Это понятие означает создание идеального (не
реального) образа. Когда прямое воздействие на психику не
дает результатов, необходимо обращаться к сфере
подсознательного и, умело манипулируя эмоциями, тайным
тщеславием людей, можно вызывать у них искусственное
желание купить тот или иной товар, ощутить потребность в
ненужной вещи и т.д.
      Сейчас это уже общепринятая практика, когда техника
создания «имиджей» используется средствами массовой
коммуникации и организаторами кампаний по пропаганде
политических деятелей.
      Популяризируя, например, кандидатов на занятие высших
постов в государстве, они основное внимание уделяют
внешности рекламируемых деятелей, их умению одеваться и
непринужденно держаться перед телевизионной камерой,
находчиво отвечать на вопросы корреспондентов. Судьба того
или иного кандидата нередко решается тем, насколько удачно
он выступит перед телевизионными камерами, понравится ли
его образ широкому зрителю. Неслучаен наблюдаемый в
последние годы успех в политике профессиональных актеров,
умеющих создать хороший образ.
      Все сказанное не означает, однако, что политические
деятели не уделяют внимания тому, каким внутренним
содержанием он будет заполнен. Они стремятся обеспечить
себе широкую, разностороннюю поддержку, и поэтому
формируют свои программы с учетом самых разных слоев
населения.


                                                        132
     UNIT FIVE THE MEDIA AND ADVERTISING

LEAD-IN

1     a . What factors decide how you get the news? Complete
the following questionnaire.
    How often do you
    read newspapers?
    watch the news on TV?
    search for news on the Net?
    When I get the news, I want the source to be
    reliable.
    direct.
    objective.
    entertaining.
    When I read articles and reviews in the newspapers and in
      the Net, I want the author to be
    dispassionate
    determined
    impartial
    I am mostly interested in coverage concerning
    politics.
    weather.
    sports.
    art & entertainment.
    How far do you agree with the following statements?
    Journalists should tell the public the truth, no matter what the
      consequences.
    News should be delivered in a way that makes us think.
    Nobody‘s privacy is more important than the truth reaching
      the public.

     b. Talk about your responses.
          I read newspapers almost daily, but I only watch the
news on TV two or three times a week, and I hardly ever search for
news on the Net.


                                                                  133
2    Define the qualities of a good newspaper article by
matching the adjectives on the left to the phrases on the right.
Which three do you think are the most important? Explain your
opinion.
     unbiased            satisfy the public‘s right to know
     hard-hitting        offer accurate information
     incisive            not bow to pressure
     revealing           comment fairly on current events
     uncompromising      sensitise the public and the authorities
     well-researched     examine news in depth

         A good newspaper article should be unbiased so that it
can comment fairly on current events.

3    Complete each sentence with one of the words or phrases
given.

• circulation         • coverage        • tabloid      • censorship
• correspondent       • editorial       • supplement   • obituaries
• censorship    • tuned in              • feature •    newscasters
• logo           • bias           • sensationalism     • broadsheet
• slogans       • readership      • newscasters

    1. The ……………… newspapers are printed on small pages and
       usually contain light or popular news stories, while a
       newspaper that is printed on large pages is called a
       ………………………… .
    2. On Sundays I often read the glossy colour …………………
       before I turn to the main newspaper.
    3. Although we publish a university newspaper, our …………….
       extends far beyond the students attending the college.
    4. Although we sold more copies than we did in January,
       …………………… circulation figures are still not
       satisfactory.
    5. There will be a special ……………. on health education in
       next week‘s Sunday Times.
    6. David works as a foreign …………….. for the Daily


                                                                 134
       Telegraph.
    7. When Picasso died, all major newspapers carried
       ………………. on him.
    8. The editor‘s opinion on important current events can be found
       in the ……………… .
    9. There was extensive media …………… of the Kyoto climate
       treaty talks.
    10.       In certain countries, …………………. of the press
       means that not all political opinions can be printed.
    11.       TV programmes on the ITV network are interrupted at
       regular intervals for …………… .
    12.       ―Drinka Pinta Milka Day‖, ―Go to Work on an Egg‖:
       these are two examples of highly successful advertising
       ………………. .
    13.       An estimated eight and half million viewers
       ………………. to BBC coverage of the Olympic Games.
    14.       Companies are now so design-conscious that they
       employ specialists to find them an eye-catching ……………. .
    15.       ……………………, whose faces are seen every night as
       they read the news, frequently become celebrities.
    16.       While many newspaper editors try to guard against the
       ……………. of facts in their reports, it is inevitable that some
       ………………….. will creep into the way events are reported.
    17.       The …………………….. of the popular press, for
       example in the reporting of sex scandals, is one explanation
       for its success.

3     Complete the text using the words and phrases given.

      • target          • profitability         • boost     • handled
      • feature         • in-depth      • exposing • classified
      • coverage              • readership            • mass market
      • sales gimmicks              • cover price     • tending
      • circulation figures         • proprietor            • catering
      • reviews         • market share          • provide




                                                                         135
                                      The Press in Britain
         A wide variety of newspapers is published in Britain, and
newspaper readers are generally loyal to the newspaper of their
choice, .............................(1) to buy the same newspaper every day.
The papers themselves vary from .............................(2) dailies and
Sunday papers distributed nationwide to regional, evening and
weekly papers .............................(3) for the needs of people in a
particular geographical area.
         The papers with the highest .............................(4) are the
national tabloids which try to maintain their .............................(5)
by publishing sensational stories and .............................(6) the
private lives of people in the public eye. Readership of the tabloids
is concentrated among less affluent social groups, and
.............................(7) is an important aspect of newspaper choice in
this sector. ..............................(8) such as competitions with
spectacular prizes are a common means of attempting to
.............................(9) sales.
         For more extensive news .............................(10), readers may
turn to the broadsheets, where in the best cases there is an attempt at
.............................(11) analysis of the current situation both at home
and abroad. As in the case of tabloids, the editor has an important
role to play in determining how a story is .............................(12), but
more and more frequently the                        views of the newspaper
.............................(13) have a role to play.
         Both tabloids and broadsheets provide .............................(14)
articles and .............................(15) of current books, films, plays and
so forth. Sport also receives substantial coverage. Many newspapers
now .............................(16) advice on how to handle personal
finances, as well as a more traditional business section.
         Advertising revenue is an essential element in a newspaper's
.............................(17), and advertisers take account of the social
characteristics of a particular newspaper's .............................(18)
when determining at which group to .............................(19) a
particular sales promotion. ..............................(20) advertising is
also a valuable source of income.




                                                                             136
5    Answer the following questions, using the information
given.

      1. What is the difference between a) advertisement and
         commercials; b) an advertisement and advertising; c)
         newscasters, commentators and correspondent; d) slogan
         and logo? Give your examples.
      2. Why is it so important for companies to be design-
         conscious? What gimmicks and tricks do advertisers use?
      3. Does a correspondent tend to give a biased version of
         events? Why (not)? To what extent can the bias of
         journalists be acceptable or reasonable?
      4. What is the purpose of distorting facts, the truth in mass
         media?
      5. In what cases should the censorship be resorted to?
      6. What helps a politician to become a celebrity in our
         country?
      7. What kind of reports would you call ―politically sensitive‖?
      8. ―It is not enough to read about natural or man-made
         disasters. It’s important to be able to see them too.‖ Do
         you agree or disagree? Justify your answer.


THEME ONE                   The Written Word Remains

6     Discuss the following quotations and the proverb.

     ―Newspapers should have no friends.‖ Joseph Pulitzer
      (Hungarian-American publisher)
     ―Journalism can never be silent: that is its greatest virtue and
      its greatest fault.‖ Henry Anatole Grunwald (US writer and
      diplomat)
     The written word remains. ( a proverb)

7     Before reading the text answer the following questions.
     How popular is newspaper reading in our country?


                                                                   137
   What different types of newspapers are there?
   What reading habits do people tend to have?
   What factors account for the decrease in the popularity of
    newspapers and the increase in magazine publishing?

                         You Awright, My SUN?

      There is a crisis of confidence at the leading tabloids where
circulations are shrinking. Now the Sun has launched a classy ad
campaign.
      There is something new under the Sun after all. For the first
time in its super history, the paper is spending money on a
television campaign that doesn't advertise specific editorial content
or promote a money-winning competition.
      From last night, a series of ads are being screened that do
nothing more than present a series of images of the Sun being read
by various groups of people. The only sound is a song which
concludes with the refrain: "I tell you: only the strongest will
survive." That Darwinist message apart, these ads signify a turning
point for the Sun and, given that paper‘s key importance, probably a
turning point in British society too.
      The Sun is trying to address a problem that is manifested in
the plunging fortunes of the top tabloids, both daily and Sunday.
There has to be a reason for such a decline. Daily titles have been
losing sales and readers at an increasing rate for the past five years.
The "mass market" is now an irrelevant term in newspapers. Fewer
and fewer people are reading any paper, never mind more than one,
on a daily basis. Many don't read papers at all. But the other awful
truth facing the top tabloids is that those people who are still buying
papers are trading up, choosing the Daily Mail or even the now
accessible Times.
      Newspapers reflect social change faster than any other
consumer product and they reveal that we are all aspirational now.
The top tabloids are seen variously as old-fashioned, reactionary
and worthless. Most importantly, they are viewed as having lost
their authority and credibility. They are not a badge to be worn by



                                                                    138
increasingly sophisticated consumers who can't be manipulated as
easily as they seemed to be a decade ago. The Sun can't attract, let
alone hold on to, 4 million buyers a day by running competitions
and celebrity kiss-and-tell stories. All the old certainties are gone.
       At one end, the Sun's audience is more cosmopolitan and, at
the other, either apathetic or, more worryingly, illiterate. The more
educated are going upmarket or preferring to read magazines, while
the ill-educated are failing to read anything. Then there is the
perpetual problem, faced by mature papers, of how to attract a
younger, or at least new, audience without antagonising the older
habitual buyers.
       Hence the Sun's ad campaign which, it should also be said, is
more than a recognition by the editorial team that their old tricks
aren't working any longer. The ads do offer a fascinating insight into
the Sun's dilemma: in the face of falling sales it is suggesting that
the paper is a permanent fixture in every facet of British life. It
seeks to reinforce its continuing importance as a "must read" in its
traditional heartland, at the same time as it tries to plug into a new
generation.
       So in the ads we see the attempts to compare the opposites.
These attempts seek to bridge the divide. Workers in heavy industry
reading the paper during their meal break are contrasted with shirt-
sleeved business types at lunch; elderly women in a hairdresser's
pass the paper to younger women in a maternity clinic; and on it
goes to a still younger woman having her bottom tattooed.
       Anyway, these ads are not aimed at encouraging people to go
out the next morning and buy the Sun. They are designed to enhance
the Sun brand and to wipe out memories of its aggressiveness.
These are warm and cuddly images. The Sun is shown as a friend
dropping in rather than a confrontational paper. Every ad concludes
with the slogan "Dedicated to the people of Britain".
       But this ad campaign isn't a radical rethink of the Sun's agenda
but a rather conservative attempt to suggest that the paper is cleaner,
more wholesome, warmer and more credible than people might
think.
                                                           The Guardian



                                                                    139
Notes:
     The Sun – a British tabloid daily newspaper. It generally
supports the ideas of the Conservative party.

8     Explain the following words and word combinations.

• editorial content     • refrain • trade up          • aspirational
• reactionary     • credibility     • sophisticated •certainties
• cosmopolitan          • apathetic      • illiterate       • antagonise
• dilemma         • fixture • facet      •plug into • confrontational

9     Find synonyms for the following words.

      • shrink   • classy    • plunge    • perpetual       • reinforce

10 Answer the following questions.

    1. What campaign is the Sun running? What are the specific
       features of that campaign?
    2. What does the phrase ―the Darwinist message» refer to?
    3. What problems are the top tabloids facing?
    4. Why is the term ―mass market‖ irrelevant nowadays?
    5. What changes has the image of newspapers undergone?
    6. What does the writer imply by the phrase ―the old certainties
       are gone‖?
    7. What problems for tabloids does the audience pose?
    8. What is the Sun‘s dilemma?
    9. What does the phrase ―a permanent fixture in every facet of
       British life‖ imply?
    10.      In what way advertisements contribute to a new image of
       the Sun?
    11.      What image does the advertising campaign project?

11 Summarise the article in not more than four sentences.




                                                                         140
     THEME TWO                    Extra! Extra!

      Part 1
12 Read the following as part of a newspaper article about
television.

      (1) "Television is a little more than a waste of our time and
energy. (2) The way it has become, television neither informs us nor
entertains us. (3) It acts like a drug on society, keeping people at
home watching programmes of poor quality. (4) Meanwhile, they
are bombarded with advertisements for products and services which
they think they need. (5) Life would be much better if we abolished
television altogether."

    How strongly do you feel about the points mentioned?
Support your opinions with explanations and/or examples.

     -     Fully agree
     -     Tend to agree
     -     Tend to disagree
     -     Strongly disagree

      I couldn't agree more that watching television is a waste of
time and energy. In fact …

13 Read the letter to the editor of the newspaper, responding
to the points raised and expressing a reader's own views.

      Dear Sir/Madam,
      I am writing with reference to the article about television in
yesterday's issue of your newspaper. As a keen television viewer, I
totally disagree with some of the comments made, and I find the
claim that television is a waste of time and energy to be grossly
inaccurate.
      First of all, I am totally against the view that television is
neither informative nor entertaining. In fact, I believe it is a highly


                                                                    141
educational medium which is of particular value to young people.
We only have to look at the programmes produced for schools and
colleges to realise that this is a very effective way of teaching.
Moreover, the entertainment that television provides is beyond
dispute, given the fact that it has proven so popular among its
millions of viewers worldwide.
      Secondly, I would like to challenge the suggestion that
television acts like a drug on society. Clearly there are people who
abuse television, but its popularity is partly based on the relaxing
effect it can have. To suggest that this is in some way a form of
political control is a gross exaggeration. Furthermore, the
implication that all television is of poor quality is also misleading,
as the many prize-winning productions will bear out.
      As far as advertisements are concerned, I tend to agree that
they are excessive. While I recognise the need for TV stations to
fund themselves through advertising, I believe that stricter limits
should be applied in order to determine the quality and quantity of
commercials. Whether or not viewers genuinely need the products
or services on offer is beside the point - the fact remains that
advertisements have become extremely intrusive and should be
subjected to greater control.
      To conclude, television is a highly useful medium which, if
properly used, can be of great educational and entertainment value.
To abolish it would be a violation of our fundamental right to
freedom of choice. I look forward to seeing this letter printed in
your newspaper as I feel confident that many of your readers will
support my point of view.

       Yours faithfully,
       WD Graham

14 Answer the following questions.
  1.   Do you think the letter is effective? Why (not)
  2.   What information is included in the introduction?
  3.   Does the writer agree or disagree with the above points?
  4.   What examples/justifications does the writer give in support of
       his/her views?


                                                                   142
  5. How does the writer conclude the letter?
  6. What changes would you make to this letter in order to
     express your own opinions?

     Part 2
15 You will read an article about British TV journalist
Jeremy Paxman. Read these phrases, used in the article to
describe Paxman, then answer the questions.

  o ―the interview from hell‖
  o ―the man British politicians love to hate‖
  o ―The most feared interviewer on British television‖

   Do you think television is "a window on the world" or just a
    passive form of entertainment?
   Is the personality of an anchor, a host or an interviewer
    decisive factor for the success of the programme or show?
    Why (not)?
   Why might an interviewer be so feared and hated?
   Are there any TV journalists in your country who have a
    reputation for being particularly tough when they interview
    politicians?
   What incidents gave them this reputation?
   What do you think of them?


                 Some Things Will Simply not Change

           The scene: the dormitory of a minor English public
school. An officious prefect orders a small boy to get into bed. The
boy refuses and is frog-marched off to the Headmaster‘s Room.
―Why didn‘t you obey the prefect‘s orders to get into bed?‖ asks the
headmaster. ―Because I don‘t respect them,‖ answers the boy. ―The
purpose of a public-school education, Paxman‖, intones the
headmaster, producing a long cane, ―is to teach you to respect
things you don‘t respect.‖


                                                                 143
            Now spool forward a few decades to the present time.
The BBC‘s very own Jeremy Paxman sits in his small airless office
to the side of the main Newsnight newsroom. Today he is
preoccupied with the changes in the police force announced by the
Home Secretary. He watches the monitor transmitting the Prime
Minister‘s statements, grumping and raising his eyebrows as one
political platitude is followed by another. ―That‘s rubbish,‖ he says
at one point, and it‘s not clear whether he‘s talking about the PM or
some other issue burning a hole in his intellect.
            Only months after its inception, Newsnight had already
made itself a household name. Cajoling, intimidating, aggressive,
revealing, persistent – Paxman comes across as the interviewer from
hell, a newsman who refuses to learn to respect things he doesn‘t
respect. The programme‘s editor admits that Paxman can be too
―macho and Oxbridge‖ at times. But he‘s still there, a thorn in the
side of the establishment. And it doesn‘t look like that thorn is
going to be getting less sharp any time soon.
            Newsnight has been called many things: ―an important
part of the democratic process‖; ―a traitor in our midst‖;
―dangerous‖; ―increasingly irrelevant‖. For many years, we have
been watching Paxman being attacked by politicians from all ranks
for ―sneering interviews‖, or in such brutal confrontations as the one
where he dealt with a politician‘s evasive responses by asking him
the same questions 14 times. He is clearly the man British
politicians love to hate.
            The public, however, remain loyal. On 4 June, 2001, a
bruising encounter between the Prime Minister and Jeremy Paxman
brought nearly 2,5 million viewers to Newsnight. The programme‘s
ongoing success is living proof that people expect current affairs
programmes to be hard-hitting and truth-searching. Especially after
the BBC scrapped News at Ten, the public have turned to Newsnight
in their search for more serious analysis in a world of increasingly
consumer-oriented news.
            The programme is now twenty years old and Paxman,
the most feared interviewer on British television, will remain
dedicated to the original cause for the existence of Newsnight –
asking politicians those tough questions that other current affairs


                                                                   144
programmes prefer not to. Sin Kevill, the editor who oversaw the
programme‘s relaunch last January, says it now has a broader, more
accessible agenda – from the documentary-style films from poor
inner-city areas to arts and culture. Will this modernisation
negatively affect the programme‘s depth? ―Definitely not. I‘m quite
traditional,‖ Kevill says. ―There are some things about Newsnight
that will simply not change.‖
            The programme‘s role as the nagging voice of the
nation‘s conscience is becoming more and more important. Viewers
and listeners are increasingly overwhelmed by news, news, and
more news. Those programmes, of necessity, lack the one thing
Newsnight has - context. ―There is a shortage of analysis and
generally a lack of interest in whether people are telling the truth,‖
Paxman says, ―Things rush on to television at a fantastic speed, get
recycled, pushed out and not thought about again. It‘s one big
sausage machine. This is not how a nation should perceive events
and developments that affect its everyday existence.‖
            In an ill-inspired attempt to make news more
―accessible‖ to the public, the BBC made the surprising
announcement last summer that a former game show host and radio
presenter was to join the Newsnight team. Was Paxman surprised
when he heard the announcement last August? ―No.‖ ―Why not?‖
―Because someone had phoned me to tell me about it.‖ He pauses.
He knows he‘s not answering the question. Was he surprised?
―Mind your own business.‖ There is another long pause. ―I think he
is very good on the radio.‖ Whatever the personal feelings Paxman
harboured, and they were obviously not ones of positive excitement,
the deal seems to have fallen through, and the team remains
unchanged.
            Does Paxman ever think that he should change his style
to something more in tune with the caring, sharing new millennium?
Of course he doesn‘t. ―Any self-respecting journalist must be
concerned to define for themselves what the important issue is and
then to pursue it, and not blindly follow some line laid down by the
vested interest in question.‖
            There have been discussions about a new, highbrow
interview programme for Paxman in the style of his head-to-head


                                                                   145
with Bill Gates last October. It has even been reported that he has
drawn up a list of people he would interview in that programme.
This doesn‘t mean, however, that he has any intention of retiring
from Newsnight for a long time to come, not that he will somehow
start respecting things he simple doesn‘t respect.

16 Explain the contextual meaning of the following words and
word combinations.

     • prefect                       • frog-march
     • intone                        • intellect
     • platitude                     • inception
     • confrontations                • scrap
     • agenda                        • context
     • harbour

17 Answer the following questions.

  1. What does the scene in the Headmaster‘s Room tell us about
     the character of the future journalist?
  2. What might the word ―respect‖ refer to?
  3. How could Paxman‘s attitude to recent government measures
     be described?
  4. What reputation does Paxman have as an interviewer?
  5. What does the writer mean by the phrase ―a thorn in the side
     of the establishment‖?
  6. Which two phrases in the fourth paragraph suggest that
     Paxman is an aggressive interviewer?
  7. What is the general public‘s attitude to Newsnight?
  8. What is it that TV audiences look for in a news programme?
  9. What is the implication of the phrase ―a world of …
     consumer–oriented news‖?
  10.      What does Sin Kevil mean by the phrase ―a more
     accessible agenda‖?
  11.      Why is the programmer‘s role becoming more and more
     important?



                                                                146
  12.     What criticism does Paxman make of current television
    programmes?
  13.     What is the writer‘s opinion of the BBC‘s choice of a
    new Newsnight team member?
  14.     What was Paxman‘s attitude when questioned about the
    proposed change in the Newsnight team?
  15.     Why does Paxman disagree that he should fall in with
    modern trends?
  16.     What does the phrase ―vested interest‖ refer to?
  17.     What plans are the BBC and Paxman making, and how
    will these affect Newsnight?

18 Summarise in 180-200 words factors that make Paxman an
outstanding figure in the news world.


      THEME THREE                     Buy! Buy! Buy!

19 Answer the following questions before reading the text.

     What‘s your opinion of TV/ radio advertising?
     How successful do you think it is?
     What slogans or catch phrases can you recall?
     Give examples of commercials which appeal to you.

                         Advertising in the USA

      Advertising was already a well-established phenomenon by
the turn of the twentieth century. American newspapers had begun
carrying ads as far back as the early 1700s and magazines had soon
followed. By 1850, the country had its first advertising agency, the
American Newspaper Advertising Agency, though its function was
to buy advertising space rather than come up with creative
campaigns. "To advertise" originally carried the sense of to
broadcast or disseminate news. Thus a nineteenth-century
newspaper that called itself The Advertiser meant that it had lots of


                                                                  147
news, not lots of ads. By the early 1800s the term had been
stretched to accommodate the idea of spreading the news of the
availability of certain goods or services. In the sense of persuading
members of the public to acquire items they didn't know they
needed - advertising is a phenomenon of the modern age.
       By the 1890s advertising was appearing everywhere. Very
early on, advertisers discovered the importance of a good slogan.
Sometimes slogans took a little working on. Coca-Cola described
itself as 'the drink that makes a pause refreshing' before realizing, in
1929, that "the pause that refreshes' was rather more succinct and
memorable. A slogan could make all the difference to a product‘s
success. After advertising its soap an efficacious way of dealing
with ―conspicuous nose pores‖, Woodbury‘s facial soap came up
with a slogan ―The skin you love to touch‖ and won the hearts of
millions. The great thing about a slogan was that it didn't have to be
accurate to be effective. Heinz never actually had '57 varieties' of
anything. The catchphrase arose simply because H.J. Heinz, the
company's founder, decided he liked the sound of the number.
Undeterred by considerations of verity, he had the slogan slapped
on every one of the products he produced, which in 1896 was
already far more than fifty-seven.
       Early in the 1900s, advertisers discovered another perennial
feature of marketing - the giveaway.
       Consumers soon became acquainted with the irresistibly
tempting notion that if they bought a particular product they could
expect a reward - the chance to win prizes, to receive a free book or
to get a free sample. Typical of the genre was a turn-of-the-century
tome called The Vital Question Cook Book, which was promoted as
an aid to livelier meals, but which proved upon receipt to contain
112 pages of recipes, all involving the use of Shredded Wheat.
Many of these had a certain air of desperation about them, notably
the 'Shredded Wheat Biscuit Jellied Apple Sandwich' and the
'Creamed Spinach on Shredded Wheat Biscuit Toast'. Almost all in
fact involved nothing more than putting some everyday food on to a
piece of shredded wheat and giving it an inflated name. None the
less, the company distributed no fewer than four million copies of
The Vital Question Cook Book to eager consumers.


                                                                     148
       But the great breakthrough in the twentieth-century
advertising came with the identification and exploitation of the
American consumer's Achilles heel: anxiety. One of the first to
master the form was King Gillette, inventor of the first safety razor
and one of the most relentless advertisers of the early 1990s. Most
of the early ads featured Gillette himself. After starting with a few
jaunty words about the ease and convenience of the safety razor -
'Compact? Rather!' - he plunged the reader into the heart of the
matter: 'When you use my razor you are exempt from the dangers
that men often encounter who allow their faces to come in contact
with brush, soap and barber shop accessories used on other people.'
       Here was an entirely new approach to selling goods. Gillette's
ads were in effect telling you that not only did there exist a product
that you never previously suspected you needed, but if you didn't
use it you would very possibly attract a crop of facial diseases you
never knew existed. The combination proved irresistible.
       Fear is the biggest weapon of all. The consumer is literally
scared into spending his money when he is reminded that that he
may die to morrow and leave his family unprovided for. The bait
dangled before his nose is security, and he is gripped with fear when
he compares his miserable lot with that of a smiling healthy-looking
man in the advertisement, who was provident enough to do all the
right things at the right time.
       The softest spot is our vanity. We are flattered and coaxed
until we almost believe that we have the makings of potential film
stars, providing of course, that we use … Sometimes the methods
employed are even more subtle. They persuade us that we are
superior to other people and it is time we realise that.
       All the advertisements have one thing in common: they make
strong appeal to our emotions. No one can seriously pretend to
remain unaffected by adverts. No matter how hard we resist, clever
little tunes and catch-phrases seep into our subconscious minds and
stay there. It is impossible to turn a blind eye to the pressing offers
to buy this or that and to avoid being helpless victims as we tune in
to our favourite radio and television programmes.
       No amount of logical argument can convince so much as this
assault on our emotions. When a crunchy, honey-filled chocolate


                                                                    149
bar stares up at you from a glossy page, what else can you do but
rush out and buy one?

20 Explain the following words and word combinations.

• disseminate • succinct       • deter   • verity    • perennial
• giveaway          • breakthrough • relentless      • Achilles'
heel       • bait   • lot      • coax

21 Answer the following questions:

  1. Why does the writer use the phrase ―as far back as‖?
  2. Why does the writer mention ―Jos. Parker, Hatter‖?
  3. What was the role of original adverts?
  4. What does the writer imply about modern advertising?
  5. In your own word, explain why Coca-Cola chose its slogan in
     1929?
  6. In what way did the two slogans for Woodbury‘s facial soap
     differ?
  7. What is meant by the phrase ―undeterred by the considerations
     of verity‖?
  8. Why is the giveaway considered to be a ―perennial feature of
     marketing‖? What emotions does this gimmick appeal to?
  9. What does the writer imply when he says that some of the
     recipes in The Vital Question Cook Book had a ―a certain air
     of desperation‖?
  10.      What does the writer mean when he says that the names
     of some of the recipes were ―inflated‖?
  11.      What does the consumer‘s ―Achilles heel‖ in the context
     refer to?
  12.      How did the beginnings of King Gillette‘s adverts differ
     from what followed in them?
  13.      What do all advertisements have in common?
  14.      What emotions do they appeal to?
  15.      Why is it impossible to remain unaffected by
     advertisement?



                                                                150
  16.    Why is logical argument ineffectual against an assault on
    one‘s emotions?

22 In a paragraph of 100 -120 words summarise the
developments in advertising in the USA.


                          Language Focus

23 Look at the following TV guide, and fill the gaps using the
words below.

• current affairs • documentary-style • innovative    • share
• filed     • award-winning           • correspondents
• live reports    • cookery show      • hosts    • newsmakers
• series    • daily drama • quiz-master • presenter
• viewers • in-depth

      BBC PRIME
      00.50      The Office
      Episode 4        1) ………. comic study of the white-collar
world. Filmed in 2) ………., this series reveals the truth about the
underside of the nine-to-five.
      15.00      Small town gardens
      One of Britain‘s most 3) ……….. garden designers is matched
with a small urban space.
      16.40      Business Confessions
      In this series, prominent businessmen talk about their own
professional experiences and 4) ……… some of their hard-won
wisdom.
      18.00      The Weakest Link
      Anne Robinson is 5) ………… in this game of elimination,
where nine contestants answer a series of quick-fire general
knowledge questions.
      19.15      Cutting it




                                                                151
    Episode 3 Second 6) …….. of the drama about two rival
Manchester hairdressing salons.
    20.00 Parkinson Law
    Michael Parkinson 7) ………. the award-winning talk show.

     21.50       Ready Steady Cook
     The 8) ………. in which two top chefs battle it out against the
clock, creating delicious dishes from mystery ingredients in just 20
minutes.
     22.30       Doctors
     9) ……… series set in a busy Midlands medical practice.

      BBC WORLD
      01:30                 DATELINE LONDON
      Foreign 10) ……………. currently posted to London look at
events in the UK through outsiders‘ eyes.
      02:30                 REPORTERS
      A weekley programme of stories 11) ……….. by BBC
reporters from all over the world.
      02:45                 ASIA TODAY
      The daily 12) …………… programme aimed at 13)………..
across Asia with 14) ……….. reports from BBC correspondents.
      04:30                 DREAMSPACES
      15) …………. and architect Charlie Luxton travels to Mexico
City to see some seriously stylish modern design.
      07:30                 HARDTALK
      Tim Sebastian talks to 16) ……….. and personalities from
across the globe.
      08:30                 WORLD BUSINESS REPORT
      The latest business news from around the world with 17)
…………. from Singapore, Frankfurt and London.

     24 Study the phrases in the prompt boxes. Then, with a
partner, look at the TV guide again. Using the phrases in the
prompt boxes, decide what you are going to watch.




                                                                 152
      Making a suggestion       Asking for (further)
                           information
   Guess what‘s on at …       Anything interesting on
   How about watching … ?      the telly?
   Do you fancy watching      What time does it
    ―The office‖?               start/finish?
                               Is      that   the  one
                                with/where?
                               How many stars does it
                                get?
                               What time is it on?

      Accepting a suggestion            Rejecting a suggestion
     Should be fun.                   I‘m not really into that.
     Sure – why not?                  Isn‘t there anything else
     Sounds alright to me.             on?
     Good idea.                       Can‘t      we        watch
     Sounds         interesting.       something else?
      Who‘s in it?                     Not really my cup of tea.
                                       To be honest, I‘d rather
                                        watch the other one.

           A: Anything interesting on TV?
           B: Well, how about watching …
           A: What’s that about?
           B: It’s ….

25 The language of newspapers

     Headlines make use of a number of particular words that have
a special meaning in the newspaper context. Do you know the
reasons for that?

     a) Match the word underlined in the headline to the
explanation given on the list on the right.



                                                                     153
1. AID FOR FAMINE VICTIMS INCREASED
2. FREE SCHOOL MEALS AXED
3. TAKEOVER BID FOR BP
4. BAN ON FOOTBALL HOOLIGANS
5. BOMB BLAST KILLS 9
6. HIGH STREET SPENDING BOOM
7. MPS CLASH ON GREEN POLICY
8. CUT IN ARMS SPENDING
9. FUGITIVES FLEE FIGHTING
10.    DRUGS HAUL AT AIRPORT
11.    TEST MATCH HIT BY PROTEST
12.    DRINKING WATER LINKED TO DISEASE
13.    RAIL STRIKE LOOMS
14.    KIDNAP VICTIMS ORDEAL
15.    PERIL ON OILRIG
16.    PM'S PLEDGE ON POLLUTION
17.    SHARES PLUNGE
18.    FOOTBALL MANAGER QUITS

   a. surprise
   b. connected
   c. bad experience
   d. reduction
   e. question
   f. caused to suffer adverse effects
   g. increase
   h. extreme danger
   i. attempts to persuade
   j. something seized or stolen
   k. marries
   l. try/attempt
   m. leaves
   n. fall sharply
   o. run away
   p. number of people killed
   q. assistance


                                          154
         r. stopped
         s. approaches in a threatening way
         t. disagree
         u. explosion
         v. potential danger
         w. look for
         x. prohibition
         y. undertaking/commitment

      Headlines tend to use puns (i.e play on words) to produce
stronger emotional effect on the readers.
      CYMBALS CLASH – "Clash" is a verb, often used to
describe the sound that musical instruments, cymbals, make.
However, clash in newspaper headlines usually means conflict and
the story will probably be about some orchestral problem involving
cymbalists.
      b) Explain the pun in the following headlines according to
the above model.
   1. Tree Boss Axed
   2. Mafia Golf Links
   3. School's Chocolate Bar
   4. Road Rage Drive
   5. Traffic Wardens Curbed

     d) Look through some English newspapers and find
examples of headlines illustrating the points mentioned above.
Besides each headline make a note of what the accompanying
story is about. Look for some examples of amusing headlines.

     Grammar in newspapers
     Just as newspaper headlines use special vocabulary, they also
use particular grammatical forms. Look at the headlines below,
paying special attention to the verbs (underlined). When do the
events take place, in the past, present or future?

          GOVERNMENT TO AXE AID TO DISABLED



                                                               155
    SMOKING       BANNED     ON      LONDON
UNDERGROUND
    POP STAR WEDS IN SECRET
    RAPE VICTIM SEEKS COMPENSATION
    MP QUIZZED ON DEFENCE LEAK
    QUEEN TO VISIT FRANCE
    SALLY SAFE HOME AFTER CLIFF OLUNGE
ORDEAL
    YARD TO PROBE FIRE ALARM RIDDLE
    DOCTORS ON STRIKE AFTER PAY TALK ROW

     e) What three grammatical forms are used in the
examples? When is it appropriate to use each form?
     f) Definite and indefinite articles, auxiliary verbs and
prepositions receive certain treatment in headlines. On the basis
what you already know about headlines, how would you say
they are handled?
     Now explain the meaning of the above headlines.


                        TALKING POINTS

26 You have read the following as part of a newspaper article
on the coverage of news in the media. Respond to the points
raised and express your own views. Suggest words and phrases
that would be suitable to use in expressing your opinion.

      There is simply no way that we can get any kind of objective
reporting anywhere. Current affairs programmes are biased and
uninformative. Newspapers are more interested in gossip than
anything which can be called "news". TV news programmes are
more concerned with showing sensationalist details than reporting
the facts. Where is this going to lead?"

     Although the reporter made some interesting points, I found
some of his comments to be greatly exaggerated. To my mind …


                                                               156
27 You recently heard the following statement during a
lecture on Media Studies. Analyse both sides of this issue.

      Freedom of the Press means two things – newspapers have the
right to print what we want to hear, but they can also print things
that we don't want to hear.

     Read the topic sentences. Then use the prompts given to
make supporting sentences. Then, for each one, give an
additional sentence of your own.

   Firstly, people have the right to know the truth about what is
    happening in the world. For example, if there is a war or
    natural disaster, the press have a responsibility to keep public
    informed. (In cases such as these, reliable information may be
    a matter of life and death.)
   Furthermore, it is the job of a newspaper to report the facts as
    objectively as possible.
          By this I mean / all events / report / regardless / opinion
    / editor
   On the other hand, newspapers need to exercise caution with
    some of the things they publish.
       In other words, / opinions vary / what / consider / good
    taste
       Photographs / graphic details / such things / accidents /
    cause offence.
   In addition, newspapers can also be used as a political
    weapon.
          For instance, / newspaper / linked / political party /
    unfairly criticize / opposition.

28 Following the discussion on advertising in the media,
examine the positive and negative aspects of advertising. Listed
below are the main points from the discussion.




                                                                  157
     Advertising:
      helps finance programme, newspapers, etc, and therefore
provides for more choice and better quality in the media.
      is intrusive and should be controlled more strictly.
      informs consumers of the availability of new products.
      creates an artificial demand for products and encourages
excessive consumerism.

     What are the main points for and against?
     Would you support or challenge these statements?


                    VOCABULARY of the UNIT

29 A      Study the meanings of the words. Provide Russian
equivalents. Translate the examples.

Mass media n (the + sing/pl v)
News and entertainment are communicated in a number of different
ways, using different media. The media include print media such
as newspapers and magazines, and electronic media such as radio
and television. The media have/has a lot of power today.
Media coverage n The amount of time and space given to a
subject or event. The Gulf War got massive media coverage.
Media event n an event that is not very important but is widely
reported by the media
Media hype n a lot of attention given to an event , making the
subject seem much more important than it is really is. People only
went to see that film because of the media hype.
Bias n a tendency to be in favour of or against something or
someone without knowing enough to able to judge fairly: They
complained of bias in the way the news media reported the story.
v The fact that she was a woman biased some members of the
committee against her.
Programmes on radio and television may be referred to formally as
broadcasts; and they may be referred to informally as shows,


                                                               158
especially in American English: hard-hitting, truth-searching
programmes. Programmes or shows on radio and TV are often
presented or hosted by a programme host. Programmes can be
broadcast live. She was hosting a radio cookery show on BBC
Prime. She was a cookery show host.
News programmes may be hosted, fronted, or anchored by
anchors (anchorman, anchorwoman, anchorperson) famous in their
own right, sometimes more famous than the people in the news.
What is it like to front such a popular TV show? The programme
has been anchored by McDonald since 2001. Diane Sawyer,
coanchor of ABC's prime Time Live.
In more traditional news programmes, the news (on radio and TV)
is read by a newsreader or newscaster.
Soap opera        n a television or radio programme about the
continuing daily life and troubles of characters in it, which is
broadcast regularly.
Commentator n is a broadcaster who gives a commentary, e.g. on
a sports match: a football ~; comment n to comment v
Reporters and correspondents, or television journalists, make
reports. They and the camera operators who go with them are
news gathers. Together they form TV crews. Journalists can be
cajoling, intimidating, aggressive, revealing, persistent.
Tune in (to) v to set (a radio or television) to receive broadcasts
from a particular station, which is a company or organization that
broadcasts television or radio programme
Network n a group of radio and television stations in different
places using many of the same broadcasts
Channel n a particular TV station
      to be on TV channel; switch over to another channel
Coverage, (BBC) coverage n the way an event or subject is
reported in the news; substantial coverage
To present v news, events, a show, somebody; presentation
Household name - someone or something whose name has become
very well known
      make a household name. Microsoft has become a household
name.



                                                                159
Advertise v to advertise something on TV or radio, in magazines
or newspapers, or on large public notices, in order to persuade
people to buy it. Advertisement (also ad, advert) is used for
advertising things, such as notice on the wall or in a newspaper, or a
short film shown on TV. You shouldn't advertise the news.
Commercials n is an advertisement on TV or radio. They are
shown in commercial breaks between programmes.
Slogan = catchphrase n a short phrase expressing a political or
advertising message
Logo n a small pattern or picture that is a sign of a particular
organization; eye-catching logo
Gimmick n a trick or object which is used only to attract people‘s
attention; a clever idea or thing; advertising/ promotional gimmick
The press usually refers just to newspapers, but the term can be
extended to include magazines. Newspapers are either tabloid, a
format usually associated with the popular press, or broadsheet,
associated with quality journalism. People who disapprove of the
tabloids very strongly sometimes call them the gutter press
Tabloids often have very large circulation (the average number of
copies sold) and even bigger readership, total number or type of
people reading them
Distribute nationwide v to spread out over a whole country
Editors are people in charge of newspaper content. The people who
write for them are journalists, sometimes referred to informally as
journos or insultingly as hacks
Editorial also leader, leading article an article in a newspaper
giving the paper‘s opinion on a matter, rather than reporting
information. It is often written by or for the editor
Cover story a story to go with the picture on the cover of a
magazine
A feature a special long article in a newspaper or magazine
Review a magazine or newspaper article that gives a judgment on a
new book, play, TV show
Classified advertising a small advertisement placed in a newspaper
by a person wishing to sell or buy smth, offer or get employment
Sensationalism the intentional producing of excitement or shock,
esp. by newspapers, magazines


                                                                   160
In-depth analysis (sing), -ses (pl)/study      thorough and giving
careful attention to detail

     B      Find synonyms and synonymous expressions to
the words in bold type. Provide Russian equivalents to the
words and words combinations. Translate the sentences.

FACE
1. We‘ll have to face (the) facts – we simply can‘t afford a holiday
this year. 2. Everyone admired the way she faced out the opposition
in the debate. 3. Although she didn‘t feel very confident, she put on
a brave face and accepted the challenge. 4. In the face of great
hardship, she managed to keep her sense of humor. 5. On the face
of it, he appeared to be an ideal candidate for the position. 6. He
knew he‘d never get away with it so he decided to face the music
and give himself up to the police.

SEEK (SOUGHT)
1. You should seek advice from your lawyer on this matter. 3. He
had majored in political science before he sought fortune and fame
in New York. 3. We are earnestly seeking after the truth. 4. Our
economic policies seek to increase productivity, expand markets
and create jobs.

     Words frequently used with seek: advice, help, refuge, asylum,
permission, approval, compensation, damages, employment
CATER
1. Who is catering your daughter‘s wedding? 2. Those newspapers
cater to the lowest tastes.3. We hope to appeal to an audience that
does not feel itself adequately catered for by existing radio
stations. 4. We can accept your students at our university on a self-
catering basis.

AFFECT/EFFECT
1. Smoking affects health. 2. She was deeply affected by the news
of his death. 3. Government policy will not affect us. But:


                                                                  161
Government policy will not have any effect on us. 4. He feels a
deep affection for a child. 5. She‘s a very affectionate child,
wanting to kiss and hug you. 6. He called me a fool, or words to
that effect. 7. She has made an announcement to the following
effect that more people will lose their jobs.

      Word combinations with effect: come/ be brought/ be put into
effect, have much effect on, get/produce/achieve an effect

AVAILABLE
1. The dish is made with ingredients available in most
supermarkets. 2. We'll notify you as soon as tickets become
available. 3. There is no money available for this project. 4. I'm
available next Tuesday if you want to meet then. 5. I'll have to
check my availability before I commit myself. 6. Journalists were
told that Ms Lee was unavailable for comment.

APPEAL
1. Ads have one thing in common: they make strong appeals to
consumers' emotions. 2. This music has little appeal for me. 3.
Football has popular appeal. 4. The idea of spending the night in
the open didn't appeal to the travelers. 5. Max appealed to her
common sense to make her change her mind.

RESIST
1. It's difficult to resist a challenge like that. 2. She couldn't resist
making jokes about his new bomber jacket. 3. He was unable to
resist the temptation of taking the wallet. 4. Vitamin A builds
resistance to infection. 5. It's just like him to take the line of least
resistance. 6. The cheap loans were irresistible.

      Words used with resistance: meet with/face/offer/ encounter
resistance

ORIGIN
1. Meteorites may hold clues about the origin of life on Earth. 2.
Our original plan was to go to Spain, but it was too expensive. 3.


                                                                     162
She must have read the book in the original. 4. His writing shows
real originality. 5. This idea didn't originate with me, but with my
friend.

30 Translate into Russian.
  1. Not all the facts are made available to us.
  2. My tutor is always available to talk to her students.
  3. The availability of books and magazines are threatened by the
     strike.
  4. They won in the face of stiff competition from all over the
     country.
  5. Whether I take this job depends on the availability of child
     care.
  6. Employees are putting a brave face on yesterday's news.
  7. He faced the biggest challenge of his career.
  8. The school caters for children of all abilities.
  9. Who's doing the catering for the reception?
  10.      How do you explain the appeal of horror films?
  11.      Children at this tender age have lots of appeal.
  12.      The show's direct approach will appeal to children.
  13.      The boots showed high water resistance when tested.
  14.      The country's constitution had its origins in Roman law.
  15.      The college can trace its origins back to the 18th century.

31 For each of the sentences below, rewrite a new sentence as
similar as possible in the meaning to the original sentence. Use
the Vocabulary. There may be more than one variant.

  1. They managed to pass anti-slavery laws though Southern
     whites showed violent opposition.
  2. When she lost her job she pretended not to be upset and said it
     didn’t matter.
  3. I should never have taken Dad‘s car in the first place, I‘d
     better get home and accept punishment for that.
  4. If the government pursues its present policies, manufacturing
     industry finds itself in a difficult situation, and its future is
     grim.


                                                                   163
5. The main difficulty that needs our consideration today is of
   supplying food to those in need.
6. We want to make our product be obtained in a wider market.
7. I‘m sorry, sir, we don’t have those shoes in your size.
8. Good legal advice is simply not to be found, because of the
   shortage of the lawyers.
9. Everybody at company headquarters was busy and wasn't able
   to speak to the reporters.
10.       The aim of the hostel is to give help to those who are in
   search of shelter for the night.
11.      We are within our rights to ask authorities for
   compensation for injuries and loss of earnings.
12.      Our economic policies apply every effort to increase
   productivity.
13.      We want to improve our products in new ways, so we
   expect our customers to provide us with new ideas.
14.      The Hotel Olympics provide best services to children.
   Children …
15.      The center was opened to serve the health needs of a
   low-income people.
16.      This kind of firm aims only at the lowest elements in
   society.
17.      Many rail and airline companies are only interested in
   business customers who can afford luxurious services.
18.      The consequences of the climate were his ruined health.
   The climate …
19.      Do you ever think about what those cigarettes must be
   doing to your lungs?
20.      What impact will these new taxes have on people on
   lower incomes?
21.      Do these pictures involve your emotions and feelings?
22.      As the crisis grew worse, local community leaders made
   an urgent request for people to unite.
23.      The rise in gas prices is likely to involve the rise in the
   cost of electricity.
24.      In her childhood she had the feeling that her mother
   didn't love her.


                                                                 164
  25.     They were both very keen on the idea of going to live in
    another country.
  26.     I think this decision will cause a considerable change in
    the company‘s future.
  27.     She is the tender and loving mother of five children.
  28.     We all were in low spirits because of the bad news.
  29.     She can't stop eating chocolates.
  30.     The invitation was so tempting, she tried not to give in to
    it.
  31.     We have strong reasons for a change in the law. It's
    impossible to defeat them.
  32.     Nothing has changed in the house. The doors and wood
    panelling are the same. The house …
  33.     The concept of a new TV programme first appeared in
    Britain.
  34.     It was a Frenchman whom the house belonged in the
    beginning. (Change the structure of the sentence)
  35.     The Mediterranean Sea was the place where many herbs
    appeared. Many herbs …
  36.     Mary had always expected she would marry someone of
    a similar background to herself.

32 Translate into English, using Vocabulary of the Unit (pay
attention to ways of expressing meanings of the active words in
Russian).
Face
   1. Она проявила удивительное мужество, несмотря на то,
      что была смертельно больна.
   2. На первый взгляд кажется, что это отличная идея – нужно
      подождать и посмотреть, что из этого выйдет.
   3. Льюис знал, что он будет скучать по ней, но он не
      показал, что огорчен, когда пришло время уезжать.
   4. Шесть месяцев назад он стащил деньги, а сейчас его
      нашли и пора расплачиваться.
Seek
   5. Путешественники пытались найти укрытие от дождя.
   6. Будет ли президент переизбираться на следующий срок?


                                                                  165
  7. Он покинул дом в поисках удачи.
  8. Специалисты по связям с общественностью пытаются
     влиять на общественное мнение с помощью продуманных
     рекламных кампаний.
Cater
  9. Наша газета пытается быть интересной для всех и
     учитывать все точки зрения.
  10.     Она отказалась потакать его странным запросам.
  11.     Эта      телевизионная     программа     нацелена
     исключительно на молодых мужчин.
Available
  12.     Так как книга вышла малым тиражом, ее
     невозможно было достать.
  13.     У местных властей не было в наличии свободных
     фондов, чтобы профинансировать строительство новых
     школ.
  14.     Мы могли бы встретиться завтра утром?
  15.     Есть ли кто-нибудь, кто свободен от работы и
     может заменить секретаря?
  16.     Всякий свободный час мы проводили на льду.
  17.     Джон и Питер заняты и не смогут принять участие в
     матче на следующей неделе.
Effect
  18.     Любое изменение в образе жизни повлияет на твое
     здоровье.
  19.     Она спросила "Кто это?" или что-то в этом роде.
  20.     Он принял огромное количество лекарств, но они не
     возымели на него никакого действия.
  21.     Мне прислали письмо следующего содержания.
  22.     Наши доводы не произвели на него никакого
     впечатления.
  23.     Новое постановление правительства немедленно
     вошло в силу.
  24.     Дети особенно чувствительны к жаркой погоде.
Affect
  25.     Неожиданная новость поразила ее.
  26.     Он не проявил привязанности к ребенку.


                                                        166
  27.      Они остались безучастными ко всем мольбам о
     помощи.
  28.      Мы старались не замечать         его волнение, но
     чувствовали, что тема разговора не оставила его
     равнодушным.
  29.      Где же твой объект любви и обожания?
Appeal
  30.      Я долго просил ее отказаться от необдуманного
     решения, но она все же сделала по-своему.
  31.      Несмотря на все разумные доводы, было ясно, что
     никакие просьбы и уговоры не подействуют.
  32.      Неужели тебе нравятся современные скульптуры?
  33.      Работа была для него настолько новой, что ему
     приходилось обращаться за помощью к своему
     начальнику.
  34.      Он посмотрел на свою сестру с нежностью.
Resist
  35.      Несмотря на все предупреждения, он шел по линии
     наименьшего сопротивления и в результате оказался в
     беде.
  36.      Никто не мог противостоять логике его аргументов.
  37.      Желание      поехать     на     экскурсию    было
     непреодолимым, и мы приняли предложение.
  38.      Он улыбнулся своей неотразимой улыбкой.
Origin/original/originate
  39.      Вы знаете, кто первый владелец этой машины?
  40.      Я намереваюсь узнать, кто первый распустил этот
     слух.

  33     Render the following texts into English.

          (1) Сейчас во всем мире выходит 8200 только
ежедневных газет общим тиражом около 440 миллионов
экземпляров. Наиболее солидными, но отнюдь не наиболее
высокотиражными, являются общенациональные ежедневные
газеты, которые пытаются в разумных пределах соблюдать
беспристрастность и давать всестороннее освещение событий.


                                                         167
Новости в них – это серьезная национальная и международная
информация. Совсем другие новости печатаются в
"бульварных" газетах, которые, видимо, считают, что их
главная задача – лезть не в свое дело. Если газета "Таймз"
рекламирует себя как газету, печатающую новости, достойные
публикации, то бульварные газеты считают, что все, что они
публикуют, это уже новости. A это почти обязательно что-
нибудь "с клубничкой", браки или любовные связи,
компрометирующие поступки разного рода известных людей,
при этом, чем скандальнее, тем лучше. Не брезгуют они и
искусственным созданием новостей. Недаром в адрес таких
газет было отпущено немало презрительных слов. Один
известный английский актер съязвил, что "журналисты
бульварных газет – это люди, не умеющие писать, они
интервьюируют людей, не умеющих говорить, для читателей,
не умеющих читать".
          (2) Искусство рекламы уходит корнями в глубокую
древность. Но на протяжении веков реклама была всего лишь
ненавязчивой информацией. Сейчас на нас обрушился
настоящий      рекламный    шквал,   и    люди    оказались
психологически не готовы противостоять ему. Ведь
профессиональные рекламные ролики зачастую используют
весьма изощренные психологические приемы. Одни из таких
приемов — "нежданный дар". Некоторые рекламные приемы
основаны именно на этом, например - специальные "скидки".
Исследования показали, что во время программы новостей
действие рекламы ослабляется. В эти минуты человек
критически воспринимает поступающую информацию. Зато
рекламные ролики, встроенные в художественные фильмы
(особенно в "мыльные оперы"), проникают в сознание "как по
маслу". Психологи предлагают взглянуть правде в глаза:
регулярное поглощение рекламы вызывает у людей отчетливые
изменения     сознания.   Особенно   сильное    воздействие
телевизионная реклама оказывает на детей. Во многих странах
существует закон, ограничивающий рекламу на телевизионных
каналах до 20 минут в день. У нас рекламные вставки иногда
отнимают это время в течение чуть ли не одного фильма.


                                                        168
Понятно, что такое жесткое рекламное давление диктуют
нынешние экономические реалии. Но последствия этого могут
быть печальными.
           (3) На телевидении многих стран чуть ли не
круглосуточно ведутся разговоры. Ток-шоу не только
прижились, но и заполонили все многочисленные
телевизионные каналы.
     Они обслуживают самые разные вкусы телезрителей. Они
делятся на две категории: первая - интервью с одной или
несколькими знаменитостями в области культуры, экономики,
политики, так называемые ток-шоу «говорящих голов», вторая
- "народные шоу"- обсуждение житейских тем с участием
«человека с улицы». И те, и другие стремятся заполучить как
можно больше зрителей.
     Основная беда первой категории - «звездных» ток-шоу
заключается в том, что каналов, программ, популярных
телеведущих стало больше, чем поистине интересных людей,
которые могут и хотят стать героями ток-шоу. И это не может
не влиять на качество программ. Круг обсуждаемых ими
вопросов тоже сужается. Число более или менее оригинально
мыслящих людей, способных расширить кругозор зрителей,
побудить их к размышлениям, таково, что их хватило бы на
одно ток-шоу в неделю. Но не на 50.
     Обсуждаются все темы. Никаких табу нет. Все дозволено.
И, что главное, не надо обладать никаким особым талантом,
профессией и даже умом, чтобы попасть на такую передачу.
Есть жулики, которые сделали из участия в ток-шоу образ
жизни. Они курсируют от одной программы к другой,
высказывая     в    зависимости     от   ситуации     порой
противоположные мнения.
     «Народное ток-шоу» - это воспитание народа в духе
тезиса «У всех проблемы одинаковые». Поэтому стоит
человеку в течение недели смотреть эти передачи, ему уже не
захочется вдумываться в вопросы более серьезные. Он уже не
включит ток-шоу «говорящих голов» - а ведь при всей их
скучности там хотя бы можно было бы расширить свой
кругозор...


                                                        169
UNIT      SIX           REVENGE AND RETRIBUTION

LEAD-IN

1     Which of the following examples of wrongdoing is the most
serious? Working with a partner, discuss the implications of
each and see if you can put them in order with the most serious
first and the least serious last.

      a. A driver has too much to drink and still drives his car. He
runs into six people waiting at a bus stop.
      b. A child kicks a ball through a neighbour's window,
breaking it.
      c. A student misses 90% of all classes, fails to produce
written assignments.
      d. A financial advisor gives such poor advice that some of
his clients lose all their savings.
      e. A person who knows he/she has a dangerous infectious
disease deliberately risks infecting other people.
      f.     A teacher preparing students for a public examination
follows the wrong syllabus and the students fail.
      g. A farmer pollutes a river flowing through his land and all
the fish in the river die.
      h. A property developer develops a site, knowingly
destroying important archaeological remains.
      i.     A man walks into the National Gallery and fires a
shotgun at a painting by Leonardo da Vinci.

2    Complete each sentence with one of the words or phrases
given.

• just deserts      • deters       • get his own back         • reprisals
• tooth for a tooth       • mitigating • into his own hands • feud
• retaliated          • settle • cheek         • retaliated • amends
• settle       • fit       • sentence




                                                                       170
1. The two branches of the family have no contact with each
   other, because of a family ………………………… dating
   back fifty years.
2. Stephen doesn't believe in taking things lying down. If
   someone does something against him, his first thought is how
   to ……………………. .
3. When, after a decade of violent crime, Adam Smith was shot
   by the police, people said he had got no more than his
   ……………………… .
4. Whenever one of their soldiers was killed the occupying army
   carried out ……………….. against the civilian population.
5. 'I don't believe in turning the other ……………………..,' said
   Uncle Tobias. 'I believe in an eye for an eye, a(n)
   ............................. .
6. Those who argue for the re-introduction of the death penalty
   believe it ……………………. potential murderers.
7. The jury believed the accused's statement that he killed his
   wife in a(n) ………………….. of jealousy after learning of
   her affair with another man.
8. To make ……………………….. for the damage he had
   caused when he drove his father's car into a tree, Jonathan
   agreed to pay for the repairs and to clean the car every week
   for a year.
9. When the Security Forces killed a demonstrator taking part in
   a protest march, the guerrillas ……………………… with a
   series of attacks on army barracks.
10.         The judge considered that although the crime of which
   the defendant was accused was horrific there was sufficient
   evidence of ……………………. circumstances to justify a
   light sentence.
11.         In cowboy films, the hero often takes the law
   ……………………… when he feels that the forces of law
   and order cannot help him.
12.         Gang warfare broke out as the rival gangs decided to
   …………………….. old scores once and for all.
13.         There was silence as the judge pronounced …………… .



                                                              171
3      Complete the text using the words and phrases given.

• reach a verdict       • charged • under oath      • pass sentence
• dock      • summed up • judge         • witnesses       • plead
• offence         • acquitted     • discretion            • Crown
• determine       • prison        • convicted       • conviction
• committing • represented              • stand     • defendant

                               Criminal Trials in Britain

         Under the British judicial system, if a person is
..............................(1) with a serious offence, he/she has to
..............................(2) trial. This means he/she has to appear in court
before a(n) ..............................(3) and jury. The role of the jury is to
..............................(4) whether the accused is guilty or not guilty.
During the trial, the accused, also known as the
..............................(5), has the right to be ..............................(6)by a
lawyer, the Counsel for the Defence, who must present the best
possible case for the accused. Another lawyer, the Counsel for the
Prosecution, acting for the ..............................(7) (as the State is
known during legal proceedings in Britain) is there to try to secure
a(n) ..............................(8).
         At the start of the trial, the accused stands in the
..............................(9)     and     is     asked       'How           do       you
..............................(10)?' If the plea is 'Not guilty', the trial proceeds
...............................(11) are called to give evidence and are cross-
examined by the lawyers. All evidence is given
..............................(12). When all the evidence has been heard, and
the judge has ..............................(13), the jury retires to
..............................(14). At least ten of the jury must be of the same
opinion.
         If the jury finds the accused not guilty, he/she is
..............................(15). If, on the other hand, the accused is found
guilty, it is up to the judge to ..............................(16). Depending on
the seriousness of the ..............................(17) this may be a fine, a
suspended sentence or a(n) ..............................(18) term. British
courts do not sentence people to death. All judges exercise


                                                                                        172
..............................(19) in the severity of the sentences they pass, but
it is not unknown for a judge to make an example of the
..............................(20) prisoner in order to deter others from
..............................(21) similar offences.

4     Find the following word combinations in the text:

• решение присяжных          • предъявлять обвинение
• заключительная речь судьи       • приводить к присяге
• скамья подсудимых     • правонарушение • справедливый
суд       • истец       • выносить оправдательный приговор
• признать виновным          • обвиняемый


THEME ONE                              An Eye for an Eye

     What is capital punishment?
     Can you name any crimes for which death penalty should be
      used?
     Can you name any country which has it?
     What moral aspect may deter the country from using capital
      punishment?
     Do you think the role of the country should be to punish or to
      reform criminals?


                               The Hangman's Rope

     Capital punishment has been used throughout history,
although its methods and the crimes for which it is used have
changed over the centuries.

      When Parliament in any country debates capital punishment,
each side will accuse the other of dishonesty, and each side will be
right. It is human nature - sophisticated, educated human nature - to
deny the emotional origin of our beliefs, to present them in


                                                                              173
empirical terms rather than admit that we rationalize what we first
instinctively believe.
       Nowadays not only are the methods different but more
importantly not everyone agrees that capital punishment should be
used. It is more honest to admit that we are either hangers or
abolitionists by nature. People are divided into two distinct groups;
those for and those against. This is because this issue is black and
white; there is no grey area. In the USA, 85% of the population over
the age of 21 approve of the death penalty. In the many states which
still have the death penalty, some use the electric chair, which can
take up to 20 minutes to kill, while others use gas or lethal
injections.
       By contrast, in Britain, public opinion started to turn against
the use of capital punishment after the Second World War. A
number of well-publicised cases in the fifties, two in particular,
helped to bring about this swing. The first of these was the case of
Ruth Ellis, who was hanged for shooting her lover in what was
generally regarded as a crime of passion. The second was the
posthumous pardon of Timothy Evans, hanged for murders which, it
was later proved, had been committed by someone else.
       However, despite this change of opinion, the death penalty
was not actually abolished in Britain until 1965. And even now
there are many people both inside and outside Parliament who
would like it to be reintroduced. There have been 14 attempts to
bring back hanging since its abolition.
       The pro-hanging lobby uses four main arguments to support
its call for the reintroduction of capital punishment. First there is the
deterrence theory, which argues that potential murderers would
think twice before committing the act if they knew that they might
die if they were caught. The armed bank robber might, likewise, go
back to being unarmed.
       The next argument in favour of bringing back capital
punishment concerns public security. If the death penalty were
reinstated, it would mean that a convicted murderer could not be set
free after serving 20 years or less of a life sentence and be able to go
on to murder again. Consequently, the general public would be
safer.


                                                                     174
      The other two arguments are more challenging. The idea of
retribution demands that criminals should get what they deserve: if a
murderer intentionally sets out to commit a crime, he should accept
the consequences. Retribution, which is just another word for
revenge, is supported by the religious doctrine of an eye for an eye
and a tooth for a tooth. The fourth and last main pro-hanging
argument is the most cold-blooded. It is that it makes economic
sense to hang convicted murderers rather than keep them in prison
wasting taxpayers' money.
      The hangers are shifty about their motives. Retribution is out
of fashion, and so they stress the level of murder since abolition. In
fact, retribution is more respectable than either side may realise,
perhaps more respectable than deterrence as a justification for
punishment, certainly more so than rehabilitation (not that that
comes much into the hanging debate).
      The arguments against the death penalty are largely
humanitarian. Abolitionists have argued that capital punishment
produces a negligible deterrent effect. There are also statistical
reasons for proving it: the deterrence figures do not add up. In
Britain, 1903 was the record year for executions and yet in 1904 the
number of homicides actually rose. There was a similar occurrence
in 1946 and 1947. If the deterrence theory were correct, the rate
should have fallen.
      The second main argument against reintroducing capital
punishment is that innocent people are sometimes wrongly
convicted, and while people can be released from prison, they
cannot be brought back from the dead if they have been hanged.
      Critics of capital punishment argue that the expense involving
executions is substantially greater than the cost of life
imprisonment. The costs of appeals and legal counseling are the
principal expenses. Thus, the extra financial burden of capital
punishment contributes to a greater balance of unhappiness versus
happiness.
      The other reasons to oppose the death penalty are largely a
matter of individual conscience and belief. One is that murder is
murder and that the state has no more right to take a life than the



                                                                   175
individual. The other is that Christianity preaches forgiveness, not
revenge.
      It can be argued that the purpose of punishment is not to
reform someone - which grossly interferes with his personal
autonomy - but rather to punish, to uphold and objectify the law, to
reward those who obey the law while chastising those who break it.
                Capital Punishment by Simon Haines

5    Give Russian equivalents to the words found in the text:
• вызвать изменения        • посмертное помилование
• теория возмездия        • утверждать         • убийство
• защищать и олицетворять закон         • карать, наказывать

6    Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is
similar in meaning to the following:
Paragraph 1: • knowing and understanding a lot about a subject
             • based on real experience or scientific experiments
Paragraph 5: • a criminal declared guilty by a jury
Paragraph 6: • questionable      • unfeeling
Paragraph 7: • looking dishonest
Paragraph 9: • the ideas and principles of moral behaviour of a
person

7      Explain the following words and phrases:
• rationalize    • this issue is black and white       • negligible
• reinstate

8        Answer the following questions:
    1.   What is the integral part of human nature according to the
         writer?
    2.   How do people distinguish relating to their approach to capital
         punishment?
    3.   What methods of capital punishment are used in some states in
         the USA?
    4.   What is the public opinion on the issue in Great Britain and
         America?



                                                                      176
    5. What well-publicised cases contributed to the change in public
       opinion?
    6. What arguments does the pro-hanging lobby put forward?
       Dwell on the first and the second argument.
    7. What are the other two arguments of the hangers? Why are
       they more challenging?
    8. Why is there some amount of dishonesty in hangers'
       arguments?
    9. What does the writer imply by the phrase that the idea of
       retribution is "out of fashion"?
    10.      Why does the writer refer to abolitionists' arguments as
       'humanitarian' ones?
    11.      What are the arguments of the abolitionists?
    12.      What is the function of punishment according to the
       writer?

9    Summarise in 200 words the differences in approach to
capital punishment between hangers and abolitionists.


THEME TWO                         What is Justice?

      Before you consider in turn each of the two texts in this
section, discuss in groups the following questions:
    What is your idea of justice?
    What do you consider to be a suitable punishment for murder?
    Does the suitability of the punishment depend on the society
      in which the crime occurs, or is there a single answer,
      independent of the setting or the time?
    Can the idea of revenge "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a
      tooth" be realized in modern legislation? In what way?

      Text a is about the Bedu people of Southern Arabia, before
the discovery of oil changed the region and destroyed the old way of
life.



                                                                  177
      Text b is about contemporary western society. Both texts
describe similar tragedies and their very different consequences.

Text a
                Revenge Killing, Arabia, November 1946

      We left Shisur on 9 November in the chill of dawn; the sun
was resting on the desert's rim, a red ball without heat. We walked
as usual till it grew warm, the camels striding in front of us, a
moving mass of legs and necks. Then one by one, as the inclination
took us, we climbed up their shoulders and settled in our seats for
the long hours which lay ahead. The Arabs sang, 'the full-throated
roaring of the tribes'; the shuffling camels quickened their pace,
thrusting forward across the level ground, for we had left the hill
behind us and were on the steppes which border on the Sands. We
noticed the stale tracks of oryx, saw gazelle bounding stiff-legged
across the plain, and flushed occasional hares from withered salt
bushes in shallow watercourses ...
      Bin Mautlauq spoke of the raid in which young Sahail was
killed. He and fourteen companions had surprised a small herd of
Saar camels. The herdsman had fired two shots at them before
escaping on the fastest of his camels, and one of these shots had hit
Sahail in the chest. Bakhit held his dying son in his arms as they
rode back across the plain with the seven captured camels. It was
late in the morning when Sahail was wounded, and he lived till
nearly sunset, begging for water which they had not got. They rode
all night to escape inevitable pursuit. At sunrise they saw some
goats, and a small Saar encampment under a tree in a shallow
valley. A woman was churning butter in a skin, and a boy and a girl
were milking the goats. Some small children sat under the tree. The
boy saw them first and tried to escape but they cornered him against
a low cliff. He was about fourteen years old, a little younger than
Sahail, and he was unarmed. When they surrounded him he put his
thumbs in his mouth as a sign of surrender, and asked for mercy. No
one answered him. Bakhit slipped down off his camel, drew his
dagger, and drove it into the boy's ribs. The boy collapsed at his
feet, moaning, 'Oh my father! Oh my father!' and Bakhit stood over


                                                                  178
him till he died. He then climbed back into his saddle, his grief a
little soothed by the murder he had just committed. As Bin
Mautlauq spoke, staring across the level plain with his hot, rather
bloodshot eyes, I pictured the scene with horrible distinctness. The
small long-haired figure, in white loincloth, crumpled on the
ground, the spreading pool of blood, the avid clustering flies, the
frantic wailing of the dark-clad women, the terrified children, the
shrill insistent screaming of a small baby.
                        Arabian Sands by Wilfred Thesieer

10 Give Russian equivalents to the words found in the text:
• in the chill of dawn • to quicken one‘s pace         • to escape
inevitable pursuit • a sign of surrender • bloodshot eyes

11 Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is
similar in meaning to the following:
Paragraph 1: feeling went faster old leaping surprised
Paragraph 2: attack being followed pulled out pushed groaning
calmed gathering

12 Now say whether the following sentences are true or false.
Justify your answers by reference to the text.

  1. Sahail had been a deliberate target.
  2. Bakhit stayed at the place where the attack happened until his
     son died.
  3. The writer took part in the raid.
  4. The camels were wandering freely without supervision.
  5. The group of raiders travelled all night to avoid being
     attacked.
  6. When they approached the village, their arrival produced no
     effect.
  7. The Saar boy was killed because he refused to surrender.
  8. Bakhit enjoyed killing the boy.
  9. The effect of the boy's death on Bakhit made up for the death
     of his son.



                                                                 179
13 Discuss with a partner whether the tone of the piece is:
          sensational
          uncritical of the behaviour of those involved.
          biased in favour of certain of the characters.
          hostile to the killing.

14 What idea of justice is revealed in this piece? Summarise
the answer in 100 words.

Text b
     Before reading Text b, consider these questions in the light
of what you said about Text a.
    Is it more important to rehabilitate the criminal than to punish
     him?
    Should the victims of crime have a say in the punishment of
     the criminal?
    Is it possible to maintain an equilibrium in the matters of
     justice?

                        Crimes and Punishments

      'No punishment has ever possessed enough power of
deterrence to prevent the commission of crimes. On the contrary,
whatever the punishments, once a specific crime has appeared for
the first time, its reappearance is more likely than its initial
emergence could have been.' (Hannah Arendt)

      'The severity of the punishment must also be in keeping with
the kind of obligation which has been violated, and not (only) with
the interests of public security.' (Simone Weil)

      On the television screen, a middle-aged woman is telling a
reporter about the death of her daughter; her voice and facial
expression oscillate between tremulous grief and controlled rage.
Three years ago, on a spring evening, her twenty-year-old daughter
was walking home from the bus stop after a day of college classes.


                                                                  180
A young man stopped her at knife point and demanded her purse;
she gave it to him and then started to scream. He stabbed her in the
chest. She was dead on arrival at the nearest hospital emergency
room. Because there were several witnesses, the police were able to
arrest the killer on the same night. Six months later, he pleaded
guilty to a reduced charge of manslaughter and received a sentence
of zero-to-seven years. In just thirty months, he was released from
prison for good behaviour.
      'I just can't get over this,' says the slain girl's mother. 'I will
never get over this. To know that the price of my child's life was
less than three years, that this man is free now to do the same thing
to someone else - I can't reconcile myself to it. I can't believe any
more that there is such a thing as justice in the world. Everything I
tried to live by, everything I brought up my children to respect:
things just don't work that way.' The woman tells the reporter she is
active in an organisation for crime victims and their relatives. 'We
all know we have to get on with our lives,' she says, 'but that isn't
easy to do under the circumstances. I felt as though my girl was
killed twice — once by that scum, and once by the judge who said,
well, you only have to go to jail for a few years. They killed her
memory, saying that was all her life was worth.' The outraged
mother spoke of justice, not revenge, but revenge was obviously one
element in an ideal of justice to which she had adhered, without
giving the matter much conscious thought, until the day when the
issue was transformed from an abstraction into a painful personal
reality. This sense of justice is so fundamental to our psychological
well-being that it rarely intrudes upon our consciousness; like many
basic assumptions, it remains largely unexamined unless and until it
is sorely violated. The symbolic 'scales of justice' have a real
meaning for most citizens, who believe that the legal system exists
to maintain a moral and social equilibrium, and to restore the
equilibrium when it has been violently disturbed.
      There is, of course, a wide range of opinion on what
constitutes appropriate redress. For those whose concept of justice is
concerned primarily with the criminal's rights and prospects for
rehabilitation, any extended punishment is simply another crime.
For those focused totally on the victim's rights, only executions or


                                                                     181
other severe penalties will suffice to restore a sense of moral
balance. Between these extremes lies a broad 'concept of justice that
demands a greater measure of retribution than the American legal
system currently dispenses, a spectrum of retribution that excludes
both execution and the release of a killer from prison in less than
three years. This intermediate sense of justice - one that is, I believe,
shared by the largest proportion of the public -has been outraged by
the inadequate response of the legal system to the rising incidence
of violent crime during the past twenty years. Such outrage is
unquestionably the single most important factor in the emotional
resurgence of support for capital punishment today; it must be
addressed by those who refuse, as I do, to include death in their
concept of retributive justice.
                                  Wild Justice by Susan Jacoby

15 Find    English       equivalents     to   the    following     word
combinations:

• угрожать ножом            • свыкнуться с мыслью (о чем-либо)
• примириться с чем-либо         •    жить      по    (правилам,
принципам)             • участвовать в работе организации жертв
преступлений          • продолжать жить         • при данных
обстоятельствах             •      придерживаться       взглядов
(оставаться верным идеалу или представлению)
• не дав себе труда задуматься об этом вопросе серьезно
• вторгаться в сознание          • являться соответствующей
компенсацией          • общее представление о
• быть достаточным          • отправлять (правосудие)
• оскорбить общественное              •    уровень     серьезных
преступлений          • вновь возникшая поддержка смертной
казни           • карающее правосудие

16 Explain the following words.
• equilibrium …………………………………………….
• spectrum ………………………………………………
• incidence (of crimes) ………………………………….
• resurgence (of support) ………………………………..


                                                                      182
17 Now answer the following questions.

  1. Express briefly in your own words Hannah Arendt's view of
     punishment.
  2. How does the quotation from Simone Weil contrast with
     Arendt's view?
  3. What was the young man sentenced for? How long was the
     trial held?
  4. What does the phrase "a sentence of zero-to-seven years" refer
     to?
  5. How long did the man serve in prison?
  6. What was the reaction of the victim's mother to the young
     man's release? Why?
  7. She sought revenge, not justice, didn't she?
  8. How could you explain the following statement: "… revenge
     was obviously one element in an ideal of justice to which she
     had adhered, without giving the matter much conscious
     thought, until the day when the issue was transformed from an
     abstraction into a painful personal reality"?
  9. What does the writer imply by saying that "… sense of justice
     is fundamental to our psychological well-being"?
  10.       According to the text, what is the meaning behind the
     symbolic 'scales of justice'?
  11.       What is the difficulty about the idea of 'appropriate
     redress'?
  12.       In the writer's opinion, what view of justice is shared by
     most people?
  13.       What has happened in the last twenty years to this view?
  14.       And what has given rise to it?
  15.       What have these texts been selected to show?

17 Write a summary in 120-150 words contrasting the
different attitudes to justice revealed in Text a and Text b.




                                                                   183
                          THEME THREE

   What types of TV programmes do not ignore sensationalism?
   Why do people enjoy strories about other people's private
    lives, especially involving unpleasant or shocking details?
   Why do you think voyeuristic programmes appear on TV at
    all?

      Notes:
      On Feb. 4, 1997, British au pair Louise Woodward, who had
been hired in November 1996 by Sunil and Deborah Eappen to care
for their sons, frantically called police to report that baby Matthew
was having trouble breathing. Paramedics revealed fractured skull
and a month-old wrist fracture. Prosecutors say that Woodward
admitted to shaking Matthew and to dropping him on the floor and
tossing him on a bed. State medical examiners say Matthew hit the
floor with the "force equivalent to a fall from a second-story
window." The baby spent four days on life support before dying on
Feb. 9. Louise Woodward was found guilty of murder in the death
8-month-old Matthew Eappen in Massachusetts. A judge later
reduced the charge to involuntary manslaughter, sentenced the
nanny, then 19, to time served and sent her home to England.

     Text a
                  Justice Done and Viewed To Be Done

      Louise Woodward made history this week as the first British
murder defendant - to go through her trial in front of the television
cameras. Had she been tried in Britain, only a few dozen people
would have seen her testimony and cross-examination.
      Louise Woodward's case has caught the public imagination,
Jim Rudder, deputy head of Sky News believes, "because it's got all
the right ingredients — a young British girl just having left home
caught up in the nightmare of : the US justice system.
      The law bans cameras, even still ones, from the courts in
England and Wales. There is no ban in Scotland but, while judges


                                                                  184
there have allowed TV cameras to film criminal trials, they have not
been prepared to allow them to be televised live. The prospect of
live British trials on our TV screens soon is not one to put money
on.
      At the time, 45 of the 51 US states allowed cameras in
courtrooms: now- 48 do. Not one state which has experimented with
cameras has gone on to reject them. Limited coverage, on State
TV, began in the 1950s in Oklahoma and Colorado. The first state
to allow national television coverage was Florida in the 1970s,
which then became the pace setter for opening up the courts.
      The rules differ dramatically from state to state. Even in states
with liberal attitudes, the ultimate authority in most cases remains
the trial judge. In general, if the judge doesn't want the cameras,
they are not allowed. Judges do not have similar powers over the
written press. Only a handful of the million or so criminal trials held
each year in the United States is ever televised.
      Most jurisdictions rule out certain categories of coverage.
These normally include domestic disputes, rape cases and cases
involving juveniles. Many courts set restrictions on the coverage;
for example, most states forbid the cameras to show the jury, and
many do not allow the gallery to be shown. If a defendant objects in
advance to television coverage, it is likely that, the court will accept
the objection:, but many defendants seem to feel that televised trials
help their cases rather than harm them.
      American jurisdictions have carried out extensive research
into the impact of the cameras. Studies of various kinds have been
carried out by the federal government and by 41 states. In all cases
they have concluded that the cameras should continue to be allowed
and that the impact, if any, on the proceedings has been favourable
rather than unfavourable on the quality of justice. After nearly 40
years, only one case has ever been overturned on appeal as a result
of television coverage, and that was in 1965, when the television
technology was much more cumbersome and physically intrusive
than it is nowadays.
      In Scotland, where the judges had the power to let cameras in,
Lord Hope, Lord President of the Court of Session, felt it was in the
public interest for Scots to learn more about their criminal justice


                                                                     185
system. The result was BBC2's documentary series, The Trial, first
broadcast in 1994 and repeated in early 1996. Broadcasters were
allowed to film criminal trials provided all the parties — judge,
lawyers, defendants and witnesses — agreed. Getting unanimous
consent proved difficult, but a few trials were filmed, on condition
that they were shown only after the trial and any possible appeals
had finished.
        There is a strong argument for televising the courts. The
principle that justice must be seen to be done is as deeply embedded
in our law as in America's. Only a few dozen reporters and
spectators see even the most celebrated trials. Their reports give
little insight into how the system works.
        Judges in New York and Florida told the Bar Council working
party they had been apprehensive pre-TV, but the experience had
changed their minds. Witnesses and defendants proved no more
intimidated than they would have been by a roomful of reporters.
Miniature cameras which use available light and can be operated by
remote control are unobtrusive, and participants soon forget them.
TV coverage could also boost public confidence in a system which
has still not fully recovered from the exposure of a devastating
series of miscarriages of justice. Should the judges be so frightened
of letting the people see what happens in their courts?
                                        The Guardian

     Text b
                Woodward Speaks Out Against TV Trials

       LOUISE WOODWARD spoke out against the use of
television cameras in courtrooms yesterday, despite the part they
played in starting the campaign that fought for her early release
from jail.
       The British au pair complained that the televising of her trial
last year had given her unwanted celebrity and had led to the
trivialising of her trial for the murder of baby Matthew Eappen.
Speaking at the Edinburgh Television Festival, Ms Woodward said:
"People are not able to distinguish between notoriety and celebrity. I
never wanted to be in this position. I don't want to be a minor


                                                                   186
celebrity -I am not famous for anything good and people ask me to
sign baseball caps. "I am trying to be a normal 20-year-old and
people won't let me do that."
      She said that her notoriety all stemmed from the televising of
her trial: "I was never asked if I wanted cameras in the courtroom ...
I would have said no. It is hard enough to stand handcuffed in the
dock without a camera trying to get a clear shot of my hands".
      She said because of the cameras her behaviour in the
courtroom, rather than the evidence, became the focus of news
reports. Her giggle was given great significance and because she
couldn't get a haircut or use make-up in prison she was dubbed the
"Nanny from Hell". When she changed her hairstyle, she said she
was accused of trying to look "sweet and innocent". But she did not
deny that the cameras may have contributed to her release after her
manslaughter conviction, when she was given a sentence already
covered by the time she had served.
      "I couldn't say what influenced the judge," she said. "I hope he
based his decision on law, not on public opinion. Do we really want
the public to be policing the courts? Should we just replace 12
people as a jury with an opinion poll?" She added: "Television turns
a courtroom into a soap opera, turns it into entertainment, but a
courtroom is a serious place dealing with people's lives."
                                   The Independent, September 1998

18 Fine English equivalents to the following word-
combinations:

• вести прямую трансляцию • окончательное решение
• налагать ограничения на показ (судебных процессов)
• отменять решение суда по делу • были напуганы не больше
чем       • укрепить доверие общества • судебная ошибка

19 Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is
similar in meaning to:

Paragraph 6: • a country or area in which a particular legal
         system operates       • juvenile


                                                                   187
Paragraph 9: • be slightly worried or nervous about something
         • not attracting much attention or causing much reaction
         from other people       • the act of making something
         publicly known because you believe it is wrong or illegal

20 Explain the meaning of the following phrases:

• make history ………………………………………..
• cumbersome ………………………………………….
• unanimous consent …………………………………...
• to be embedded in the law …………………………….

21 Answer the following questions:

   1. Why did Louise Woodward's case receive such considerable
      publicity?
   2. What approach do Great Britain and America take towards TV
      coverage of criminal trials?
   3. What power do judges in America and Scotland exercise when
      it comes to cameras in court?
   4. What restrictions are placed on televising the trials in
      America?
   5. What are the arguments for televising the courts?
   6. What does the writer imply be the phrase "justice must be seen
      to be done'?
   7. What arguments against the use of TV cameras in court does
      Louise Woodward put forward (in Text b)?

22 Summarise in 200 words the information provided by both
texts.     Use the following phrases to connect contrasting ideas:

     be different from       be distinct/dissimilar from
     unlike something        in contrast with
     be a departure from
     there is a world of difference between




                                                                 188
                         LANGUAGE FOCUS
                     Discussing both sides of an issue

23 The boxes contain some useful language for discussing
both sides of an issue.

Expressing hesitation
   On the one hand …, but on the other …
   In a sense … however …
   That's true up to a point, but …
   It must be said that …, however
   More often than not …

Expressing an Alternative Viewpoint
   There is also the matter of …
   A point in favour of … is …
   Something worth mentioning is …
   Not to be taken lightly is the fact that …
   Apart from that …
   We can't ignore the fact that …

Expressing agreement with an opinion
I'd go along with you on that.
I'd tend to agree with you.
I couldn't agree more.
I'm with you on that.
That's exactly my opinion. / That's just how I see it.

     In pairs, use the above phrases to discuss what you think
on the points below.

   capital punishment, arguments for and against
               There are some prompts to help you.
       Deterrence / doesn't deter crime
       hard to kill a wrongly convicted criminal
       more humane than life imprisonment


                                                           189
         maximum public safety
         less expensive than execution
         possibility of innocent death

A: I believe that the retributive notion of punishment is that
criminals deserve punishment, and punishment should be equal to
the harm done.
B: I'd go along with you on that. Retribution involves punishment
which is commonly expressed in the idea "an eye for an eye."
C: On the one hand your words sound reasonable, but on the other
hand retribution cannot be uniformly applied to every crime
committed. Punishment can be inadequate. For example, if a
terrorist or mass murderer kills ten people, then his single life is
technically not punishment in kind.

   TV coverage in courts, the arguments against and in favour
    of it
                There are prompts to help you.
        positive/ negative impact on the audience, the jury, the
          trial
        insight how the legal system works
        increase in public confidence in a legal system
        turning a trial into entertainment
        interference with the accused rights

   People should be tried by jury for serious offences like
    homicide.
           There are prompts to help you.
       less chance of wrong verdict
       costly in terms of money and time
       influence on jury's opinion by skilled lawyers
       People should be on trial by jury for serious offences like
         homicide.

   It should be compulsory to vote in a referendum on the re-
    introduction of capital punishment.



                                                                 190
         There are prompts to help you.
          basic human rights
          every person's civic duty
          freedom to choose
          foundation of democracy
          voting doesn't change anything


     A: Of course, voting is a basic human right, so I suppose we
should take advantage of it.
     B: That's true up to a point but then again …


                           TALKING POINTS

24 How do you get your own back?

     If the following things happened to you, what would you want
to do?

  1. You were wrongly accused of stealing.
  2. Your best friend was killed in a terrorist bomb explosion.
  3. A person in authority tried to damage your reputation.
  4. Someone made derogatory remarks about you on the basis of
     where you come from.
  5. Someone was rude about your physical appearance.
  6. A neighbour kept waking you up at night with loud music.

       Look at the following quotes. Do you agree with them?

  1.   'Don't get mad, get even.'
  2.   'Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned.'
  3.   'Revenge is a dish best tasted cold.'
  4.   'Kiss and make up.'
  5.   'Forgive and forget.'
  6.   'He that is without sin amongst you, let him first cast a stone.'


                                                                      191
  7. 'Revenge, at first though sweet. Bitter ere long back on itself
     recoils.'
  8. 'Resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right
     cheek, turn to him the other also.'

     Look at the following list of bad behaviour, misdemeanours
and crimes. What punishment would you consider suitable?

  1. A girl finds out that her boyfriend of six months is seeing
     someone else.
  2. A man stole £10,000 from a bank and gave it all to charity.
  3. A lorry driver fell asleep at the wheel and crashed into a mini-
     bus, killing seven people.
  4. A surgeon was supposed to cut off a patient's right leg.
     Instead, he cut off the left leg.
  5. A teacher had inside information about examination questions.
     He told his students and the examining board found out.
  6. A man obtained an airline steward's uniform and travelled
     around the world by just walking onto the aeroplane and
     offering to help.
  7. An unemployed man used his credit card to take his family on
     a round-the-world trip. He was back home before the credit
     card company realised he couldn't pay.


                  VOCABULARY of the UNIT

25 Study the meanings of the words. Provide Russian
equivalents. Translate the examples.

amends n, pl make amends/ all possible amends to smb for
smth; give compensation: make amends to smb for an injury
assassinate v, assassination n to murder (a ruler, a politician, or
other important person)
Capital punishment – punishment by death according to law (=the
death penalty); CULTURAL NOTE: Capital punishment is no


                                                                  192
longer used in Britain, but it is regularly discussed in parliament.
Some people would like it to be reintroduced for all murders, some
for terrorists, and some for those who kill policemen. Several US
states use capital punishment and carry it out by a variety of
methods including the electric chair, poisonous gas, and injection of
poison.
conviction       n    the convicting of a person of a crime. The
conviction of the accused man surprised us. There were five
acquittals and six convictions.
      to secure a conviction
the Crown n – a sovereign; to act for the Crown
deter sb from doing smth v        discourage, hinder: Failure did not
deter him from trying again. deterrent adj, n tending to: Do you
believe that the hydrogen bomb is a deterrent, that it will deter
countries from making war? deterrence n The policy of nuclear
deterrence has negligible effect.
deserts n, pl what smb deserves
      to be rewarded/punished according to one’s deserts
      to get/meet with one’s (just) deserts
discretion n freedom to act according to one‘s own judgment, to
do what seems right or best. Use your discretion. It’s with in your
own discretion. (You are free to decide). discrete                adj
discontinuous; individually distinct.
      to exercise discretion
dock n enclosure in a criminal court for the prisoner
      to be in the dock
execute v to kill sb as a lawful punishment; She was executed for
murder; execution n
feud n a bitter quarrel between two persons, families or groups
over a long period of time
      to be at feud with smb
judiciary n /the + sing./pl./ all the judges in the court of law,
considered as one group and forming one of the branches of
government: The judiciary has/have been consulted. judicial adj
a judicial decision
justice n the action or power of the law. The police do all they can
to bring criminals to justice


                                                                  193
jury n + sing/pl. verb a group of usu. 12 people chosen to hear all
details of a case in a court of law and give their decision on it.
      The jury has/have returned/given a verdict of guilty. The jury
find/finds the accused guilty or not guilty.
manslaughter n the crime of killing a person illegally but not
intentionally
mitigate      n make less severe, violent or painful; mitigating
circumstances those that may make a mistake, crime, etc seem less
serious; mitigation n
oath n solemn declaration that smth is true; be on/under oath
(legal) having sworn to tell the truth; The judge reminded the
witness that he was still under oath.
      to put smb under oath to require to swear an oath.
pardon v, n an action of a court forgiving a person for an illegal
act and giving freedom from punishment; to pardon sb for smth
penalty n a penalty for breaking a law, rule, or legal punishment
      to pay the penalty for smth; the death penalty
plaintiff n person who brings an action at law
      plea for smth n an urgent or serious request; a statement by
smb in a court of law, saying whether or not they are guilty of a
charge
      The accused entered a plea of “not guilty”.
plead v ~ for/against sb; address a court of law as a an advocate
on behalf of either the plaintiff or the defendant;
      to plead guilty/ not guilty admit/deny the one is guilty: “How
do you plead? – Not guilty, my Lord.”
redress n payment for a wrong that has been done
      You must seek redress in the law courts for the damage to
your car.
rehabilitate v to make (a person) able to live a healthy, useful, or
active life again, esp. After being ill or in prison; rehabilitation n
reprisal, also reprisals n 1. Paying back injury with injury; do
smth by way of reprisal 2. pl acts of retaliation, esp. of one country
or another during a war
      to carry out reprisals against smb
retaliate against/upon – v return the same sort of ill treatment that
one has received; retaliate upon one’s enemy. He retaliated by


                                                                   194
kicking the other fellow on the ankle. If we raise our import duties
on their goods, they may retaliate against us.
retaliation n returning ill treatment for ill treatment in retaliation
for retaliatory adj retaliatory measures
retribution (for) n a severe deserved punishment; retributive
adj
revenge (for, on) n in revenge; to take revenge on sb; to revenge
oneself on sb = to take revenge on sb
sentence n statement by a judge of punishment
       a six-year sentence; prison/ jail sentence; the death sentence;
a life sentence; to serve a sentence
suspended sentence a punishment given by a court which the
offender only has to serve if he or she commits another crime in that
period of time
settle v make an agreement about; decide, determine; That settles
the matter. It’s time you settled the dispute/argument. Nothing is
settled yet. Lawsuit was settled amicably/ out of court.
settled fixed; unchanging, permanent; a man of settled conviction.
settlement n the act of settling (a dispute, debt, etc) The terms of
settlement seem just. We hope for a lasting settlement of all these
troubles. The strikers have reached a settlement with the employers.
       to settle the score
sum up v to give the total of evidence and rule on points of law;
The judge summed up the evidence.
summing-up n summings-up pl. judge‘s review of evidence,
argument in a law-case
verdict n decision reached by a jury on a question of fact in a law
case: The jury brought in a verdict of guilty/not guilty.
       to reach/pass a verdict; to bring in a verdict

to get one’s own back on smb/ to get back at smb          have one‘s
revenge: He tricked me this time but I’ll get my own back one day
to take smth lying down to suffer smth bad without complaining
or trying to stop it. You mustn’t take his rudeness lying down.
to take the law into one’s own hands




                                                                   195
26 Translate into Russian.

  1. It seemed from the judge's summing up that he favored a
     conviction. So when, despite all this, the jury returned a
     verdict "Not guilty", Anthony felt a sense of personal triumph.
  2. Looking hard at the jury Anthony spoke without emotion and
     spared himself nothing: "Gentlemen, this isn't the first time I
     have stood in the dock. My brother and I were tried long ago.
     That trial took place before we were born. We were tried for
     the acts of our ancestors, were convicted and sentenced to live
     in a world of prejudice. We have committed no crime, but we
     are coloured. Even if you acquit me now that sentence still
     stands.
  3. "She'll probably be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for
     perjury," said Mr Mayheme quietly.
  4. Fear of being caught acts as a deterrent to breaking the law.

27 Put the following statements and questions into English,
using Vocabulary of the Unit; comment on the statements and
answer the questions.

  1. Нам необходимы меры сурового наказания, чтобы
     предотвратить распространение наркотиков.
  2. Считаете ли вы, что угроза наказания имеет
     устрашающее воздействие?
  3. Ядерное сдерживание представляется необходимой
     гарантией против агрессии.
  4. Всегда ли обвиняемый получает справедливый приговор?
  5. Люди, которых приговорили к тюремному заключению,
     выйдут из тюрьмы морально изменившимися в
     положительную сторону и больше не способны
     совершить преступление.
  6. Если вы забыли о дне рождения друга, как вы можете
     загладить свою вину?
  7. Каких известных политиков, государственных деятелей
     вы знаете, на которых было совершено покушение и они
     были убиты?


                                                                 196
  8. В каких случаях мы склонны говорить ―Он получил по
     заслугам”?
  9. Кто в судебном заседании пользуется правом свободного
     решения?
  10.     Право кровной мести не имеет право на
     существование в современном мире.
  11.     В уголовном деле не могут приниматься во внимание
     никакие смягчающие обстоятельства.
  12.     Вождение в нетрезвом состоянии является серьезным
     правонарушением.
  13.     Какое максимальное наказание за убийство в
     европейских странах?
  14.     Может     ли     месть,     возмездие    принести
     удовлетворение?
  15.     Каков наилучший способ уладить спор?

28 Practise the following pattern.

      Model : It is not unknown for a judge to make an example of
the convicted prisoner.
            Известно довольно много случаев, когда судья
выносил показательный приговор.

      This type of combination is very common in English, serving
to create a ―middle‖ meaning – halfway between the positive and
the negative.

       a     Translate the following sentences into Russian.
  1.   It had to be said that Angie's beauty was not irrelevant to his
       decision to enter the competition.
  2.   As he felt something not dissimilar, although for very
       different reasons, he knew he had a lot to offer.
  3.   You need to decide on a holiday in a country whose climate is
       not uncomfortable for either of you.
  4.   He tried to deal with me roughly, but I challenged his
       approach and showed him in no uncertain manner who was
       who.


                                                                   197
      b    Translate the following sentences, using a suitable
adjective from the list (think of opposite meanings):
      • natural • favourable • mindful • attractive • like •
interesting • common • responsive • frequent

  1. Сейчас был весьма благоприятный момент для
     откровенного разговора.
  2. Предложение было достаточно заманчивым.
  3. Больной очень неплохо реагировал на новый курс
     лечения.
  4. Разрабатывая проект, он не забывал о данных ему
     инструкциях.
  5. На него это очень похоже – говорить одно, а делать
     другое.
  6. То, о чем вы говорите, не столь уж редкое явление.
  7. Книга не захватывающая, но и не лишенная интереса.
  8. Когда она улыбалась, то становилась похожей на лису.
  9. Когда прошла неделя, за ней вторая, а писем все не было,
     естественно, мы начали волноваться.
  10.     В наши дни собственная машина уже стала чем-то
     вполне обычным.
  11.     Рецензии на фильм были в целом благоприятными.
  12.     К сожалению, такие вещи происходят довольно
     часто.

29 Look up the meanings of the words in a dictionary and use
them in the following sentences.

      1. suffice – sufficiency – sufficient – sufficiently -
insufficient

  1.   Her income … for her needs.
  2.   There was … food for everybody.
  3.   Some bread and soup will … me.
  4.   The price was increased … to cover production costs.
  5.   There were … supplies to feed everybody.



                                                              198
6. There are a number of problems for agriculture in this area,
   such as … rainfall.
7. These few examples should … to illustrate how social
   attitudes are changing.
8. We haven‘t got … information from which to draw a
   conclusion.
9. When he had recovered … from his accident, he was
   interviewed by the police.
10.      The data we have is … to enable us to form any
   conclusions.

  2.    perceive – perception – perceptible – perceptive

1. He … a subtle change in her manner.
2. There had been a small but … change in the nature of their
   relationship.
3. Events confirmed our … that she had been treated unfairly.
4. They … that they were unwelcome and left.
5. She knew there was something on my mind – mothers are very
   … like that.
6. We were unable to … where the problem lay.
7. The radio programme gave a … analysis of Anglo-American
   relations.

  3.    assume – assumption – assuming

1. I … everyone here has an email address.
2. Your argument is based on a completely false … .
3. There is an … that all the people who live around here are
   rich.
4. Everyone accepted she was telling the truth, although in fact
   this was quite a lot.
5. … your calculations are correct, we should travel northeast.
6. People tend to make … about you based on your appearance.
7. The law works on the … that it is preferable for children to be
   with their mother.



                                                               199
30 Render the following text into English.

                   Казнить профессию палача?

     Недавно на телевидении в одной из программ ведущий
обсуждал с гостями проблему отмены смертной казни.
     По данным опросов, у нас сейчас примерно 58%
населения против отмены смертной казни, и это еще не так
много: в большинстве стран, где смертная казнь отменена,
процент противников был куда выше. В России уже несколько
лет действует мораторий на смертную казнь, правда, не из
моральных соображений, а из общеевропейских требований.
Несколько лет после введения запрета в 1966 г. люди молчали.
Казалось, что правозащитникам удалось всех убедить, что
отсутствие смертной казни делает нас «европейцами». Но как
показывает статистика – не сделало: уровень преступности
вырос, сами преступления стали более жестокими.
     Вот ответы участников той передачи на вопрос, что они
думают об отмене смертной казни.
         Оставляя смертную казнь как высшую меру, нужно
подумать, что мы хотим этим добиться? Наказать человека,
совершившего страшное преступление. Но если это все-таки
человек, то для него длительное заключение может быть
страшнее казни. А если государство убивает преступника, чтоб
другим неповадно было, то это бессмысленно: тяжкие
преступления совершают психопаты, и никакими казнями их не
напугаешь.
         Думаю, смертную казнь отменять нельзя. По
статистике почти каждый преступник, выходя на свободу,
вновь совершает преступление. Казнив одного преступника,
можно спасти жизнь многих других людей, освободив
общество от постоянной опасности.
         Если не демонстрировать решимости бороться с
преступниками самыми жесткими методами, власть не будут
бояться. С убийцами надо говорить на их языке, нельзя
проявлять слабость.



                                                         200
          Насколько я знаю, смертные приговоры у нас
исполняются совсем не сразу, остается время на помилование.
С другой стороны, а вдруг ошибка, Ведь это необратимо,
исправить после исполнения казни ничего нельзя.
          Смертную казнь отменять не надо. Пожизненное
заключение, по-моему, менее гуманно: это тоже смерть, но
медленная и мучительная, ведь преступники содержатся в
тюрьмах в жутких условиях.
          Мораторий на смертную казнь за убийства является
серьезным нарушением прав подавляющего большинства
законопослушных граждан нашего общества.
          Смертная казнь должна быть незримым оружием,
мечом правосудия. Другим неповадно будет. А вообще меня
это вряд ли коснется.
          Преступники совершившие убийства сотни людей,
например, террористы, сегодня отделываются «пожизненным
заключением» с надеждой попасть под амнистию. Более того,
зная, что высшей меры удастся избежать, они часто глумятся и
над судом, и над свидетелями, и над родственниками
потерпевших.
          Европейские правозащитники упирают на мораль.
Но по какой шкале можно измерить горе родителей и
осиротевших детей?
          Профилактический эффект смертной казни невелик.
Убийства совершаются и в странах с самой свирепой системой
наказаний. Восстановление смертной казни удовлетворит
естественное чувство мести детей и родителей убитых, но к
оздоровлению общества не приведет. Восстановление смертной
казни, скорее, выявит наше бессилие в борьбе с преступностью.
          Мне кажется, никто не сможет объяснить матери
убитого ребенка, почему убийцу оставили в живых …

     Мнений было много, и они были все разные, но ведущего
поразила главная, единая для всех особенность: речь скорее
шла не о смертной казни, а о цене, о ценности человеческой
жизни.



                                                          201
                           LISTENING

UNIT      ONE

                           Britain today

     a) Look up the meanings of the following word-
combinations.
     • wholemeal bread      • skimmed milk    •   to consume,
consumer, consumption       • a retail sector • premature death
     • DIY - Do It Yourself

     b) Listen to the tape and make notes about the things
mentioned in the list below. Make use of any statistical
information given to you.
     1     Eating           2   Drinking
     3     TV watching      4   TV ownership
     5     Video            6   Telephones
     7     Central heating  8   Washing machines
     9     Cars             10 Cinema
     11 Books               12 Newspapers:
national/regional

      c) Answer the following questions.
      1. What book tells us about the way Britons live now?
      2. Have there been any changes in eating habits? Can you
name any?
      3. What can the rise in alcohol consumption be accounted
for?
      4. What do most Britons do in their free time?
      5. What consumer durables can British homes boast?
      6. Why can smoking be considered a major killer in Great
Britain?




                                                            202
                                Civil Cases

      a) Read the following text, but do not attempt to fill
the gaps until you have listened to this judge talking about
his experiences in matrimonial cases. Then complete the
text with a suitable word or phrase according to the
information on the tape.
      The type of civil cases the judge enjoyed most were those
concerned with………..(1) where he could make his own
decision. The most depressing were the…… (2) cases. He often
had to deal with applications for ….… (3) to stop a man ……
(4) his wife. He also had to act in cases of the ……. (5) of
relationships where children were involved and to decide what
were the best …… (6) for them. He sometimes had to make the
difficult decision to … (7) men to visit their children if the wife
was given custody, and he, as the judge, felt that visits might
be harmful.

      (Note: the judge has an accent characteristic of the
prestigious accent used by the traditional ruling class in Britain.)

    b) Find the meanings of the following word-
combinations. Produce the context for the word combinations:

• civil cases     • to sit in a county court     • get a straightforward
dispute           •argue about one‘s boundary                • jury
• matrimonial stuff • applications for an injunction – прошение о
судебном запрете • the marriage or the liaison breaks up
• to ensure       • to assess to what extent smth might be good or
bad         • deliberately           • to turn sb against sb

     c)    Answer the following questions and complete the
tasks:
     1.    What kind of dispute can be rather enjoyable for a judge?
     2.    What did the judge learn while hearing matrimonial
cases?



                                                                     203
        3.   What did applications for an injunction sometimes deal
with?
     4. What does the judge have to approve in the cases where
the marriage or the liaison breaks up?
     5. What does he have to ensure in such cases?
     6. What does he have to assess?


                              Living in Oxford

     a) Listen to Helen talking about living in Oxford, now
and as a student.
     Make notes and give an indication of the good and bad
points.

        a)   Now – Good points …….…………………………..
        b)   Now – Bad points ………………………………….
        c)   As a Student - Good Points …………………………
        d)   As a Student – Bad Points ………………………….

       b) Find the meanings of the following word
combinations. Produce the context for the word combinations:
       • be frenetic and chaotic             • to work in a free-lance
capacity • to keep up contacts with               •   the networks of
communication            • broadsheets            • community of like-
minded people            •to do anything high-powered         • to be stuck
• distorted view         • frantic lifestyle      •be insulated


     c) Answer the following questions.
     1. Why does Helen want to stay in Oxford?
     2. Is it easy to make contact with people in Oxford?
     3. Are the job opportunities good in Oxford?
     What are the good and the bad points in living in Oxford as a
student?




                                                                       204
     UNIT TWO

                             Peeping Tom

     a) Find meanings to the following word-combinations
before listening to the tape.

     • to come out with obscenities           • be a level-headed
person      • to clear off       • I crept along     • I followed
him by peeking here and there
      b) Read the following text, and then complete the text
with a suitable word or phrase according to the information on
the tape.
      A woman who lived in a ……………………. (1) flat was
alerted to the presence of a prowler when ………………….. (2).
She got up, wearing her ………………… (3)_, and saw a man
looking through the window. She told him to go away and he
replied with some …………………… (4). The woman started to be
………………… (5) and, terrified, phoned the police. She
threatened she would …………………… (6) but the policewoman
just ……………………. (7). By the time the police arrived, the
man had ……………………. (8), but finally he was found and
…………………… (9).


                   Why Do People Take Risks?

      a) Look up the following word-combinations in the
dictionary before listening to the tape.
• be prone to something     • get one's kick from doing something
• white-knuckle activities • be a feat in itself
      b) Answer the following questions.
   1. What questions does the presenter ask at the beginning of the
      programme?
   2. What do 'yes' answers suggest?
   3. What statistics on adventure sport are provided on the tape?



                                                                205
  4. What is Adrenalin Village in London famous for?
  5. What does the director of Adrenalin Village, Simon Mayes
     insist on?
  6. Why do people take risks (according to Mr Mayes)?
  7. What is Professor Barrie Gunter's opinion on the causes of
     thrill-seeking?
  8. What different character types did Professor Gunter identify?
  9. Who are the 'groundhogs' and the 'wallflowers'?
  10.      Is Mary Welsh a thrill-seeker? Why (not)?

        c)   Sum up in 150 words the information provided on the
tape.


UNIT THREE

                              Pocket money

      Listen to these children talking about pocket money and how
they spend it.

      a) Find the meanings of the following word
combinations.
      Stephen: • save up      • take over twenty-five pence
      Claire: • irresistible • on the way      • end up with (some
sum of) money • allowance for smth • blacksmith           • vet‘s fee
      Robbie: • get Charlie (a pony) on permanent loan
                   • a head-collar • knee-drapes
      Terry: • do a paper round • a Rushden Town Football Club
lottery    • Canary Cup       • Rushden Rangers


      b) Listen to the tape. Make notes on the text, and answer
the following questions. Give precise figures wherever possible.
      1. How much do they receive?
      2. How much do they get from work?
      3. What kind of work do they do?
      4. What do they do with their money?


                                                                  206
                           Repayment of a Debt

       a) Find the meanings of the following word-
combinations. Provide the context for them.
• get into • have a jail sentence        • apply for a position
• Kenya Police        • to the effect that           • out of the blue
• an awful lot of money      • in no way       • serious consequences
• feel adventuresome         • surreptitiously       • confined in
• be loath to do      • deduct out             • comply with

    b) Listen to the tape. Make notes on the text and
summarise the information.


     An account Executive Talks about his Job

     a)    Find Russian equivalents before listening to the tape.

      First Part
      • call something an ACA – arrears advice note •           revolve
round        •have a call round with the bailiff
      Second part
      • we call it a cash IP • use a trace procedure     • let off with
it    • plead guilty to a charge • adjourn the case
      Third part
      • come up on the voters‘ roll      • do a household check
• a sound sort of contract

      b) Listen to the first part of the tape and write down
your answer to the questions as a number/numbers (e.g. two) or
a number/ numbers and one other word. (e.g. two weeks).
   1. How long can people be in arrears before the accounts
      representative calls?
   2. How long do people take to pay arrears?
   3. How many customers does the company have?



                                                                    207
  4. How many are in arrears?
  5. What is the maximum and minimum percentage of people
     likely to be in arrears?
  6. How many reminders are usually sent?
  7. How long can customers be in arrears before the company
     starts legal proceedings?
  8. How long do customers have to respond to a letter demanding
     payment?
  9. How long does it take to recover the equipment after the
     default notice served?

      c) Now listen to the second part of the tape, which tells
the story of one particular customer who got into arrears. Make
notes on the following points and re-tell the story.


                           For Richer, for Poorer

      a) Find the meanings of the following word-combinations.
Listen to the tape.
• affect relationship • handle joint finance           •      deep-seated
grievances        • greed      • hypocrisy       • badly drafted will
• to be involved with skinflints or compulsive spender
• exchange vows          • to get by       • worker with precarious
tenure            • to tie in with something • single out common
villains of financial dramas         • be carelessly debonair about
• be flabbergasted       • when you‘re courting somebody
• indulgence             • have a toytown attitude to money
• to splash out          • a tangible token

      b) And answer the questions.
1. What is the topic of the programme?
2. What questions does the presenter pose at the beginning of the
interview?
3. What did Terry Allison's research reveal?
4. What is Hannah's story?
5. What messages does money carry according to Terry Allison?


                                                                      208
6. What types of misunderstanding does money cause?
7. Why is Ruth an example of a confused agreement case?
8. What arguments does James provide to explain his position in the
matter?
9. What does Anna's case illustrate?
10. What family problems is money the focus for?
11. What main characteristic of couples with different approaches to
money does Terry Allison give?

     c) Now listen to the tape again and find of what words
or phrases are used for the following.
     1      any subject that polite people do not refer to
     2      the major earner in the family
     3      the legal document indicating how a person wants things
disposed of on death
     4      people who are extremely mean with money
     5      managed
     6      would not even consider
     7      a person who is seen merely as a provider of the basic
necessities and is not appreciated for it
     8      what you earn from work
     9      to spend extravagantly
     10 to control the money


     UNIT FOUR

                        Living in Portugal

      a) Listen to Jean talking about her experience of moving
to a foreign country.
      b) Look up the pronunciation of some geographical
names at the dictionary: Portugal, Lisbon, Pavede.
   1     List three consequences of Jean's not being able to speak
         Portuguese when she first went to live in Portugal.




                                                                 209
   2      Pick out three areas where life in Portugal improved for
          Jean after she had been there for some time. Indicate the
          nature of the change.


                                  Clothes

          a) Find meanings of the following word combinations.
• to wear casual clothes        • to call for     • to be in stock fashion
• to a certain extent • to identify smb by smth • as opposed to
• the odd pair of jeans         • to go a bit over the top • a piece of
plastic      • run up a bill of       • pretty sombre clothes
• to portray a matter-of-fact but pleasing outward appearance
• to be the done thing          • to go along with             • to look out
of character with the set-up and the image              • to wear denim
• to wear softer cords          • Time takes its toll.

          b) Answer the following questions.
   1.   What kind of clothes do they wear for work?
   2.   What job do they do?
   3.   What kind of clothes do they wear when they are not working?
   4.   What attitudes do they have to clothes?
   5.   How do they buy clothes?
   6.   What do they now think of clothes they wore in the past?

           c) Answer additional questions to develop the theme.
   1.   Why is it difficult to decide what to wear?
   2.   When would you see people wearing uniforms?
   3.   What logos tell you?
   4.   What is the difference in the kind of clothes the expensive
        stores carry for the rich and those in stores that cater to the low
        income class?
   5.   Why do they say that it can be expensive to be conservative in
        clothes?
   6.   Do you agree or oppose the following idea ―You must first
        buy the right clothes if you want to get somewhere.‖



                                                                        210
   7. In what case does a person give up one‘s sweaters and
      sneakers and conform to the dress standard?


      UNIT FIVE

                           Publicising the Circus

       a) Find meanings of the following word combinations
before listening to the tape.
• to go about doing smth • publicity           • reduction tickets
• half-price ticket     • radio advert • incorporate local bands •
hold the traffic up
       b) Say whether the statements are true or false
according to the information given on the tape.
    1. They spend less money on publicity if the circus is in a city.
    2. You're likely to see fewer posters if the site for the circus is in
       a field on the edge of a town.
    3. Posters are given out free.
    4. Every school visited gets half-price tickets fort each student.
    5. TV adverts are used in special circumstances.
    6. The circus is not keen on parades because of the danger of
       animal escaping.
    7. Parades take place whenever the police agree.
    8. They always put advertisements on local radio.


                             The Press at Work

a) Find the meaning of the following word combinations before
listening to the tape.
      • to bribe smb     • to exaggerate

b) Answer the following questions using information provided
on the tape.
   1. Which men were at the school when Terry got there?



                                                                      211
  2.   What were they trying to do?
  3.   How were they trying to do this?
  4.   Were they successful?
  5.   Did the true story emerge in the papers?
  6.   What Terry's opinion of the press reports?


                            Review Panel

    a) You'll hear part of a radio programme called Review
       Panel, in which members of the public – Simon, Bruce and
       Alexandra - give their views on television programmes.
    b) Find the meaning of the following word combinations
       before listening to the tape.
• the plot     • to wallop      • a whodunnit • to be clichéd • to be
tongue-in-cheek          • daft      • to be emblazoned
    c) Who expresses the following opinions?
    1. It was odd to see the star in this kind of programme.
    2. It contained elements of various types of programme.
    3. Characters said things which struck me as ridiculous.
    4. Some of the dialogue was clever and amusing.
    5. It was not intended to be a realistic programme.
    6. Most of the characters were typical of this type of programme.
    7. There was an incident that happens in lots of programmes.
    d) Sum up the opinions of panellists.


       UNIT SIX

                              A Judge Speaks

       a) Find Russian equivalents to the following word
combinations. Provide the context for them.
• to rule on a point of law    • to make a submission    • to
keep the jury hanging about    • to be abbreviated •    to be
sympathetic to the move to comment on the silence of sb



                                                                  212
• antecedents         • to have three foolscap sheets of smth
• leniently     • to carry cannabis • to push drugs

      b) Answer the following questions.
   1. What‘s the principal difficulty of being a judge? Why?
   2. What are the difficulties the judge faces while dealing with the
      jury?
   3. What do antecedents tell the judge about?
   4. What plea can be considered self-defeating? Why?
   5. Who is a Recorder?
   6. What directives did the judge often get? Who were they from?
   7. Why did the judge find it difficult sometimes to convict drug
      couriers?
      c) Sum up difficulties which a judge face in court, and
factors that cause the difficulties.


                          A Story with a Moral

       a) Find Russian equivalents to the following word
combinations. Listen to the tape. Complete the tasks given in the
text-book.
• to take smb out to lunch • to laugh smth off • to dodge down •
to bounce • to give smb a description
         b) Answer the following questions.
    1. Describe the man's appearance.
    2. What was the man's purchase?
    3. What did he ask the manageress?
    4. What was her reaction?
    5. How did he pay for his goods?
    6. What caused the man to come into the shop a second time?
    7. Why was the police involved?
    8. What information did the woman provide the police with?
    9. How did the policeman feel when he got the information?
    10.     What is the moral of the story?




                                                                   213
                              The Rolls Royce

     a) Find the meanings of the following word-
combinations.
     • просматривать объявления о продаже машин
     • (типографская) опечатка        • упустить возможность
     • завести машину            • документы на машину
        b) Answer the following questions.
  1. What was the selling price of the car?
  2. How did the man feel when he saw the advertisement in the
     paper?
  3. What did he do?
  4. What was the value the car?
  5. What condition was it in?
  6. Was the offer genuine?
  7. Why was the woman selling the car at such a price?
  8. How did she justify her action?


                               The Landlord

       a) Answer the following questions.
  1.   What was a classic situation the speaker‘s friend found herself
       in?
  2.   What made her full miserable?
  3.   How long were the decorators to work at the place?
  4.   Who did she get the idea of taking revenge on the landlord
       from?
  5.   What did she do?
  6.   What was her little finishing touch?
  7.   What is the moral of the story?




                                                                   214
                      The Department Store

    a) Find Russian equivalents to the following word
combinations.
    • to mete out • not to like having egg on one‘s face
    • to look tacky         • Merc (Mercedes) • the goods lift
    • to pop it in the Merc      • call it a day • a fraud • con
    • to let smth go public      • to bill sb for smth
    • an administrative error • to disregard smth

         b) Answer the following questions.
  1.   Why isn‘t the speaker going to name the department store?
  2.   What department was involved in the incident?
  3.   How did the couple want to pay?
  4.   How did they want the piano delivered?
  5.   Why can we call the deal a fraud?
  6.   Why didn‘t they want to let this go public? What did the
       manager decide to do?
  7.   Did they get the money back?




                                                             215
         ADDITIONAL TEXTS FOR RENDERING

UNIT ONE

     1. Вежливая, но не сгибаемая

     Я привыкла к тому, что люди часто спрашивают меня о
роли женщины в деловом мире Азии. Они знакомятся с
ценностями нашей древней культуры и интересуются с какими
предрассудками и препятствиями сталкиваются женщины в
личной жизни и на работе. Я руковожу нашей семейной
компанией и люди склонны думать, что я – первая женщина в
Корее, которая добилась такого высокого положения и
достатка. Придется опровергнуть такое представление.
Азиатские женщины не такие покорные и связанные
домашними обязательствами, как многие на западе думают.
     Моя семья была вполне традиционна и моя мама научила
меня многому из того, что я знаю об эффективном управлении.
Я наблюдала, как она вела наше обширное хозяйство, управляя
десятками людей и принимая решения, касающиеся каждого из
нас. Она руководила большим домашним штатом, который
находился в доме не столько для ее удобства, сколько для того,
чтобы дать ей возможность выполнять свои обязанности. Как
любой хороший управляющий моя мама обеспечивала
выполнение работы всеми работниками, стараясь найти подход
к каждому. Например, она учила меня стремиться делать все с
наилучшими результатами. Она поощряла меня думать
независимо, а действовать кооперативно, что я теперь
использую ежедневно.
     Как управляющий, я сталкиваюсь с дилеммой. Некоторые
наши самые способные сотрудники - женщины и, когда они
выходят замуж, они чаще всего бросают работу. Я стараюсь
убедить их поразмыслить над возможностью продолжать
работать после замужества.
     Женщина, выбирающая свой путь в жизни, может
столкнуться с целым рядом проблем, общих для всех женщин в
любой стране. Их нельзя не принимать в расчет, но, мне


                                                           216
кажется, что стоит приложить усилия и самоотверженности,
чтобы осуществить все свои устремления. Конечно, это не
просто - оказаться лицом к лицу с морем мужских лиц в
комнате для совещаний, если к тому же присутствующие
мужчины испытывают трудности в проявлении уважения по
отношению к женщинам. Всегда будут находится люди,
которые пытаются повысить свою значимость за счет унижения
других людей. В конце концов, тот факт, что ты женщина,
является всего лишь одним из многочисленных вопросов
межличностных отношений, с которым люди сталкиваются на
работе. Эта проблема будет преодолена без усилий, если
сконцентрироваться на работе.
     Наша культура - по своей природе консервативна, но даже
самые строгие традиции приспосабливаются к изменяющимся
условиям. Мне нравится быть частью этого развития.
Сохранение своего «я» - непростая задача, над которой стоит
трудиться.

    2. Мы с вами!

     В Москве открылась международная конференция
Ассоциации кризисных центров для женщин, пострадавших от
насилия в семье. Эта мощная общественная организация будет
пытаться получить поддержку и участие властей в решении
этой серьезной проблемы в России. Президент ассоциации
убеждена, что наше законодательство возлагает всю вину на
женщину, заставляя ее доказывать, что ее избил именно муж и
что не она причина своих бед. ―Поэтому большинство
пострадавших терпят побои, насилие очень долго, –
рассказывает она. - Российская статистика ужасна: ежегодно в
России от рук мужей гибнут 12 тысяч женщин. В США
женщине достаточно сказать, что ей угрожают, достаточно
даже, если об этом в полицию заявят соседи или школьный
учитель ее ребенка, и мужа на время судебного
разбирательства выселяют из квартиры. Где он будет жить,
никого не волнует. В США за последние годы число
пострадавших уменьшилось в четыре раза. Мы хотим, чтобы


                                                         217
наш закон также защищал женщину. Ведь свидетелями ее
избиения становятся дети, и по статистике 90% таких
маленьких свидетелей в будущем тоже бьют своих жен‖.
     Ассоциация призывает всех женщин, кто хоть раз
подвергся   насилию      в  семье,    обращаться    в их
представительства, чтобы поделиться своими проблемами и
получить      квалифицированную        юридическую     и
психологическую помощь. "Вместе мы справимся с любой
проблемой. Вот наш девиз нашей Ассоциации".



     3. Жениться или не жениться?
     Исследование, проведенное в университете Виржинии,
показало, что брак способствует тому, что мужчины делают
успешную карьеру. Брак позволяет мужчинам развивать свои
мужские качества, добиваться доверия и уважения, как коллег,
так и начальства. Профессор социологии Стивен Нок
утверждает, что брак повышает самооценку, побуждает их
добиваться еще большего успеха, быть более щедрыми и
больше заботиться о благополучии других. Исследование
показывает, что чем стабильнее и устойчивее брак, тем
значительнее достижения мужчины. А отцовство приводит его
к еще более впечатляющим успехам. Исследование ссылается
на данные, полученные психологами, что повторный брак
имеет не такой положительный результат, как первый.
Повторные браки имеют меньше преимуществ, так как у
мужчин уже имеется некий опыт, зачастую отрицательный,
который скорее подвергнет сомнению такие семейные
ценности, как рождение детей и супружеская верность. Но эти
выводы спорны, говорят оппоненты ученых из Виржинии, и
могут быть опровергнуты другим интересным исследованием,
средства на которое сейчас изыскиваются.




                                                         218
UNIT TWO

    4. Риск – это банальность

     Литература полна смелых обобщений, что такое риск.
Борис Пастернак полагал, что искусство ―невообразимо‖ без
него. Симона де Бевуар считала, что по способности рисковать
жизнью ―человек отличается от животного‖. Вильям Джеймс
как-то заметил: ―именно потому, что мы рискуем собой
ежечасно, мы вообще живем‖.
          Пастернак, возможно, прав, де Бевуар и Джеймс
почти наверняка нет. Это потому, что риск – явление более
обыденное и банальное, чем они полагают. Мы идем на
осознанный риск, когда едем в машине, садимся на диету,
занимаемся спортом и пользуемся электроприборами. Риск –
это обыденность. А обыденность притупляет бдительность.
          Но, мы отличаемся от животных (и живем полной
жизнью) благодаря умению вынести здравое суждение. Имея
это в виду, ясно, что Джон Кеннеди рисковал чрезмерно, когда,
являясь относительно неопытным летчиком, управляющим
относительно незнакомым самолетом, он вылетел в
относительно опасных погодных условиях. Даже, если бы он
благополучно приземлился, его суждение все равно бы
следовало подвергнуть сомнению.
          Друзья и критики клана Кеннеди могут спорить,
―безрассудны‖ или ―бесстрашны‖ его члены. В любом из этих
случаев, Джона младшего можно было отнести к более
осторожным членам клана Кеннеди. И в любом из этих
случаев, все согласны, что ценности семьи Кеннеди включают
―игру с огнем‖. Иногда это дает положительные результаты. Но
бывало, когда последствия оказывались ужасными. По крайней
мере, двое Кеннеди, Давид и Майкл, умерли, подвергая себя
глупому риску; первый – принимая наркотики, второй –
катаясь на лыжах.
          В отличие от всех остальных, богатые могут
позволить подвергать себя дорогому риску. Владеть и летать на
собственных самолетах требует денег. Менее дорого кататься


                                                          219
на горных лыжах, плыть на байдарках, нырять с аквалангом
или летать на планерах. Но заниматься всем сразу стоит очень
дорого, и очень сложно заниматься всем сразу хорошо и
безопасно.
          Удовольствие, связанное с риском, может быть
волнующим и желанным, но стоит помнить, что, если жизнь
требует от вас ежечасного риска, то, наверняка, жизнь будет
слишком короткой, для вас и для других.


         5. Берегите зубы и … жизнь!

       Люди, которые прыгают с высоких скал в море,
настаивают на том, что знают все о свободном полете. Они
утверждают, что передать, что человек испытывает в этот
момент, нельзя. Чтобы понять, надо прыгнуть. Чтобы
прыгнуть, надо долго и упорно тренироваться, иначе вы
смертельно рискуете.
       С каждым годом становится все больше людей, которые
не боятся бросить вызов судьбе и шагнуть вниз с высоты 10-
этажного дома. Этот вид спорта называется клифф-дайвинг
(cliff-diving). Профессиональных спортсменов около 300
человек, однако, гораздо больше людей увлечено этим
рискованным видом спорта.
       Каждый год, начиная с 1997 года, в мире проводятся
несколько соревнований по клифф- и хай-дайвингу. Те, кто их
видел, вспоминают о том, как от страха захватывало дух при
виде участников, буквально играющих со смертью.
       В клифф-дайвинге нельзя пренебрегать тренировками.
Огромные нагрузки требуют хорошей физической подготовки.
Однако,      бесполезно  пытаться   достичь   потрясающих
результатов путем непрерывных тренировок. Каждый
спортсмен может позволить себе лишь несколько прыжков под
наблюдением тренера, в противном случае ему самому
придется отвечать за последствия.




                                                         220
     Новичкам рекомендуют начинать подготовку сразу в
глубоком бассейне с высоты не менее 10 метров и постепенно
достигать 25-30 метров.
     Также, чтобы предотвратить несчастные случаи,
спортсмены предпочитают заранее обследовать дно. В ином
случае шансы, что вы нанесете себе какие-нибудь
повреждения, велики.
     Этот вид спорта заставляет все больше молодых людей
искушать судьбу, ведь легко привыкнуть к тому, что
подвергаешь опасности свою жизнь. К тому же, спорт этот
недорогой: нужны только плавки да защита для зубов, как у
боксеров.

    6. Почему мы рискуем

     (1) В понятии «риск» заключены два значения. Одно –
это "опасность", другое – "выигрыш".
     Если вы дотронулись до горячего утюга, вы обожжетесь,
но останетесь живы. Если дотронетесь до оголенного провода,
находящегося под высоким напряжением, смерть неизбежна.
Любая экстремальная ситуация заставляет        максимально
мобилизоваться, использовать все резервы: умственные,
физические, инвестиционные. Когда рискуешь, четко
понимаешь, что нужно реагировать на любые изменения в
ситуации. Малейшее упущение может привести к
отрицательному результату.
     Риск является прерогативой исключительно человека и
высших животных. Ведь рискованное поведение — это всегда
нарушение устоявшихся правил, творчество, использование
новых схем поведения, а низшие животные почти всегда
действуют по жестким алгоритмам. Умение и желание
рисковать является одним из факторов эволюции.
     Риску в той или иной степени подвержен каждый из нас.
Опасность может поджидать везде. Попасть в ее сети нам,
пожалуй, не очень хочется. Особенно если в рискованной
ситуации мы оказываемся бессильными, от нас ровным счетом
ничего не зависит.


                                                        221
     Вы можете лететь на самолете и попасть на
продолжительное время в зону турбулентности. Очень
неприятные ощущения. Вы ничего в этой ситуации изменить
не можете. Все во власти стихии и экипажа.
     В работе спасателя риска может быть меньше, чем у
врача-стоматолога, у которого гораздо больше шансов
заразиться во время работы СПИДом или какой-нибудь
инфекцией. У спасателей все-таки риск прогнозируемый.
     (2) Риск в бизнесе понятен и является непременным
атрибутом. Развитие производства без экспериментов
невозможно. Бизнесмен в состоянии все контролировать,
делать расчеты, прогнозировать результаты.
     Экстремальные виды спорта, бизнес, бесспорно,
подразумевают риск. Но от этого риска человек вправе
отказаться. Совершенно иное дело — профессиональный риск.
Здесь риск — неотъемлемая составляющая профессии. Никто
не заставляет спасателей подвергать себя опасности. Это их
работа. Они должны уметь хорошо ориентироваться в
пространстве, координировано управлять машиной, включая
нелогичные, необычные моменты, сохранять самообладание.
Высокий уровень профессионализма минимизирует риск.
     Откуда берутся склонные к риску люди? Как все мы — из
детства. Способность идти на риск — результат сложной
суммы множества факторов. Наследственность, особенности
воспитания, природная и социальная среда - вот главные из
них. Педагоги и психологи давно подметили, что если ребенок
воспитывался в спокойной и бесконфликтной обстановке, имел
достаточную степень самостоятельности, ощущал одобрение и
поддержку родителей, то он вырастал более уверенным в своих
силах, смелым и предприимчивым человеком.
     И наоборот, ребенок, выросший в обстановке страхов и
тревог, нестабильности, лишенный самостоятельности или
постоянно подвергающийся наказаниям, скорее всего, станет
тревожным, неуверенным, безынициативным человеком с
чувством вины.




                                                        222
     Ситуация риска всегда порождает стресс, и от того, как
человек справляется с ним, будет зависеть эффективность его
деятельности, а иногда и жизнь.
                    Readers’ Digest октябрь 2002


    UNIT THREE

    7. Вы можете договориться

     Достижение цели при переговорах сопряжено с
определенным риском, предполагающим известную долю
смелости и здравого смысла. Неспособность идти на
рассчитанный риск ведет, как правило, к тому, что противная
сторона станет управлять вами по своему усмотрению.
Существует высказывание: «Чтобы выиграть, нужно сначала
поставить деньги на кон».
     «Умный» риск предполагает, что вы понимаете и
отвечаете за возможные негативные последствия. Когда я веду
речь о том, что надо идти на риск, я не предлагаю никаких
идиотических вариантов типа поставить все ваши сбережения
на кон в казино. Приведу пример того, как стоит оценивать
риск и при каких условиях стоит рисковать. При чтении лекции
на тему о необходимости риска я прерываю свое сообщение и
обращаюсь к аудитории с предложением бросить монетку и
угадать «орел» или «решка». В случае моего проигрыша
обещаю дать счастливчику миллион долларов, в случае моего
выигрыша он дает мне сто тысяч долларов. Как вы думаете,
соглашается кто-нибудь из аудитории на это предложение?
Конечно нет. Почему? Ведь выигрыш сулит целый миллион.
Дело в том, что никто не задумывается о том, как он
распорядится этим миллионом, зато мысль о необходимости
расстаться - в случае проигрыша - со ста тысячами долларов
заставляет людей трезво оценить свои финансовые
возможности и отказаться от риска. Немногие из нас могут
пойти на такой риск. А что было бы, если бы я, предложив
аудитории сыграть со мною, снизил ставки до ста и десяти


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долларов соответственно? Принял ли кто-нибудь мой вызов?
Несомненно. И сделал бы он это по той простой причине, что
такой проигрыш не введет его в расход, зато выигрыш - а
шансы на успех ведь «пятьдесят на пятьдесят» - в десять раз
превышают сумму риска. Такой риск можно себе позволить,
приемлем и разумен.
     Предположим, что я не снизил бы размер ставки, при
каких условиях в этом случае аудитория согласилась бы
сыграть со мной? Только если бы все присутствующие
объединили свои средства, сократив, таким образом, размер
индивидуального риска.
     Предлагая вам идти на разумный и рассчитанный риск, я
призываю вас всегда сопоставлять возможный выигрыш с
размерами возможного ущерба в случае проигрыша.
         Херб Коэн. Вы можете договориться


    8. Кому давать в кредит?

     Как мы определяем, дать или не дать в долг кому-то из
знакомых? – По личному опыту. А кто же предоставит банкам
информацию о потенциальных заемщиках? Это кредитные
бюро, завоевавшие доверие в Европе еще в прошлом веке. Они
систематизируют      информацию      о    заемщиках:    их
задолженностях, месте работы, размере заработной платы,
составе семьи и т.п.
     Правила кредитных бюро предусматривают, что они
могут продавать банкам общие сведения или более полную
информацию о клиентах.
     В России уже были попытки организовать кредитные
бюро, но большинство банков не обратило на них внимания.
Теперь же, когда у нас выдается все больше потребительских
кредитов, а сети магазинов независимо от банков продвигают
свои кредитные программы, стоит всерьез озаботиться
созданием таких организаций.
     Согласно последним статистическим исследованиям, 60%
населения страны имеет доходы, равные прожиточному


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минимуму. Постоянно увеличиваются расходы на транспорт,
медицинское обслуживание, все больше людей имеют
задолженность по квартплате, которую они не в состоянии
выплатить. При этом для получения пособий необходимо
пройти через длительную проверку нуждаемости.
     Правительство же постоянно сокращает расходы на
социальные нужды, пытаясь добиться экономии бюджета за
счет бедного населения.
     В такой ситуации люди не верят, что правительство
разумно подходит к решению проблем, и пытаются выживать
самостоятельно.

    9. Жизнь в кредит

     Кто покупал дом или квартиру в нашей стране, знает: за
редким исключением деньги нужно платить все сразу, причем
наличными и к тому же долларами. Американец или европеец
все платежи совершает через банк и в момент покупки
квартиры почти никогда не выкладывает ее полную стоимость.
Купив жилье в кредит, он расплачивается с банком, который
ему этот кредит выдал, в течение многих лет. Теперь
возможность приобщиться к цивилизации появилась и у
российских граждан. Правда, не всем – богатым, как правило,
кредит не нужен: они предпочитают выложить деньги сразу, а
бедным кредит не по карману. Так что потребитель кредитов –
та категория населения, которую условно можно отнести к
среднему классу. А за неимением четких критериев
принадлежности к среднему классу условия российской
ипотеки каждый должен примерить на себя.
     Возможность купить жилье в кредит выглядит очень
заманчиво: жить в ней можно сразу, а расплачиваться
постепенно. Говорят, что желающих очень много – у банков
даже средств на всех возможных клиентов не хватает. Однако
связываясь с кредитом, человек должен хорошо себе
представлять, на что идет. Любое долгосрочное предприятие в
России – огромный риск. Есть риск быть уволенным, есть риск
потерять здоровье.


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     Чтобы получить кредит, необходимо доказать, что банк
вам может доверять. Как правило, вы должны представить в
банк стандартный набор документов, куда входя и справки о
доходах и сведения о имеющемся в семье имуществе. Это, по
мнению банковских специалистов, позволяет адекватно
оценить реальные (а не официальные) доходы. Представленные
сведения проверяются службами безопасности банков.
Проверка обязательна: вдруг кому-то вздумается сильно
приукрасить свое состояние. К людям «свободных» профессий
– писателям, журналистам, художникам, которые не всегда
могут предоставить справку с места работы,        подходят
индивидуально. Но в любом случае в банке будут смотреть на
реальные доходы и имущество. А также, в банке считают, что
стоит обратить внимание на образование и квалификацию
потенциального клиента.
     Решение – брать или не брать кредит – не может быть
легким.    Постарайтесь учесть все особенности ипотеки,
принимая окончательное решение. В конечном итоге – выбор
за вами.



    UNIT FOUR

    10. Имидж как инструмент карьерного роста

     В последнее время термин "имидж" стал модным, и его
используют на каждом шагу. Профессионалы различают два
вида имиджа - личный (впечатление, которое человек
производит на окружающих) и имидж компании (мнение о
компании, складывающееся в глазах общественности).
      Поговорим о личном имидже. Вы ищите работу? С Вами
или с кем-то из Ваших знакомых случались ситуации, когда на
вакантное место при прочих равных данных (образование,
опыт) брали другого претендента? Может быть, у Вас
вызывали удивление некоторые действия окружающих по



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отношению к Вам? Бывало ли так, что не знающий вас в лицо
партнер принимал Вас за вашего подчиненного?
     Для ответа на вопрос, почему это со мной происходит,
следует проанализировать Ваш личный имидж. Какие
ассоциации вызывает этот термин? ... Одежда, прическа,
макияж - то есть внешний вид. Верно, однако, кроме этого,
необходимыми составляющими Вашего имиджа будет знание
делового этикета, умение формировать свой гардероб в
соответствии с занимаемой должностью, знание особенностей
психологии восприятия и общения, умение их использовать
при взаимодействии с коллегами, начальником, клиентами и
другие компоненты.
     Предположим, Вы занимаете высокую должность и по
роду деятельности должны часто общаться с корпоративными
партнерами, журналистами, выступаете на телевидении.
Сколько времени в неделю вы уделяете своему имиджу?
Предвижу ответ - а зачем, я и так хорошо выгляжу.
     Бывая часто на семинарах, я обнаружила следующую
закономерность. Сотрудник фирмы - прекрасный специалист, и
его приглашают выступить на семинаре, поделиться
наработанным опытом. Тут то и проявляются его слабые места.
Не имея навыков публичного выступления, докладчик
начинает бормотать что-то невразумительное, повторяя через
слово "э, ну" или бубнить как пономарь. Ни сам сотрудник, ни
его руководитель не задумывается, что умение публично
выступать - это тоже составляющая имиджа человека, к тому
же косвенно влияющая на имидж компании.
     Поэтому не следует пренебрегать советами специалистов
и задуматься о возможной смене вашего представления о себе.
     При     смене    стиля     необходимо    знать  степень
необходимости и соответствие Ваших возможностей с
"желаемым" стилем. Самое главное – не наступать на горло
собственной песне. Иначе – неминуемы стрессы и
нежелательные последствия.




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    11. Загадка американской души

     (1) Такие словосочетания как «высокая самооценка»,
«уверенность в себе» или «самоуважение» американцу
объяснять не надо. Их можно объединить в одно понятие -
чувство собственного достоинства. Эта идея насаждается и в
газетах, и по телевидению, в любом ток-шоу. Она давно вошла
в сознание как высокая моральная ценность. Воспитывают эту
ценность с детства.
           Дом для обиженных женщин. (Abused women shelter)
Сюда приходят жертвы домашнего насилия. Жены, которых
оскорбляют, а иногда и бьют их мужья. Первым несчастную
встречает психолог. Смысл беседы с пациенткой — убедить ее
в том, что она достойный, уважаемый человек. И никто не
должен даже помыслить, что ее можно обидеть, а тем более
поднять на нее руку. Таких бесед будет еще много. И не только
бесед.    Целая    система    профессиональных     тренингов,
юридических консультаций в помощи по уходу за детьми и
других мер направлена на главную цель — научить обиженную
и униженную женщину поверить в себя, свою значимость,
свою ценность.
     К человеку с хорошо развитым чувством собственного
достоинства отношение более уважительное.
     Слово толерантность пришло к нам недавно, но
замелькало в прессе и на научных симпозиумах довольно
часто. В Америке никаких дискуссий по этому поводу давно
уже нет. Толерантность — это готовность принять все иное,
непривычное в данной среде, нестандартное, нетрадиционное.
Это уважение к иной расе, этнической группе. К другой
религии, другому социальному статусу (богатых к бедным и
наоборот).
     (2) Со стороны кажется, что американцы врожденные
коллективисты. Они общительны, открыты и контактны. Они
состоят в сотнях клубов, ассоциаций, сестринств и братств. Но
если взглянуть более пристально, выяснится, что при этом
главная душевная драма американца — одиночество. Это
противоречие между внешней коммуникабельностью и


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душевным одиночеством едва ли не самым главным
парадоксом американского характера. Американцы охотно
объединяются во всевозможные общества — радикальные,
консервативные, либеральные, реакционные. Каждая из трех
главных религиозных общин — протестантская, католическая,
еврейская — имеет собственные клубы, занимается
благотворительностью, ведет общественную работу, устраивает
развлекательные мероприятия. Кажется, что коллективная
жизнь кипит, и человек глубоко в нее погружен. И вот
неожиданный вывод: «В гуще постоянных перемен и кипения,
посреди массового общения американец чувствует себя
одиноким».
     Почему ему малодоступна радость общения-понимания,
глубокого,    эмоционального?      Имя    этого   врага   —
индивидуализм.
     Сложная, напряженная жизни клокочет и бушует в
Америке. Острая конкуренция, непрестанная борьба за все
более высокий уровень жизни, напряжение и стрессы — вот
постоянный психологический фон деловой сферы взрослого
американца. К нему-то и стараются подготовить ребенка
заботливые родители. Иначе он не выдержит. Иначе вырастет
неудачником. Таких, кстати, здесь тоже хватает.
     Из всех качеств, которые американцы стремятся привить
своим детям, главные — «умение выгодно продать свои
способности и постоянный напор предприимчивости». Именно
подобное поведение востребовано в деловой жизни Америки.
     (3) С раннего возраста родители приучают школьника
самостоятельно зарабатывать деньги. В книге Барбары де
Анджелис «Секреты о мужчинах» можно прочесть: «Вы,
конечно, знаете этот тип мальчика: он охотно косит лужайку у
своего дома, чтобы заработать законный рубль» — и тут же
улыбнуться. Переводчику не пришло в голову, что для
российского читателя этот пассаж звучит очень странно. Как
это, делать какую-то работу по дому — своему и своих
родителей дому! — за деньги? Дикость. Но для американца не
дикость, а норма. С их точки зрения этот обмен «услуга –



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деньги» не разрушает естественное бескорыстие родственных
отношений. Ведь труд есть труд, он должен быть вознагражден.
     Американский менталитет предполагает, что правильный
ответ на вопрос «Что важнее семья или работа?» это - «Семья
важнее всего». Представление это не просто широко
распространено в обществе, оно еще и целеустремленно
воспитывается. На идее доброй семьи строится реклама. Ей
посвящают свои шоу все телеведущие. Есть и специальные
программы, которые ведут супруги. Проблемы семьи в центре
сериалов и «мыльных опер». О семье как величайшей ценности
говорится и в детских шоу. Такая идеологическая работа
формирует общественное мнение с раннего возраста.
     Так существует ли загадка американской души или мы
говорим всего лишь о мощной системе американской
пропаганды?
                   ОГОНЕК март 2003



    12. Будьте знакомы

     (1) В жизни очень многое — от поиска няни для ребенка и
починки автомобиля до устройства на работу и продвижения
по службе — делается по знакомству. Что надо делать, чтобы
приобрести полезных знакомых? Оказывается, успех
определяется тем, готов ли человек соответствовать роли,
которую назначил ему знакомый.
     В разных социальных группах существуют свои более или
менее строгие правила знакомств. В деловых кругах при
знакомстве принято обмениваться визитками, а в дружеской
компании — выпивать «за знакомство». В наиболее замкнутых
сообществах (например, в элитарных клубах или в мафиозных
кланах) обязательна процедура представления нового
знакомого кем-то из членов данной группы. На званых обедах в
обязанности хозяев обычно входит представление незнакомых
гостей друг другу, а на многолюдных вечеринках гостям
предоставляется возможность знакомиться самостоятельно.


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     Помимо ритуалов и неписаных правил, которые все мы
учитываем при знакомстве, у каждого человека существует
своя стратегия знакомств. Обычно считается, что люди делятся
на два типа: общительных, приветливых экстравертов и
мрачных, замкнутых интровертов. Первые легко знакомятся с
новыми людьми, вызывают симпатию и завязывают дружеские
отношения. Вторые в больших компаниях выглядят
неуклюжими и потерянными.
     На самом деле удивляться стоит тому, насколько мало мы
осознаем, что привлекает нас в людях, и чем мы сами их
привлекаем. Каждое новое знакомство представляет собой
вызов, на который мы откликаемся или нет.
     (2) Основные стратегии знакомства соответствуют двум
парам ролей — актер/зритель и проситель/благодетель. Если
оба партнера предпочитают одну и ту же роль, между ними
могут возникнуть конфликты или соперничество и знакомство
окажется кратковременным. Если же встречаются люди,
играющие в жизни противоположные роли, между ними
обычно возникает крепкая дружба.
     Люди, склонные к роли актера, при знакомстве сразу
стремятся произвести приятное впечатление. Это можно
сделать разными способами. Например, появившись в
незнакомой компании, они говорят о своих достижениях,
необычных приключениях или смешных ситуациях, способных
привлечь всеобщий интерес, и тем самым бросают вызов
лидерам и записным юмористам этой компании. Если кто-то из
присутствующих принимает вызов, вечеринка может
превратиться в словесную дуэль — соревнование в остроумии,
эрудиции.
     Преданный зритель становится лучшим другом человека,
склонного к демонстративности. Слушая его рассказы, он охает
и ахает в нужных местах, уточняет детали и проявляет
искреннюю заинтересованность, и рассказчик расцветает.
Впрочем, в отношениях актера и зрителя господствующую
роль не всегда играет тот, кто на сцене. Очень часто роль
зрителя является главной: именно он оценивает выступление,
что дает ему власть над актером.


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     Взаимные услуги и чувство благодарности — хорошая
основа для дружбы и делового партнерства, но только в том
случае, если люди обладают равным статусом. Один из
популярных      способов   знакомства  –    обратиться   к
интересующему вас человеку с какой-нибудь просьбой. В
нашей культуре быть беспомощными дозволяется в основном
женщинам, тогда как от мужчин ожидается выполнение роли
защитников и спасителей. Принять помощь для многих мужчин
означает проявить слабость, уронить лицо. Во многих
восточных культурах ритуальное предложение помощи,
щедрость и гостеприимство являются признаками высокого
социального положения, а благодарность рассматривается как
унижение.
     Человек, играющий роль благодетеля, защитника и
спасителя, чувствует себя состоятельным, сильным и
значимым, оказывая помощь слабому. Он всегда рядом, когда
нужно устроить маму в больницу, срочно достать билеты на
самолет или уладить конфликт с начальством. Однажды
определив нового знакомого как беспомощного, он будет
постоянно оберегать его и не позволит проявить
независимость. Такое знакомство может быть полезно в
трудную минуту, когда человек действительно нуждается в
помощи и поддержке. Но в благополучные периоды жизни
отделаться от заботы бывает непросто.
                              КОММЕРСАНТ сентябрь 2002


    UNIT FIVE

    13. Ох, уж эта реклама!

     (1) В начале, как известно, было слово. И сразу же
появилась возможность поставить это самое слово на благо и
процветание цивилизации. Да, да, реклама работала уже тогда,
когда на звуки тамтама (tom-tom), оповещающего об удачной
охоте на мамонта, все в округе сбегались на пиршество.
Времена сейчас другие, потребности стали иного плана, и


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реклама, как самое вездесущее и все проникающее существо,
буквально преследует нас повсюду.
     Да, мешает, надоедает, порой навязывает, но уже даже
действительность представляется нам через некую рекламную
призму. Как ужиться и получить от нее пользу, давайте
рассмотрим на примере «АиФ»!
     Реклама - это хорошо пересказанная правда. Реклама
должна быть не только правдива (правило № 1 для рекламиста),
но и интересна, увлекательна, полезна. В своей газете мы, как
врачи, стараемся соблюдать правило "не навреди". Смеем
надеяться, что в отличие от телевизионщиков нам это удается.
Ведь за что люди не любят рекламу? Да за то, что смотрят они,
например, свой любимый фильм и в разгар экранных страстей,
обуревающих      душу,    вдруг...    подгузники,     шампунь,
шоколадки...
     С прессой все по-другому. Наши рекламные публикации и
объявления существуют сами по себе, хочешь - прочитаешь, не
хочешь - обойдешь стороной. А если прочитаешь, а читать у
нас любят, возможно, найдешь для себя много полезного.
Потому что реклама в газете дает возможность передать
информацию в максимальном объеме, обстоятельно и
подробно, не загоняет во временные рамки для усвоения всего
прочитанного и позволяет всякий раз обратиться к нужному
источнику снова и снова.
     (2) Реклама - путеводитель по жизни. Только представьте
себе, что бы вы делали без рекламы при покупке автомобиля
или дома, не говоря уж о каждодневных покупках. Поди сейчас
разберись, где качественно, а где "одно название", где дешевле,
а где полезнее для здоровья. И здесь важно быть честным
рекламистом, потому как не каждый будет правдив до конца,
создавая и "раскручивая" новый бренд за деньги.
     Рекламист сродни оптимисту, он всегда представляет мир
и предметы в нем с лучшей стороны. Иногда нам всем не
хватает этого в жизни. Допустим, продемонстрировать себя,
любимого, с позиции саморекламы. А вообще, будьте
снисходительнее. Берите от рекламы то, что нравится.
Смейтесь над ней, если она смешная. Запоминайте


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информацию, если она может пригодиться. Записывайте, учите
наизусть, если это то, без чего не обойтись. И, наконец,
игнорируйте, если противно! Ведь все рекламные приемы, так
привлекающие и вкрадывающиеся в создание, - лишь трюки, и
последнее слово всегда за вами, и выбор делать вам!

     14. Чем больше каналов, тем лучше

     6 марта начал вещание новый телеканал – «Домашний».
Он принадлежит сети «СТС Медиа», и найти его очень просто
– достаточно настроиться на бывший канал М1.
     Незадолго до начала работы владельцы канала огласили
основные принципы своей информационной политики. Они не
склонны влиять на сознание или воспитывать патриотизм, что
происходит на основных каналах, осуществляющих вещание по
традиционной модели, а развлекать, зарабатывая при этом
деньги.
     По мнению генерального директора, надо было давно
начать открывать такие тематические каналы, ведь это
общемировая тенденция.
     Продюсеры нового канала стремятся увеличить прибыли,
делая ставку на женщин в возрасте от 25 до 60 лет – это больше
трети всех активных зрителей. Они больше времени проводят
дома и, к тому же, в подавляющем большинстве семей
распоряжаются бюджетом.
     В    основном     отобраны    программы       следующего
содержания: полезные, ведущие конкретный разговор на
предметном уровне, помогающие справляться с ежедневными
бытовыми проблемами.
     Известно,     что    значительная      часть     зрителей
заинтересована не в политическом информационном вещании,
а в событиях, раздуваемых журналистами до сенсации. Такова
реальность: тиражи политических и деловых газет с
таблоидами несопоставимы.
     Фильмы на        «Домашнем» намерены показывать
отечественные, а сериалы отбирать в соответствии с



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характером аудитории. Реклама на 2005 год на канале была
продана еще задолго до его запуска.
     Если бы у продюсеров была возможность инвестировать
миллиарды долларов, они могли бы оказывать влияние на
бόльшую часть аудитории, но в данной ситуации бизнес можно
делать, только создавая такие специализированные каналы.

    15. Психическая атака на телезрителя

      (1) К такому выводу пришла группа независимых
исследователей,    проверявших    воздействие    некоторых
телевизионных передач на общественное сознание.
      - Первоначально перед нами стояла совершенно другая
задача, - рассказывает руководитель Ирина Потоцкая.— Мы
проверяли утверждения западных специалистов. По их
мнению, политическая и экономическая телеинформация
определяет сегодня стиль жизни и поведения почти у 25
процентов населения. Влияние рекламы заинтересовало нас
уже по ходу исследования. Но именно в этом направлении
результаты тестов и опросов привели нас в шок. Оказывается,
уже три часа, проведенные у телевизора, значительно
замедляют скорость мышления у человека. Особенно ярко это
проявляется во время передач, перенасыщенных рекламными
заставками. Сейчас, когда на нас обрушился настоящий
рекламный шквал, люди оказались психологически не готовы
противостоять ему. Реклама, по сути, есть своеобразный
информационный вирус, который "вкручивает" в наше
сознание (или подсознание) определенные стереотипы
поведения".
      Некоторые рекламные приемы основаны на различных
психологических приемах. Например, хорошо действует
психологический прием — "нежданный дар", а в рекламе это -
специальные "скидки", приманки типа "А в дополнение вы
бесплатно получите дуршлаг и чайную ложку. Но и это еще не
все..." Многие люди почему-то легко покупаются именно на
такой "бесплатный сыр"...



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     (2) Исследования показали, что во время программы
новостей действие рекламы ослабляется. В эти минуты человек
критически воспринимает поступающую информацию. Зато
рекламные ролики, встроенные в художественные фильмы
(особенно в "мыльные оперы"), проникают в сознание "как по
маслу".
     Впрочем, основная проблема вовсе не в том, что
создатели     рекламы      используют    какие-то    особые
психологические трюки, а в последствиях, к которым это
приводит. Психологи настаивают на том, что регулярное
поглощение рекламной отравы вызывает у людей отчетливые
изменения сознания. Помнится, еще недавно мы смеялись над
американцами, которые даже Библию выпустили в
сокращенном      варианте.   Известно,   что    большинство
телезрителей в США начинают зевать и отвлекаться, если
телесюжет длится дольше трех минут, так как теряют нить
повествования и забывают о том, что было вначале. Увы,
похоже, что и мы скоро опустимся до того же уровня.
     Во многих странах существует закон, ограничивающий
рекламу на телевизионных каналах до 20 минут в день. У нас
рекламные вставки иногда отнимают это время в течение чуть
ли не одного фильма. Понятно, что такой жесткий рекламный
прессинг диктуют нынешние экономические реалии. Но
последствия этого могут быть печальными… .
                              Коммерсант, январь 2005

    16. Информационная война

     (1) Словарь иностранных слов трактует «репутацию» как
«создавшееся общее мнение о качествах, достоинствах и
недостатках кого-либо или чего-либо».
     Рыночные отношения внесли лепту в развитие этого
понятия, в результате чего у репутации появились два
значения: имидж и антиимидж. Первый является желанной
целью выставившего        себя   на   всеобщее   обозрение
индивидуума/компании, а второй — неуправляемым продуктом
деятельности. Больше всего зависят от репутации крупные


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корпорации и политдеятели, которые мечут на прилавок
общественного мнения не объективные таланты типа голоса,
слуха или умения быстро бегать, а в первую очередь
человеческие качества.
     Итак, главное для успешной карьеры — обзавестись
неким по-человечески привлекательным образом. Не менее
важно победить антиимидж (типа «Макдоналдс обрекает на
ожирение подростков-потребителей»).
     Имидж — штука эфемерная, а антиимидж, хоть столь же
эфемерен, но так прилипчив, что не отдерешь. А на каждого
создателя образа, найдется его разрушитель. И тем не менее
истинным виновником краха образа является только и
исключительно его обладатель. «Я не понимаю, к чему
заниматься злословием, — писал великий Ницше. — Если
хочешь насолить кому-либо, достаточно лишь сказать о нем
какую-нибудь правду». Чем, собственно, и пытаются
заниматься средства массовой информации.
     (2) На Западе в таких случаях принято пускать в ход
огромный,     накатанный     и     эффективный      механизм,
действующий внутри рекламно-информационной машины и
носящий название контроль ущерба. Четко эта машина
работает в корпоративной Америке, где огласка какого-либо
неприятного события типа утонувшей ядерной подлодки,
пожара на пафосном сооружении, взрыва на большом
химическом заводе, падения самолета мощной авиакомпании,
супружеской неверности в звездной семейке или дачи взятки
должностному лицу из Белого дома может привести к полному
финансовому краху не только отдельного человека, но и
огромную корпорацию. А также поставить жирную точку в
политической карьере высокопоставленного чиновника. Или
«обломать» прибыльную акцию шоу-бизнеса.
     Работа специалиста по «минимизации нанесенного
ущерба» представляет собой нечто среднее между работой
пресс-секретаря и создателя образа. Специалист в этой области
должен предвидеть каждый следующий ход дотошной и
коварной прессы, поскольку именно с досадной огласки и



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начинается любой скандалище, и его, специалиста, задача —
подсказать пострадавшему, как свести ущерб до минимума.
     (3) Независимо от того, как именно обыватель или
журналист на самом деле относится к тому или иному
поступку, он вынужден реагировать определенным, социально
одобряемым образом, иначе сам рискует подвергнуться
остракизму со стороны своего окружения. Поэтому специалист
по контролю ущерба должен моментально рассчитать, кто и
как будет использовать обнародованную информацию, и путем
привлечения     личных    связей    попытаться    остановить
распространение заразы на ранней стадии. Если снежный ком
превращается в лавину, его задача — помочь клиенту остаться
в рамках наработанного имиджа, иначе лавина его погребет.
     Любой американец, который хоть что-то собой
представляет, имеет возможность обратиться за помощью к
агентам, адвокатам и политическим советникам, которые
организуют команды контроля ущерба. Клиентами могут стать:
     — и президент, пойманный с поличным, хотя бы и в
политическом смысле;
     — рок-группа, против которой выдвинуто обвинение в
подстрекательстве подростков к самоубийству (пример: Black
Sabath)
     — ТВ-продюсеры, создавшие сериал, провоцирующий тех
же подростков к поджогам (пример: Beavis&Butt-Head канала
МТВ);
     — «цари» фармакологических компаний, чья продукция
убивает обожающих лекарства американцев;
     — респектабельный финансист, обвиняемый в хищении
фондов компании;
     — авиакомпания, чьи самолеты использованы для
теракта.
     (4) Для успешного контроля ущерба необходим в первую
очередь так называемый телефонный охват: умение заранее
договориться с теми, кому может позвонить журналист, чтобы
ему все говорили одно и то же. Это важно. «Пожар одного
куста» может перерасти в лесной пожар, если репортеры



                                                         238
услышат разные версии из своих «информированных
источников»: они из этого могут раздуть новый скандал.
     Итак, на первой линии атака отбита. Затем посылается
«кавалерия» — пресс-секретарь, который является первой
линией защиты...
     Некоторые компании, из-за высокомерия или страха, до
сих пор оказываются на грани банкротства из-за отсутствия
дипломатичности при работе с прессой. Одна известная
компания, обвиненная в распространении некачественного
товара, набросилась на критиков. Поведение ее руководителей
было смехотворным, и компания разорилась. Потому одно из
основных правил отдела контроля ущерба быть откровенным и
приветливым. Когда социально значимые лица прячутся от
проблем и крупных неприятностей, публика любит их меньше,
считают эксперты. Чтобы не утратить любовь среднего
человека, надо все время раскаиваться. Публика более
благосклонна к тому, кто готов извиниться.
     Вся система контроля ущерба наглядно доказывает, что
прессой трудно управлять, но легко манипулировать. Это
относится в равной степени и к ним, и к нам. Просто
российский потребитель информации в отличие от
американского нутром чует, что все не так просто, и не
торопится выносить приговор, а строит свое отношение к тому
или иному персонажу на уровне «нравится» или «не нравится».


    UNIT SIX

    17. «Первые и последние» (по рассказу Д. Голсуорси)

     Ларри Даррант (Darrant), брат Королевского прокурора
Кита Дарранта, совершил преступление: он убил человека,
защищая любимую женщину. Узнав об этом, Кит был вне себя.
Ведь его будущая блестящая карьера судьи была поставлена на
карту! Он никак не мог примириться с мыслью, что его брат
будет обвинен в преступлении, караемом смертью, предстанет
перед судом и будет осужден.


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     Случилось так, что полиция арестовала бродягу (vagrant),
который хотел ограбить убитого. Против бродяги были веские
улики, и Кит не сомневался, что суд присяжных признает его
виновным. При создавшихся обстоятельствах это был лучший
выход, и Кит решил им воспользоваться. Жестокий и
расчетливый человек c его ложным представлением о чести,
Кит был рад, что их славное имя не будет запятнанным.
     Но не таким был Ларри. Когда он узнал, что бродягу
могут повесить за преступление, в котором виновен он, Ларри,
он решил пойти в полицию и все рассказать. Как ни старался
Кит убедить его, что человек, виновный в ограблении убитого,
нисколько не лучше убийцы и заслуживает смертного
приговора, Ларри упорно стоял на своем.
     Тогда Кит пообещал взять на себя защиту бродяги и
добиться, чтобы с ним поступили по справедливости. Однако
Кит проиграл дело. Суд присяжных вынес решение «виновен»,
и подсудимого приговорили к смертной казни. Узнав о
приговоре, Ларри и его возлюбленная покончили с собой.
Ларри оставил письмо, в котором было написано, что это он, а
не бродяга, виновен в убийстве.
     Кит Даррант, найдя письмо, сжег его, чтобы уничтожить
эту улику. Какое ему было дело до того, что повесят
невиновного человека, ведь его карьера и имя были спасены.

    18. Суды присяжных

     Суды присяжных в России были впервые созданы в ходе
судебной реформы 1874 года после отмены крепостного
рабства, когда стране стал нужен суд, олицетворяющий
свободу и равенство всех перед законом.
     Если в большинстве европейских стран такие суды
должны были заниматься как уголовными, так и гражданскими
делами, то в России в компетенцию присяжных входили только
тяжкие уголовные преступления.
     В 1994 году судебная система решила возродить суд
присяжных      как   самый демократический      инструмент
правосудия.


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     Но дальше стали происходить непредсказуемые вещи.
Заседатели, которые должны были быть склонными к
эмоциональности, жалостливыми людьми, повели себя в
высшей степени непредсказуемо.
     Так, Игорь Сутягин, сотрудник Института США и
Канады, обвинявшийся в шпионаже в пользу западных
разведок, добивался рассмотрения его дела именно судом
присяжных, надеясь на их либерализм, даже несмотря на
веские доказательства его вины. Но жюри полностью признало
его вину, в результате чего он получил 15 лет тюрьмы.
     Можно вспомнить и дело Заремы Мужахоевой,
террористки-смертницы, которая оказалась на скамье
подсудимых после неудачного взрыва у входа в ресторан на
главном проспекте Москвы. Во время следствия она искренне
пыталась загладить свою вину, рассказывая все, что знала о
том, как готовятся теракты. Казалось, что присяжные, люди,
имеющие право свободно решать, войдут в ее положение и
даруют ей помилование.
     Ничего подобного. Заседатели не нашли в деле никаких
смягчающих обстоятельств. По их мнению, она получила по
заслугам, отправившись в колонию на 20 лет. К тому же, этот
приговор должен был удержать других террористов от
совершения подобных преступлений.
     Подобные приговоры побуждают некоторых адвокатов
склоняться к мнению, что российское общество не доросло до
суда присяжных. На самом же деле российские присяжные
точно отразили настроения, преобладающие в нашем обществе.
Как раз накануне суда произошел террористический акт в
метро, и подсудимая вряд ли могла рассчитывать на
снисхождение.
     Суд присяжных остается надеждой правосудия в России,
поскольку лучшего пока не придумано. Ведь в их субъективной
точке зрения отражается то время, в котором мы живем.




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