Fictional Narratives Language Arts 7 What is a fictional narrative? Imagine creating a character--a person who never existed before--and then plunging him or her into an exciting or challenging situation. When authors write fictional narratives, or made up stories, they have the power to bring to life any kind of character or situation they imagine. Their only limit is their imagination! Writers of fictional narratives follow a plot to build their short story: Exposition: Introduction of the setting, characters, and conflict Complications: Scenes which intensify the conflict and build anticipation and suspense Climax: Conflict is resolved at the story's most anticipated, suspenseful part Resolution: The loose ends of the story are tied up and the characters respond to the resolved conflict Ingredients of Successful Fictional Narratives 1) The narrative has well-developed characters and a well-defined setting. 2) The narrative is based around a conflict and a solution to the conflict. 3) Characters are described in detail. Dialogue shows their personality. 4) Specific narrative action (showing and not telling)—movements, gestures, and facial expressions—made the characters believable and interesting. 4) Dialogue, precise word choice, sensory details moved the plot forward and kept the interest of the audience. In your fictional narrative: In this workshop, you will recreate part of a short story, "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by Washington Irving. You will identify his characters, setting, and conflict. This classic legend leaves the audience to interpret what really happened to its main character, Ichabod Crane. You will be provided with a copy of the story. Your goal will be to implement effective narrative strategies and rewrite the climax and resolution of the story to include detail as to what really happened to Ichabod Crane during his encounter in the hollow with the Headless Horseman. Ichabod Crane was never seen again! In keeping with the writing style of Washington Irving, you must not resort to excessive description of violence. Be creative and have fun, but write a school appropriate ending! California State Standards: 1.0 Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays with an awareness of the audience and the purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed. 1.1 Create and organizational structure that balances all aspects of the composition and uses effective transitions between sentences to unify important ideas. 1.3 Use strategies of outlining to impose structure on composing drafts. 1.6 Create documents using word-processing skills and publishing programs. 1.7 Revise writing to improve organization and word choice after checking the logic and ideas and the precision of the vocabulary. 2.0 Students write narrative texts of at least 500 to 700 words. 2.1 Write narratives: Develop a standard plot line and point of view. a. Develop complex major and minor characters and a definite setting. b. Use a range of appropriate strategies (dialogue, suspense, naming of specific narrative action, including movement, gestures, and expressions) Strategy for instruction of narratives 1. Students will learn the framework for short stories, the plot. They will identify the plots of several short stories and discuss this predictable framework. 2. Students will read and complete a study guide from the Holt Literature Workshop on Narration pages 534 – 557 and pages 704-705. This workshop includes mini-lessons on: a. Ingredients and Purpose of a Narrative b. Thinking About Purpose and Audience c. Using Narrative Strategies d. Planning the Plot e. Evaluating and Revise Content, Organization, and Style f. Using of Precise Nouns and Adjectives g. Punctuating Dialogue 3. Students will listen to and read "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow". To further emphasize audience perspective, students will view "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow". We will discuss character development and compare and contrast the two mediums. 4. Students will use Washington Irving's basic situation and complications from "The Legend Of Sleepy Hollow" and then write their own climax and resolution. They must include their interpretation of what truly happened to Ichabod Crane. The narrative must contain suspense, narrative movement, precise nouns and adjectives, and dialogue. 5. Students will submit an MLA formatted essay, the grading rubric, and the plot analysis form by the deadline established. Essays are deducted at 10% off each day late. Rules for Quotations and Dialogue RULE #1: A direct quotation begins with a capital letter. Jimmy shouted, “See you at the game!” “Is it true?" asked Cindy. RULE #2: When a quotation is interrupted into two parts with words like “he asked” or “the teacher demanded,” the second part begins with a lower case letter. “What are some of the things,” Mrs. Baskin inquired, “that make school fun?” “One thing I like,” replied Sarah, “is recess!” RULE #3: When writing dialogue, all punctuation marks at the end of the quotation go inside the quotation marks. “Let's visit the museum,” suggested Samantha. Jon replied, “Didn't we go there last weekend?” “But when we did,” Beth added, “we didn't see the Ancient Egyptian exhibit.” RULE #4: Do not put a period at the end of a quotation followed by things like she said, mom asked, he explained, etc. Use commas, question marks, and exclamation marks but not periods. Periods end sentences. “My Algebra class is driving me crazy!” Paul yelled. “That's my favorite class,” Becky replied. RULE #5: Make a new paragraph (indent) when a different person begins to speak. "Last night, I dreamt that I ate a giant marshmallow," Kevin said. "Was that anything like the dream you had about eating your way through a mountain of fruit cocktail?" asked Suzy. "Scarier," Kevin explained. "This time I woke up and my pillow was gone." Narrative Essay: Language Arts Holt Literature: pages 542-547 1. In order to keep your readers turning the pages of your narrative, a good story should contain: ___________________________ facing a _____________________________. 2. In order to start brainstorming for a narrative, a writer should start with: a. _________________________ b. _________________________ c. _________________________ 3. In order to develop your characters for your audience in a true or made up story, a writer should ask himself or herself: a. __________________________________________________________? b. __________________________________________________________? c. __________________________________________________________? Narrative Strategies: page 545 1. People or characters can communicate through their ________________ or _______________. 2. The more details a writer includes in the story about how the characters __________________ and _____________________, the better the reader will be able to picture them. 3. Specific narrative action makes characters come alive! People speak with their bodies. Three types of specific narrative action are: a._______________________ b. _____________________ c.____________________ Point of View: page 547 1. In first person point of view, the narrator is a _________________in the _____________. 2. In third-person limited, the narrator is not a character in the story. The narrator tells only what one character ________________, ________________, and ________________. 3. In third-person omniscient, the narrator is not a character in the story. The narrator knows what __________of the characters are ________________, __________________, and experiencing. This narrator can also tell things that none of the characters could know such as the future! "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" By Washington Irving BASIC SITUATION: Who are the characters? How does Washington Irving develop his characters? Give a one or two sentence description for each of our four main characters. Ichabod Crane: Katarina Van Tassel: Bram Bones: The Headless Horseman: What details does Washington Irving provide about the setting to provide information about the story's characters, the mood, and the creation of conflict? Provide 3 to 5 sentences in explanation. What is the conflict that our main character, Ichabod Crane, will face? Is there external conflict? Is there internal conflict? Explain in 3 to 5 sentences. COMPLICATIONS: As Ichabod Crane faces his internal and external conflict, how does the conflict become more complicated? What obstacles does Ichabod Crane encounter? CLIMAX: Your story needs suspense, a point at which the conflict reaches a breaking point. Readers' curiosity is at its highest here. What do you think happened to ICHABOD CRANE since he was never found? Brainstorm here! What specific narrative action (gestures, expressions, movement) will you include? What are some specific lines of dialogue that you will use? How will Ichabod Crane's internal conflict and external conflict be resolved? What really happened between the "Headless Horseman" and Ichabod Crane? RESOLUTION: Your story's ending should not just be tacked on. Is should follow naturally from the story's events. Your story's outcome can be happy or sad, but make sure it is believable. The loose ends of the story should come together. The characters are changed in some way as a result of the resolved conflict. What happens in Sleepy Hollow after Ichabod goes missing? What happens to Brom Bones and Katarina Van Tassel? "LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW" BASIC SITUATION AND COMPLICATONS This is the story of a man called Ichabod Crane and his unfortunate encounter with The Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow. Sleepy Hollow is one of the quietest places in the whole wide world. The only sounds to be heard above the babbling brook that meanders there, are the birds; starlings, sparrows, and perhaps the occasional woodpecker. An unusual tranquility indeed! However, no one ever went into Sleepy Hollow, not even in the daytime, because people for miles around believed that the place was haunted. To venture out there after dark would be folly indeed, for witches were known to cavort there with goblins and spirits and ghosts and unspeakable things that could bite! It is said that the most fearful spirit that haunts this nightmarish region is the apparition of a figure on horseback. The figure has no head! It is said to be the ghost of a Hessian trooper whose head had been carried away by a cannonball in some nameless and forgotten skirmish during the Revolutionary War, and who is compelled forever to furiously ride, as if on the wings of the wind, to the scene of battle in a forlorn and nightly quest to recover his head and then get back, before daybreak, to the little whitewashed church where lay his troubled grave. He is known throughout the region of fantasy and shadows as The Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow. Not very far from Sleepy Hollow was a school house. The schoolmaster's name was Ichabod Crane. He was tall, lean, and lanky with long legs and arms that protruded from his too short sleeves. His head seemed small because his ears were so large. His nose was long and pointed. He could easily, from a distance, be mistaken for a scarecrow. Ichabod Crane fervently believed in witchcraft. His imagination, however, would become active as he often walked through the hollow, and it would fill him with dread as he would sing shakily, or dryly try to whistle to bolster his spirits, believing that he was being followed by the unspeakable hollow or the galloping Headless Hessian. Katarina Van Tassel was the daughter and only child of a wealthy, local Dutch farmer. She was an attractive lady of eighteen years. Plump as a Partridge and as rosy cheeked as one of her father's peaches. Ichabod was enraptured and found her almost as desirable as her father's considerable wealth! He had serious thoughts of marriage. Unfortunately, for Ichabod, he was not the only contender for Katarina's hand. She had many admirers. The most formidable of these was the swashbuckling young giant named Brom Van Brunt. He was famous for miles around for feats of great strength and daring. His powerful frame gave credence to his nickname, "Brom Bones". Being good humored and boyishly mischievous, he enjoyed playing pranks and engaging in boisterous fun and frolics. He was also a superb horseman, his feats in the saddle were legendary and he liked nothing better than to race his huge black stallion called "Daredevil". One fine autumnal evening, Ichabod was invited for merrymaking at the house of Herr Van Tassel. Everyone was there, including Brom Bones. The dancing had begun. Ichabod was a good dancer and partnered with Katrina, while Brom Bones, filled with jealousy, sat watching and brooding alone, in a corner.