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ROLE OF TRAINING _ DEVELOPMENT

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					    ROLE OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

                                         IN




                                SUBMITTED FOR:

                In partial fulfillment of requirement for the degree of
                          Master of Business Administration
                                            &
                 Advance Diploma in Management & Applied Skills
                    Approved by Annamalai University, Chennai


                                 SUBMITTED TO:




A Division of NIS Sparta Ltd., A Reliance – Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group Company
                            (Academic Session 2008-2010)


                                                                      SUBMITTED BY
                                                                      Name
                                                                      MBA & ADMAS
                                                                      NIS Academy
                                                                       Kota
                                    PREFACE

The M.B.A. curriculum has been designed to provide the future manager ample practical
exposure to the business world. The summer training program is necessary and essential
part of the M.B.A. degree course. It helps the student to gain the knowledge about
various aspects of market, consumer and industry.


At the time of making this report I came to know that Master of Business Administration
(M.B.A.) is one of the most reputed professional courses, which includes both the
theoretical and practical training as a part of two year curriculum.


This report is an endeavor to convert all that‟s virtual in to a real image i.e. it helps in
applying all the theoretical concepts in to the real corporate world. It helps in developing
the managerial skills using which we can convert abstracts in to language.


In this regard I had undertaken a project study on “Role of Training and Development
in My Liberty Homes.”


This report is a written account of what I learnt and experienced during my training, I
wish that, those going through it, will not only find it readable but also get useful
information.
                      ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Foremost of all, I express my sincere indebtedness to the Almighty for bestowing me
with favorable circumstance and keeping me in high spirit.


A feeling of elation insists me on expressing my heartiest gratitude to MY LIBERTY
HOMES for allowing me to do my major project, part of M.B.A. I would like to convey
my deep indebtness thanks to Mr. Parikshit Singh, Assistant General Manager
(Admin/HR/CC) and Mrs. Ritu Thakkar (HR Manager) and Mr. Kailash Butoliya (HR
Executive), for they have always given encouragement and constant inspiration, for being
my project guide and sharing their view on various topics and helped me a lot from the
beginning up to the end of my report. It is due to their efforts that this report has come to
its present shape.


I am highly obliged and grateful to my Major Advisor Mr. Nishant Gaur (Director) and
Miss. Mahima Mathur (Center Manager), for their support, motivation and valuable
guidance that helped me in the complitaion of the project in a planned and a systematic
manner.


I would like to give special thanks to Miss Shweta Solanki and other teachers of my
college for their willing support, valuable suggestion, mature and moral advice during the
itinerary.


With deepest sense of gratitude, I express my thanks and regards to my family, relatives
and friends for their close association, encouragement and support to take on this
stupendous task.


I am highly privileged to thank all the people, directly and indirectly related and the
respondents for being cooperative and sparing a few moments from their busy schedule,
without whose help this project would not have proven meaningful.
                     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
I had done my summer training in MY LIBERTY HOMES at Jaipur, under the
guidance of Miss. Shweta Solanki. The objective of my summer training was “A study
on Role of Training and Development in My Liberty Homes.”


MY LIBERTY HOMES is a real estate company, which is a part of AMAY GROUP
OF COMPANIES. It was introduced itself on 12th of March 2006. It has an office in
Dubai also, which is providing real estate services to the NRI‟s settled abroad.


Amay Group of Companies is associated with 7 different companies, which are-
    Amay Home Services Limited.
    Silverspoon Financial Consultants Limited.
    Amay Management Services Pvt. Ltd.
    Amay Debt Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
    My Liberty Homes Society.
    Amaytusha foods Limited.
    AHS + ITI JV – Kishangarh Ajmer.


The VISION of the company is-
“To become the acknowledged global leader in our Industry by understanding &
fulfilling the needs of our consumers better.”


This company has been nominated for GIREM leadership awards, which was presented
on September 19th 2008 at Gala Awards Function.




                                                           Amay Group Of Companies
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 Executive Summary


                           CONTENTS
 About Real Estate
 Real Estate at a Glance
 Company Profile
 About My Liberty Homes
            Introduction
            Core Values
            Mission
            Vision
            Objective
            Organization Structure
            Diversification & Road Ahead
            Future Prospects
            Memorable Events
            Awards
            Product Profile


 Research Methodology
             Observational Design
             Primary Data
             Secondary Data
             Limitation of Study
 Training & Development
           Defining
           Training, Education & development
           Principles of Development
           System Models of Training
           Types of Training
           New Concept of Training
           Identification of Training Needs
           Methods of Training
           Evaluation of Training
           Topologies of Evaluation design
           Virmani & Premila‟s Model of Evaluation


 Conclusion
 Recommendation
 Bibliography
 Questionnaire
               REAL ESTATE AT A GLANCE
In India, the economy is rising at a very fast pace. There has been a tremendous
technological development all over the country and therefore more and more people are
either buying or looking forward to buy property in India. In fact, this technological
development is also attracting foreign investors to buy property in the country. India has
thus become the primary choice of the real estate buyers of both India and abroad. The
market of real estate in India has become popular among investors in Asia and is growing
tremendously by each passing day.


The real estate listing available in India includes a wide range of residential, commercial
or retail projects. The property can be bought, sold or can be used to let to others who
want it for either residential or commercial purposes.


Since long Bangalore, Delhi, Pune and Hyderabad have been the hotspots of property but
as the economy is progressing at a rapid scale many other areas have joined the hotspot
league. For instance, Greater Noida, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Faridabad and Mohali are
some of the other places which are successfully attracting many investors.


The real estate properties of these areas come equipped with all facilities of a modern
lifestyle such as community houses, swimming pools, specially cultivated gardens and
club houses.


With so many property options available, at times it becomes really difficult to decide
upon the best location and also to find all relevant information about the place required
for commercial or residential purposes.


Also, many times there is not much information available regarding what all other
options can be availed for residential and commercial purposes. This lack of proper
knowledge and available options often leads to wrong choices and thereby wrong
investments.
In such cases when there is doubt and find it difficult to make a choice confidently, it is
wise to seek the help of the real estate professionals. The professionals or the real estate
agents as they are called are experts in the property related matters and can guide in
making the right kind of investment.


The real estate agents can also assist in selling, reselling and leasing of the property.
Moreover, they also help in keeping a proper track of investments through managing a
portfolio for the purpose. They keep updating the portfolio from time to time to keep
abreast with the times. One must hire a real estate agent in order to make the process of
buying or selling property easier.




 “Everyone says buying your first apartment makes you feel like an adult. What no
           one mentions is that selling it turns you right back into a child.”
                       ABOUT REAL ESTATE
Real estate is a business, not a profession. Real estate is sometimes inaccurately spoken
of as a profession, but it is essentially a business. A profession applies science, art or
learning to the use of others, the profit to the professor or person applying it being
incidental; whereas a business is engaged in primarily for profit, and the profit is to the
one engaging in the business.

The Indian real estate sector plays a significant role in the country's economy. The real
estate sector is second only to agriculture in terms of employment generation and
contributes heavily towards the gross domestic product (GDP). Almost five per cent of
the country's GDP is contributed to by the housing sector. In the next five years, this
contribution to the GDP is expected to rise to 6 per cent. According to industry players,
housing accounts for 4.5 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) with urban housing
accounting for 3.13 per cent.

Almost 80 per cent of real estate developed in India is residential space, the rest
comprising of offices, shopping malls, hotels and hospitals. According to the Tenth Five-
Year-Plan, there is a shortage of 22.4 million dwelling units. Thus, over the next 10 to 15
years, 80 to 90 million housing dwelling units will have to be constructed with a majority
of them catering to middle- and lower-income groups.

Apart from the huge demand, India also scores on the construction front. A McKinsey
report reveals that the average profit from construction in India is 18 per cent, which is
double the profitability for a construction project undertaken in the US.


The real estate sector is also likely to get a boost from Real Estate Mutual Funds
(REMFs) and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). In fact, according to a CRISIL
paper, the REITs would have the potential to hold at least 5 per cent share of the total
global real estate market by 2010, the size of which would turn to US$ 1400 billion in the
next 3 years. The paper titled, „Indian REITs; Are We Prepared', says that by 2010,
REITs alone would hold a market size of US$ 70 billion of the total real estate market as
its concept is gaining ground in countries like India and other developing nations.


Foreign direct investment (FDI) into India in the real estate sector for the fiscal year
2008-09 has been US$ 12.62 billion approximately, according to the latest data given by
the Department of Policy and Promotion (DIPP).


 “In a real estate man‟s eye, the most expensive part of the city
                       is where he has a house to sell.”
                          INDIAN SCENARIO
India always been known as a land where history echoes itself with all its wonders in
every piece of stone. Indian Real Estate is booming and it is one of the most expensive
real estate in Asia. India has become very promising in real estate market. Whether its big
cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Banglore, Calcutta, Chennai, Hyderabad or smaller cities such
as Pune, Jaipur, and Chandigarh etc.

The India property market is now very liquid and very exciting. There is a rise in foreign
direct investment (FDI) with an economic growth rate of over 7%, surveyed reported by
(Ficci) that 70% of foreign investors are making profits from Indian operations. The 8%
GDP will be targeted by next fiscal.87% believe that there are greater opportunities for
FDI in India.

Great boom has been come up in the retail and the residential sector. In India the
mortgage rates at 7.5% to 9% are the lowest as compared with the world.


In the recent years, tremendous demand of commercial and residential property has been
shot up and still continuing.


With the positive growth in the economy, the investors are reaping the harvest in the real
estate. Indian property developers are looking at a return of 15 to 25 %.
                          JAIPUR SCENARIO

Jaipur capital city of Rajasthan founded by Sawai Jaisingh II known for its Culture, Art,
Tradition, Heritage, Jewellery, Handicraft, Royal Hotels and now most popularly known
for Property. It is the first planned city of India. Earlier was a sleeping city in property
but now became a hub in property. Jaipur is booming in property and now properties are
selling like hot cakes. Jaipur soon would be made a Wi-Fi-city.

Jaipur real estate is growing if we look at the growth rate; the city reality graph shows the
capital growth rate of 5 to 7 percent in the last one year. The recommendation of Special
Economic Zone (SEZ) by Mahindra and Mahindra with RIICO joint venture on 300
bighas of land and an IT emerging sector too.

The infrastructure development is powered by connectivity with the 8 lanes National
express highway and availability of international Airport. It is a tourist destination for
both domestic and foreign. It‟s soon going to be a Health care destination and a fastest
emerging Education center.

Jaipur an investment destination- leading builders groups are investing and coming up
with their major projects around the city, names like Vatika, Omaxe, MGF, Ansals and
Parsvnath.

Jaipur is all set to grow and ready to make its mark to become a mega city of India by the
year 2025.
                           INTRODUCTION

                                   Home For Life

                      To play football or cricket you need a team

                  To swim you need the sea, river or a swimming pool

                        To sky you need a mountain and snow

             But for comfortable feeling and living happy with your family

                                     In the world

                               You only need a Home.




It was 12th of March 2006, when My Liberty Homes, started its journey as a small firm,
offering consultancy services to a number of big companies primarily in Real Estate. On
16th   May    2007   Amay     Home    Services      Pvt.   Ltd   was   incorporated   and
“MyLibertyHomes” became the brand name of Amay Home Services Pvt. Ltd. On 24th
Dec 2007 Amay Home Services was registered as Public Limited Company.

With focused vision able leadership and committed team (Mylibertyhomes) has
consolidated its position in Real Estate Community. Today MLH is the most sought after
company for brand promotion and project underwriting. With more than 700 Cr. revenue
generations for its principles, “MyLibertyHomes” has already liquidated over 2 million
sq ft of area promising more than 1000 families their value for money and a house of
their own.
                              CORE VALUES
My Liberty Homes Society is proud of its values, which are following-

      Leadership
      Empowerment / Accountability
      Candor / Trust / Integrity
      Communication
      Innovation & Creativity
      Customer / Quality Focus
      Speed / Action / Simplicity / Initiative
      Competence
      Commitment / Self – discipline




    MISSION-

My Liberty Homes have created, and will strive to maintain, a unique environment that
fosters quality service, teamwork and respect.




    VISION-

As it grows and matures, Amay Homes Services Limited and its allied companies will be
outstandingly successful in combining enterprising spirit with a long-term commitment to
the common man and to maximize its impact through support, networking and alliance
with other organizations. It will attract and develop the most talented individuals to drive
its vision, constantly setting and meeting higher standards of excellence by rewarding
creativity, dedication and performance.
    OBJECTIVE-

The company objects are those, which guide and set the direction for everything that we
do. Following are their governing principles-

      Superiority and reliability in work
      Highest degree of dedication and integrity
      Client satisfaction
      Value for money
                ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

                                  ROHIT SURI, CMD - AHS



Rahul Mahna, Director          Chetan Bhalla, Vise President              Harsh Sethi, Director

Kamal Kashyap, Operation Manager

Kailash Jat, Exe. Operations




Rohit Menroy             Parikshit Singh               Sandeep Narolia          Yogesh Vijay
Head Operations            AGM                      Manager Home Loan           Accounts- CA



Amardeep Aora            Ritu Thakkar              Nemi Chand Jangeed           Anand Joshi
 AGM- Sales              HR Manager               Sr. Exe- Home Loan         Ast. Manager a/c


Santosh Taneja          Kashish Kirpal               Hemant Sharma             Vinod Nakwal
Dinesh Sikhwal          Man. Training                Officer Home Loan            Exe. a/c
Surendra Pareek
(Sales Manager)         Rajesh Meena
                           (IT)                       Sanjeev Singh
                                                      Vinod Jangid               Babulal Jat
Yogesh Ojha                                           Rais Khan                  Exe. a/c
Vijay Singh             Kailash Butoliya              Narendra Kumawat
Mukendra Singh          HR Executive                  Manoj Saran
Sher Singh                                            Avinash Sandaliya
Kaushal Sharma         Alka Vashistha                 (Exe. Home Loan)
Mohd. Sajid           Customer Care Exe.
Mahesh Joshi
Dili Singh            Deepak Sharma
(Sales Team)            MIS Exe.


                          Sitaram
                          MIS Exe.
        DIVERSIFICATION & ROAD AHEAD

Real Estate
Amay Home Services‟ project at Jaisinghpura is a group housing scheme at Ajmer Road
which consists of 288 flats of type 1/2/3 BHK. “MyLibertyHomes” is the first brand in
Rajasthan to offer a flat at Rs 5.62 Lacs. Amay Home Services Ltd has the projects worth
of Rs 1000 Cr. streamlined for the financial year 2008-09. Out of which, projects worth
Rs 700 Cr. have already been defined and are providing employment to over 250 people.
As a Project marketing & Developing Company , Amay Home Services Ltd. has joined
hands and worked with many reputed builders.



    Projects Developed & Marketed by Amay Home Services Ltd.

           1. “MyLibertyHomes” at Jaisinghpura Ajmer road-Jaipur. 288 flats of 1/2/3
              BHK
           2. My Liberty Homes ( Extension ) – Jaisinghpura Ajmer road - Jaipur
           3. XA-NA-DU Luxury apartments (4 BHK + SERVANT) – Jaisinghpura
              Ajmer road – Jaipur - 112 flats
           4. “Luxury Studio XA-NA-DU”. - Jaisinghpura road - Jaipur. - 450 flats.
           5. “Luxury Studio” - Jagatpura – Jaipur. 400 flats.
           6. “My Liberty Kingdom”- Jaisinghpura Ajmer Road Jaipur, is the largest
              group housing society in Jaisinghpura spread over in 57500 sq yards,
              specially designed for Jain Community, Forces and Corporate Community
              providing approx.1200 flats.

     Projects Marketed by Amay Home Services Ltd.

           7. “Hanging Gardens” of Anukampa Build home Pvt. Ltd.
           8. “Sky Line” of Gold Dream Builders and Developers.
           9. “Real Paradise” of Narayan Build Home Pvt. Ltd.
           10. “Royal Sapphire” of Royal Real Mart Pvt. Ltd.
           11. “GENESIS” of Anukampa Group.
LUXUARY STUDIO SERVICE APARTMENTS-

Amay Home Services Ltd. aims at offering fully services, apartments in the upcoming
projects at Jaisinghpura & Jagatpura Jaipur, where their customers can acquire all the
facilities under one roof. It is believed that homes must be a place of utmost comfort.
“MyLibertyHomes” will aspire to offer a Luxury with comfort in these apartments.


PROPERTY PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT & RENTALS-


Amay Home Services Limited is further poised to launch their property brokerage
website to manage portfolio and provide online rental facilities of “MyLibertyHomes”
rentals to the customers. This website will strive to help customers to manage their
property at their convenience.
                       FUTURE PROSPECTS
Group has planned to open 45 retail chain outlets across pan Rajasthan. Some of the
important cities have been identified for the first phase of launch, the cities are as
follows:
   1. Jaipur
   2. Jodhpur
   3. Udaipur
   4. Ajmer
   5. Bhilwara
   6. Bikaner
   7. GangaNagar
   8. Alwar
   9. Bhiwadi
   10. Kota


In “MyLibertyHomes”, Jaipur, they have already finalized five stores which will be
operational very shortly. These ares-
    Malviya Nagar
    Raja Park
    C-Scheme
    Vidhyadhar Nagar
    Vaishali Nagar
                      MEMORABLE EVENTS
There are many events which are Sponsored & Organized by My Liberty Homes. Few of
them are-


    “Indian Property Show” 22 and 23 February 2008 in Dubai.
    “The Phantom of Opera” a New Year Event on 31st 2007 at Jaisinghpura with the
       Gathering of more than 3000 people.
    Mr. and Miss. Rajasthan on 10 August 2008.
    Freedom Run on 10 August 2008.
    Freedom from investment worries on 17 August 2008.
    Jaipur by nite on summer monsoon tourism on 1 to 3 August 2008.
    Diabetes wellness camp on 14 November 2008.



AWARDS-
My Liberty Homes won Onicra Credit Rating Agency Of India Limited award on
February 28th 2008.


My Liberty homes have been nominated for the GIREM leadership awards, on Urban
Planning & Real Estate Leadership Summit, which was held on 18th -20th sep.2008 in
Goa. Company was the only nominees from North under the category of the Third –
Party Marketing Company of the year, along with the other nominations from different
directions in the same category include; Cushman & Wakefield, Asipac, Orange
Properties, Oysters, NK Realtors.
GIREM Awards were presented on September 19th 2008 at Gala Awards function.
                          PRODUCT PROFILE
When you are young and just starting out, there‟s a lot you have to put together like food,
cloths, shelter etc. But get married, get a house, get it furnished, start family -------- these
may or may not currently be some of your life needs.


But then as time goes by you change --------- and so do your needs!


At My Liberty Homes understand that different people have their own sets of needs
according to statues of their lives.


That‟s why My Liberty Homes offer you a choice of solutions --------------- depending on
whether you want a house for living in society or you want a planning for investing.


You could go on to find out which product is right for you.
PRODUCTS




    MY LIBERTY HOMES
    Bhumi Pujan - 20 September 2007
    Flat - 286
    1 BHK – 80 Flats – 500 Sq Ft
    2 BHK – 110 Flats – 1000 Sq Ft
    3 BHK – 96 Flats – 1350 Sq Ft
    Rate – Rs. 1450/- per Sq Ft




      LUXURY STUDIO XA-NA-DU
      Bhumi Pujan – 6 October 2008
      Flat – 60 – 4 BHK – 380 Sq Ft
      Rate – Rs. 2200/- per Sq Ft
      Fully furnished with servant room
LUXURY STUDIO JAISINGPURA
Bhumi Pujan – 7 July 2008
Flat – 400
Area – 400 Sq Ft
Rate – Rs. 8 Lacs to 9.50 Lacs
Fully Furnished
Lease agreement for 8 years




LUXURY STUDIO JAGATPURA
Bhumi Pujan – 26 December 2008
Flat – 400
Area – 400 Sq Ft
Rate – 9.50 Lacs
Fully Furnished
Lease agreement for 8 years
                                        VEER AVENUE & SKY LINE
                                         Bhumi Pujan – 26 January 2009
                                         Flat – 700
                                         Area – 235 Sq Ft & 306 Sq Ft
                                         Rate – 2.75 Lacs & 3.75 Lacs
                                         Lease agreement for 5 years
                                         Self Finance Scheme




      “Things don‟t turn up in this world somebody turns them up.
  Product doesn‟t turn up in this world some companies turns them up.
Building doesn‟t turn up in this world some architectures turns them up.”
                RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

“All the progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than over confidence, for it
leads to inquiry and inquiry leads to invention.” This saying well states the significance
of research.


Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of
logical habits of thinking and organization. The role of research is several fields of
applied economics. Whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly
increased in modern times.


Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It has many
dimensions and research methods to constitute a part of research methodology.


Thus when we talk of research methodology, we not only talk of the research methods
but also consider the logic behind the methods. We use in context of our research study.
So that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or
by others.


To effectively carry out my research, I used following research process, which consists of
series of actions or steps.
OBSERVATIONAL DESIGN (COLLECTION OF DATA)-

Observational design relates to the conditions under which the observations are to be
made. Observational design in respect to descriptive research study, means structured or
well through out instruments for collection of data. Data collection is integral part of
marketing research. There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data, which
differ considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal of
the researcher. Data can be obtained from two important sources-


      Primary Data
      Secondary Data


1. Primary Data-
The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus
happen to be in character. Primary data can be collected by various methods i.e.


    Observation
    Interviews
    Schedules
    Questionnaire


Data Collection Method-
To collect primary data I employed Questionnaire for this survey work. I visited
personally to sample units selected by me using stratified sampling methods.
2. Secondary Data-
Secondary data are those data which have already been collected by someone else and
which have already passed through the statistical process. It can be collected through-


    Various Magazines
    Newspaper
    Internet (www.mylibertyhomes.com)
    Course books of MBA
Thus they are second hand in nature.



Data Collection Method-
The source of secondary data for drawing the sample constituted the database of
members of personal contacts and the other sources required for getting the insight about
real estate industry were the various magazines, site of real estate industry and data about
market are available.




LIMITATION OF THE STUDY-

    The first limitation faced was the limited knowledge of the people about
       apartments, mostly in rural areas.
    Mostly people want to buy their personal house.
    The paucity of time was also one of the constraints.
    There is a lot of unawareness and misconception about product (apartments).
    Although the questionnaire was prepared after a pilot– testing but a few points
       could have been missed.
    Due to time constraints, study was restricted only to areas under survey.
    Due to unfamiliarity of certain areas, a couple of people consultants might have
       been missed.
                                  TRAINING

DEFINING:-
Training is defined as an attempt to improve employee‟s current performance. To be
effective, training should evolve a learning experience, a planned organizational activity
and should be designed in response to identified needs. Ideally, training should be
designed to meet the goals of the organization, while simultaneously meeting the goals of
the individual employees.


Organization is made of people and by the people. Therefore, the effectiveness of any
organization depends upon the behavior and performance of the people constituting them.
As success of the organization, depends on the contribution of the personnel in the
organization, the employees are to be enabled to realize the growth potential and
contribute towards achievement of the organizational objectives.


Training is an organized procedure, which brings about a semi-permanent change in
behavior, for a definite purpose. The three main areas involved are skills, knowledge and
attitudes but always with a definite purpose in mind. The content of any training
programmed should include information useful to the effective performance of the job,
ways of developing and improving skills and abilities that enable the attainment of speed
and proficiency on the job and means of cultivating the right attitudes and sound personal
qualities in the man. Background knowledge acquired through previous education must
be supplemented by the knowledge of the company and its products and the technical
content, responsibilities and relationships specific to the job. As the needs of the job in
respect of the knowledge, skills and attitudes change with the passing of time, the man
and his mind, improving his body skills and molding the qualities of his heart. On the job
should be correspondingly developed and matched through enrichment.


A job is not learnt merely by instructions. By telling and showing step by step the way it
ought to be done, the job is perhaps presently learnt but not done well when left on one‟s
own. By telling, showing and making the trainee do the job step by step along with
instruction, the changes are that the job will be learnt and yet there is no guarantee that
the job will be done well for long. The job will be really learnt satisfactorily by making
an individual repeat and demonstrate step by step during instruction. By keeping a
watchful eye at close interval in the initial stages and by checking periodically later on,
one can ensure that the job will be all done for all time to come. Training is an important
tool for development and assumes great importance due to unprecedented change in
internal and external environment of the origination. An organization dealing with
information technology has to quickly adjust to the needs required by the changed
scenario and equip the personnel with the required skills. As a result training plays a
crucial role for the success of an IT organization. Employee training is a process whereby
people learn the skills, knowledge, attitudes and behavior needed in order to perform
their job effectively. No big industrial organization can ignore the training and
development needs of its employees without seriously inhabiting its performance.




TRAINING, EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT

The terms training, education, and development are closely related but their meanings
have important distinctions. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of
an employee for a particular job. It is concerned with imparting specific skills for
particular purposes. And education on the other hand is concerned with increasing
general knowledge and understanding of the employee‟s total environment. The term
development is a broad one. It includes both training and education. Its aim is to improve
the overall personality of an individual.


Following are some important distinctions between training and development:


1)     Training is meant for operatives. Development is meant for executives.
2)     The aim of training is to develop some specific skill in an individual. The aim of
       development is to develop the total personality of the individual.
3)     Training is one short affair. Development is a continuous process.
4)     The initiative for training comes from management. The initiative for
       development comes from the individual himself.
5)     Training is mostly a preparation to meet an individual‟s present needs. It can thus
       be seen as a reactive process. Development is a preparation to meet his future
       needs. It is thus largely a proactive process.


LEARNING                         TRAINING                       DEVELOPMENT
DIMENTIONS
WHO?                             Non-managerial personnel       Managerial personnel
WHAT?                            Technical and mechanical       Theoretical, conceptual
                                 operations                     ideas
WHY?                             Specific job-related           General knowledge
                                 purpose
WHEN?                            Short-term                     Long-term


Education, Training, and Development are not sequential or hierarchical; rather, they
are interlinked and interdependent. For many people, personal growth experiences occur
without any planning or influence from training professionals. Many managers and
supervisors have an intuitive understanding that allowing someone to have a go at
something will be a good for them. Others however fail to recognize the ability and
potential in their subordinates and much talent remains forever untapped. The trainer‟s
role is to encourage, perhaps even organizing, managers and supervisors to develop their
subordinates as fully as possible. One common way for people to be developed is the „in-
at-the-deep-end‟ method. This involves giving an employee a difficult and demanding
assignment without adequate preparation, guidance or assistance. According to the
managers he will either sink or swim. If we were lucky, were learned to swim quickly
enough to cope with the situation and came out of it exhausted, but knowing that we had
survived. Next time, it would be not so bad. The problem with the „in-at-the-deep-end,
sink-or swim approach is that it has high quality rate. Many people who could be taught
to swim fail and drown. So what constitute a better approach? As in any other training
situation, we start by looking at needs. However, here we are focusing on longer term
needs than is usually the case, and we are looking at the organization‟s need and the
individual‟s need at the same time.




TRAINING FUNCTIONS SHOULD BROADLY ENCOMPASS THE
FOLLOWING FOUR STEPS:

I)     Define training objectives.
II)    Identify the “felt training needs” of the staff
III)   Formulate various training schemes and ensures their systematic implementation
       by time bound program.
IV)    Assessment/evaluation of its effectiveness viewed from “short” as well as “long
       term” pay-off to the organization and the staff.


A sound performance appraisal and career planning system is a “per-requisite” to the
determination of the “felt training needs”. The information on the felt training needs
could be culled from data based performance appraisal of the staff. Identifying training
needs helps to promote among them a positive and constructive attitude toward training.
Information of training needs could also be gathered by a study of the “job description”
of the staff and in case of non-availability of “formal job” description, the relevant data
could be generated by talking to the employees or their superior.


THE INDIVIDUAL‟S NEEDS


When considering development needs, the key aspects of using these techniques are to
consider various elements at the same time. Firstly, people vary in their needs and drives.
Some want to grow and develop, to achieve great things, to realize their potential to the
full. Other prefers not to take risks. They do not want to be constantly tackling new
things, but are content to do their current jobs well. Secondly, people vary greatly in their
abilities. Personnel specialists have no such difficulty, and readily reject applicants who
they believe do not have the right abilities to succeed in a particular job. Trainers
sometime seem to be committed to the idea that anyone can learn anything, given a well-
designed training program. Thirdly, the organization may or may not be able to provide
the development the individual wants and is capable of benefiting from. Giving
inexperienced people opportunities to learn and to make mistakes can be very disruptive
and costly, and is not always practicable.


For example, a company employed a capable and conscientious instrument engineer in
charge of a small team of technicians. A vacancy arouses which involved being in charge
of a number of sections, coordinating a multidisciplinary workforce and several
professional engineers. The instrument engineer was offered the promotion. He declined
it, because he did not want the extra pressure and stress that the job would bring. The
company did not accept this view, and brought various pressures to bear on him to accept
the promotion. Reluctantly, he did so, but within weeks of taking the job, he headed in his
notice. He had managed to find a position elsewhere that would allow him to function at
the level he was comfortable with.


THE ORGANIZATIO‟S NEEDS


No organization should believe that it really knows what is future needs will be with any
degree of accuracy. We live in a dynamic time when organizations have to respond to
change at an ever-increasing rate. Nonetheless it the part of the job of the human resource
function to try to predict and prepare for the needs as well as possible. Talented people
need to be recruited before they can be developed. In order to anticipate the
organization‟s future needs it is required, to think about what forms of organizations it
will have in future and what kinds of people it will need.


Organizations are learning to value key people as an asset to be nurtured and developed.
At the same time may be allowing people to consider their carrier outside the
organization. It should not be unthinkable for the employees to discuss leaving the
organization, becoming self-employed, or taking a year or so off work. It may suit the
organization to encourage such thinking so that their staffs are employed truly
voluntarily.


Too often organizations are clogged up with disaffected time-savers-men and women
who joined ten, twenty years ago and who occupy positions that they once dreamed of
attaining, but which now bore them. They felt trapped. The reason is that they are
trapped. Most organization allow progression along conventional career paths, but have
no or limited mechanisms for some to say, „I‟d like a change, or “my job no longer gives
me feelings of satisfaction”. And so talented, ambitious and hardworking employees are
slowly, often imperceptibly, turned into sour, bored and resentful employees. This does
an enormous damage. Not only it makes the lives miserable, but also it makes the whole
organizations inefficient and unresponsive. Therefore the developments of the employees
are very much essential.


„Every job should be a learning experience‟, said Herzberg and that is a useful
principal to remember when thinking about development. But many managers reject this
concept. They believe in recruiting fully experienced people who require n training at all.
They also believe that their subordinates come to work for the lowest of motives.
McGregor termed them „Theory X‟ and there are still plenty of them around.


„Theory Y‟ managers on the other hand believe in creating such conditions that the
members of the organization can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts
towards making the organization successful. In those conditions, people will constantly
be striving to use their potential fully; to learn, to take responsibility, to advance.


Many organizations see performance appraisal scheme as an integral part of their
employee development strategy. Schemes vary considerably from one organization to
another; almost all of them include the identification on training needs as a key
component. Most also consider the longer-term carrier options available to employees,
and allow to express their preferences. It follows that anyone with responsibility for
training and development should influence the design of the scheme and ensures that
notice is taken of the information generated by it. The appraisal may also be considered
as confidential within the department concerned. There are many issues to be addressed
when designing and implementing an appraisal scheme, linked to the determination of
pay increases may inhibit the appraise from being honest about aspects of the job that he
or she finds difficult whereas it is precisely these aspects that need to be discussed to
identify training needs. Care I needed to minimize these conflicts.


PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT


A)     All development is self-development. It must be generated within the man
       himself.
B)     Development is highly individual. Einstein expressed this thought by the phrase
       “uniqueness of the individual” that is, there is no average man, and no two people
       have exactly the same needs. There are may approaches to management
       development, and different approaches work better with different types of
       managers.
C)     Development of an individual is due to his day-to day experience on the job.
       Therefore, must emphasize the development of a man in his day-to-day work.
D)     Education is continuous. A person must strive constantly to improve himself
       using as many methods as possible. In other words, we need to “run hard to stand
       still” in this changing work.
It will be good for the trainer to remember these basic principles of development. They
should also be remembered while choosing training methods.


A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO DEVELOPING STAFF


The training and development of an organization has to be driven by the business
objectives, and its success judged by its ability to help the organization achieve those
objectives. This can be demonstrated by a simple cycle.
                                    Business objectives



                    Evaluation                              Planning



                                          Actions



The business objectives can be translated into departmental, team or individual
objectives. The training and developmental needs are then identified by comparing these
requirements with the existing skills and abilities of the organization‟s employees.
Training and development needs, having been identified, can then be planned for and
delivered. The effectiveness and outcomes of the training can then be evaluated against
the original objectives in terms of the new skills and attitudes acquired the impact on job
performance and real business improvement. These results then influence and impact on
the business objectives. This ensures that people can do, and are motivated to do, what
the business needs them to do.



Approach to employee training and development, after successful pilot studies, investor
in people was normally launched as a national standard for the effective investment in
people. The investors in people standard are based on four principles: commitment,
planning, action, and evaluation.
        SYSYEM MODELS OF TRAINING

NEEDS ASSESSMENT                   DEVELOPMENT                         EVALUATION


      Identify needs for                                         Identify or develop
      training by                                                criteria to evaluate
      conducting needs                                           training outcomes:
      analyses:
                                                                 * Reactions
      * Organization                                             * Learning
      * Task or job                                              * Behaviour change
      * Person                                                   * Organizational
                                                                 results
      Derive instructional                                       Derive instructional
      objectives                                                 objectives




                           Design a learning environment by
                           examining:

                           * Characteristics of adult learners
                           * Learning principles


                                  Identify or develop
                                  training materials and
                                  methods


                                         Conduct
                                         training


                                                                  Conduct evaluation
                                                                  and cost effectiveness
                                                                  of training program
BENEFITS OF SYSTEMATIC TRAINING:


1*      meeting manpower needs: when skills of a specific order are required it is often
impracticable for a concern to recruit skilled personnel from the open market. So „do-it-
yourself‟ is the only way.
2*      reduced-learning time: when skills and knowledge are systematically taught, the
trainees are brought to efficient performance more quickly than if they had to proceed by
trail and error.
3*      improved performance: the elimination of incorrect working procedure and poor
work habits by skilled trainees ensure that only the best methods are taught.
4*      reduced wastage: material and equipment cost can be often cut by the
implementation of an efficient training scheme.
5*      less absenteeism: a major cause of staying at home from work, particularly with
new staff, comes from not having a clear knowledge of one‟s duties and how to perform
them.
6*      fewer accidents: accidents among trained persons are three times those among the
trained staff.
7*      benefits to employees: any increase in job skills adds to the market value of the
trainee, and can lead to advancement both within and outside the company. There is also
the opportunity for the employee of increased earnings in some instances, and a job
satisfaction that results from performed correctly for the first time.
And moreover wise employees see training as a long-term investment.


TYPES OF TRAINING


After the employees has been recruited, selected, and inducted, he must next be
developed to better fit the job ad the organization. No one is perfect fit at the time of
hiring, a: and some training and education is essential. No organization has a choice of
whether to develop employees or not the only choice it has is that of method of
development. If no organized programmed exists, then development will largely be self-
development, while learning on the job. Development will include both training and
education, which will induce increase skill in performing a specific job and education to
increase general knowledge and understandings of our total environment.


There are three types of training

    1) Training programmed for non-managers to develop skills to perform a job.
    2) Training and educational programmed for the executives to develop the ability he
       manages.
    3) Programmed designed to develop organizational units as entries.


NEED FOR BASIC PURPOSE OF TRAINING


   To increase productivity: “instruction can help employees increase their level of
    performance in their present assignment. Increased human performance often directly
    leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit”.
   To improve quality: “better informed workers are less likely to make operational
    mistakes”.
   To improve health and safety: “proper training can help prevent industrial accident.”
   Obsolescence prevention: “training and development programmed foster the initiative
    creativity of employees help to prevent manpower obsolescence”.
   Personal growth: “employees on a personal basis gain individually from their
    exposure to educational experiences”.
   Keeping the company in a state of constant change since only thing that is permanent
    is a change.
   Cultivating diversities to unlearn old and obsolete knowledge so that the organization
    moves ahead.
   Creating mechanism to unlearn old and obsolete and take decisions.
   Building settings where people collectively learn and take decisions.
   Rapid technological developments have made it necessary for managers to update
    their knowledge and skills.
   Managers are often made to handle areas of responsibility that are radically different
    from their college specializations. For example, a graduate in English literature may
    have to sell consumer durable refrigerators. This makes it necessary for the
    organizations to provide special inputs so that his lack of formal education in a
    particular sphere does not become a handicap in the execution of his responsibilities.
   A college degree, moreover, only prepares a man for a career in industry; it does not
    provide all the knowledge and skills for performing satisfactorily it an organization.
   Mistakes are committed sometimes in the selection process and a candidate who does
    not have the required capacity or training may be selected. In such cases, the
    organization will have to provide additional training to ensure that the person is able
    to meet the requirements of the job.


The major objectives of training are as follows:


    1. To train the employees in the company culture pattern.
    2. To train the employees to increase his quality of output. This may involve
       improvement in work methods or skills.
    3. To train the employee for promotion to higher jobs.
    4. To train the bright out dronish employee in the formation of his goals. This may
       involve instructions in initiative and drive.
    5. To train the employee towards better job adjustment and high morale.
    6. To reduce supervision, wastage and accidents. Development of effective work
       habits and methods of work should contribute towards a reduction in the accident
       rate, less supervision and wastage of material.


NEW CONCEPT OF TRAINING


It will be advisable for the trainer to remember the new concepts of training developed by
Lynton and Pareek to make the training efforts useful to the organizations.
ASSUMTIONS UNDERLYING TWO CONCEPTS OF TRAINING


Prevailing concept                            New concept


The acquisition of subject matter knowledge Motivation and skills lead to action. Skills
by a participant lead to action.              are required through practice.


The participation learns what the trainer Learning is a complex function of the
teaches. Learning is a simple function of the motivation and capacity of the individual
capacity of the participant to learn and the participant, the norms of the training groups,
ability of the trainer to teach.              the training methods & the behavior of the
                                              trainers,   and   general    climate    of   the
                                              institution. The participant‟s motivation is
                                              influenced by the climate of his work
                                              organization.


Individual action leads to improvement on Improvement on the job is a complex
the job.                                      function of individual learning, the norms of
                                              the working groups and the general climate
                                              of the organization.


Training is the responsibility of the training Training is the responsibility of three
institution. It begins and ends with the partners; the participants‟ organization, the
course.                                       participants and the training institution. It has
                                              a preparatory training and a subsequent post-
                                              training phase.
  WHO SHOULD BE TRAINED



       HIGH
                                    WORK                        STARS
                                    HORSES



JOB PERFORMANCE




                                    DEADWOOD                    PROBLEM CHILDREN
         LOW
                                                                                         HIGH

                                                        POTENTIAL




  JOB PERFORMANCE refers to the actual achievement of the individual compared
  with the objectives of the job.
  POTENTIAL refers to the likelihood of the jobholder making a future contribution to
  the employing organization.
  The two-by two grids give four types of employees.
     1. Deadwood: Employees under this category are incompetent, unsatisfactory and
         wholly unsuitable occupant of their present positions. They have low potential for
         growth.
     2. Work Horses: These are the people who have reached their peak of performance
         in the light of definitely limited capacity.
     3. Stars: These are people of high potential who are performing at the highest
         quadrant of their potential.
     4. Problem children: These are people who have great potential and genuine
         capacities who are working below that capacity or only with mixed results. In
       some instances they divert their energies to making mischief, engaging in harmful
       actions or being too easily diverted into trivial wasteful uses of their talents.


The above diagram can be divided into 4 main parts


  I. Define training objectives.
 II. Identify the “felt training needs” of the staff.
III. Formulate various training schemes and ensure their systematic implementation by
     time bound programmed.
IV. Assessment/evaluation of its effectiveness viewed from “short” as well a “long
     term” will pay-off to the organization and the staff.




IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS is the first element and a critical one in
the training activity. Success of the training function depends greatly on the current
identification of needs.


As training is primarily for improving the performance of a person on his current job, it is
necessary to collect and store the following function depends greatly on the current
identification of needs.
    Job description of individual as perceived by them and their superiors against the
       individual‟s profile (i.e. existing conceptual, human relations and technical skills).
    Job performance review i.e. level of performance achieved by individual
       measured against both content and agreed personnel objectives.
    Potential of individual to grow within the organization keeping in view the growth
       rate of the organization and its future objectives.
    Managerial ability and traits of individual which can contribute towards
       performance on the job.


The training manager cannot do the exercise of training need identification himself. He
has to necessarily take the assistance of line managers. The training manager is primarily
responsible for the design and conduct of suitable training programmed for individuals in
the organization so as to meet the organizational objectives. However, his involvement at
all stages is a must. If the need identification itself is wrong, the training manager‟s
expertise in conducting training programmed will be of a very little use.
This diagram indicates the various steps involved in operating a training development
system.




                          Identification of training needs


                                     Identification of
                                      Training needs




                                     Develop training
                                       objectives




      Measure training                                                Design training
          results                                                      curriculum




      Conduct training                                             Design/select training
       programmed                                                        methods




                                       Design training
                                        evaluations
                                        methodology
Major sources for identifying Training and development needs of individual are

Performance appraisal, Career plans and system introduction / improvement.


Performance Appraisal:
In the performance appraisal system there is a scope to identify the difference between
the organization‟s expectations and the individual‟s performance. Areas relating to
knowledge, skill, attitude and behavior on the job, which need change, can be specifically
assessed in the system. The identification comes from the employee himself or out of a
discussion between the employee and his superior who prepares the appraisal.


Career Plans:
Based on the advance information made available about changes in content/context of the
job of an individual, the training manager organizes suitable inputs of an individual for
the change.


System Introduction:
New systems and procedures, when introduced, call for intervention from the Training &
Development function. Implementation of a new system becomes much easier, if all
individuals/groups concerned are explained in advanced about the change and how to
make the best use of the same. If more and more employees become aware of the
functions of the training department, it would increase the free flow of communication
between the training and other employees.
This would help in better identification of Training Needs.


ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS


Training is an essential input in providing learning opportunities to employees of an
organization to enable them to optimally contribute towards meting the short and long-
term objectives of the organization. Thus all the activities pertaining to training must be
related to the specific needs of both the organization and the individual employees. The
specificity with which training needs are stated will ultimately determine the
effectiveness of the training efforts as it will assists in evaluating firstly, the extent to
which the skills required for a particular task or role have been acquired and utilized in
improving one‟s performance; and secondly, the extent to which the individual interests,
aspirations and potentials have met and realized for ensuring job satisfaction and
employee growth.


Adhocism in the choice of training programmed and in formulating training strategies are
likely to cause more frustration than satisfaction among organization members, as they
may not be able to utilize their acquired learning on their job. There is the need, therefore
to develop realistic pans for training and development of employees, execute them follow
up with continuous monitoring and evaluation. The training needs basically highlight the
gap between the existing and desired repertoire of knowledge, attitude and skills at
individual, group and organizational level to enable the employees to contribute towards
the realization of organizational objectives at optimum efficiency.


IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA)


In training needs assessment the organization as to improve its teaching techniques,
methodology and more so the content programmed. One of the best available alternatives
at the trainer‟s level is to conduct a Training Needs Assessment (TNA) exercise to the
prospective target group and assess their requirements.


TNA is the foundation on any effective training programmed.


It has to be carefully analyzed why all training should start with the assessment of
training needs.


   a) It is impossible to develop training objectives appropriately if training needs are
       not properly assessed.
   b) Not every problem will respond to a training solution. It is therefore necessary to
      separate those problems that will respond to training from those which require
      other forms of intervention. This is facilitated by the proper assessment of training
      needs.
   c) The proper assessment of training needs allows for meaningful follow-up to the
      training activity, in terms of providing for the application of new knowledge and
      skills on the job.


There are four types of “NEED ASSESSMENT”


   1. Organizational need assessment
   2. Group need assessment
   3. Individual need assessment
   4. Job needs assessment
                   METHODS OF TRAINING

SELECTION PROCEDURE FOR TRAINING METHODS


Training need identification is followed by the selecting procedure for training. Some of
the commonly used training methods are as follows:


    TRAINING IN THE FIELD, ON-THE-JOB:


      Apprenticeship
      In-Plant Training
      Craftsmanship


    SIMULATIN REAL LIFE SITUATIONS, OFF-THE-JOB:


      Role Playing
      Business Games
      In-Basket Training


    LABORATORY TRAINING, OFF-THE-JOB:


      Sensitivity Training
      Transitional Analysis


    SAMPLING REAL LIFE, OFF-THE-JOB:


      Incidents, case methods/case studies


    THE LECTURE METHOD, OFF-THE-JOB:
    INDIVIDUALIZED METHODS, ON-THE-JOB:


      Practicing Special Skills
      Reading and Writing Assignment
      Postal Tuition
      Programmed Instruction


    DISCUSSION METHODS, OFF-THE-JOB:


      Syndicate Method
      Seminars, Conferences, Colloquium, Symposium


PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND THE CHOICE OF METHODS


How to motivate the trainees to learn? This is the most difficult question a trainer has to
answer. So to ensure motivation to learn and apply the acquired knowledge, utmost care
has to be taken, to select the right person for the right course/training. Until and unless
this is not done the whole purpose of training is defeated, so it is very essential to keep in
mind principles of learning while selecting the training method.
However a trainer should also remember that he must work, and work hard, to keep this
motivation level high.


On the basis of this factor, the method can be ranked as follows:

   1. MOTIVATION:


       Motivation                              Methods


       High                            -       Business Game, Project Assignment


       Medium                          -       Lecture (Can be enhanced by making the
                                             Lecture interesting)


       Low                            -      Reading Assignment




   2. ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT:


It is said that management cannot be taught. It can only be learnt. And it takes place
better when one actively participants in the process. Deeper the involvement, higher the
motivation and more the students retain, the better they are equipped to apply.


       Active Involvement                    Methods


       High                           -      Case Study, Business Game, Role Playing,
                                             Project Assignment


       Medium                         -      Group Discussion, Reading Assignment


       Low                            -      Lecture


   3. INDIVIDUAL APPROACH:


Individuals are individuals. And different approaches work better with different people.
While group-training programmed are normally organized to meet the identified training
needs of the group, it will be advisable to provide opportunity for individual work.


       Possibility of individual             Methods
       approach


       High                           -      Project Assignments
       Medium                         -      Group Discussion, Case Study, Business
                                             Game, Role Playing, Reading
                                             Assignment


       Low                            -      Lecture




   4. SEQUENCING AND STRUCTURING:


Concepts have to be built step b step. Sequencing and structuring are needed to provide
the impact and the consequent results from training. Lecture methods are the best for
sequencing and structuring. The ranks of other methods are:


       Possibility of sequencing      -      Methods
       And structuring


       High                           -      Reading Assignment


       Medium                         -      Case      Study,   Business   Game,   Project
       Assignment


       Low                            -      Group Discussion, Role Playing


   5. FEEDBACK:


It is important for the trainer to be aware of the types of feedback possible in different
methods to increase his own effectiveness in teaching.


       Feedback                    Methods                      Feedback on


       High                        Business Game                Soundness of decision
                                                             Behavioural pattern
                                Role Playing                 Practical usefulness
                                                             of learning


      Medium                    Group discussion             Knowledge/
                                Case study                   Analytical ability


      Low                       Lecture
                                Reading Assignment




   6. TRANSFER:


      Different methods rank as their effectiveness in transfer process is concerned:


      Transfer                      -        Methods


      High                          -        Project Assignment


      Medium                        -        Case Study, Business Game,
                                             Role Playing


      Low                           -        Lecture, Group Discussion,
                                             Reading Assignment




Two methods, lecture and case study, are used extensively in management development
programmed in India.
PREMINARY PREPARATION FOR CONDUCTING TRAINING
PLANNING DATA



Who?        -   How many people
            -   Names
            -   Series and grades
            -   Organizational section
            -   Geographical locations


When?       -    Training schedule
            -   Dates of training
            -   Length of training
            -   When skills needed or required
            -   When skills needed or required
            -   Workload demands affecting trainee availability


Where?      -   Training source
            -   Internal
            -   External
            -   Combination of resources
            -   Geographical location of training


How Much?   -   Written material cost
            -   Travel and per diem
            -   Time lost from the job
            -   Other costs
STEP                                   SUGGESTIONS


Instructor preparation    1. Divide task into logical parts to create lessons plan.
                          2. Select teaching techniques, e.g. demonstration.


Trainee preparation       1. Place trainee at ease.
                          2. Relate training to trainee needs.


Task preparation          1. Present overview of task.
                          2. Proceed from known to unknown, easy to difficult.
                          3. Adjust pace to individual differences.
                          4. Go through task and explain each step.
                          5. Have trainee tell instructor what to do.


Performance preparation   1. Have trainee explain each step prior to execution.
                          2. Be aware of learning plateaus to sustain motivation.
                          3. Provide feedback on progress.


How to Follow-up          1. Positively reinforce continuously at start.
                          2. Move to variable positive reinforcement schedule as
                            trainees matures
                 EVALUATION OF TRAINING

CONCEPT

Evaluation means the assessment of value or worth. Evaluation of training is the act of
judging whether or not it is worthwhile in terms of set criteria. A comprehensive and
effective evaluation plan is a critical component of any successful training programme. It
should be structured to generate information of the impact of training on the reactions, on
the amount of learning that has taken place; on the trainees‟ behavior and its contribution
to the job. Therefore evaluation of training is a Measure of how well it has met the needs
of its human resources.


DEFINITION

Hamblin (1970) defined evaluation of training as: “Any attempt to obtain information on
the effects of training programme and to assess the value of training in the light of that
information for improving further training”.


NEED FOR EVALUATION

Evaluation is an integral part of the whole process of training and development. The
trainer should be fairly clear of:


          -      How to evaluate
          -      What to evaluate
          -      When to evaluate


WHY EVALUATE

Evaluation of training could be multipurpose.


    1) To determine the extent and degree of training programme fulfilling its set
        objectives and interlaid indication.
   2) The suitability and feasibility of the objectives set for training.


   3) Provide feedback on the performance of the trainees, and training staff, the quality
       of training, other facilities provided during training.


   4) Identify and analysis whether the training inputs, training techniques and methods
       were in line with the objectives intended to be achieved through training.


   5) Enable improvement in the assessment of training needs.


   6) Aid the learning process of training by providing knowledge of results.


   7) Highlight the impact of training on the behavior and performance of the
       individual.


   8) Determine the cost benefit return from training investment.


   9) Judge the impact of training for organizational benefit.


PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION

Suchman, E.A. describes evaluation as an integral part of an operating system meant to
aid trainees/training managers to plan and adjust their training activities in an attempt to
increase the probability of achieving the desired action or goals. In order to integrate
training practices with business policy and objectives, evaluation has to be based on
sound principles such as:


    Trainer/evaluator must be clear about the purpose of evaluation to be able to set
       the standards and criteria of evaluation.


    Evaluation has to be accepted as a process than an end product of training.
 As a process, it has to be continuous. The „one-spot‟ assessment cannot guide
   trainers for improving subsequent programmes, therefore it has to begin before
   the actual training activity and end much after the conclusion of visible training
   activity.


 The training objectives should be an outcome of overall organizational goals to
   permit evaluation of training results.


 A good evaluation system is tailor-made and should provide specific data about
   its strength and weakness.


 A good evaluation system should provide sufficient scope for self-appraisal by the
   trainer/evaluator.


 The Evaluative data should try to balance quantitative and qualitative information.


 Effective communication and coordinating are essential Training and evaluation
   plans should be discussed so that there is commonality of propose amongst the
   trainers, the evaluators and those sponsoring the trainees.


 Reporting system of evaluative data should be simple, clear, adequate and
   available for interpretation. It requires the evaluator to be sensitive to the feelings
   of the audience, has to be tactful and honest. As far as possible terminology used
   should be concise and free from jargons.


 Realistic targets must be set. A sense of urgency no doubt is desirable but
   deadline that are unrealistically high will result in poor quality.


 Finally, a trainer who is sincere about training, evaluation would always insist on
   complete, objective and continuous feedback on the progress and deficiencies of
       training to be able to maintain the momentum of training programme, its
       evaluation and subsequent improvement.


EVALUATION DESIGN

Different authors have described different typologies of evaluation; A particular
methodology appropriate for in-company training may not be relevant for external
programmes. After deciding on the criteria to use in evaluating program, the HR
professional should choose an experimental design. An evaluation design may be
applicable from one organization to another; one situation to another while the results are
not. It is therefore necessary that the evaluation design is tailor-made to suit the situation
within the broad – framework of seeking to assess:


   1) What needs to be changed/modified/improved
   2) What procedures are most likely to bring about this change
   3) Is there demonstrable and concrete evidence that change has occurred


Some of the more commonly used designs for training evaluation are described below:
TOPOLOGIES OF EVALUATION DESIGN



     Level/stage    Hamblin         Kirkpatrick      Warr         Virman&premila
     1.             Reaction        Reaction         Context      Context               Pre-
     2.             Learning        Learning         Input        Input                 training
     3.             Job-            Behaviour        Process      Reaction
                    behaviors
     4.             Functioning     Results          Outcome      Learning              Post-
     5.                                                           Job     improvement training
                                                                  plan
     6.                                                           On-the-job
     7.                                                           Follow-up       and
                                                                  transfer




The processes, which occur as a result of a successful training programme, can be divided
into four levels. Evaluation can be carried out at any levels.


1.        The reaction level:   Trainees react to the training.


2.        The learning level:   Trainees learn. They acquire knowledge, skills and
attitudes about the subject matter of the training, which they are capable of translating
into behaviour within the training situation.


3.        The job behavior level: Trainees apply this learning in the form of changed
behavior back on the job.


4.        The functioning level: This changed job behavior affects the functioning of the
firm. These changes can be measured by a variety of indices; many of which can be
expressed in terms of costs.
VIRMANI & PREMILA‟S MODEL OF EVALUATION


                 Q uestionnaire        O bjective of the
                                       trainee & his boss
                 C ourse D irector &
                 Faculty discussion    O bjectives of the
                                       trainer
  Pre-training   Test questionnaire
                                       Level of trainee's
  evaluation                           know ledge & skills.        C ontext and
                  Q uestionnaire                                    input
                                       Susceptibility to change    evaluation               Training          Post training evaluation



                                                                  R eaction evaluation          Evaluation proform a
                                                                  inform ation about            O bservation inform al
                                                                  inputs and the course
                                                                  in geneal                     D iscussion w ith trainee


                                                                  Learning evluation
                                                                                                Test questionnaire
                                                                  D egree of im provem ent
                                                                  in know ledge & skills


                                                                  Job im provem ent plan
                                                                                                   J.I.P. form at
 Suggestions                                                      individual approach
 for future      Training
                                                                  organisational facilators
 im provem ent   effectiveness
                                                                  & inhabitors


                                                                  O n- the job evaluation
                                                                                                  R e-briefing and dis-
                                                                  supportive organistional
                                                                  clim ate for transfer           cussion by boss/
                                                                  of traning                      organization


                                                                  Folow - up after six
                                                                                                       Q uestionnaire
                                                                  m onths/ one year D egree
                                                                                                       structured interview
                                                                  of transfer reported by
                                                                  trainee/ boss and help/
                                                                                                       Follow ed by discussions
                                                                  hinder factors for transfer
According to the authors, training constitutes a three-stage system. The first stage is the
period before training during which the trainees have expectations from the course. The
second is the teaching and learning stage and the third are after training when back on the
job, the trainee is supposed to integrate with the job performance.
   i.   Pre-training Evaluation
 ii.    Context & input Evaluation
 iii.   Post-training Evaluation
The three-stage model is mostly relevant to Management & Development


PRE-TRAINING EVALUATION

To ensure maximum impact of training it is essential that the training, objectives match
with the expectations of the trainees and with the needs of the user system of training.
These efforts towards goal congruence of objectives between the trainer, the trainee and
the work requirements become all the more essential for the external training
programmes.


CONTEXT INPUT EVALUATION

The participants being trained is known, the trainer ought to have at least some
information about the context in which the trainee has to work after training.


The work and organizational climate, the hierarchical level occupied by the trainee, his
job characteristics and other organizational factors aids in the formulation of a training
design which best suits their requirement.


Pre-training evaluation not only helps in identifying the training needs but also helps
trainers to evaluate the inputs and its contribution to achievement of training objectives.


POST-TRAINING EVALUATION


Levels of evaluation after training are as follows.
    1) REACTION EVALUATION:


In this the participant‟s impressions about the course and about the immediate specific
inputs are measured


    2) LEARNING:


Equally important as the trainee‟s reaction to the course is to measure the degree of
learning through training. Virmani and premila have suggested arriving at a learning
index with the help of pre-training and post training.


    3) JOB IMPROVEMENT PLAN:


This is another significant step in post-training. Evaluation of the trainee‟s improved
performance immediately after training without yet providing him an opportunity to put
training into practice is a poser to the evaluator. Expect for very specific training
situations, the nature and diversity of management tasks and the organizational
environment requires trainee‟s skills to work out the scheme and methodology for
transfer of training to the job.


To overcome this problem the researchers have recommended the preparation of an
individual action plan called JIP for improving his job-performance subsequent to
training.


    4) EVALUATING TRANSFER OF TRAINING TO THE JOB:


On the job evaluation help to assess the transfer of training to the job. It could help the
trainees elicit support from the organization, his boss, peers, and subordinates for transfer
of training to the job. Any modification or changes can be done through a debriefing
session. This not only helps in evaluating transfer of training to the job but also helps
increase receptivity to new ideas by the trainees immediate work environment.
   5) FOLLOW UP EVALUATION:


Evaluation at this stage evolves monitoring and follows up of the trainee‟s performance
to assess its contribution to the organization It helps in identifying in the areas where
improvements have been effected and in evaluating outcome in cost-benefit terms. The
JIP can be used as a reference point to check action steps (a) implemented, (b) to be
implemented, (c) could not be implemented.
The post training evaluation is a feedback for improving subsequent training through pre-
training evaluation steps. This model is thus cyclic rather than beginning and ending at
each level.
                                CONCLUSION

  “Owning a home is a keystone of wealth, both financial affluence and
                                     emotional security.”


After going through the training program in My Liberty Homes, I find that need
identification exercise must continue on a regular basis. It cannot be done once in a blue
moon. Many companies have got the good system of identifying needs every year.
However, need identification exercise can do real harm if the needs are not met by
conducting suitable programmes. Managers must perceive that their recommendations
receive due considerations and actions are initiated to satisfy felt needs. Only then, they
will take this exercise seriously.


In today‟s changing Scenario Training has not only become a fad with the growing
company but also a tool for survival. With the technologies changing so fast the only way
an organization can keep going on is by investing in their Human Resource and Training
them from time to time. Training and Development is not only an activity that is desirable
but also an activity that an organization must commit recourses ton if it is to maintain a
viable and knowledgeable work force.
                      RECOMMENDATION

“It is a comfortable feeling to know that you stand on your own ground.
            Land is about the only thing that can't fly away.”


   The advertising must require creating market awareness about the My Liberty
     Homes Company.


   Company should introduce various Sales promotion schemes for their employees.


   Recruit new sales executives in Marketing Department and giving the proper
     training to the sales executive.


   Company should take a feed back and solve the problem of their employees and
     customer time to time.


   Company should provide regular training to the employees time to time.


   Company should reduce communication gap between human resource department
     and all others employee of the company.
                           BIBLIOGRAPHY

WEBSITE


www.mylibertyhomes.com
www.realestatemarket.com




MAGAZINES


Business India
Business World
India Today Newspaper
Material Provide by My liberty Homes
Human Resource Management by L M Prasad




SEARCH ENGINES


www.google.co.in
                           QUESTIONNAIRE


                                  Name of the employee……………………………….
                                  Designation…………………………………………..
                                  Department…………………………………………..
                                  Contact no……………………………………………


Q.1 What training methods you use in your company?

a) Case-study                                        (       )
b) Audio-visual                                      (       )
c) Simulation                                        (       )
d) Roll-playing                                      (       )


Q.2 Which type of training your company prefers?


a) On-the-job                                        (       )
b) Off-the-job                                       (       )


Q.3 Who are the trainer?


a) Immediate supervisor                              (       )
b) Out-side consultant                               (       )
c) Co-worker                                             (   )
d) Faculty member of university                      (       )


Q.4 Who are the trainee?


a) Self nominated                                        (       )
b) Recommended by supervisor                         (           )
Q.5 What is the level of training in your company?


a) Lower level                                         (        )
b) Middle level                                        (         )
c) Higher level                                        (         )
d) All above                                           (         )


Q.6 What are your company training objectives?


a) Employed development                               (         )
b) Organizational benefits                             (         )
c) Employee welfare                                       (      )
d) All above                                           (         )


Q.7 Where do you conduct training?


a) Training room in the company                       (             )
b) Conference center                                   (             )
c) Out side the company                               (              )


Q.8 What is the duration of your training program?


a) 15 days                                             (             )
b) 30 days                                             (             )
c) 45 days                                             (             )
d) 60 days                                             (            )


Q.9 Do your company provided regular training to ineffective workers?


a) Yes                                                    (             )
b) No                                                  (             )
Q.10 What are the hurdles your company face in the way of effective training program?


a) Lack of capital                                           (          )
b) Lack of top management commitment                         (          )
c) Lack of employee commitment                               (          )
d) All above                                                 (          )


Q.11 What are the training principle that your company follow?


a) Employee motivation                                   (           )
b) Recognize of individual differences                   (           )
c) Practice opportunity                                 (           )
d) Transfer of learning                                  (          )


Q.12 What sort of scheme your company provide for the motivation of employees?


a) Gifts                                            (            )
b) Incentives                                        (              )
c) Promotion                                         (              )
d) Tour                                              (              )


Q.13 Are you satisfied with the performance of your employee?


a) Yes                                               (              )
b) No                                                (              )


Q.14 What is your opinion regarding the price of your apartments?


a) Reasonable                                            (              )
b) Affordable                                            (               )
c) Expensive                                             (              )
Q.15 What additional features do your customer aspire in your flats?


a) Installment plan                                    (         )
b) Lease agreement                                     (          )
c) Low budget accommodation                             (         )
d) Self finance scheme                                     (      )


Q.16 Who is your customer mostly?


a) A business class person                             (          )
b) A service class person                              (          )
c) A NRI‟s                                             (          )
d) All above                                           (          )


Q.17 Do you think advertising makes the product popular?


a) Yes                                                 (          )
b) No                                                  (          )


Q.18 Which type of the advertising method your company used?


a) Hoardings                                           (              )
b) Broachers                                           (             )
c) Trade fairs                                         (             )
d) All above                                           (              )


Q.19 Which is your best project and why?


………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………............................
Q.20 Any suggestion for the employees?


………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………




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